Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew
These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. PMID:29122851
Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung
Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012
Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... to an abnormal amount of gastrin. This includes peptic ulcer disease . ... Too much gastrin can causes severe peptic ulcer disease. A higher ... kidney disease Long-term gastritis Over-activity of the gastrin- ...
... the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 Normal 100 to 125 Prediabetes 126 and above Diabetes† * mg/dL = milligrams per ...
... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...
... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...
Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...
... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...
Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...
... 3% What Abnormal Results Mean Any infection or acute stress increases your number of white blood cells. ... increased percentage of neutrophils may be due to: Acute infection Acute stress Eclampsia (seizures or coma in ...
Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.
Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Glucose Test? A glucose test measures how much glucose ...
Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves
Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.
Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...
... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...
... for this test. On the day of the test, having your child wear a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt can ... The blood sample will be processed by a machine. The results usually are available within a few days. Risks The estradiol blood test is considered a safe procedure. However, as with ...
... Your health care provider may order a calcium test if you have a pre-existing condition that may affect your calcium levels. These include: Kidney disease Thyroid disease Malnutrition Certain types of cancer What happens during a calcium blood test? A health care professional will take a blood ...
5-HT level; 5-hydroxytryptamine level; Serotonin test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) - serum or blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...
Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 44. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Tularemia agglutinins - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...
... test measures the blood level of the male sex hormone testosterone. Testosterone, which plays an important role in sexual development, is produced mainly by the testes in boys and in much smaller amounts by the ovaries ...
Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...
Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Porphyrins, quantitative - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:891-892. ...
... pressure , your doctor may order a renin and aldosterone test to help determine the cause of your ... due to: Adrenal glands that release too much aldosterone hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) High blood pressure that is salt- ...
ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...
Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K
Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...
Ohnishi, T; Matsuda, H; Hashimoto, T; Kunihiro, T; Nishikawa, M; Uema, T; Sasaki, M
Neuroimaging studies of autism have shown abnormalities in the limbic system and cerebellar circuits and additional sites. These findings are not, however, specific or consistent enough to build up a coherent theory of the origin and nature of the brain abnormality in autistic patients. Twenty-three children with infantile autism and 26 non-autistic controls matched for IQ and age were examined using brain-perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer. In autistic subjects, we assessed the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom profiles. Images were anatomically normalized, and voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed. Decreases in rCBF in autistic patients compared with the control group were identified in the bilateral insula, superior temporal gyri and left prefrontal cortices. Analysis of the correlations between syndrome scores and rCBF revealed that each syndrome was associated with a specific pattern of perfusion in the limbic system and the medial prefrontal cortex. The results confirmed the associations of (i) impairments in communication and social interaction that are thought to be related to deficits in the theory of mind (ToM) with altered perfusion in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus, and (ii) the obsessive desire for sameness with altered perfusion in the right medial temporal lobe. The perfusion abnormalities seem to be related to the cognitive dysfunction observed in autism, such as deficits in ToM, abnormal responses to sensory stimuli, and the obsessive desire for sameness. The perfusion patterns suggest possible locations of abnormalities of brain function underlying abnormal behaviour patterns in autistic individuals.
... PTH) intact molecule; Intact PTH; Hyperparathyroidism - PTH blood test; Hypoparathyroidism - PTH blood test ... drinking for some period of time before the test. Most often, you will not need to fast ...
... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...
... sample from one person than another. Other slight risks from having blood drawn may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection ( ...
... how well the kidneys are working and how well the body is absorbing sugars. Tests for Electrolytes Typically, tests for electrolytes measure levels ... blood substances measured in the basic blood chemistry test include blood ... tell how well the kidneys are functioning, and glucose, which indicates ...
... above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ... 125 usually does not mean ovarian cancer is present. Most healthy women with an elevated CA-125 ...
... Chronic liver disease Blood buildup under the skin (hematoma) Liver disease Transfusion reaction Higher-than-normal levels ... may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight ...
Serum creatinine; Kidney function - creatinine; Renal function - creatinine ... kidney damage or failure, infection, or reduced blood flow Loss of ... medicine overdose. Your provider will tell you more, if needed.
... problems with blood clotting such as disseminated intravascular coagulation ( DIC ). Certain types of leukemia are associated with ... be a sign of: Cellulitis DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) Leukemia at the time of diagnosis, during early ...
... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...
Mahl, T C
Patients with abnormal liver blood tests are frequently encountered by primary care practitioners. An understanding of the cellular implications of these abnormalities is helpful in determining the etiology of liver injury. Elevated serum aminotransferases suggest injury of hepatocytes. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase suggest injury to any part of the biliary tree. Neither of these enzymes measures liver function. Serum bilirubin and albumin levels, as well as prothrombin time, do measure function and can be used in conjunction with the physical examination and the specific etiology of the patient's disorder to determine a patient's prognosis. Many diverse disorders result in similar biochemical patterns of liver injury. The history, physical examination, and use of specific disease markers (hepatitis serology, autoimmune markers, and so forth) help to narrow the differential diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis of all liver diseases usually rests on histology: the liver biopsy is the gold standard. With the advent of treatments for liver disease, identifying and accurately diagnosing patients with liver disorders will result in improved quality of life and survival.
Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B. anthracis ... This test may be performed when the health care provider suspects you have anthrax infection. The bacteria that cause ...
... pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG urine test Quantitative pregnancy test (checks specific level of HCG in ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 74. ...
... Mutation Testing Breast Cancer Gene Expression Tests C-peptide C-Reactive Protein (CRP) CA 15-3 CA- ... Kinase (CK) Creatinine Creatinine Clearance Cryoglobulins Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody Cyclosporine Cystatin C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene ...
... Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol ... Semen Analysis Serotonin Serum Free Light Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ... Transferrin Receptor Stool Culture Stool Elastase Strep ...
... Free Fetal DNA Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis Ceruloplasmin Chemistry Panels Chickenpox and Shingles Tests Chlamydia Testing Chloride ... mmol/L 1 from Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns ...
Serum fibrinogen; Plasma fibrinogen; Factor I; Hypofibrinogenemia test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Fibrinogen (factor I) - plasma. In: ... Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:525. Schmaier AH. Laboratory ...
... have an allergy. Other names: IgE allergy test, Quantitative IgE, Immunoglobulin E, Total IgE, Specific IgE What ... Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.; c2017. ImmunoCAP – a truly quantitative allergy test [cited 2017 Feb 24]; [about 3 ...
... to help diagnose and monitor a disorder called sarcoidosis . People with sarcoidosis may have their ACE level tested regularly to ... normal ACE level may be a sign of sarcoidosis. ACE levels may rise or fall as sarcoidosis ...
... serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:750-751. Klemm KM, Klein MJ. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...
... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your ... Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of ...
... a pH, carbon dioxide/oxygen, or electrolyte imbalance. Examples include uncontrolled diabetes , which can lead to ketoacidosis ... acid from the stomach), and sodium bicarbonate overdose. Examples of test results associated with the above conditions ...
... eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:878-880. Klemm ... Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 15. Kliegman RM, ...
... eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:146. Guber HA, ... Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 24. Oh MS, ...
CP - serum ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ceruloplasmin (CP) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2013:321. McPherson ...
Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...
Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges
Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.
... the levels of substances checked by other liver blood tests have also increased. An increased ALT level may be due to any of the following: Scarring of the liver ( cirrhosis ) Death of liver tissue Swollen and inflamed liver ( ...
Lin, Tiffany Y; Shekar, Anshula O; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M
Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen the severity of the abnormal serum liver biochemistries. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients of ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban US medical centre between 2002-2016. Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration of <0·3 mIU/l or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) concentration ([total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. In this cohort of 1514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0·02 mIU/l, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CMV antibody tests ... never been infected with CMV have no detectable antibodies to CMV. Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... The presence of antibodies to CMV indicates a current or past ... CMV. If the number of antibodies (called the antibody titer) ...
... out for sure? If antibody tests and/or symptoms suggest celiac disease, the physician needs to establish the diagnosis by ... who is still experiencing symptoms, to establish the diagnosis or to rule out celiac disease as a part of establishing another diagnosis. Find ...
Serum chromium level normally is less than or equal to 1.4 micrograms/milliliter (µg/mL) or 26924.80 nanomoles/L (nmol/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test result.
Lin, Tiffany Y.; Shekar, Anshula O.; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M.
Objective Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen their severity. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Design Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients Patients ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban U.S. medical center between 2002–2016. Measurements Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] concentration < 0.3 mIU/L or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) and/or thyroxine (T4) concentration [total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. Results In this cohort of 1,514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0.02 mIU/L, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. Conclusions This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:28199740
Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin
To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P < 0.05) and more with D-D (P < 0.01), while age, sex, type of AL, WBC count, Plt count and abnormality of cytogenetics did not correlate with abnormal blood coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated
Ribeiro, Antonio L; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S; Salemi, Vera M C; Ianni, Barbara M; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Eduard L
Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors. Several
Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.
Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreamingmore » CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.« less
Bernhardt, Barbara A; Soucier, Danielle; Hanson, Karen; Savage, Melissa S; Jackson, Laird; Wapner, Ronald J
Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study "Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis." Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.
Simpson, M A; Freshwater, D A
Liver function tests (LFTs) are frequently requested as part of routine health assessments on serving members of the Royal Navy (RN). In common with many investigations there are a number of abnormal results in healthy individuals (0.5 - 9% depending on test and study population). There are established patterns of LFT derangement such as cholestatic derangement, hepatocellular derangement, and failure of synthetic function. There can be indicators to the cause of the derangement by assessing the ratios of elevated assays in relation to one another. This article aims to address the definition, potential causes and further investigation of common patterns of LFT derangement found in primary care in the RN.
Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej
The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.
Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y
The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small
... Information → Albumin Blood Test URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test ... 2017 Apr 26]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.liverfoundation.org/for-patients/about-the-liver/ ...
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and...
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and...
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and...
Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M
The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.
McLeod, B C
Therapeutic apheresis is a generic term that refers to removal of abnormal blood cells and plasma constituents. The terms "plasmapheresis," "leukapheresis," and "erythrocytapheresis" describe the specific blood element that is removed. Apheresis therapies can be performed in the ICU to manage a number of neurologic, hematologic, and autoimmune disorders, including myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, sickle-cell disease, and Goodpasture's syndrome. Apheresis procedures generally require two points of contact with the circulation--one for blood withdrawal and one for return; the withdrawal site should sustain a flow rate of at least 50 mL/min. Although apheresis is generally quite safe, hemodynamic instability, hypocalcemia, and dilutional coagulopathy can occur.
Shibata, T; Sakamoto, J; Osaka, Y; Neyatani, N; Fujita, S; Oka, Y; Takagi, H; Mori, H; Fujita, H; Tanaka, Y; Sasagawa, T
We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation. We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI). MPO of women with abnormal menstrual cycles was significantly lower than that of women with normal menstrual cycles [Neut X: 62.6 ± 1.1 (mean ± standard error of the mean) vs. 66.2 ± 0.3, P = 0.009; MPXI: -0.54 ± 1.66 vs. 4.91 ± 0.53, P = 0.008]. Among women with normal menstrual cycles, MPO was highest in the follicular phase (Neut X: 67.0 ± 0.3; P = 0.033). The difference in MPO between women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles and the upregulation of MPO before ovulation suggest that neutrophils and MPO are closely related to ovulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... is found in the environment and in many consumer products. Most people have a small amount of lead in their blood from these exposures. But higher levels of lead can lead to problems in children, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and anemia . Very high levels can cause ...
... window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Your Lab Tests - English PDF Your Lab Tests - العربية (Arabic) PDF American ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Your Lab Tests - English PDF Your Lab Tests - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese ...
Tanaka, Ryota; Shimo, Yasushi; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Ogawa, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Oyama, Genko; Umemura, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka
Circadian blood pressure alterations are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease, but the association between these changes and dementia in the condition remains unclear. Here, we assess the relationship between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles and dementia in Parkinson's disease. We enrolled 137 patients with Parkinson's disease, who underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, following cognitive and clinical assessment. Twenty-seven patients (19.7%) were diagnosed with dementia in this cohort. We observed significant associations of dementia with age, male gender, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) stage, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, presence of cerebrovascular lesions on MRI, and orthostatic hypotension. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that among the patterns of nocturnal blood pressure profiles, the riser pattern was significantly associated with dementia (OR 11.6, 95%CI: 2.14-215.0, P < 0.01), and this trend was observed after adjusting for all confounding factors except orthostatic hypotension (OR 19.2, 95%CI: 1.12-1960.3, P = 0.04). However, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was related to a higher prevalence of dementia (45.2%) than was a riser pattern alone (9.5%). Furthermore, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was significantly more associated with dementia than was a riser pattern alone, even after adjusting for confounders (OR 1625.1, 95%CI: 21.9-1343909.5, P < 0.01). Our results suggest a relationship between a riser pattern coexisting with orthostatic hypotension and dementia in Parkinson's disease. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate whether abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles predict dementia in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Køber, Lars; Banaszewski, Marek; Spinar, Jindrich; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Tolonen, Jukka; Carubelli, Valentina; diSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Lassus, Johan
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (ΔALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. ΔALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p <0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that ΔALT>+20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Castilla-Guerra, L; Espino-Montoro, A; Fernández-Moreno, M C; López-Chozas, J M
A pathologically reduced or abolished circadian blood pressure variation has been described in acute stroke. However, studies on alterations of circadian blood pressure patterns after stroke and stroke subtypes are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in circadian blood pressure patterns in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and their relation to the stroke subtype. We studied 98 consecutive patients who were admitted within 24 h after ischaemic stroke onset. All patients had a detailed clinical examination, laboratory studies and a CT scan study of the brain on admission. To study the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, a continuous blood pressure monitor (Spacelab 90217) was used. Patients were classified according to the percentage fall in the mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure at night compared with during the day as: dippers (fall> or =10-20%); extreme dippers (> or =20%); nondipper (<10%); and reverse dippers (<0%, that is, an increase in the mean nocturnal blood pressure compared with the mean daytime blood pressure). Data were separated and analysed in two groups: lacunar and nonlacunar infarctions. Statistical testing was conducted using the SSPS 12.0. Methods We studied 60 males and 38 females, mean age: 70.5+/-11 years. The patient population consisted of 62 (63.2%) lacunar strokes and 36 (36.8%) nonlacunar strokes. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (67 patients, 68.3%). Other risk factors included hypercholesterolaemia (44 patients, 44.8%), diabetes mellitus (38 patients, 38.7%), smoking (24 patients, 24.8%) and atrial fibrillation (19 patients, 19.3%). The patients with lacunar strokes were predominantly men (P=0.037) and had a lower frequency of atrial fibrillation (P=0.016) as compared with nonlacunar stroke patients. In the acute phase, the mean systolic blood pressure was 136+/-20 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was 78.7+/-11.8. Comparing stroke subtypes, there were no differences in
... before this test. On the day of the test, having your child wear a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt can ... The blood sample will be processed by a machine. The results are commonly ... further tests. Risks This test is considered a safe procedure. ...
... the part of the kidney that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies are antibodies against this membrane. They can lead to kidney damage. This article describes the blood test to detect these antibodies.
Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies. PMID
A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies.
... testing — or self-monitoring blood glucose — provides useful information for diabetes management. It can help you: Judge how well you' ... Kidney Diseases. ... and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Bloomington, ...
A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...
The normal range is 10 to 34 U/L (0.17 to 0.57 µkat/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your health ...
Reddy, Uma M; Page, Grier P; Saade, George R; Silver, Robert M; Thorsten, Vanessa R; Parker, Corette B; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Stoll, Barbara J; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Varner, Michael W; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bukowski, Radek; Wapner, Ronald J; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; O'Brien, Barbara M; Dudley, Donald J; Levy, Brynn
Genetic abnormalities have been associated with 6 to 13% of stillbirths, but the true prevalence may be higher. Unlike karyotype analysis, microarray analysis does not require live cells, and it detects small deletions and duplications called copy-number variants. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a population-based study of stillbirth in five geographic catchment areas. Standardized postmortem examinations and karyotype analyses were performed. A single-nucleotide polymorphism array was used to detect copy-number variants of at least 500 kb in placental or fetal tissue. Variants that were not identified in any of three databases of apparently unaffected persons were then classified into three groups: probably benign, clinical significance unknown, or pathogenic. We compared the results of karyotype and microarray analyses of samples obtained after delivery. In our analysis of samples from 532 stillbirths, microarray analysis yielded results more often than did karyotype analysis (87.4% vs. 70.5%, P<0.001) and provided better detection of genetic abnormalities (aneuploidy or pathogenic copy-number variants, 8.3% vs. 5.8%; P=0.007). Microarray analysis also identified more genetic abnormalities among 443 antepartum stillbirths (8.8% vs. 6.5%, P=0.02) and 67 stillbirths with congenital anomalies (29.9% vs. 19.4%, P=0.008). As compared with karyotype analysis, microarray analysis provided a relative increase in the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities of 41.9% in all stillbirths, 34.5% in antepartum stillbirths, and 53.8% in stillbirths with anomalies. Microarray analysis is more likely than karyotype analysis to provide a genetic diagnosis, primarily because of its success with nonviable tissue, and is especially valuable in analyses of stillbirths with congenital anomalies or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.).
Triggianese, P; Perricone, C; Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, MS; Perricone, R; De Carolis, C
Abnormalities in peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been reported in women with primary infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and several studies have been presented to define cutoff values for abnormal peripheral blood NK cell levels in this context. Elevated levels of NK cells were observed in infertile/RSA women in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), while no studies have been carried out, to date, on NK cells in infertile/RSA women with non-autoimmune thyroid diseases. The contribution of this study is two-fold: (1) the evaluation of peripheral blood NK cell levels in a cohort of infertile/RSA women, in order to confirm related data from the literature; and (2) the assessment of NK cell levels in the presence of both TAI and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in order to explore the possibility that the association between NK cells and thyroid function is not only restricted to TAI but also to SCH. In a retrospective study, 259 age-matched women (primary infertility [n = 49], primary RSA [n = 145], and secondary RSA [n = 65]) were evaluated for CD56+CD16+NK cells by flow cytometry. Women were stratified according to thyroid status: TAI, SCH, and without thyroid diseases (ET). Fertile women (n = 45) were used as controls. Infertile/RSA women showed higher mean NK cell levels than controls. The cutoff value determining the abnormal NK cell levels resulted ⩾15% in all the groups of women. Among the infertile/RSA women, SCH resulted the most frequently associated thyroid disorder while no difference resulted in the prevalence of TAI and ET women between patients and controls. A higher prevalence of women with NK cell levels ⩾15% was observed in infertile/RSA women with SCH when compared to TAI/ET women. According to our data, NK cell assessment could be used as a diagnostic tool in women with reproductive failure and we suggest that the possible association between NK cell levels and thyroid function can be described not only
Zhang, Junling; Li, Hezhou; Wang, Fang; Qin, Hongyan; Qin, Qiaohong
The aim of the study described here was to identify an efficient criterion for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. We evaluated 129 women with anterior placenta previa who underwent trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation in the third trimester. Spectral Doppler ultrasonography was performed to assess the subplacental blood flow of the anterior lower uterine segment by measuring the highest peak systolic velocity and resistive index. These patients were prospectively followed until delivery and evaluated for abnormal placental invasion. The peak systolic velocity and resistive index of patients with and without abnormal placental invasion were then compared. Postpartum examination revealed that 55 of the patients had an abnormal invasive placenta, whereas the remaining 74 did not. Patients with abnormal placental invasion had a higher peak systolic velocity of the subplacental blood flow in the lower segment of the anterior aspect of the uterus (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.96) than did those without abnormal placental invasion. Our preliminary investigations suggest that a peak systolic velocity of 41 cm/s can be considered a cutoff point to diagnose abnormal invasive placenta, with both good sensitivity (87%) and good specificity (78%), and the higher the peak systolic velocity, the greater is the chance of abnormal placental invasion. Resistive index had no statistical significance (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.66) in the diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. In conclusion, measurement of the highest peak systolic velocity of subplacental blood flow in the anterior lower uterine segment can serve as an additional marker of anterior abnormal invasive placenta. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.
Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greatermore » than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.« less
Weston, Kassia S; Sacre, Julian W; Jellis, Christine L; Coombes, Jeff S
The purpose of this study was to compare the presence and severity of autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with and without exaggerated blood pressure responses to exercise. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 98 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 59±9). Both time (standard deviation of RR intervals, root-mean-square of successive RR interval differences) and frequency (total spectral power, high frequency, low frequency, very low frequency) domains of heart rate variability were analysed in a 5 min recording at rest and 20 min after a maximal treadmill test. An exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was identified by peak blood pressure ≥190/105 mmHg (women) or ≥210/105 mmHg (men). Each group of either exaggerated exercise blood pressure response or normal blood pressure response consisted of 49 patients. At rest there were no significant differences between groups for all time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability. Post-exercise, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the SDNN, RMSSD and TP in the exaggerated exercise blood pressure group. Independent correlates (p<0.01) of exercise systolic blood pressure included post-exercise TP, resting systolic blood pressure, cardiac autonomic neuropathy and beta-blockers (beta=-0.28, adj. R² = 0.32, p<0.001). Reduced post-exercise heart rate variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an exaggerated exercise blood pressure response suggests preclinical autonomic dysfunction characterized by impaired vagal modulation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meneton, Pierre; Bloch-Faure, May; Hagege, Albert A.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Huang, Wei; Bergaya, Sonia; Ceiler, Debbie; Gehring, Doris; Martins, Isabelle; Salmon, Georges; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Nussberger, Jürg; Crozatier, Bertrand; Gasc, Jean-Marie; Heudes, Didier; Bruneval, Patrick; Doetschman, Tom; Ménard, Joël; Alhenc-Gelas, François
Tissue kallikrein is a serine protease thought to be involved in the generation of bioactive peptide kinins in many organs like the kidneys, colon, salivary glands, pancreas, and blood vessels. Low renal synthesis and urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein have been repeatedly linked to hypertension in animals and humans, but the exact role of the protease in cardiovascular function has not been established largely because of the lack of specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates that mice lacking tissue kallikrein are unable to generate significant levels of kinins in most tissues and develop cardiovascular abnormalities early in adulthood despite normal blood pressure. The heart exhibits septum and posterior wall thinning and a tendency to dilatation resulting in reduced left ventricular mass. Cardiac function estimated in vivo and in vitro is decreased both under basal conditions and in response to βadrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, flow-induced vasodilatation is impaired in isolated perfused carotid arteries, which express, like the heart, low levels of the protease. These data show that tissue kallikrein is the main kinin-generating enzyme in vivo and that a functional kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for normal cardiac and arterial function in the mouse. They suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system could be involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.
Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E
Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P < 0.0001). Although they were modestly correlated (rho = 0.74, P < 0.001), the Bland-Altman plot demonstrated a large bias (21mm Hg) and limits of agreement (24mm Hg). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (P < 0.001) corroborated superior discrimination of LVH by MAP-CSBP. Similarly, MAP-CSBP better distinguished LAD than Stan-CSBP (AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862....1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...
... be negative to a serological test for syphilis. (b) Determination of blood group. Each container of Whole Blood shall be classified as to ABO blood group. At least two blood group tests shall be made and... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and...
Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Mendieta-Azcona, Covadonga; Botella-Carretero, José I; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
Obesity and insulin resistance predispose patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of obesity on the blood pressure profiles of PCOS patients. PATIENTS, SETTING, AND DESIGN: Thirty-six PCOS patients and 20 healthy women participated in a case-control study at an academic hospital. We conducted ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure determinations. Hypertension (defined as increased office blood pressure confirmed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or by masked hypertension) was present in 12 PCOS patients and eight controls (P = 0.618). No differences between patients and controls were found in office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values and heart rate, yet the nocturnal decrease in mean blood pressure was smaller in patients (P = 0.038). Obese women (13 patients and eight controls) had increased frequencies of office hypertension (29% compared with 3% in lean plus overweight women, P = 0.005), increased diastolic (P = 0.009) and mean (P = 0.015) office blood pressure values, and increased heart rate values during the daytime (P = 0.038), nighttime (P = 0.002), and 24-h (P = 0.009) periods, independently of having PCOS or not. The frequency of a nocturnal nondipper pattern was 62% in obese PCOS patients, compared with 26% in lean plus overweight PCOS patients (P = 0.036) and 25% in obese and in lean plus overweight controls. Abnormalities in the regulation of blood pressure are common in young women with PCOS, yet, with the exception of the nondipper pattern, these abnormalities result from the frequent association of this syndrome with obesity.
Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; González-Albarrán, Olga; Segura, Julián; de la Cruz, Juan J; Vinyoles, Ernest; Llisterri, José L; Aranda, Pedro; Ruilope, Luis M; Banegas, José R
Our aim was to assess the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) characteristics or patterns in hypertensive patients with diabetes compared with non-diabetic hypertensives. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a 68,045 patient database from the Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry, a nation-wide network of >1200 primary-care physicians performing ABPM under standardized conditions in daily practice. We identified 12,600 (18.5%) hypertensive patients with diabetes. When compared with patients without diabetes, diabetic hypertensives exhibited higher systolic blood pressure (BP) levels in every ABPM period (daytime 135.4 vs. 131.8, and nighttime 126.0 vs. 121.0 mm Hg, P<0.001 for both) despite they were receiving more antihypertensive drugs (mean number 1.71 vs. 1.23, P<0.001). Consequently, diabetic patients suffered from lack of control of BP more frequently than non-diabetic subjects particularly during the night (65.5% vs. 57.4%, P<0.001). Prevalence of a non-dipping BP profile (64.2% vs. 51.6%, P<0.001) was higher in diabetic patients. In the other hand, prevalence of 'white-coat' hypertension in diabetic patients was 33.0%. We conclude that there was a remarkably high prevalence of alterations in ABPM in patients with diabetes. Abnormalities in systolic BP, particularly during the night, and in circadian BP pattern could be linked with the excess of BP-related cardiovascular risk of diabetes. A wider use of ABPM in diabetic patients should be considered.
Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta
Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414
Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta
Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.
Oka, Hisayoshi; Nakahara, Atuso; Umehara, Tadashi
Cardiovascular autonomic failure is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting the daily lives of patients. Rotigotine was recently reported not to influence cardiovascular autonomic responses in contrast to other dopaminergic drugs. The effect of rotigotine on daily blood pressure (BP) fluctuations might reflect autonomic failure in patients with PD. Twenty-five PD patients who were receiving rotigotine and 12 patients not receiving rotigotine were recruited. Systolic BP during the daytime and nighttime was measured by 24-h BP monitoring at an interval of 2 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the BP fluctuation type: dippers (nocturnal fall in BP ≥10%), non-dippers (0-10%), and risers (< 0%). The time course of BP was compared between the patients given rotigotine and those not given rotigotine. Among the 25 patients who received rotigotine, the BP type worsened in 2 patients, was unchanged in 16 patients, and improved in 7 patients. Among the 12 patients who were not receiving rotigotine, the BP type worsened in 5 patients, was unchanged in 4 patients, and improved only in 3 patients (p = 0.042). Rotigotine improves the abnormal circadian rhythm of BP in patients with PD. Rotigotine was suggested to have favorable effects on cardiovascular autonomic responses and circadian rhythm in patients with PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham
The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.
Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A
Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.
Gavett, Brandon E
The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.
Kopylov, Uri; Avidan, Benjamin; Papageorgiou, Neofytos P; Katz, Lior H; Sivan, Eyal; Zimlichman, Eyal; Hussein, Haya; Maor, Yaakov
To examine the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of liver abnormality in pregnancy, in a tertiary medical center, and to study the potential impact of artificial reproduction techniques (ART) on the incidence and the outcome of pregnancy-related liver abnormality. A retrospective case-control study using an electronic database and patients' files. Tertiary referral center. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were hospitalized for delivery. None. Development of significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT ≥ 100 IU/L). Secondary outcomes included development of maternal and fetal complications. The upper limit of normal of ALT was ≥ 1.5 times and it occurred in 440 (1.6%) pregnancies; of those, 228 (0.8%) had ALT ≥ 100 IU/L. The etiology of significant liver test abnormality was idiopathic in 47% of patients. Compared with spontaneous pregnancies (295/23,793), ART was significantly associated with liver test abnormality (145/4, 520). The presence of ALT ≥ 100 IU/L in the third trimester was associated with higher rates of cesarean sections, prematurity, low birthweight, and fetal complications. A definite etiology was not determined in about half of pregnancy-associated liver test abnormality. The ART was significantly associated with liver test elevation. Significant liver test abnormality in the third trimester may have an impact on maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tansey, E A; Roe, S M; Johnson, C J
When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the subject is gently heated by placing the feet and calves in a commercially available foot warming pouch or immersing the feet and calves in warm water and wrapping the subject in blankets. Skin blood flow is estimated from measurements of skin temperature in the fingers. Normally skin temperature of the fingers is 65-75°F in cool conditions (environmental temperature: 59-68°F) and rises to 85-95°F during body heating. Deviations in this pattern may mean that there is abnormal sympathetic vasoconstrictor control of skin blood flow. Abnormal skin blood flow can substantially impair an individual's ability to thermoregulate and has important clinical implications. During whole body heating, the skin temperature from three different skin sites is monitored and oral temperature is monitored as an index of core temperature. Students determine the fingertip temperature at which the reflex release of sympathetic activity occurs and its maximal attainment, which reflects the vasodilating capacity of this cutaneous vascular bed. Students should interpret typical sample data for certain clinical conditions (Raynaud's disease, peripheral vascular disease, and postsympathectomy) and explain why there may be altered skin blood flow in these disorders.
Blanco, P G; Vercellini, R; Rube, A; Rodríguez, R; Arias, D O; Gobello, C
The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days. In both groups, uterine and umbilical arteries were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, whereas fetal heart rate was assessed by M-mode ultrasound. Resistance index of uterine artery augmented in TG from Day 2 onward, conversely it decreased in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, RI values were 0.64 ± 0.05 vs 0.37 ± 0.01 for TG and CG, respectively. Additionally, S/D ratio of the same artery presented an increase in TG, whereas this ratio diminished in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, this parameter showed values of 2.98 ± 0.4 vs 1.62 ± 0.06 for TG and CG, respectively. Resistance index of umbilical artery remained almost unchanged in TG from Day 6 onward, whereas it progressively decreased in CG throughout the course of the study (P < 0.05). On Day 8, RI were 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.82 ± 0.01, for TG and CG, respectively. Furthermore, on Day 8, S/D ratio of umbilical artery progressively diminished in CG but not in TG (P < 0.01), being 14.7 ± 9.1 vs 5.9 ± 0.3 for TG and CG, respectively. Fetal heart rate was higher in TG than in CG (P < 0.05). Group differences in Doppler parameters appeared on Day 2, when the other clinical or ultrasonographic signs were still absent. It is concluded that blood flow of the uterine and umbilical arteries differed between these normal and abnormal gestations predicting an adverse obstetric
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of blood...
Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke
Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716
Sawamura, Akinori; Okumura, Takahiro; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Kano, Naoaki; Mori, Hiroaki; Fukaya, Kenji; Morimoto, Ryota; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Bando, Yasuko Kureishi; Murohara, Toyoaki
An abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) profile is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its significance in heart failure patients with nonischemic etiology is unknown. Herein, we investigated the prognostic value of a circadian BP profile in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). We enrolled 114 NIDCM patients (76 males, mean age 53.1 years). The percent nighttime BP fall (%NBPF) was defined using ambulatory BP monitoring as a percent decrease in mean systolic BP in nighttime from daytime. All patients were divided into three groups: dipper (%NBPF ≥10), non-dipper (0 ≤ %NBPF < 10), and riser (%NBPF <0). Riser patients had the highest serum creatinine levels (dipper, 0.78 ± 0.20 mg/dl; non-dipper, 0.85 ± 0.21 mg/dl; riser, 0.99 ± 0.23 mg/dl; p = 0.006). In survival analysis, riser patients had the highest cumulative cardiac-related deaths (log-rank, p = 0.001), which was an independent predictor of cardiac-related deaths (hazard ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-253; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the norepinephrine level at 24-hour collected urine (24 h U-NE) and the serum creatinine level were independent determinants of %NBPF (adjusted R2 = 0.20; 24 h U-NE, p = 0.0001; serum creatinine, p = 0.04). The riser profile was associated with poor prognosis of NIDCM, which may reflect impaired sympathetic nervous system activity. Evaluating the circadian BP profile may be useful for risk stratification in NIDCM patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Bux, Rasool; Hashmi, Shiraz; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D
Microcirculatory abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and may explain its familial nature. We examined the relationship between parental blood pressure (BP) and offspring retinal microvasculature in Pakistani trios [father, mother, and child (aged 9-14 years)]. This is a substudy of a population-based trial of BP reduction. Data were available on 358 normotensive, and 410 offspring of at least one hypertensive parent. Retinal vessel characteristics were measured from digital images. Multivariable linear regression models were built to assess the associations between maternal and paternal BP and offspring retinal microvasculature. Optimality deviation was greatest in offspring of two hypertensive parents, compared with those with one or no hypertensive parent (P=0.030 for trend). Paternal SBP and DBP were each significantly associated with optimality deviation in offspring (P=0.023 and P=0.006, respectively). This relationship persisted after accounting for offspring cardiovascular risk factors [increase in optimality deviation (95% confidence interval, CI) 0.0053 (0.0001-0.0106, P=0.047) and 0.0109 (0.0025-0.0193, P=0.011), for each 10 mmHg increase in paternal SBP and DBP, respectively]. Maternal DBP was inversely associated with offspring arteriovenous ratio -0.0102 (-0.0198 to -0.0007, P=0.035). Microvascular endothelial dysfunction in children is associated with increasing levels of parental hypertension. The association with paternal BP is independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including the child's BP. Higher maternal DBP is associated with evidence of arteriolar narrowing in offspring. These early microcirculatory changes may help explain familial predisposition to hypertension in people of Pakistani origin at an early age. :
Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.
Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Etsuro
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder and is generally regarded as a genetic model of obesity. Individuals with PWS exhibit behavioral symptoms including temper tantrums, rigid thinking, and compulsive behavior. The most striking feature of PWS is abnormal eating behavior, including hyperphagia, intense preoccupation with food, and incessant food seeking. To explore brain regions associated with the behavioral symptoms of PWS, we investigated differences in resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between individuals with PWS and healthy controls. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationship between rCBF and altered eating behavior in PWS individuals. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched controls underwent resting-state single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). The rCBF data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using SPM5 software. The results demonstrated that compared with controls, individuals with PWS had significantly lower rCBF in the right thalamus, left insular cortex, bilateral lingual gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. They had significantly higher rCBF in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior frontal gyrus (anterior and posterior clusters), and bilateral angular gyrus. Additionally, rCBF in the left insula, which was significantly lower in PWS individuals, was negatively correlated with the eating behavior severity score. These results suggest that specific brain regions, particularly the left insula, may be partly responsible for the behavioral symptoms in PWS. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from which plasma is separated shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) Manufacturers of Plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and recordkeeping...
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from which plasma is separated shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) Manufacturers of Plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and recordkeeping...
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from which plasma is separated shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) Manufacturers of Plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and recordkeeping...
McManimen, Stephanie L; Jason, Leonard A
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized. One commonly utilized method is exercise testing, maximal or submaximal. Many patients with ME and CFS experience PEM after participating in these tests, and often show abnormal results. However, some patients still exhibit normal results after participating in the exercise testing. This study examined the differences between two patient groups with ME and CFS, those with normal results and those with abnormal results, on several PEM-related symptoms and illness characteristics. The results suggest those that displayed abnormal results following testing have more frequent and severe PEM, worse overall functioning, and are more likely to be bedbound than those that displayed normal results.
Jamieson, Denise J; Terrell, Metrecia L; Aguocha, Nnenna N; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Marcus, Michele
This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests.
Jamieson, Denise J.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Aguocha, Nnenna N.; Small, Chanley M.; Cameron, Lorraine L.
Abstract Objective This study examined a possible association of dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a brominated flame retardant, and self-reported abnormal Pap test results and cervical dysplasia as a precursor to cervical cancer. Methods Women in Michigan who ingested contaminated poultry, beef, and dairy products in the early 1970s were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Michigan. Serum PBB and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured. Reproductive history and health information, including Pap test results, were self-reported by participants. Results Of the women, 23% (223 of 956) reported an abnormal Pap test. In unadjusted analyses, self-reporting an abnormal Pap test was associated with younger age, current smoking (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.17), and longer duration of lifetime use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years; HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.06). When adjusting for PCB exposure, age at the interview, and smoking history, there was a slightly elevated risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women compared to women with nondetectable PBB concentrations (PBB≥13 μg/L, HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.74-2.06); however, the CI was imprecise. When breastfeeding duration after the initial PBB measurement was taken into account, there was a reduced risk of self-reporting an abnormal Pap test among the highly exposed women who breastfed for ≥12 months (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.06-3.03; referent group: women with nondetectable PBB concentrations who did not breastfeed). Conclusions It remains important to evaluate the potential reproductive health consequences of this class of chemicals as well as other potential predictors of abnormal Pap tests. PMID:21797757
Koch, Hèlen; van Bokhoven, Marloes A; ter Riet, Gerben; van Alphen-Jager, Jm Tineke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Bindels, Patrick J E
Unexplained fatigue is frequently encountered in general practice. Because of the low prior probability of underlying somatic pathology, the positive predictive value of abnormal (blood) test results is limited in such patients. The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between established diagnoses and the occurrence of abnormal blood test results among patients with unexplained fatigue; to survey the effects of the postponement of test ordering on this relationship; and to explore consultation-related determinants of abnormal test results. Cluster randomised trial. General practices of 91 GPs in the Netherlands. GPs were randomised to immediate or postponed blood-test ordering. Patients with new unexplained fatigue were included. Limited and expanded sets of blood tests were ordered either immediately or after 4 weeks. Diagnoses during the 1-year follow-up period were extracted from medical records. Two-by-two tables were generated. To establish independent determinants of abnormal test results, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Data of 325 patients were analysed (71% women; mean age 41 years). Eight per cent of patients had a somatic illness that was detectable by blood-test ordering. The number of false-positive test results increased in particular in the expanded test set. Patients rarely re-consulted after 4 weeks. Test postponement did not affect the distribution of patients over the two-by-two tables. No independent consultation-related determinants of abnormal test results were found. Results support restricting the number of tests ordered because of the increased risk of false-positive test results from expanded test sets. Although the number of re-consulting patients was small, the data do not refute the advice to postpone blood-test ordering for medical reasons in patients with unexplained fatigue in general practice.
Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.
Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving
Pang, Shu-zhen; Ou, Xiao-juan; Shi, Xiao-yan; Wang, Tai-ling; Duan, Wei-jia; Jia, Ji-dong
To evaluate the clinical and histological features of patients with abnormal liver tests of unknown etiology, and then to investigate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Patients with abnormal liver function test hospitalized and had liver biopsies during 2008 - 2009 constituted this retrospective study cohort. After excluding those patients diagnosed with hepatotropic viral hepatitis, space occupying lesions of the liver, alcoholic liver disease and obstruction of bile duct caused by stone or malignancy and AMA/AMA-M(2) positive of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the clinical and histological characteristics were evaluated. Out of the 180 patients who underwent liver biopsy, 88 patients were included in the present analysis. The final diagnosis involved 15 categories of diseases, with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) [34.09% (30/88)], autoimmune liver diseases [22.73% (20/88)], and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [12.50% (11/88)] being the most common causes, following by genetic and other rare diseases. DILI, autoimmune liver disease and NAFLD were the most common causes of abnormal liver tests in these non-viral liver diseases. Some rare diseases such as hereditary metabolic liver disease also represent a considerable proportion in patients with abnormal liver function test.
Wigfall, Lisa T.; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Bond, Sharon M.; Lazenby, Gweneth B.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R.
Background Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA’s cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. Methods We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern United States between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n=3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n=14), and observations with missing data (n=22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Results Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3±10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One-third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83%) had a Pap test <1 year ago and 84% knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p=0.001). Conclusions For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481
Goswami, R; Pi, D; Pal, J; Cheng, K; Hudoba De Badyn, M
The study evaluated the performance of a dynamic imaging telepathology system (Panoptiq(™) ) as a diagnostic aid to the identification of peripheral blood film (PBF) abnormalities. The study assumed a laboratory personnel working in a clinical laboratory were operating the telepathology system to seek diagnostic opinion from an external consulting hematopathologist. The study examined 100 blood films, encompassing 23 different hematological diseases, reactive or normal cases. The study revealed that with real-time image transmission in live scanning mode of operation, the telepathology system was able to aid reviewers in achieving excellent accuracy, that is correct interpretation of morphologic abnormalities obtained in 83/84 of the hematologic diseases and 12/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.99; Specificity: 1.00). In contrast, when only saved static images in digital capture mode of operation were reviewed remotely, interpretative omissions occurred in 8/84 of the hematologic diseases and 0/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.91; Specificity: 1.00). It is hypothesized that real-time operator-reviewer communication during live scanning played an important role in the identification of key morphologic abnormalities for review. Our study showed the Panoptiq system can be adopted reliably as a dynamic telepathology tool in aiding community laboratories in the triage of PBF cases for external diagnostic consultation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.
Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad
Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.
Kim, Hyo Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Ji Soo; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Jung Ho
Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors.
Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo
Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original
Kuller, Lewis H; Margolis, Karen L; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Bryan, Nick R; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G
This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women's Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia.
Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.
This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia. PMID:20433539
Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Invitti, C; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Baroni, M G; Moio, N; Pellegrin, M C; Tomat, M; Licenziati, M R; Manco, M; Maffeis, C; Valerio, G
Subclinical inflammation is a central component of cardiometabolic disease risk in obese subjects. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the white blood cell count (WBCc) may help to identify an abnormal cardiometabolic phenotype in overweight (Ow) or obese (Ob) children. A cross-sectional sample of 2835 Ow/Ob children and adolescents (age 6-18 years) was recruited from 10 Italian centers for the care of obesity. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were assessed in the overall sample. Waist to height ratio (WhtR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids, 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), left ventricular (LV) geometry and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were assessed in 2128, 2300, 1834, 535 and 315 children, respectively. Insulin resistance and whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) were analyzed using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda's test. Groups divided in quartiles of WBCc significantly differed for body mass index, WhtR, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, WBISI, lipids, ALT, cIMT, LV mass and relative wall thickness. Children with high WBCc (≥8700 cell/mm(3)) showed a 1.3-2.5 fold increased probability of having high normal 2hPG, high ALT, high cIMT, or LV remodeling/concentric LV hypertrophy, after adjustment for age, gender, pubertal status, BMI and centers. This study shows that WBCc is associated with early derangements of glucose metabolism and preclinical signs of liver, vascular and cardiac damage. The WBCc may be an effective and low-cost tool for identifying Ow and Ob children at the greatest risk of potential complications. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat
The clinical manifestations of dengue infection in the adult are different from those in children, i.e. having less prevalence to bleeding, and more commonly, abnormal liver function tests. The primary objective is to describe the clinical manifestations of dengue infection in adult patients. The secondary objective is to compare the clinical manifestations of dengue infection between the groups of normal and abnormal liver function tests in adult patients. Retrospective study was done in adults (age 15 years) dengue patients admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 2000-2002. Dengue infection diagnosed by WHO clinical criteria 1997 with serological tests confirmed by ELISA test or Rapid Immunochromatographic test. Liver function test was recorded by day of fever. There were 127 adult dengue patients with mean age 26.4 ± 11.5 years. Classifications of dengue infection by WHO criteria were DF 4.7%, DHF grade 126.0%, DHF grade 2 63.0% and DHF grade 3 6.3%. Mean duration of fever clearance time was 6.0 ± 1.9 days but the fever lasted longer in cases of high-level transaminases (> 10 folds). The common presenting symptoms and signs were myalgia (95.9%), nausea/vomiting (87.7%), positive tourniquet test (77.2%), abdominal pain (42.7%), hepatomegaly (34.6%), and bleeding (20.5%). The ratio of AST and ALTwas 1.8:1. Abnormal AST and ALT were found in 88.2% and 69.3% of the patients, respectively. Patients with nausea/vomiting, petechiae or duration of fever > 7 days more frequently had abnormal transaminases. Abnormal AST during the febrile stage was associated with bleeding. High-level AST and ALT occurred in 11.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Shock was associated with high-level ALT during the febrile stage. Adult dengue patients commonly showed abnormal liver function tests and accounted for at least two-thirds of them. High-level ALT during the febrile stage showed association with shock.
Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M
Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798
Liu, K; Wu, H-Y; Xu, Y-H
To explore the relationship between the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in neonatal umbilical cord blood and abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. We have selected 63 cases of delivery randomly, term birth and maternal from January 2015 to January 2016 in our hospital, gestational diabetes mellitus for Group A, abnormal gestational glucose tolerance for Group B and normal for Group C with 21 cases in each group. The venous blood samples were collected from all the pregnant females 2 weeks before delivery, and the levels of HbA1c in serum were detected by Elisa method. During the delivery, the umbilical cord blood was collected and the levels of IGF-1 were measured by double site immune enzyme analysis. The neonatal weight was recorded and the correlation analysis was made in respect of the measurement results. The level of HbA1c in Group A was significantly higher than that in Group C (p < 0.05); IGF-1 level and neonatal weight of Group B were significantly higher than that of Group C (p < 0.05), IGF-1 has a significant correlation with neonatal weight in Group C, and HbA1c and IGF-1 were positively correlated (p < 0.05); IGF-1 was positively correlated with neonatal weight in Group A and Group B (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the IGF-1 level of neonatal umbilical cord blood and the neonatal weight (p < 0.05). Also, the level of HbA1c was positively correlated with the level of IGF-1 in neonatal umbilical cord blood at the end of pregnancy (p < 0.05). The expression level of IGF-1 in the final stage of pregnant females can be detected to predict the expression level of IGF-1 in newborn infants and then the growth status of the fetus can be obtained.
... Test Information → Blood Differential URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/blooddifferential.html Blood Differential To ... 2015 Oct [cited 2017 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/glucocorticoid-wbc-increase-steroids ...
... Information → Blood in Urine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bloodinurine.html Blood in Urine ... 2017 Mar 14]; [about 4 screens]: Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/urinalysis/tab/test Lab ...
Castellino, Francis J.; Liang, Zhong; Davis, Patrick K.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Musunuru, Harsha; Donahue, Deborah L.; Smith, Denise L.; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Walsh, Mark
To delineate the critical features of platelets required for formation and stability of thrombi, thromboelastography and platelet aggregation measurements were employed on whole blood of normal patients and of those with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) and Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia (GT). We found that separation of platelet activation, as assessed by platelet aggregation, from that needed to form viscoelastic stable whole blood thrombi, occurred. In normal human blood, ristocetin and collagen aggregated platelets, but did not induce strong viscoelastic thrombi. However, ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and protease-activated-receptor-1 and -4 agonists, stimulated both processes. During this study, we identified the genetic basis of a very rare double heterozygous GP1b deficiency in a BSS patient, along with a new homozygous GP1b inactivating mutation in another BSS patient. In BSS whole blood, ADP responsiveness, as measured by thrombus strength, was diminished, while ADP-induced platelet aggregation was normal. Further, the platelets of 3 additional GT patients showed very weak whole blood platelet aggregation toward the above agonists and provided whole blood thrombi of very low viscoelastic strength. These results indicate that measurements of platelet counts and platelet aggregability do not necessarily correlate with generation of stable thrombi, a potentially significant feature in patient clinical outcomes. PMID:23300803
Pryde, P G; Drugan, A; Johnson, M P; Isada, N B; Evans, M I
Liberalization of abortion laws in several US states (e.g., New York and California) coincided with the development of prenatal techniques, which diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and biochemical disorders. Increased use of prenatal diagnostic services has not been accompanied by adequate examination of the decision making process women undergo when contemplating prenatal diagnosis, pregnancy termination, or experimental fetal therapy. The limited literature exploring these issues indicates that many women do not know as much as possible about the health of their fetus. Women who are at risk of abnormal pregnancy tend to become distressed and willing to accept invasive testing, even when they know the significant, albeit low, risks of such testing. Women's perceptions of risk, which stem from complex psychologic-phenomena, are likely to be very inconsistent with objective reality. Neither counseling nor education can easily change these misperceptions. Nevertheless, counseling can at least alter misperceptions enough so they move closer to objective reality. On the other hand, counseling can sway perceptions and choices made based on these perceptions. Decision making is even more complex and emotional when women encounter abnormalities. Considerable social, moral, and psychologic factors influence this process, making this a very problematic area to study. Almost all women who carry an abnormal fetus with a very serious prognosis and a high degree of diagnostic certainty chose to terminate the pregnancy. The decision is much more difficult for women carrying a fetus with less diagnostic or prognostic certainty. Insufficient data exists to determine how they handle these management decisions. Women tend to opt for abortion in cases of chromosomal abnormalities, regardless of the severity or certainty of the outcome. Women carrying a fetus with anatomic disorders with prognostic uncertainty or less severity choose to abort at lower rates. More research is needed to
Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Thakur, Parineeta
Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in pregnancy require proper interpretation in order to avoid pitfalls in the diagnosis. The underlying disorder can have a significant effect on the outcome of both mother and foetus. The present study was done with the objective to study the clinical profile, incidence and possible causes of derangements of liver function tests. Eighty pregnant women with abnormal liver dysfunction were studied prospectively. Women with chronic liver disease and drug-induced abnormal liver function test were excluded. All available LFTs including LDH were studied along with some more definitive tests to aid identification of underlying cause. Foetomaternal outcome was noted in all. The incidence of abnormal LFT was 0.9 %. 13/80 (16.75 %) women had liver disorder not specific to pregnancy, whereas 67/80 (83.25 %) women had pregnancy-specific liver dysfunction. Of these, 65(81.25 %) women with liver dysfunction had pre-eclampsia including 11 (13.75 %) with HELLP and six women with eclampsia. 48/65 (60 %) women had pre-eclampsia in the absence of HELLP syndrome or eclampsia. The mean value for bilirubin (mg %) in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy ranged from 1.64 to 3.8, between 5 and 10 for ICP and AFLP and >10 in infective hepatitis. Transaminases were highest in infective hepatitis, whereas alkaline phosphate was highest in ICP. Total 27 (33.75 %) women suffered from adverse outcome with four (5 %) maternal deaths and 23 (28.75 %) major maternal morbidities. 33/80 (41.25 %) women had intrauterine death. 26.25 % babies were small for date. Pregnancy-specific disorders are the leading cause of abnormal liver function test during pregnant state particularly in the third trimester. Pre-eclampsia-related disorder is the commonest. Gestational age of pregnancy and relative values of various liver function tests in different pregnancy-specific and pregnancy nonspecific disorders appear to be the best guide to clinch the diagnosis.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten
In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414
Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela
This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…
Phillips, Michael; Beatty, J. David; Cataneo, Renee N.; Huston, Jan; Kaplan, Peter D.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Lambin, Philippe; Lobbes, Marc B. I.; Mundada, Mayur; Pappas, Nadine; Patel, Urvish
Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:24599224
... the body's fluid levels and its acid-base balance. Normal levels of these electrolytes help keep cells in the body working as they should. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine , which are waste products filtered ...
... the body's fluid levels and its acid-base balance. Normal levels of these electrolytes help keep cells in the body working as they should. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine , which are waste products filtered ...
Plumb, Andrew A; Ghanouni, Alex; Rainbow, Sandra; Djedovic, Natasha; Marshall, Sarah; Stein, Judith; Taylor, Stuart A; Halligan, Steve; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; von Wagner, Christian
Background Screening participants with abnormal faecal occult blood test results who do not attend further testing are at high risk of colorectal cancer, yet little is known about their reasons for non-attendance. Methods We conducted a medical record review of 170 patients from two English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme centres who had abnormal guaiac faecal occult blood test screening tests between November 2011 and April 2013 but did not undergo colonoscopy. Using information from patient records, we coded and categorized reasons for non-attendance. Results Of the 170 patients, 82 were eligible for review, of whom 66 had at least one recorded reason for lack of colonoscopy follow-up. Reasons fell into seven main categories: (i) other commitments, (ii) unwillingness to have the test, (iii) a feeling that the faecal occult blood test result was a false positive, (iv) another health issue taking priority, (v) failing to complete bowel preparation, (vi) practical barriers (e.g. lack of transport), and (vii) having had or planning colonoscopy elsewhere. The most common single reasons were unwillingness to have a colonoscopy and being away. Conclusions We identify a range of apparent reasons for colonoscopy non-attendance after a positive faecal occult blood test screening. Education regarding the interpretation of guaiac faecal occult blood test findings, offer of alternative confirmatory test options, and flexibility in the timing or location of subsequent testing might decrease non-attendance of diagnostic testing following positive faecal occult blood test.
Chi, C; Yu, S-K; Auckle, R; Argyris, A A; Nasothimiou, E; Tountas, C; Aissopou, E; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Zhang, Y; Protogerou, A D
Both brachial blood pressure (BP) level and its variability (BPV) significantly associate with left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Recent studies indicate that aortic BP is superior to brachial BP in the association with LV abnormalities. However, it remains unknown whether aortic BPV better associate with LV structural and functional abnormalities. We therefore aimed to investigate and compare aortic versus brachial BPV, in terms of the identification of LV abnormalities. Two hundred and three participants who underwent echocardiography were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour aortic and brachial ambulatory BP was measured simultaneously by a validated BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Stolberg, Germany) and BPV was calculated with validated formulae. LV mass and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) were evaluated by echocardiography. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy (LVH) and LVDD increased significantly with BPV indices (P⩽0.04) in trend tests. After adjustment to potential confounders, only aortic average real variability (ARV), but not brachial ARV or weighted s.d. (wSD, neither aortic nor brachial) significantly associated with LV mass index (P=0.02). Similar results were observed in logistic regression. After adjustment, only aortic ARV significantly associated with LVH (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.28 (1.08, 4.82)). As for LVDD, neither the brachial nor the aortic 24-hour wSD, but the aortic and brachial ARV, associated with LVDD significantly, with OR=2.28 (95% CI: (1.03, 5.02)) and OR=2.36 (95% CI: (1.10, 5.05)), respectively. In summary, aortic BPV, especially aortic ARV, seems to be superior to brachial BPV in the association of LV structural and functional abnormalities.
Kronman, Andrea C; Freund, Karen M; Heeren, Tim; Beaver, Kristine A; Flynn, Mary; Battaglia, Tracy A
Delays in care after abnormal cancer screening contribute to disparities in cancer outcomes. Women with psychiatric disorders are less likely to receive cancer screening and may also have delays in diagnostic resolution after an abnormal screening test. To determine if depression and anxiety are associated with delays in resolution after abnormal mammograms and Pap tests in a vulnerable population of urban women. We conducted retrospective chart reviews of electronic medical records to identify women who had a diagnosis of depression or anxiety in the year prior to the abnormal mammogram or Pap test. We used time-to-event analysis to analyze the outcome of time to resolution after abnormal cancer screening, and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to control for confounding. Women receiving care in six Boston-area community health centers 2004-2005: 523 with abnormal mammograms, 474 with abnormal Pap tests. Of the women with abnormal mammogram and pap tests, 19% and 16%, respectively, had co-morbid depression. There was no difference in time to diagnostic resolution between depressed and not-depressed women for those with abnormal mammograms (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.1) or Pap tests (aHR = 0.9, 95 CI 0.7,1.3). An active diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety in the year prior to an abnormal mammogram or Pap test was not associated with a prolonged time to diagnostic resolution. Our findings imply that documented mood disorders do not identify an additional barrier to resolution after abnormal cancer screening in a vulnerable population of women.
Nagy, J A; Chang, S-H; Dvorak, A M; Dvorak, H F
Tumour blood vessels differ from their normal counterparts for reasons that have received little attention. We report here that they are of at least six distinct types, we describe how each forms, and, looking forward, encourage the targeting of tumour vessel subsets that have lost their vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) dependency and so are likely unresponsive to anti-VEGF-A therapies. PMID:19240721
Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D
Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina
To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.
Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon
Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.
In the present manuscript the different methodologies aimed at assessing the autonomic profile in humans during a gravitational stimulus have been described. In addition, strengths and drawbacks of the tilt test in relation to occasional orthostatic intolerance were addressed. Finally, different autonomic abnormalities underlying occasional and chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes have been schematically highlighted. The direct recording of the neural sympathetic discharge from the peroneal nerve (MSNA), in spite of its invasive nature, still represents the recognized reference to quantify the changes in the sympathetic activity to the vessels attending postural modifications. The increase of plasma norepinephrine during a tilt test is achieved by both an increase in plasma spillover and a concomitant decrease in systemic clearance. Changes in the indices of cardiac sympathetic and vagal modulation may also be quantified during a tilt test by power spectrum analysis of RR interval variability. The spectral markers of cardiac autonomic control, if evaluated concomitantly with MSNA, may contribute to assess abnormalities in the regional distribution of the sympathetic activity to the heart and the vessels. The capability of the tilt test of reproducing a vasovagal event or of inducing "false positive responses" seems to be markedly affected by the age, thus suggesting that additional or different etiopathogenetic mechanisms might be involved in the loss of consciousness in older as compared to younger subjects. In subjects suffering from occasional or habitual neurally mediated syncope an increase or, respectively, a decrease in cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation has been documented before the loss of consciousness. In patients with pure autonomic failure, a global dysautonomia affecting both the sympathetic and the vagal modulation to the heart, seems to be present. In chronic orthostatic intolerance, the most common form of dysautonomia of young women
Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Sittig, Dean F.; Wilson, Lindsey; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.
Background: Follow-up of abnormal outpatient laboratory test results is a major patient safety concern. Electronic medical records can potentially address this concern through automated notification. We examined whether automated notifications of abnormal laboratory results (alerts) in an integrated electronic medical record resulted in timely follow-up actions. Methods: We studied four alerts: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥15%, positive hepatitis C antibody (HCV), prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥15 ng/mL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥ 15 mIU/L. An alert tracking system determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider clicked on and opened the message) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. Within 30 days of result transmission, record review and provider contact determined follow-up actions (e.g. patient contact, treatment etc.). Multivariable logistic regression models analyzed predictors for lack of timely follow-up. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2008, 78,158 tests (HbA1c, HCV, TSH and PSA) were performed, of which 1163 (1.48%) were transmitted as alerts; 10.2% of these (119/1163) were unacknowledged. Timely follow-up was lacking in 79 (6.8%) and was statistically not different for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (6.4% vs. 10.1%; p =.13). Two-hundred two alerts (17.4% of 1163) arose from unnecessarily ordered (redundant) tests. Alerts for a new versus known diagnosis were more likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 7.35; 95% CI: 4.16-12.97) whereas alerts related to redundant tests were less likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.84). Conclusions: Safety concerns related to timely patient follow-up remain despite automated notification of non-life threatening abnormal laboratory results in the outpatient setting. PMID:20193832
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system... Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. (a) Identification. A blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum...
Choudhury, Tawfiqur R; Abdool, Muhammad A; Galasko, Gavin
This is the case of a 53-year-old man with known coronary artery disease who underwent two exercise treadmill tests (ETT). The first test, which yielded an abnormal result, was undertaken shortly after he had drunk two cans of Red Bull, a popular energy drink (ED). A second ETT was undertaken 1 week later by the same team without EDs on board and the test result was normal. This case suggests that drinking EDs prior to an ETT could lead to a false positive result and should be discouraged prior to exercise testing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... test is used to detect diseases of the liver or bile ducts. It is also done with other tests (such ... and bilirubin tests) to tell the difference between liver or bile duct disorders and bone disease. It may also be ...
Miranda, C.; Moreno, E.; Bruhn, R.; Larsen, N. M.; Wright, D. J.; Oliveira, C. D. L.; Carneiro-Proietti, A. B. F.; Loureiro, P.; de Almeida-Neto, C.; Custer, B.; Sabino, E. C.; Gonçalez, T. T.
Background Reducing risk of HIV window period transmission requires understanding of donor knowledge and attitudes related to HIV and risk factors. Study Design and Methods We conducted a survey of 7635 presenting blood donors at three Brazilian blood centres from 15 October through 20 November 2009. Participants completed a questionnaire on HIV knowledge and attitudes about blood donation. Six questions about blood testing and HIV were evaluated using maximum likelihood chi-square and logistic regression. Test seeking was classified in non-overlapping categories according to answers to one direct and two indirect questions. Results Overall, respondents were male (64%) repeat donors (67%) between 18 and 49 years old (91%). Nearly 60% believed blood centres use better HIV tests than other places; however, 42% were unaware of the HIV window period. Approximately 50% believed it was appropriate to donate to be tested for HIV, but 67% said it was not acceptable to donate with risk factors even if blood is tested. Logistic regression found that less education, Hemope-Recife blood centre, replacement, potential and self-disclosed test-seeking were associated with less HIV knowledge. Conclusion HIV knowledge related to blood safety remains low among Brazilian blood donors. A subset finds it appropriate to be tested at blood centres and may be unaware of the HIV window period. These donations may impose a significant risk to the safety of the blood supply. Decreasing test-seeking and changing beliefs about the appropriateness of individuals with behavioural risk factors donating blood could reduce the risk of transfusing an infectious unit. PMID:24313562
Katinas, G. S.; Cornélissen, G.; Otsuka, K.; Haus, E.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.
Several opinion leaders have monitored their blood pressure systematically a sufficient number of times a day for chronomic (time structural) analyses, from the time of encountering chronobiology until their death; they set an example for others who also may not wish to base treatment on single spotchecks in a health care office. Such self-measurements, while extremely helpful, were not readily feasible without a noteworthy interruption of activities during waking as well as of sleep. New, relatively unobtrusive instrumentation now makes monitoring possible and cost-effective and will save lives. Illustrative results and problems encountered in an as-one-goes self-survey by GSK, a physician-scientist, are presented herein. Both MESOR-hypertension and CHAT (circadian hyper-amplitude-tension) can be intermittent conditions even under treatment, and treatment is best adjusted based on monitoring, rather than “flying blind”. PMID:16275483
Patel, Nisha Subhash; Oury, Anais; Daniels, Gregory A; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Patel, Sandip Pravin
With the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1), immune-related adverse events such as thyroid function test abnormalities (TFTAs) are common, with a reported incidence range of 2%-15% depending upon the ICI used. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of TFTAs retrospectively in patients who received ICI therapy. A total of 285 patients were reviewed (178 male, 107 female; 16-94 years of age), of whom 218 had no baseline TFTAs, 61 had baseline TFTAs, and 6 had a history of thyroidectomy (excluded). At least one dose of ipilimumab and/or nivolumab or pembrolizumab was administered. Post-ICI therapy TFTAs were classified according to standard definitions of thyroid conditions when possible. A total of 35% (76/218) patients had new-onset TFTAs on ICI therapy. Of note, 70.5% (43/61) had baseline TFTAs that were exacerbated by ICI therapy. The median times to new-onset or exacerbated baseline TFTA were 46 and 33 days, respectively. Of note, 64.5% (20/31) of patients on both ipilimumab and nivolumab had new-onset TFTAs, compared with 31.3% (15/48) on ipilimumab, 31.5% (28/89) on nivolumab, and 26% (13/50) on pembrolizumab. The incidence of TFTAs with ICI therapy was higher than previously reported. Patients with baseline TFTAs and/or who were receiving ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy had a higher incidence of TFTAs than patients receiving single-agent ICI therapy. We recommend more frequent evaluation of thyroid function in the first 8 weeks, especially in patients with baseline TFTAs. Increased use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer treatment has highlighted the importance of monitoring for and treating immune-related adverse events. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of thyroid function test abnormalities retrospectively in patients with cancer on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, which is not known exactly. This study is unique in that it included patients with a variety of histologic
Alvis, Nelson José; Díaz, Diana Patricia; Castillo, Liliana; Alvis, Nelson Rafael; Bermúdez, María Isabel; Berrío, Olga Maritza; Beltrán, Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés
Transfusion is a mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease. There are no studies on the costs of the screening test in Colombian blood banks. To estimate the costs of the screening test for Chagas' disease among blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015. We conducted a micro-costing study from the perspective of the health care provider to estimate the cost of Chagas' disease testing in two blood banks, Banco de Sangre de la Cruz Roja, Seccional Bolívar, and Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Yopal, Casanare, taking into account four cost categories: 1) Administrative costs: public services and insurance costs were calculated based on the blood bank area in square meters; 2) capital costs: building and equipment costs that were annualized using a 3% discount rate and a lifespan of 20 years for building and five for equipment; 3) costs of Chagas' disease test materials and reagents adjusted by blood bank production level, and 4) costs of staff in charge of Chagas' disease test processing. The costs of transfusion bagsand immunohematology tests are also reported. The cost of Chagas' disease test in the blood bank of Seccional Bolívar was COP$ 37,804 (USD$ 12), and the blood bag and immunohematology test costs were COP$ 25,941 (USD$ 8.2) and COP$ 6,800 (USD$ 2.2), respectively. In the blood bank of Yopal, Casanare, the costs were COP$ 77,384 (USD$ 24.6), COP$ 30,141 (USD$ 9.6) and COP$ 12,627 (USD$ 4), respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the highest percentage of the total cost for both blood banks (47.5% in Seccional Bolívar, and 55.7% in Yopal, Casanare). Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.
Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Martí, David; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
Whether or not blood pressure (BP) and heart function of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are altered remains unclear, albeit subtle abnormalities in the regulation of BP observed in these women might suggest a mild masculinization of their cardiovascular system. To study the influence of obesity and androgen excess on BP and echocardiographic profiles of women with the syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing office and ambulatory BP monitoring, as well as echocardiographic assessments, in 63 premenopausal women with the classic phenotype, 33 nonhyperandrogenic women with regular menses, and 25 young men. Forty-nine subjects were lean and 72 had weight excess (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Participants had no previous history of hypertension and were nonsmokers. Men showed the highest BP readings, and the lowest readings were observed in control women, whereas women with PCOS had intermediate values. Undiagnosed hypertension was more common in subjects with weight excess irrespective of sex and hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS and weight excess showed frequencies of previously undiagnosed hypertension that were similar to those of men with weight excess and higher than those observed in nonhyperandrogenic women. Lastly, male sex, weight excess and hypertension, the latter in men as well as in women with PCOS, increased left ventricular wall thickness. In summary, our results show that patients with classic PCOS and weight excess frequently have undiagnosed BP abnormalities, leading to target organ damage.
Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira
To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.
... very early. But there is debate over the value of the PSA test for detecting prostate cancer. No single answer fits all men. Before having the test, talk to your provider about the pros and cons of having a PSA test. Ask ...
Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Zintzaras, Elias; Messinis, Ioannis E; Stefanidis, Ioannis
Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, p<0.001) levels. Adjustment for circadian BP rhythm status ascribed this finding exclusively to non-dippers (p<0.01). Two months after delivery, in 11 of the 21 non-dippers both circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n=10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p=0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.
Sunbul, Murat; Sunbul, Esra Aydin; Kosker, Selcen Dogru; Durmus, Erdal; Kivrak, Tarik; Ileri, Cigdem; Oguz, Mustafa; Sari, Ibrahim
Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety were independent risk factors for hypertension. Non-dipper hypertension is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety and depression scores in patients with dipper and non-dipper hypertension. The study sample consisted of 153 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring. Patients were classified into two groups according to their dipper or non-dipper hypertension status. We evaluated results of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between groups. Seventy-eight patients (38 male, mean age: 51.6 ± 12.5 years) had dipper hypertension while 75 patients (27 male, mean age: 55.4 ± 14.1 years) had non-dipper hypertension (p = 0.141, 0.072, respectively). Clinical characteristics were similar for both groups. Patients with non-dipper hypertension had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores compared to patients with dipper hypertension. Dipper and non-dipper status significantly correlated with anxiety (p: 0.025, r: 0.181) and depression score (p: 0.001, r: 0.255). In univariate analysis, smoking, alcohol usage, presence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anxiety score >8 and depression score >7 were predictors of dipper versus non-dipper status. In multivariate logistic regression analyses only depression score >7 was independent predictor of dipper versus non-dipper status (odds ratio: 2.74, confidence intervals: 1.41-5.37). A depression score of 7 or higher predicted non-dipper status with a sensitivity of 62.7% and specificity of 62.8%. Non-dipper patients have significantly higher anxiety and depression scores compared to dipper patients. Evaluation of anxiety and depression in patients with hypertension might help to detect non-dipper group and hence guide for better management.
Johnston, Emma; Ames, Carole E; Dagnall, Kathryn E; Foster, John; Daniel, Barbara E
Four presumptive blood tests, Hexagon OBTI, Hemastix(R), Leucomalachite green (LMG), and Kastle-Meyer (KM) were compared for their sensitivity in the identification of dried bloodstains. Stains of varying blood dilutions were subjected to each presumptive test and the results compared. The Hexagon OBTI buffer volume was also reduced to ascertain whether this increased the sensitivity of the kit. The study found that Hemastix(R) was the most sensitive test for trace blood detection. Only with the reduced buffer volume was the Hexagon OBTI kit as sensitive as the LMG and KM tests. However, the Hexagon OBTI kit has the advantage of being a primate specific blood detection kit. This study also investigated whether the OBTI buffer within the kit could be utilized for DNA profiling after presumptive testing. The results show that DNA profiles can be obtained from the Hexagon OBTI kit buffer directly.
Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sánchez-Osorio, Magdalena; Uribe, Misael
To investigate the prevalence of abnormal function liver tests and risk factors associated with their development in Mexican patients with UC. A total of 200 patients with confirmed diagnosis of UC were evaluated prospectively during a one year period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. A total of 94 females and 106 males patients with UC were analyzed. The age at diagnosis was 31.4 ± 13.2 years and the mean of disease duration was 6.7 ± 5.2 years. We found a high prevalence of abnormal function livers tests in 40% of UC patients. The pattern of abnormal function liver test was hepatitis in 70%, cholestatic (20%) and mixed (10%). The most common cause of abnormal function liver test was transient elevation in 50 patients (63%) followed by fatty liver disease (11.2%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (6.3%), drug-toxicity (6%) and others (13.5%) including chronic hepatitis C, total parenteral nutrition, granulomatous and ischemic hepatitis. In the multivariate logistic regression model, active disease, colectomy and abdominal sepsis were factors that persisted associated with the development of abnormal liver tests in UC patients. A high prevalence of abnormal function liver tests (40%) was found in Mexican UC patients is likely to be related to active disease, colectomy and the presence of sepsis.
... Test Information → Blood Smear URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bloodsmear.html Blood Smear To ... May 26]; 353(5): 498–507. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra043442 ...
Vukovic, Dejana; Antic, Ljiljana; Vasiljevic, Mladenko; Antic, Dragan; Matejic, Bojana
Serbia is one of the countries with highest incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer in Central and South Eastern Europe. Introducing a risk index could provide a powerful means for targeting groups at high likelihood of having an abnormal cervical smear and increase efficiency of screening. The aim of the present study was to create and assess validity ofa index for prediction of an abnormal Pap test result. The study population was drawn from patients attending Departments for Women's Health in two primary health care centers in Serbia. Out of 525 respondents 350 were randomly selected and data obtained from them were used as the index creation dataset. Data obtained from the remaining 175 were used as an index validation data set. Age at first intercourse under 18, more than 4 sexual partners, history of STD and multiparity were attributed statistical weights 16, 15, 14 and 13, respectively. The distribution of index scores in index-creation data set showed that most respondents had a score 0 (54.9%). In the index-creation dataset mean index score was 10.3 (SD-13.8), and in the validation dataset the mean was 9.1 (SD=13.2). The advantage of such scoring system is that it is simple, consisting of only four elements, so it could be applied to identify women with high risk for cervical cancer that would be referred for further examination.
Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep
Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through “alert” notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. Design 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Results Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Conclusion Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results. PMID:20064805
Hysong, Sylvia J; Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep
Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through "alert" notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results.
Alsumali, Adnan; Mekary, Rania A; Seeger, John; Regestein, Quentin
To study the association between blood pressure and neuropsychological test performance in healthy postmenopausal women. Data from 88 healthy postmenopausal women aged 46-73 years, who were not experiencing hot flashes, and who had participated in a prior drug trial, were analyzed to find whether baseline blood pressure was associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological testing done at 3 follow-up visits separated by 4 weeks. Factor analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of neuropsychological test performance. Mixed linear modeling was used to evaluate the association between baseline blood pressure and repeatedly measured neuropsychological test performance at follow-up in a complete case analysis (n=53). In a sensitivity analysis (n=88), multiple-imputation using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was used to account for missing data (blood pressure results) for some visits. The variables recording neuropsychological test performance were reduced to two main factors (Factor 1=selective attention; Factor 2=complex processing). In the complete case analysis, the association between a 20-mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure and Factor 1 remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders, before adjusting for systolic blood pressure (slope=0.60; 95%CI=0.04,1.16), and after adjusting for systolic blood pressure (slope=0.76; 95%CI=0.06, 1.47). The positive slopes indicated an increase in the time spent performing a given task (i.e., a decrease in neuropsychological test performance). No other significant associations were found between systolic blood pressure and either factor. The results did not materially change after applying the multiple-imputation method. An increase in diastolic blood pressure was associated with a decrease in neuropsychological test performance among older healthy postmenopausal women experiencing hot flashes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sloots, James; Lalonde, Wendy; Reid, Barbara; Millman, Jonathan
The Kastle-Meyer (KM) test is a quick and easy chemical test for blood used in forensic analyses. Two practical variations of this test are the KM-rub (indirect) test and the more sensitive KM-direct test, the latter of which is performed by applying reagents directly to a suspected blood stain. This study found that sodium hydroxide present in the KM reagents eliminated the potential to generate a DNA profile when applied directly to small quantities of blood. A modified approach to the KM-rub test that increases its sensitivity is presented as a method to replace destructive KM-direct testing. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Many suggest that cancer and other diseases in Micronesia have been caused by nuclear testing in the Pacific. The 50-year commemoration of the March 1, 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test has rekindled interest in this area. This paper explores the documentation for, and the plausibility of, claims for disease causation by nuclear testing. Given the sheer volume of testing that the US conducted in the Pacific, it appears plausible that excess cancer would have occurred in areas of Micronesia other than the Marshall Islands. An excess of birth abnormalities in the Marshall Islands has been documented. While diabetes is not a radiogenic disease, and other cancers are generally less radiogenic than leukemia or thyroid cancer, the social and cultural effects of nuclear testing specifically, and the strategic uses to which Micronesia has been put generally, have had roles in the social production of disease. Integration into a globalized, cosmopolitan economy-with attendant phenomena such as the importation of tobacco, alcohol, foods of poor nutritional value, and new cultural morés-are also factors.
Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.
The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…
Naugler, Christopher T; Guo, Maggie
There is a need to develop and validate new metrics to access the appropriateness of laboratory test requests. The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) is a proposed measure of ordering selectivity, the premise being that higher mean abnormal rates represent more selective test ordering. As a validation of this metric, we compared the abnormal rate of lab tests with the number of tests ordered on the same requisition. We hypothesized that requisitions with larger numbers of requested tests represent less selective test ordering and therefore would have a lower overall abnormal rate. We examined 3,864,083 tests ordered on 451,895 requisitions and found that the MARR decreased from about 25% if one test was ordered to about 7% if nine or more tests were ordered, consistent with less selectivity when more tests were ordered. We then examined the MARR for community-based testing for 1,340 family physicians and found both a wide variation in MARR as well as an inverse relationship between the total tests ordered per year per physician and the physician-specific MARR. The proposed metric represents a new utilization metric for benchmarking relative selectivity of test orders among physicians. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
... levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes ...
Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man
The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.
Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen
The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.
Vitamin D is crucial for the human body due to its role in calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, low blood levels of vitamin D levels have been...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0624 TITLE: Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D levels in Blood PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alan C. West...AND SUBTITLE Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D levels in Blood 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0624 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Dawson, Lauren; Grady, James J; Breitkopf, Daniel M; Nelson-Becker, Carolyn; Snyder, Russell R
To evaluate the effect of a theory-based, culturally targeted intervention on adherence to follow-up among low-income and minority women who experience an abnormal Pap test. 5,049 women were enrolled and underwent Pap testing. Of these, 378 had an abnormal result and 341 (90%) were randomized to one of three groups to receive their results: Intervention (I): culturally targeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; Active Control (AC): nontargeted behavioral and normative beliefs + knowledge/skills + salience + environmental constraints/barriers counseling; or Standard Care Only (SCO). The primary outcome was attendance at the initial follow-up appointment. Secondary outcomes included delay in care, completion of care at 18 months, state anxiety (STAI Y-6), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and distress (CDDQ). Anxiety was assessed at enrollment, notification of results, and 7-14 days later with the CDDQ and CES-D. 299 women were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Adherence rates were 60% (I), 54% (AC), and 58% (SCO), p = .73. Completion rates were 39% (I) and 35% in the AC and SCO groups, p = .77. Delay in care (in days) was (M ± SD): 58 ± 75 (I), 69 ± 72 (AC), and 54 ± 75 (SCO), p = .75. Adherence was associated with higher anxiety at notification, p < .01 and delay < 90 days (vs. 90+) was associated with greater perceived personal responsibility, p < .05. Women not completing their care (vs. those who did) had higher CES-D scores at enrollment, p < .05. A theory-based, culturally targeted message was not more effective than a nontargeted message or standard care in improving behavior.
Keck-Wherley, Jennifer; Grover, Deepak; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Xu, Xiufen; Holman, Derek; Lombardini, Eric D.; Verma, Ranjana; Biswas, Roopa; Galdzicki, Zygmunt
Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disability, which is attributed to triplication of genes located on chromosome 21. Elevated levels of several microRNAs (miRNAs) located on chromosome 21 have been reported in human DS heart and brain tissues. The Ts65Dn mouse model is the most investigated DS model with a triplicated segment of mouse chromosome 16 harboring genes orthologous to those on human chromosome 21. Using ABI TaqMan miRNA arrays, we found a set of miRNAs that were significantly up- or downregulated in the Ts65Dn hippocampus compared to euploid controls. Furthermore, miR-155 and miR-802 showed significant overexpression in the Ts65Dn hippocampus, thereby confirming results of previous studies. Interestingly, miR-155 and miR-802 were also overexpressed in the Ts65Dn whole blood but not in lung tissue. We also found overexpression of the miR-155 precursors, pri- and pre-miR-155 derived from the miR-155 host gene, known as B cell integration cluster, suggesting enhanced biogenesis of miR-155. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that neurodevelopment, differentiation of neuroglia, apoptosis, cell cycle, and signaling pathways including ERK/MAPK, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, m-TOR and calcium signaling are likely targets of these miRNAs. We selected some of these potential gene targets and found downregulation of mRNA encoding Ship1, Mecp2 and Ezh2 in Ts65Dn hippocampus. Interestingly, the miR-155 target gene Ship1 (inositol phosphatase) was also downregulated in Ts65Dn whole blood but not in lung tissue. Our findings provide insights into miRNA-mediated gene regulation in Ts65Dn mice and their potential contribution to impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, as well as hemopoietic abnormalities observed in DS. PMID:22042248
We have investigated various types of blood culture bottles which are mainly used at present and posed problems present in the blood culture bottles. First, there are differences between resin and ecosorb in the ability to adsorb and inactivate antibiotics in the blood. Second, the delay in placing the bottle (into which blood was inoculated) to the automatic instrument (delay in the start of incubation) greatly affects the automatic detection by BACTEC system and shows false negatives. Third, when the same blood is incubated in plural bottles (aerobic and anaerobic bottles), the differences among the detected organisms in the number are comparatively high, i.e., about 40%. In addition, there are differences among the organisms in the number of days required for the detection of the organisms. In this case, the detected organisms are clearly different in many cases. The technology of blood culture has been progressed remarkably. However, the efficiency of utilization of automatic instruments for diagnosis of infection depends greatly on the ability of laboratory technicians.
... Lab Tests Online [Internet]. American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2017. Cirrhosis; [updated 2017 Jan 8; cited ... Lab Tests Online [Internet]. American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2017. Electrolytes: Common Questions [updated 2015 Dec ...
Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pengon, Jutharat; Svasti, Saovaros; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Vattanaviboon, Phantip
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and thalassemia are genetically independent hemolytic disorders. Co-inheritance of both disorders may affect red blood cell pathology to a greater extent than normally seen in either disorder alone. This study determines the prevalence and evaluates hematological changes of G-6-PD deficiency and thalassemia co-inheritance. G-6-PD deficiency was screened from 200 male thalassemia blood samples using a fluorescent spot test. Hematological parameters and red blood cell morphology were evaluated among G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance, G-6-PD deficiency alone, thalassemia alone, and normal individuals. G-6-PD deficiency was detected together with hemoglobin (Hb) E heterozygote, Hb E homozygote, β-thalassemia trait, and β-thalassemia/Hb E, α-thalassemia-2 trait, and Hb H disease. Hb level, hematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell Hb of G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with asymptomatic thalassemia carriers show significantly lower mean values compared to carriers with only the same thalassemia genotypes. Higher mean red blood cell distribution width was observed in G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with Hb E heterozygote, as with numbers of hemighost cells in G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance compared to those with either disorder. Apart from Hb level, hematological parameters of co-inheritance disorders were not different from individuals with a single thalassemia disease. G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with thalassemia in males was present in 10% of the participants, resulting in worsening of red blood cell pathology compared with inheritance of thalassemia alone. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frederiksen, M E; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M
If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management decisions. To determine women's preferences for the follow-up of low-grade cervical screening abnormalities. Using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, PubMed was searched for articles published up to December 2010. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were consulted. Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form. Studies were sorted by design. Thirteen studies were included in the review. In all five studies that surveyed women with abnormal tests before any management had started, two-thirds preferred active follow-up, predominantly as immediate colposcopy, to observation, predominantly as repeated Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Even for low-grade abnormal cervical tests, women tend to prefer active management strategies. It may be a challenge to meet their expectations of optimal follow-up when HPV testing is used in primary screening. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.
Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin
The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...
... Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2017. Heavy Metals: Common Questions [updated 2016 ... Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2017. Heavy Metals: The Test [updated 2016 ...
Syngelaki, Argyro; Pergament, Eugene; Homfray, Tessa; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H
To estimate the proportion of other chromosomal abnormalities that could be missed if combined testing was replaced by cell-free (cf) DNA testing as the method of screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. The prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 or 13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities was examined in pregnancies undergoing first-trimester combined screening and chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In 1,831 clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies with combined risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13≥1:100, the contribution of trisomies 21, 18 or 13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities at high risk of adverse outcome was 82.9, 8.2, 3.9 and 5.0%, respectively. Combined screening followed by CVS for risk≥1:10 and cfDNA testing for risk 1:11-1:2,500 could detect 97% of trisomy 21 and 98% of trisomies 18 and 13. Additionally, 86% of monosomy X, half of 47,XXY, 47,XYY or 47,XXX, half of other chromosomal abnormalities and one third of triploidies, which are currently detected by combined screening and CVS for risk≥1:100, could be detected. Screening by cfDNA testing, contingent on results of combined testing, improves detection of trisomies, but misses a few of the other chromosomal abnormalities detected by screening with the combined test. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vamos, Cheryl A; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Proctor, Sara; Wells, Kristen J; Daley, Ellen M
This study explored narrative responses following abnormal Pap tests among Hispanic migrant farmworkers ( N = 18; ages 22-50 years) via in-depth interviews in Florida. Qualitative analyses utilized health literacy domains (obtain/process/understand/communicate) as a conceptual framework. Participants described how they (1) obtained information about getting a Pap test, (2) processed positive and negative reactions following results, (3) understood results and recommended health-promoting behaviors, and (4) communicated and received social support. Women had disparate reactions and understanding following an abnormal Pap result. Health literacy was a meaningful conceptual framework to understand assets and gaps among women receiving an abnormal Pap test result. Future interventions should incorporate health literacy domains and facilitate patient-provider communications and social support to assist women in decision-making and health-promoting behaviors, ultimately decreasing cancer disparities.
Kowalczuk, Laura; Touchard, Elodie; Omri, Samy; Jonet, Laurent; Klein, Christophe; Valamanes, Fatemeh; Berdugo, Marianne; Bigey, Pascal; Massin, Pascale; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine
Objective There are controversies regarding the pro-angiogenic activity of placental growth factor (PGF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). For a better understanding of its role on the retina, we have evaluated the effect of a sustained PGF over-expression in rat ocular media, using ciliary muscle electrotransfer (ET) of a plasmid encoding rat PGF-1 (pVAX2-rPGF-1). Materials and Methods pVAX2-rPGF-1 ET in the ciliary muscle (200 V/cm) was achieved in non diabetic and diabetic rat eyes. Control eyes received saline or naked plasmid ET. Clinical follow up was carried out over three months using slit lamp examination and fluorescein angiography. After the control of rPGF-1 expression, PGF-induced effects on retinal vasculature and on the blood-external barrier were evaluated respectively by lectin and occludin staining on flat-mounts. Ocular structures were visualized through histological analysis. Results After fifteen days of rPGF-1 over-expression in normal eyes, tortuous and dilated capillaries were observed. At one month, microaneurysms and moderate vascular sprouts were detected in mid retinal periphery in vivo and on retinal flat-mounts. At later stages, retinal pigmented epithelial cells demonstrated morphological abnormalities and junction ruptures. In diabetic retinas, PGF expression rose between 2 and 5 months, and, one month after ET, rPGF-1 over-expression induced glial activation and proliferation. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that sustained intraocular PGF production induces vascular and retinal changes similar to those observed in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. PGF and its receptor Flt-1 may therefore be looked upon as a potential regulatory target at this stage of the disease. PMID:21408222
Smith, M; Murphy, D; Laxmisan, A; Sittig, D; Reis, B; Esquivel, A; Singh, H
Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider's prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA's EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility's "test" EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for
Arnold, David T; Bentham, Louise M; Jacob, Ruth P; Lilford, Richard J; Girling, Alan J
Liver function tests (LFTs) are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS) study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. The aim was to inform a strategy for identification of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C). The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal) was less efficient (more expensive per case detected) than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. Based on this analysis and on widely accepted clinical principles, a "fast and frugal" heuristic was produced to guide general practitioners with respect to diagnosing cases of viral hepatitis in asymptomatic patients with abnormal LFTs. It recommends testing all patients where a clear clinical indication of
Teixeira, João L G; Rabaioli, Paola; Savaris, Ricardo F
To evaluate the performance of a commercial urinary test to screen for abnormal first trimester pregnancies in women presenting to an emergency room. In this prospective observational cohort, women with a confirmed first trimester pregnancy (gestational age <12 weeks) provided a urine sample for diagnosing the viability of their gestation. Pregnancy viability and location testing were confirmed by ultrasound and/or laparoscopy. From 815 eligible patients for the study, 12 were excluded for not having a confirmed pregnancy (n = 6) or were lost to follow-up (n = 6). A total of 803 patients underwent testing and completed follow-up. The pretest probability of an abnormal pregnancy was 44% (9% for ectopic pregnancy and 35% for miscarriage). The test had the following parameters to identify an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy (sensitivity, 13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10-17; specificity, 82%; 95% CI, 78-86; positive predictive value, 36; 95% CI, 28-46; negative predictive value, 54; 95% CI, 50-58; accuracy, 47%; positive likelihood ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.03; negative likelihood ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1-1.12). The reproducibility of the test in our study was high (kappa index between readers, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1). In our emergency setting, we were not able to confirm that the commercial test is adequate to detect or exclude an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Dan; Guo, Qi; Gao, Ya; Han, Jin; Yan, Bin; Peng, Liyuan; Song, Anqi; Zhou, Fuling; Wang, Gang
To investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with the blood pressure (BP) reverse-dipper pattern in patients with hypertension. Cross-sectional study. Single centre. Patients with essential hypertension were included in our study (n=708). The exclusion criteria included age <18 or >90 years, incomplete clinical data, night workers, diagnosis of secondary hypertension, under antihypertensive treatment, intolerance for the 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and BP reading success rate <70%. Physical examination and ABPM were performed for all patients in our study. The value of RDW was measured using an automated haematology analyser. The distribution of RDW in patients with hypertension among different circadian BP pattern groups was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the associations of RDW and other relevant variables with ABPM results. There was significantly increased RDW in reverse dippers (13.52 ± 1.05) than dippers (13.25 ± 0.85) of hypertension (p=0.012). Moreover, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that RDW (OR 1.325, 95% CI 1.037 to 1.692, p=0.024) and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.286, 95% CI 1.380 to 3.788, p=0.001) were significantly different when comparing the reverse-dipper BP pattern with the dipper pattern. However, there was no difference of RDW between the non-dipper pattern and the reverse-dipper pattern (OR 1.036, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.238, p=0.693). In addition to this, RDW was negatively correlated with the decline rate of nocturnal systolic BP (r=-0.113; p=0.003) and diastolic BP (r=-0.101; p=0.007). Our results suggested that RDW might associate with the abnormal dipper BP patterns of either reverse dipping or non-dipping homogeneously examined with 24 h ABPM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lobigs, Louisa Margit; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bourdon, Pitre Collier; Nikolovski, Zoran; El-Gingo, Mohamed; Varamenti, Evdokia; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf
Plasma volume and red cell mass are key health markers used to monitor numerous disease states, such as heart failure, kidney disease, or sepsis. Nevertheless, there is currently no practically applicable method to easily measure absolute plasma or red cell volumes in a clinical setting. Here, a novel marker for plasma volume and red cell mass was developed through analysis of the observed variability caused by plasma volume shifts in common biochemical measures, selected based on their propensity to present with low variations over time. Once a month for 6 months, serum and whole blood samples were collected from 33 active males. Concurrently, the CO-rebreathing method was applied to determine target levels of hemoglobin mass (HbM) and blood volumes. The variability of 18 common chemistry markers and 27 Full Blood Count variables was investigated and matched to the observed plasma volume variation. After the removal of between-subject variations using a Bayesian model, multivariate analysis identified two sets of 8 and 15 biomarkers explaining 68% and 69% of plasma volume variance, respectively. The final multiparametric model contains a weighting function to allow for isolated abnormalities in single biomarkers. This proof-of-concept investigation describes a novel approach to estimate absolute vascular volumes, with a simple blood test. Despite the physiological instability of critically ill patients, it is hypothesized the model, with its multiparametric approach and weighting function, maintains the capacity to describe vascular volumes. This model has potential to transform volume management in clinical settings. Am. J. Hematol. 92:62-67, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Monkul, E Serap; Silva, Leandro A P; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A M; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C
We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H(2)(15)O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients was correlated with the severity of depression as measured by HAM-D scores. Depressed patients showed decreases in blood flow in right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24 and 32) and increased blood flow in left and right posterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30), left parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36), and right caudate compared with healthy volunteers. The severity of depression was inversely correlated with the left middle and inferior frontal gyri (Brodmann areas 9 and 47) and right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) and right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24, 32) blood flow, and directly correlated with the right thalamus blood flow. These findings support previous reports of abnormalities in the resting state blood flow in the limbic-frontal structures in depressed patients compared to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Yu, Grace; Digby, Janet E; Boardman, Henry; Whitworth, Polly; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; McCormick, Kenny; Shore, Angela C; Leeson, Paul
Preterm-born individuals have elevated blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that this associates with an enhanced antiangiogenic circulating profile and that this association is mediated by variations in capillary density. We studied 204 adults aged 25 years (range, 20-30 years), of which 102 had been followed up prospectively since very preterm birth (mean gestational age, 30.3±2.5 weeks) and 102 were born term to uncomplicated pregnancies. A panel of circulating biomarkers, including soluble endoglin and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, were compared between groups and related to perinatal history and adult cardiovascular risk. Associations with cardiovascular phenotype were studied in 90 individuals who had undergone detailed assessment of microvascular, macrovascular, and cardiac structure and function. Preterm-born individuals had elevations in soluble endoglin (5.64±1.03 versus 4.06±0.85 ng/mL; P<0.001) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (88.1±19.0 versus 73.0±15.3 pg/mL; P<0.001) compared with term-born individuals, proportional to elevations in resting and ambulatory blood pressure, as well as degree of prematurity (P<0.05). Maternal hypertensive pregnancy disorder was associated with additional increases in soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (P=0.002). Other circulating biomarkers, including those of inflammation and endothelial activation, were not related to blood pressure. There was a specific graded association between soluble endoglin and degree of functional and structural capillary rarefaction (P=0.002 and P<0.001), and in multivariable analysis, there were capillary density-mediated associations between soluble endoglin and blood pressure. Preterm-born individuals exhibit an enhanced antiangiogenic state in adult life that is specifically related to elevations in blood pressure. The association seems to be mediated through capillary rarefaction and is independent of other cardiovascular structural and functional differences in the
Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph
We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…
Chang, Ronald; Fox, Erin E; Greene, Thomas J; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Melton, Sherry M; Goodman, Michael D; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri; Yi, Misung; Johansson, Pär I; Henriksen, Hanne H; Stensballe, Jakob; Steinmetz, Jacob; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B
Laboratory-based evidence of coagulopathy (LC) is observed in 25-35% of trauma patients, but clinically-evident coagulopathy (CC) is not well described. Prospective observational study of adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers in 2015. Patients meeting predefined highest-risk criteria were divided into CC+ (predefined as surgeon-confirmed bleeding from uninjured sites or injured sites not controllable by sutures) or CC-. We used a mixed-effects, Poisson regression with robust error variance to test the hypothesis that abnormalities on rapid thrombelastography (r-TEG) and international normalized ratio (INR) were independently associated with CC+. Of 1,019 highest-risk patients, CC+ (n=41, 4%) were more severely injured (median ISS 32 vs 17), had evidence of LC on r-TEG and INR, received more transfused blood products at 4 hours (37 vs 0 units), and had greater 30-day mortality (59% vs 12%) than CC- (n=978, 96%). The overall incidence of LC was 39%. 30-day mortality was 22% vs 9% in those with and without LC. In two separate models, r-TEG K-time >2.5 min (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), r-TEG mA <55 mm (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.2), platelet count <150 x 10 9 /L (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3), and INR >1.5 (RR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.3) were independently associated with CC+. A combined regression model was not generated because too few patients underwent both r-TEG and INR. CC was rare compared to LC. CC was associated with poor outcomes and impairment of both clotting factor and platelet-mediated coagulation components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Remzi, Feza H; Nutter, Benjamin; Fazio, Victor W; Shen, Bo
Liver involvement is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the frequency and the significance of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for underlying IBD have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and to identify risk factors for abnormal LFTs in patients with IPAA and underlying IBD. All patients were identified from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Database between 2002 and 2008. Abnormal LFTs were classified as the following: (i) any abnormal elevation of transaminases, and/or alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and/or bilirubin; (ii) hepatitis, if there was more than twice the elevation of transaminases; and (iii) cholestatic, if there was more than 1.5 times elevation of ALP. Clinical, endoscopic, and histological variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models for evaluating risk for abnormal LFTs. A total of 545 IPAA patients with underlying IBD were identified from the database, of which 373 patients who had LFTs done after their pouch surgery were included. This included 346 patients with ulcerative colitis, 25 with indeterminate colitis, and 2 with Crohn's colitis before surgery. Their mean age was 45.9+/-13.8 years. A total of 65 patients (17.4%) (40 men, 25 women, median age: 47 years) had abnormal LFTs. Of the patients, 52 (13.9%) had abnormal transaminases, whereas 15 (4%) were classified as having hepatitis. Thirty-five (9.4%) patients had an abnormal ALP level, with 18 (4.8%) classified as cholestatic. The most common cause of an abnormal LFT was transient elevation in 32 (49.2%) patients, followed by fatty liver (fatty change on imaging with body mass index (BMI) > or =25 kg/m(2) in the absence of other causes, including alcohol abuse and drug-induced hepatitis) in 10 (15.4%), drug-induced abnormal LFTs in 7 (10.7%), and chronic hepatitis B or C in 6 (9.2%). Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was responsible for abnormal
... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...
Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel
We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.
El Amrousy, Doaa Mohamed; Hassan, Samir; El-Ashry, Heba; Yousef, Mohamed; Sharshar, Ragia
The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and type of pulmonary dysfunction in newly diagnosed children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the correlation between pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and IBD activity. It is an observational case-control study. One hundred newly diagnosed children with IBD were enrolled as the patient group, which was subdivided into 52 with Crohn disease (CD) and 48 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Fifty healthy children matched for age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI) served as the control group. PFTs in the form of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC), mid-forced expiratory flow of 25% to 75% (FEF 25%-75%) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were evaluated in all studied children. PFTs were measured at diagnosis, every 6 months for a period of 3 years, during remission and at least once during activity in patient group. There was significant progressive deterioration in all PFTs in IBD patients compared with their PFTs at the start of the study (P < 0.05) except for FEV1/FVC, RV, and TLC (P > 0.05). There was significant deterioration during disease activity compared with remission state regarding FEV1, FVC, FEV 25% to 75%, and DLCO (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was found between disease activity in both UC and CD groups and FEV1, FVC, FEV 25% to 75%, and DLCO. Subclinical PFT abnormalities are common in pediatric IBD even during remission period. So, periodic PFT evaluation should be considered in the routine follow-up of IBD children.
Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo
Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to
Wong, David; Moturi, Sharmili; Angkachatchai, Vach; Mueller, Reinhold; DeSantis, Grace; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias
Fetal mutations and fetal chromosomal abnormalities can be detected by molecular analysis of circulating cell free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) from maternal plasma. This comprehensive study was aimed to investigate and verify blood collection and blood shipping conditions that enable Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. Specifically, the impact of shipping and storage on the stability and concentration of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in Streck® Cell-Free DNA™ Blood Collection Tubes (Streck BCTs, Streck, Omaha NE). These BCTs were designed to minimize cellular degradation, and thus effectively prevent dilution of fetal ccf DNA by maternal genomic DNA, was evaluated. Peripheral venous maternal blood was collected into Streck BCTs to investigate four aspects of handling and processing conditions: (1) time from blood draw to plasma processing; (2) storage temperature; (3) mechanical stress; and (4) lot-to-lot tube variations. Maternal blood stored in Streck BCTs for up to 7 days at ambient temperature provides stable concentrations of ccffDNA. The amount of fetal DNA did not change over a broad range of storage temperatures (4°C, 23°C, 37°C, 40°C), but the amount of total (largely maternal) DNA increased in samples stored at 23°C and above, indicating maternal cell degradation and genomic DNA release at elevated temperatures. Shipping maternal blood in Streck BCTs, did not affect sample quality. Maternal plasma DNA stabilized for 0 to 7 days in Streck BCTs can be used for non-invasive prenatal molecular applications, when temperatures are maintained within the broad parameters assessed in this study. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gayevyy, M. D.; Maltsev, V. G.; Pogorelyy, V. E.
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (ACBF) under orthostatic tests (OT) was estimated in acute experiments on rabbits and cats under local anesthesia according to changes of perfusion pressure (PP) in carotid arteries, cerebral blood flow, pressure in the venous system of the brain, and resistance of cerebral vessels. The OT were conducted by turning a special table with the animal fastened to it from a horizontal to a vertical (head up or head down) position at 40 to 80 deg. In most experiments ACBF correlated with the changes of PP. Different variations of ACBF and its possible mechanisms are discussed.
Quante, Saskia; Fracassi, Federico; Gorgas, Daniela; Kircher, Patrick R; Boretti, Felicitas S; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Reusch, Claudia E
A 7-month-old male kitten was presented with chronic constipation and retarded growth. Clinical examination revealed disproportional dwarfism with mild skeletal abnormalities and a palpable thyroid gland. The presumptive diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum total thyroxine (tT(4)) concentration prior to and after the administration of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), increased endogenous TSH concentration and abnormal thyroid scintigraphic scan. The kitten had abnormal liver function tests and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, both of which returned to normal in correspondence with an improvement of the clinical signs after 6 weeks of thyroxine therapy. Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare disease that may present with considerable variation in clinical manifestation. In cases in which clinical signs are ambiguous, disorders such as portosystemic shunt and hyposomatotropism have to be taken into account as differential diagnosis. As hypothyroidism may be associated with abnormal liver function tests and low IGF-1 concentrations, test results have to be interpreted carefully. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Douketis, Jim D; Julian, Jim A; Crowther, Mark A; Kearon, Clive; Bates, Shannon M; Barone, Marisa; Piovella, Franco; Middeldorp, Saskia; Prandoni, Paolo; Johnston, Marilyn; Costantini, Lorrie; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S
Few studies have assessed the effect of prothrombotic blood abnormalities on the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We studied postmenopausal women with suspected DVT in whom HRT use and prothrombotic blood abnormalities were sought. Cases had unprovoked DVT and controls had no DVT and without DVT risk factors. The risk of DVT was determined in women with and without prothrombotic abnormalities. A total of 510 postmenopausal women with suspected DVT were assessed; 57 cases and 283 controls were identified. Compared to HRT, nonusers without the factor V Leiden mutation, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-8.6) and in nonusers with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 5.3; 1.9-15.4) and appears multiplied in users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 17.1; 3.7-78). Compared to HRT, nonusers with normal factor VIII, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users with normal factor VIII (OR, 2.8; 1.0-7.9) and in HRT nonusers with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 6.0; 2.1-17), and appears to be multiplied in women who are users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 17.0; 3.6-80). In postmenopausal women who are estrogen-progestin HRT users, the presence of the factor V Leiden mutation or an elevated factor VIII level appears to have a multiplicative effect on their overall risk of DVT, increasing it 17-fold compared to women without these blood abnormalities who are HRT nonusers.
Tripette, Julien; Alexy, Tamas; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Mougenel, Daniele; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Chout, Roger; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hue, Olivier; Meiselman, Herbert J; Connes, Philippe
Recent evidence suggests that red blood cell aggregation and the ratio of hematocrit to blood viscosity (HVR), an index of the oxygen transport potential of blood, might considerably modulate blood flow dynamics in the microcirculation. It thus seems likely that these factors could play a role in sickle cell disease. We compared red blood cell aggregation characteristics, blood viscosity and HVR at different shear rates between sickle cell anemia and sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SCC) patients, sickle cell trait carriers (AS) and control individuals (AA). Blood viscosity determined at high shear rate was lower in sickle cell anemia (n=21) than in AA (n=52), AS (n=33) or SCC (n=21), and was markedly increased in both SCC and AS. Despite differences in blood viscosity, both sickle cell anemia and SCC had similar low HVR values compared to both AA and AS. Sickle cell anemia (n=21) and SCC (n=19) subjects had a lower red blood cell aggregation index and longer time for red blood cell aggregates formation than AA (n=16) and AS (n=15), and a 2 to 3 fold greater shear rate required to disperse red blood cell aggregates. The low HVR levels found in sickle cell anemia and SCC indicates a comparable low oxygen transport potential of blood in both genotypes. Red blood cell aggregation properties are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease: the increased shear forces needed to disperse red blood cell aggregates may disturb blood flow, especially at the microcirculatory level, since red blood cell are only able to pass through narrow capillaries as single cells rather than as aggregates.
Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki
Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.
Delgado-Corcoran, Claudia; Wolpert, Katherine H; Lucas, Kathryn; Bodily, Stephanie; Presson, Angela P; Bratton, Susan L
To determine whether judicious blood testing impacts timing or amount of packed RBC transfusions in infants after heart surgery. A retrospective study comparing before and after initiation of a quality improvement process. A university-affiliated cardiac ICU at a tertiary care children's hospital. Infants less than 1 year old with Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery category 4, 5, 6, or d-transposition of great arteries (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 3) consecutively treated during 2010 through 2013. A quality improvement process implemented in 2011 to decrease routine laboratory testing after surgery. Fifty-two infants preintervention and 214 postintervention had similar age, weight, proportion of cyanotic lesions, and surgical complexity. Infants with single versus biventricular physiology were compared separately. The number of laboratory tests per patient adjusted for cardiac ICU length of stay (laboratory tests/patient/day) was significantly lower in postintervention populations for single and biventricular groups (9 vs 15 and 10 vs 15, respectively; p < 0.001). The proportion of single ventricle patients transfused post- and preintervention was not statistically different (72% vs 90%; p = 0.130). Transfusion in the biventricular groups was the same over time (65% vs 65%). Time to first transfusion was significantly longer in the postintervention single ventricle group (4 vs 1 d; p < 0.001), and was not statistically different in the biventricular patients (4 vs 7 d; p = 0.058). The median hematocrit level at first transfusion was significantly lower (37% vs 40%; p = 0.004) postintervention in the cyanotic population, but did not differ in the biventricular group (31% vs 31%; p = 0.840). In infants after heart surgery, blood testing targeted to individual needs significantly decreased the number of blood tests, but did not significantly decrease postoperative blood transfusion.
Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer
The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG <70 mg/dL) and an average 16.4% decrease in hyperglycemia (BG >180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.
Quiroz, Yakeel T; Schultz, Aaron P; Chen, Kewei; Protas, Hillary D; Brickhouse, Michael; Fleisher, Adam S; Langbaum, Jessica B; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Fagan, Anne M; Shah, Aarti R; Muniz, Martha; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F; Munoz, Claudia; Garcia, Gloria; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Giraldo, Margarita; Tirado, Victoria; Ramírez, Dora L; Tariot, Pierre N; Dickerson, Bradford C; Sperling, Reisa A; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M
Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation-carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellín, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding-dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task-related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were -0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and -0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation-carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior
Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung
High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels.
Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon
Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). Results The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. Conclusion High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels. PMID:25553275
Andrykowski, Michael A.; Pavlik, Edward J.
All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow-up. Consequently, the cancer screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioral response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the Social Cognitive Processing and Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n=278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit-finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events. PMID:20419561
Hannon, Judith L
The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khakimov, N; Khasanova, G; Ershova, K; Gibadullina, L; Vetkina, T; Lobisheva, G; Chumakova, A
The relevance of the problem of colorectal cancer (CRC) is evident because of extremely high morbidity and mortality rates, associated with this disease. CRC is mostly diagnosed only at very advanced stages. The reduction of mortality can be achieved by the popularization of screening-methods for early identification of CRC and adenomatous polyps of the colon, which are proved to be precancerous condition. Fecal occult blood test is a well-known method of screening for CRC. The advantages of this method when compared, for example, with colonoscopy are its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.Two techniques are usually used for detection of occult blood in the stool: Hemoccult (Guaiac) test and immunochemical test for hemoglobin. There is no consensus among researchers regarding the validity of these tests for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. For example, J.S. Mandel (1996) notes 60% sensitivity of Guaiac-test for the detection of the early forms of colorectal cancer, while O.I. Kit (2014) suggets that it is not higher than 30%. There are also various opinions about specificity of these two tests. To review the literature on the validity of the fecal occult blood tests for the diagnosis of CRC. We looked for articles (electronic versions) available for free in the full-text versions, published from June 1, 1990 to December 31, 2014 in Russian or English. The following databases were used for search: E-LIBRARY; Cochrane; MEDLINE; EMBASE; Google search. Only original research papers were analyzed. Literature reviews or systematic reviews were not taken for analyses. 1) use of Guaiac and/or immunochemical fecal occult blood test as screening-tests for the detection of colorectal cancer and/or colon polyps (1 cm or more in diameter) in people older than 45 years; 2) comparing of results with the results of colonoscopy (colonoscopy is counted by majority of the authors as a "gold standard" for the diagnosis of CRC and adenomatous polyps). Initial keyword search returned
Chodzyński, Kamil Jerzy; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Lalmand, Jacques; Aminian, Adel; Vanhamme, Luc; de Sousa, Daniel Ribeiro; Gremmo, Simone; Bricteux, Laurent; Renotte, Christine; Courbebaisse, Guy; Coussement, Grégory
It is a known fact that blood flow pattern and more specifically the pulsatile time variation of shear stress on the vascular wall play a key role in atherogenesis. The paper presents the conception, the building and the control of a new in vitro test bench that mimics the pulsatile flows behavior based on in vivo measurements. An in vitro cardiovascular simulator is alimented with in vivo constraints upstream and provided with further post-processing analysis downstream in order to mimic the pulsatile in vivo blood flow quantities. This real-time controlled system is designed to perform real pulsatile in vivo blood flow signals to study endothelial cells' behavior under near physiological environment. The system is based on an internal model controller and a proportional-integral controller that controls a linear motor with customized piston pump, two proportional-integral controllers that control the mean flow rate and temperature of the medium. This configuration enables to mimic any resulting blood flow rate patterns between 40 and 700 ml/min. In order to feed the system with reliable periodic flow quantities in vivo measurements were performed. Data from five patients (1 female, 4 males; ages 44-63) were filtered and post-processed using the Newtonian Womersley's solution. These resulting flow signals were compared with 2D axisymmetric, numerical simulation using a Carreau non-Newtonian model to validate the approximation of a Newtonian behavior. This in vitro test bench reproduces the measured flow rate time evolution and the complexity of in vivo hemodynamic signals within the accuracy of the relative error below 5%. This post-processing method is compatible with any real complex in vivo signal and demonstrates the heterogeneity of pulsatile patterns in coronary arteries among of different patients. The comparison between analytical and numerical solution demonstrate the fair quality of the Newtonian Womersley's approximation. Therefore, Womersley's solution
Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa
Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.
Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634
Simon, Melissa A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Randhawa, Veenu; John, Priya; Makoul, Gregory; Spring, Bonnie
Objectives To investigate provider and patient views about communication regarding cervical cancer screening follow-up. Methods Using qualitative analysis, we interviewed 20 providers and 10 patients from two urban clinics that serve low-income African American and Hispanic women. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups assessed familiarity with National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and reactions to a letter asking women with abnormal Pap test to telephone CIS. The letter suggested questions to ask prior to receiving follow-up. Results No patient or provider was familiar with CIS. Providers but not patients expressed discomfort with use of the word `cancer' in the letter and in CIS's name. Providers feared that reference to cancer would provoke fatalism and impede timely follow-up, whereas patients felt information about cancer risk was needed to prompt timely follow-up. Information providers found necessary to convey in order to accurately explain abnormal Pap tests surpassed patients' literacy levels. Conclusion Qualitative data suggest important gaps in perspective between providers and patients. There is a need to bridge the gap and overcome communication challenges to promote timely medical follow-up and have better health outcomes. Practice Implications Implications and strategies for improving patient-provider education and communication about abnormal pap test are discussed. PMID:20060255
During its 1972 session, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted Senate Bill 104, which authorizes the breath test, as well as the blood test used previously, as a proper chemical test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood. Any person arre...
Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.
Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by /sup 125/I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% ofmore » mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism.« less
Arlian, Larry G.; Feldmeier, Hermann; Morgan, Marjorie S.
Background Scabies afflicts millions of people worldwide, but it is very difficult to diagnose by the usual skin scrape test, and a presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical signs such as rash and intense itch. A sensitive and specific blood test to detect scabies would allow a physician to quickly make a correct diagnosis. Objective Our objective was to profile the mite-specific antibodies present in the sera of patients with ordinary scabies. Methods Sera of 91 patients were screened for Ig, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM antibodies to S. scabiei, as well as to the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. Results 45%, 27% and 2.2% of the patients had measurable amounts of mixed Ig, IgG and IgE that recognized scabies mite antigens. However, 73.6% of the scabies patients had serum IgM that recognized scabies proteins, and all except two of them also had IgM that recognized all of the three species of dust mites. No patient had serum antibody exclusively reactive to scabies mite antigens. Conclusions Co-sensitization or cross-reactivity between antigens from scabies and house dust mites confounds developing a blood test for scabies. PMID:26492406
Arlian, Larry G; Feldmeier, Hermann; Morgan, Marjorie S
Scabies afflicts millions of people worldwide, but it is very difficult to diagnose by the usual skin scrape test, and a presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical signs such as rash and intense itch. A sensitive and specific blood test to detect scabies would allow a physician to quickly make a correct diagnosis. Our objective was to profile the mite-specific antibodies present in the sera of patients with ordinary scabies. Sera of 91 patients were screened for Ig, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM antibodies to S. scabiei, as well as to the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. 45%, 27% and 2.2% of the patients had measurable amounts of mixed Ig, IgG and IgE that recognized scabies mite antigens. However, 73.6% of the scabies patients had serum IgM that recognized scabies proteins, and all except two of them also had IgM that recognized all of the three species of dust mites. No patient had serum antibody exclusively reactive to scabies mite antigens. Co-sensitization or cross-reactivity between antigens from scabies and house dust mites confounds developing a blood test for scabies.
Bokov, P; Delclaux, C
Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Marconi, Camila; Bellen, Gert
Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV) were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV. PMID:20953405
Donders, Gilbert G G; Marconi, Camila; Bellen, Gert
Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV) were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV.
Zachurzok-Buczynska, Agnieszka; Szydlowski, Leslaw; Gawlik, Aneta; Wilk, Krzysztof; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa
To assess the risk of cardiovascular disease on the basis of biochemical, echocardiographic, and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Academic and research institution. Thirty-four obese and nonobese girls with PCOS were evaluated and compared with body mass index-matched girls with regular menses. None. Androgens, gonadotropins, lipids, and fasting and oral glucose tolerance test-stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. Echocardiographic assessment and 24-hour BP monitoring were done. Compared with obese controls, obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher 24-hour mean BP, day mean BP, day diastolic BP, and diastolic BP nighttime dip (75.5 ± 4.5 mm Hg vs. 71.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; 78.2 ± 5.0 mm Hg vs. 73.6 ± 4.0 mm Hg; 67.6 ± 4.9 mm Hg vs. 63.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; and 20.2% ± 5.2% vs. 15.0% ± 6.6%, respectively). Obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher night heart rate than obese controls (60.4 ± 5.6 beats per minute vs. 61.7 ± 4.8 beats per minute). Left ventricle end-diastolic (4.6 ± 0.3 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 cm) and end-systolic diameter (3.0 ± 0.3 cm vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 cm) were also significantly higher in nonobese girls with PCOS than in nonobese controls; however, all values were still within the accepted range of normal limits. Higher night heart rate in obese girls with PCOS and higher day BP but preserved diastolic nocturnal dip in nonobese girls with PCOS may be regarded as early cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...
Kengne, Andre Pascal; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Levitt, Naomi S; Matsha, Tandi E
Accurate diabetes diagnosis is important in Africa, where rates are increasing, and the disease largely undiagnosed. The cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remains the reference standard, while alternative diagnostic methods are not yet established in Africans. We assessed the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and fructosamine, to diagnose OGTT-based abnormal glucose tolerance in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Mixed-ancestry adults, residing in Cape Town were examined between February and November 2015. OGTT values were used to classify glucose tolerance status as: screen-detected diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycaemia (combination of diabetes and prediabetes) and normal glucose tolerance. Of the 793 participants included, 65 (8.2%) had screen-detected diabetes, 157 (19.8%) prediabetes and 571 (72.0%) normal glucose tolerance. Correlations of FPG and 2-h glucose with HbA1c (r=0.51 and 0.52) were higher than those with fructosamine (0.34 and 0.30), both p<0.0001. The highest c-statistic for the prediction of abnormal glucose tolerance was recorded with 2-h glucose [c-statistic=0.997 (screen-detected diabetes), 0.979 (prediabetes) and 0.984 (dysglycaemia)] and the lowest with fructosamine (0.865, 0.596 and 0.677). At recommended or data-specific optimal cut-offs, no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine did better than 2-h glucose, while FPG was better than HbA1c and fructosamine on a range of performance measures. Abnormal glucose tolerance in this population is overwhelmingly expressed through 2-h glucose's abnormalities; and no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine was effective at accurately discriminating OGTT-defined abnormal glucose tolerance. Tested non-glucose based strategies are unreliable alternatives to OGTT for dysglycaemia diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Klein, Suelen Roberta; Santos da Silveira, Lucas; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig
The study objective was to determine a cut-off point for the Glittre activities of daily living (ADL)test (TGlittre) to discriminate patients with normal and abnormal functional capacity. Fifty-nine patients with moderate to very severe COPD (45 males; 65 ± 8.84 years; BMI: 26 ± 4.78 kg/m 2 ; FEV 1 : 35.3 ± 13.4% pred) were evaluated for spirometry, TGlittre, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), physical ADL, modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC), BODE index, Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off point for TGlittre in order to discriminate patients with 6 MWT < 82% pred. The ROC curve indicated a cut-off point of 3.5 minutes for the TGlittre (sensitivity = 92%, specificity = 83%, and area under the ROC curve = 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-0.99]). Patients with abnormal functional capacity had higher mMRC (median difference 1 point), CAT (mean difference: 4.5 points), SGRQ (mean difference: 12.1 points), and BODE (1.37 points) scores, longer time of physical activity <1.5 metabolic equivalent of task (mean difference: 47.9 minutes) and in sitting position (mean difference: 59.4 minutes) and smaller number of steps (mean difference: 1,549 minutes); p < 0.05 for all. In conclusion, the cut-off point of 3.5 minutes in the TGlittre is sensitive and specific to distinguish COPD patients with abnormal and normal functional capacity.
Effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in the pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (a STROBE-compliant article).
Zhou, Jian-Li; Xing, Jun; Liu, Cong-Hui; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Nan-Nan; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Shao, Ting
With the improvement of living standard, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) incidence is increasing every year. We observed the effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in GDM.A total of 144 newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with GDM and received prenatal examination and childbirth in our hospital from October 2015 to April 2016, were observed in this study. Pregnant women underwent 75 g OGTT and the blood glucose level was recorded on an empty stomach, as well as postprandial 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Based on the frequency of 75 g OGTT-abnormal time points, the pregnant women were divided into group 1 (OGTT abnormality at 1 time point), group 2 (OGTT abnormality at 2 time points), and group 3 (OGTT abnormality at 3 time points). Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was performed on the 3 groups, respectively.In the total score of NBNA, there was a significant difference among the 3 groups (F = 17.120, P = .000), and there were significant differences between the 3 groups (all P < .05). The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3, and the incidence of macrosomia was significantly lower in groups 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (all P < .05). In the 144 newborns, NBNA scoring was significantly lower in the newborns with hypoglycemia than in the newborns with normal blood glucose level, and in macrosomia than in the newborns with normal body weight (all P < .01).With the increase of OGTT-abnormal time points in the pregnant women with GDM, the incidences of neonatal hypoglycemia and macrosomia rise and neonatal NBNA score decreases. Therefore, reasonable measures should be adopted as early as possible to prevent poor prognosis in the pregnant women with GDM.
Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan
Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit
Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lilford, Richard J; Bentham, Louise M; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James; Girling, Alan J
Evaluation of predictive value of liver function tests (LFTs) for the detection of liver-related disease in primary care. A prospective observational study. 11 UK primary care practices. Patients (n=1290) with an abnormal eight-panel LFT (but no previously diagnosed liver disease). Patients were investigated by recording clinical features, and repeating LFTs, specific tests for individual liver diseases, and abdominal ultrasound scan. Patients were characterised as having: hepatocellular disease; biliary disease; tumours of the hepato-biliary system and none of the above. The relationship between LFT results and disease categories was evaluated by stepwise regression and logistic discrimination, with adjustment for demographic and clinical factors. True and False Positives generated by all possible LFT combinations were compared with a view towards optimising the choice of analytes in the routine LFT panel. Regression methods showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was associated with hepatocellular disease (32 patients), while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was associated with biliary disease (12 patients) and tumours of the hepatobiliary system (9 patients). A restricted panel of ALT and ALP was an efficient choice of analytes, comparing favourably with the complete panel of eight analytes, provided that 48 False Positives can be tolerated to obtain one additional True Positive. Repeating a complete panel in response to an abnormal reading is not the optimal strategy. The LFT panel can be restricted to ALT and ALP when the purpose of testing is to exclude liver disease in primary care.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...
Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.
... BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea ... Jan 30]; 4(2):223–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3516645 Mayo ...
Hemoccult® test kits were used to detect the remnants of blood meals in stable flies. The strips were able to detect remnants of blood meals in > 90% of the stable flies up to 8 days after blood feeding. This can be compared with detecting blood in the gut visually which was possible in less than 5%...
Vicente-Herrero, M T; Capdevila-García, L; Bellido-Cambrón, M C; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Lladosa-Marco, S
OSAHS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Arterial hypertension is a key risk factor to consider due to its impact on health. Cross-sectional study carried out on Spanish public service workers. The nocturnal apnoea risk using the Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires and their influence on the mean values of blood pressure are assessed. The detection of OSAHS using the Epworth test and, particularly with the STOP-Bang shows a significant relationship with the mean values of blood pressure, with differences between both questionnaires. The Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires are useful for the initial detection of OSAHS and a higher prevalence of high blood pressure. Both can be used in screening procedures in occupational health. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...
Green, L; Allard, S; Cardigan, R
The clinical practice of blood transfusion has changed considerably over the last few decades. The potential risk of transfusion transmissible diseases has directed efforts towards the production of safe and high quality blood. All transfusion services now operate in an environment of ever-increasing regulatory controls encompassing all aspects of blood collection, processing and storage. Stringent donor selection, identification of pathogens that can be transmitted through blood, and development of technologies that can enhance the quality of blood, have all led to a substantial reduction in potential risks and complications associated with blood transfusion. In this article, we will discuss the current standards required for the manufacture of blood, starting from blood collection, through processing and on to storage. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens
To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Lau, T K; Cheung, S W; Lo, P S S; Pursley, A N; Chan, M K; Jiang, F; Zhang, H; Wang, W; Jong, L F J; Yuen, O K C; Chan, H Y C; Chan, W S K; Choy, K W
To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA at a single center. The NIPT result and pregnancy outcome of 1982 consecutive cases were reviewed. NIPT was based on low coverage (0.1×) whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. All subjects were contacted for pregnancy and fetal outcome. Of the 1982 NIPT tests, a repeat blood sample was required in 23 (1.16%). In one case, a conclusive report could not be issued, probably because of an abnormal vanished twin fetus. NIPT was positive for common trisomies in 29 cases (23 were trisomy 21, four were trisomy 18 and two were trisomy 13); all were confirmed by prenatal karyotyping (specificity=100%). In addition, 11 cases were positive for sex-chromosomal abnormalities (SCA), and nine cases were positive for other aneuploidies or deletion/duplication. Fourteen of these 20 subjects agreed to undergo further investigations, and the abnormality was found to be of fetal origin in seven, confined placental mosaicism (CPM) in four, of maternal origin in two and not confirmed in one. Overall, 85.7% of the NIPT-suspected SCA were of fetal origin, and 66.7% of the other abnormalities were caused by CPM. Two of the six cases suspected or confirmed to have CPM were complicated by early-onset growth restriction requiring delivery before 34 weeks. Fetal outcome of the NIPT-negative cases was ascertained in 1645 (85.15%). Three chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by NIPT, including one case each of a balanced translocation, unbalanced translocation and triploidy. There were no known false negatives involving the common trisomies (sensitivity=100%). Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA was highly accurate in detecting common trisomies. It also enabled the detection of other aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities with high positive predictive value. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons
Ziegler, Luke A; Olia, Salim E; Kameneva, Marina V
Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects. To address these limitations, we propose a 6.5 mL reduced volume RBT and corresponding modified MFI (MMFI) that does not require prior Ht adjustment. This new method was assessed for i) correlation to the existing text, ii) to quantify the effect of Ht on MFI, and iii) validation by reexamining the protective effect of plasma proteins on RBC MF. The reduced volume RBT strongly correlated (r = 0.941) with the established large volume RBT at matched Hts, and an equation was developed to calculate MMFI: a numerical estimation (R 2 = 0.923) of MFI if performed with the reduced volume RBT at "standard" (40%) Ht. An inversely proportional relationship was found between plasma protein concentration and RBC MF using the MMFI-reduced volume method, supporting previous literature findings. The new reduced volume RBT and modified MFI will allow for the measurement of RBC MF in clinical and preclinical studies involving humans or small animals. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parazzi, Paloma Lopes Francisco; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; de Almeida, Celize Cruz Bresciani; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Schivinski, Camila Isabel Santos; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu
Exercise has been studied as a prognostic marker for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as a tool for improving their quality of life and analyzing lung disease. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare variables of lung functioning. Our data included: (i) volumetric capnography (VCAP) parameters: expiratory minute volume (VE), volume of exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2), VE/VCO2, ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2); (ii) spirometry parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), percent forced expiratory volume in the first second of the FVC (FEV1%), and FEV1/FVC%; and (iii) cardiorespiratory parameters: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and Borg scale rating at rest and during exercise. The subjects comprised children, adolescents, and young adults aged 6-25 years with CF (CF group [CFG]) and without CF (control group [CG]). This was a clinical, prospective, controlled study involving 128 male and female patients (64 with CF) of a university hospital. All patients underwent treadmill exercise tests and provided informed consent after study approval by the institutional ethics committee. Linear regression, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney test were performed to compare the CFG and CG. The α value was set at 0.05. Patients in the CFG showed significantly different VCAP values and spirometry variables throughout the exercise test. Before, during, and after exercise, several variables were different between the two groups; statistically significant differences were seen in the spirometry parameters, SpO2, HR, VCO2, VE/VCO2, PetCO2, and Borg scale rating. VCAP variables changed at each time point analyzed during the exercise test in both groups. VCAP can be used to analyze ventilatory parameters during exercise. All cardiorespiratory, spirometry, and VCAP variables differed between patients in the CFG and CG before, during, and after exercise.
Castillo, Inmaculada; Pardo, Margarita; Bartolomé, Javier; Ortiz-Movilla, Nuria; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; de Lucas, Susana; Salas, Clara; Jiménez-Heffernan, Jose A; Pérez-Mota, Arturo; Graus, Javier; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Carreño, Vicente
There are patients in whom the etiology of long-standing abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown (ALF-EU) after exclusion of all known causes of liver diseases. We analyzed the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in liver-biopsy specimens from 100 patients who were negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA and who had ALF-EU. HCV RNA status was tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization, in liver and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HCV RNA was detected in liver-biopsy specimens from 57 of 100 patients negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA (i.e., who had occult HCV infection). HCV RNA of negative polarity was found in the liver of 48 (84.2%) of these 57 patients with occult HCV infection. Nucleotide-sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of detection of HCV RNA and that patients were infected with the HCV 1b genotype. Of these 57 patients with intrahepatic HCV RNA, 40 (70%) had viral RNA in their PBMCs. With regard to liver histology, patients with occult HCV infection were more likely to have necroinflammatory activity (P=.017) and fibrosis (P=.022) than were patients without intrahepatic HCV RNA. Patients with ALF-EU may have intrahepatic HCV RNA in the absence of anti-HCV antibodies and of serum HCV RNA.
To determine the importance of various factors on the decisions whether to terminate or continue a pregnancy after an abnormal result. The decisions of 1467 women who had an abnormal result after an invasive prenatal test were examined according to their religion, the time of diagnosis and the severity of the disorder. When the examinations were performed by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) among both Jews and non-Jews most of the women opted to terminate the affected pregnancy. After amniocentesis the rate of termination of pregnancy was still very high among cases in which Down syndrome or other significant chromosomal aberrations were diagnosed among Jews. For all the other diagnostic groups either among Jews or non-Jews there was a significant proportion of the cases in which the women decided to continue the pregnancy. A significant exception about the decisions of the couples was in the case of hemoglobinopathy-affected pregnancies among Arabs since both after CVS and amniocentesis many women often decided to continue the pregnancy. The main factor in the decision to terminate or continue the pregnancy is the severity of the disorder diagnosed. However, among Arabs other factors are important, in particular the time at which the diagnosis is made. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample collection; 9 FSIS also has equipment...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample...
or sickle cell traits, an approximate 8.6% misidentification of blood type is thought to have occurred, further indicating the importance of thorough...Military Medicine. 149:55-62. o. Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Gathwohl KW et al. (2007) Risks Associated with Fresh Whole Blood and Red Blood Cell ...administering trauma care in theater, tested packed red blood cells (PRBC) are the only blood component therapy available to the Forward Surgical Team
Daft, Barbara M; Barr, Bradd C; Gardner, Ian A; Read, Deryck; Bell, William; Peyser, Karen G; Ardans, Alex; Kinde, Hailu; Morrow, Jennifer K
To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.
Goncalez, Thelma; Sabino, Ester; Sales, Nanci; Chen, Yea-Hung; Chamone, Dalton; Busch, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Custer, Brian; McFarland, Willi
Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors are excluded from donation to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Persons donating to be tested for HIV may therefore deny risk behaviors. A random sample of donors completed a survey on motivations, knowledge, and attitudes on the screening process. Donors were considered test seekers if they agreed with two statements "I think that blood donation is a good, fast, and anonymous way to get my blood tested" and "I donate to get my test results." This study was conducted from June to November 2006 at the largest blood bank in São Paulo, Brazil. Of 3061 participants, 208 (7%) were test seekers. They tended to be male and had a lower educational level. They were more likely to have incorrect knowledge about blood safety (e.g., not knowing that a unit can test antibody negative and still transmit infection, 50% vs. 42%, p = 0.02), express dissatisfaction with screening questions (e.g., feeling that important questions were not asked, 14% vs. 5%, p < 0.01), and concur that donors do not answer questions truthfully (e.g., donors have more sexual partners than they admit, 29% vs. 18%, p < 0.01). Test seekers were more likely to believe that it is acceptable to donate blood to get tested for HIV (41% vs. 10%, p < 0.01). Test-seeking motivation, coupled with low knowledge of window period risk, is counter to improving blood safety and to donor prevention needs. Donor education needs to be improved along with availability of appropriate HIV counseling and testing. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T
HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.
The virtues of screening men for prostate cancer continue to be debated in political and public health, as well as clinical forums. Science has been unable to accurately predict screening benefits, yet many men are required to make informed decisions about prostate cancer screening. Clinicians' screening practices have been reported, but little research attention has been given to patients' experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' perspectives of being screened and subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer. Thirty-five Anglo-Australian men were interviewed, and the data were analyzed using ethnographic content analysis. The findings indicated that most participants experienced screening as a continuum of 3 tests, rather than the simple prostate-specific antigen blood test they had often anticipated. Commitment to a definitive diagnosis when abnormality was detected through screening and uptake of active treatment(s) when prostate cancer was confirmed were strongly represented in this study. The findings offer insight to the complex and often rapid sequence of events that can accompany prostate cancer screening. This has implications for the information that needs to be discussed with men before, rather than after prostate cancer screening has commenced.
... if you get hurt, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding. After the bleeding stops ... some people get too many clots or their blood clots abnormally. Many conditions can cause the blood to ...
Takeichi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Masaharu; Iida, Shozo; Tanaka, Kimio; Harada, Yuka; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Noso, Yoshihiro; Inaba, Toshiya; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru
Chromosomal studies in peripheral lymphocytes from 63 residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, at ages of 52-63 years old, were performed in 2001-2002. A higher rate of chromosome aberrations was observed in the two contaminated villages, Dolon and Sarjal, compared with the control village, Kokpekti. Moreover, a relationship of frequency of cells with radiation induced chromosome aberrations and the previously estimated exposure dose was observed. Furthermore, apparent nuclear abnormalities (ANA) of thyroid follicular cells were studied in 30 out of 63 residents, who were examined for chromosome aberrations. A higher rate of ANA was also found in the residents in the exposed villages compared with those in the control village. These results suggest radiation effects both on the chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes and on the follicular cells in the thyroid.
Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred
Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009
Carson, Michael P; Morgan, Benjamin; Gussman, Debra; Brown, Monica; Rothenberg, Karen; Wisner, Theresa A
Over 70% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will develop diabetes mellitus (DM), but only 30% follow through with the recommended postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). HbA1c is approved to diagnose DM, and combined with a fasting plasma glucose it can identify 93% of patients with dysglycemia. We tested the hypothesis that a single blood draw to assess for dysglycemia at the postpartum visit could improve testing rates compared with those required to obtain an OGTT at an outside laboratory. Prospective cohort study of all women with GDM who delivered between July 2010 and December 2011. When insurance status required testing at an outside laboratory an OGTT was ordered, when insurance allowed testing at our center a random sugar and HbA1c were drawn at the postpartum visit (SUGAR Protocol). Of the 40 women, 36 attended a postpartum visit. In the SUGAR arm, 19 of 19 (100%) were tested versus 9 of 17 (53%) in the OGTT arm; relative risk of testing was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). 36% were glucose intolerant. This pilot study found that an in-office testing model doubled the rate of postpartum testing in this clinic population, and was reasonably sensitive at detecting dysglycemia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
... your lungs and to the rest of your body Hematocrit , a measurement of how much of your blood is made ... Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Your Guide to Anemia; [cited ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Count ...
Halfon, Philippe; Bacq, Yannick; De Muret, Anne; Penaranda, Guillaume; Bourliere, Marc; Ouzan, Denis; Tran, Albert; Botta, Danielle; Renou, Christophe; Bréchot, Marie-Claude; Degott, Claude; Paradis, Valérie
We evaluated the test performance profile (TPP) of blood tests of liver fibrosis. Three hundred and fifty-six patients with C chronic hepatitis were included in two centers. Metavir staging of liver specimens by two independent pathologists and the following tests were evaluated: Fibrotest (FT), APRI, FibroMeter (FM), and Hepascore (HS). Metavir stages were: F0: 4%, F1: 55%, F2: 26%, F3: 11%, and F4: 4%. The AUROCs were not significantly different, respectively, FT, FM, APRI, HS: >or=F2: 0.79, 0.78, 0.76, >or=0.76; F3: 0.81, 0.85, 0.81, 0.81; and F4: 0.86, 0.94, 0.92, 0.89. The TPP relies on the paired comparison of blood-test misclassification based on liver specimen, e.g. FT vs FM, respectively: F0+1: 18 vs 28% (p=0.0003), >or=F2: 43 vs 31% (p=0.004). There was no center effect. In those populations, the four blood tests had a similar performance for significant fibrosis (F>or=2), lying in the lower range of published results which is attributable to a low >or=F2 prevalence, and for >or=F3 and F4. However, FM and FT had performance profiles significantly different as a function of fibrosis stages or diagnostic target (fibrosis cut-off). This has to be considered during the interpretation process. Moreover, the performance should be reported with different diagnostic targets.
Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita
In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our
Pettus, Jeremy; Stenger, Patricia; Schachner, Holly C; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee; Pardo, Scott; Edelman, Steven V
To assess differences between estimated blood glucose values and those measured on a blood glucose meter and the impact on self-care behavior in type 2 diabetes. Subjects ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes (N = 297) attending a Taking Control of Your Diabetes conference were asked questions about diabetes management and to estimate their current blood glucose. Study staff tested subjects' blood glucose on a meter. After seeing the result, subjects were again asked questions on diabetes management. NCT01453413. The percentage of subject blood glucose estimations that were outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria (>±15 mg/dL or >±20% of meter glucose values). Nearly half (46%) of subjects estimated blood glucose values outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria. Time since last blood glucose test, time since last meal, testing frequency, and A1C did not have an effect on differences between estimated blood glucose values and meter results. In the questionnaire before blood glucose testing, most subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'I make decisions about my diabetes, such as my food intake or my insulin dose even when I do not test my blood sugar' (71%) and 'My body tells me without testing if my blood sugar is low or high' (77%). After blood glucose testing, 99% of subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'Knowing my blood sugar by checking could help me make different diabetes decisions'. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an important component of diabetes self-management. Testing rather than guessing blood glucose values is important to obtain accurate results and inform people with type 2 diabetes to make effective, appropriate diabetes management decisions. A potential limitation of this study is that the subject population may not be representative of the general population of people with diabetes; however, the conference setting may attract a more motivated population, which could
Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Ballard, Emma L; Scalia, Gregory M
The blood pressure response to exercise has been described as a significant increase in systolic BP (sBP) with a smaller change in diastolic BP (dBP). This has been documented in small numbers, in healthy young men or in ethnic populations. This study examines these changes in low to intermediate risk of myocardial ischaemia in men and women over a wide age range. Consecutive patients having stress echocardiography were analysed. Ischaemic tests were excluded. Manual BP was estimated before and during standard Bruce protocol treadmill testing. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and resting and peak exercise BP were recorded. 3200 patients (mean age 58±12years) were included with 1123 (35%) females, and 2077 males, age range 18 to 93 years. Systolic BP increased from 125±17mmHg to 176±23mmHg. The change in sBP (ΔsBP) was 51mmHg (95% CI 51,52). The ΔdBP was 1mmHg (95% CI 1, 1), from 77 to 78mmHg, p<0.001). The upper limit of normal peak exercise sBP (determined by the 90th percentile) was 210mmHg in males and 200mmHg in females. The upper limit of normal ΔsBP was 80mmHg in males and 70mmHg in females. The lower limit of normal ΔsBP was 30mmHg in males and 20mmHg in females. In this large cohort, sBP increased significantly with exercise. Males had on average higher values than females. Similar changes were seen with the ΔsBP. The upper limit of normal for peak exercise sBP and ΔsBP are reported by age and gender. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.
Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L; Post, Douglas M; Pennell, Michael L; Young, Gregory S; Seiber, Eric E; Harrop, J Phil; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Tatum, Cathy M; Dean, Julie A; Murray, David M
Patient navigation (PN) has been suggested as a way to reduce cancer health disparities; however, many models of PN exist and most have not been carefully evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the Ohio American Cancer Society model of PN as it relates to reducing time to diagnostic resolution among persons with abnormal breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening tests or symptoms. A total of 862 patients from 18 clinics participated in this group-randomized trial. Chart review documented the date of the abnormality and the date of resolution. The primary analysis used shared frailty models to test for the effect of PN on time to resolution. Crude HR were reported as there was no evidence of confounding. HRs became significant at 6 months; conditional on the random clinic effect, the resolution rate at 15 months was 65% higher in the PN arm (P = 0.012 for difference in resolution rate across arms; P = 0.009 for an increase in the HR over time). Participants with abnormal cancer screening tests or symptoms resolved faster if assigned to PN compared with those not assigned to PN. The effect of PN became apparent beginning six months after detection of the abnormality. PN may help address health disparities by reducing time to resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test. 2012 AACR
Chou, Min Min; Kung, Hsiao Fan; Hwang, Jen I; Chen, Wei Chi; Tseng, Jenn Jhy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of temporary prophylactic intravascular balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries (CIA) before planned cesarean hysterectomy for controlling operative blood loss in abnormal placentation. A retrospective study of 13 pregnant women at risk for placenta accreta identified using sequential obstetric ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging from January 2007 to December 2009 was performed. Temporary prophylactic intravascular balloon catheterization of the bilateral CIA before cesarean hysterectomy was performed by interventional radiologists. The maximum duration of occlusion time of CIA must not exceed 60 minutes. The primary outcome for this study included estimated blood loss and secondary outcomes included the development of thromboembolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation and surgical complications. Among these 13 patients, the mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 0.7 years (range 29-37 years). The mean gestational age at cesarean hysterectomy was 32.2 ± 0.9 weeks (range 28-36 weeks), and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 1902.3 ± 578.8 mL (range 500-8000 mL). Operative bleeding was controlled by conservative treatment without additional surgery in two cases. Importantly, two patients (15.8%) had severe complications possibly related to the interventional procedure. One patient was noted to have a popliteal artery thrombosis. A second patient had an external iliac artery thrombosis with 80-90% occlusion. Both patients required antithrombotic treatment without sequelae. With limited experience in this small series, we observed a statistically significant reduction in operative blood loss after the use of temporary prophylactic balloon occlusion of the CIA technique compared with historical controls of similar demographic characteristics previously published (1902.3 ± 578.8 mL, range 500-8000 mL vs. 4445.7 ± 996.48 mL, range 1040-15,000 mL, p = 0.0402). Additionally, two
Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.
The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.
Barkai, L; Soós, A; Vámosi, I
To assess the distribution of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and to evaluate the association between ACE genotype and blood pressure (BP). ACE genotypes were assessed in 124 normoalbuminuric, clinically normotensive Type 1 diabetic children and adolescents and 120 non-diabetic controls using polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was undertaken in all patients. ACE genotypes distributed in patients as follows: 34 (27%) DD, 57 (46%) ID, 33 (27%) II. The distribution was similar in the control group: DD in 28% (33), ID in 45% (54), and II in 27% (33). Patients with DD genotype had higher mean 24-h diastolic BP (73.8 +/- 6.2 vs. 70.2 +/- 5.0 and 69.7 +/- 6.3 mmHg; P = 0.005) and lower diurnal variation in BP (11.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 14.2 +/- 4.2 and 14.8 +/- 4.3%; P = 0.011) compared with ID and II groups. Four patients in the DD group proved to be non-dipper compared with one in the ID and none in the II group (P = 0.026). Twenty-four-hour diastolic blood pressure was independently predictive for AER as dependent variable in the DD genotype patient group (r(2) = 0.12, P = 0.03). Children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes do not differ from the non-diabetic population regarding the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene. ACE gene polymorphism is associated with BP abnormalities in normotensive and normoalbuminuric children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.
Jia, Qing; Brown, Michael J; Clifford, Leanne; Wilson, Gregory A; Truty, Mark J; Stubbs, James R; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Gajic, Ognjen; Kor, Daryl J
Perioperative haemorrhage negatively affects patient outcomes and results in substantial consumption of health-care resources. Plasma transfusions are often administered to address abnormal preoperative coagulation tests, with the hope to mitigate bleeding complications. We aimed to assess the associations between preoperative plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in patients with elevated international normalised ratio (INR) undergoing non-cardiac surgery. We did an observational study in a consecutive sample of adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery with preoperative INR greater than or equal to 1·5. The exposure of interest was transfusion of preoperative plasma for elevated INR. The primary outcome was WHO grade 3 bleeding in the early perioperative period (from entry into the operating room until 24 h following exit from operating room). Hypotheses were tested with univariate and propensity-matched analyses. We did multiple sensitivity analyses to further evaluate the robustness of study findings. Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2011, we identified 1234 (8·4%) of 14 743 patients who had an INR of 1·5 or above and were included in this investigation. Of 1234 study participants, 139 (11%) received a preoperative plasma transfusion. WHO grade 3 bleeding occurred in 73 (53%) of 139 patients who received preoperative plasma compared with 350 (32%) of 1095 patients who did not (odds ratio [OR] 2·35, 95% CI 1·65-3·36; p<0·0001). Among the propensity-matched cohort, 65 (52%) of 125 plasma recipients had WHO grade 3 bleeding compared with 97 (40%) of 242 of those who did not receive preoperative plasma (OR 1·75, 95% CI 1·09-2·81; p=0·021). Results from multiple sensitivity analyses were qualitatively similar. Preoperative plasma transfusion for elevated international normalised ratios was associated with an increased frequency of perioperative bleeding complications. Findings were robust in the sensitivity analyses, suggestive that more
Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Burgess, Alison; Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo
To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease ( AD Alzheimer disease ), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound-treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Repeated MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of AD Alzheimer disease . The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal plasticity. © RSNA, 2014.
Gil, M M; Quezada, M S; Bregant, B; Ferraro, M; Nicolaides, K H
To explore the feasibility of routine maternal blood cell-free (cf) DNA testing in screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 at 10 weeks' gestation. In this prospective study, women attending The Fetal Medicine Centre in London, UK, between October 2012 and April 2013, with singleton pregnancy and live fetus with CRL 32-45 mm, were screened for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by cfDNA testing at 10 weeks and the combined test at 12 weeks. cfDNA testing was performed in 1005 singleton pregnancies with a median maternal age of 37 (range, 20-49) years. Risks for trisomies were provided for 957 (95.2%) cases and in 98.0% these were available within 14 days from sampling. In 48 (4.8%) cases no result was provided due to problems with delivery to the laboratory, low fetal fraction or assay failure. Repeat sampling was performed in 40 cases and a result obtained in 27 (67.5%) of these. In 11 cases the risk score for trisomy 21 and in five cases that for trisomy 18 was > 99%, in one the risk for trisomy 13 was 34% and in 968 the risk for each of the three trisomies was < 0.01%. The suspected trisomies were confirmed by karyotyping after chorionic villus sampling (CVS), except in one case of trisomy 18 in which the karyotype was normal. On the basis of the maternal age distribution of the study population, the expected and observed numbers for each of the three trisomies were similar. Both cfDNA and combined testing detected all trisomies, but the estimated false-positive rates (FPR) were 0.1% and 3.4%, respectively. Routine screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by cfDNA testing at 10 weeks is feasible and has a lower FPR than does combined testing, but abnormal results require confirmation by CVS. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin; Jones, Cissi
To compare women who recall being informed of an abnormal Pap to those not having this experience relative to attitudes and beliefs pertaining to screening for cervical cancer. Four hundred women were recruited from eight rural Appalachian counties, in 2013 and 2014. Women completed a paper-and-pencil survey after providing written informed consent. Bivariate associations and age-adjusted associations were calculated between the self-reported experience of being told of an abnormal Pap test result and eight attitudes/beliefs relative to the prevention of cervical cancer. Data analyses were performed in 2014. The mean age was 40.2 years (range 30-64 years). Eighteen women chose not to answer the question asking about ever having an abnormal Pap test result, leaving n = 382. Of the 382 women who did answer, 122 (30.6 %) indicated having an abnormal Pap test result and the remaining 260 (65.2 %) indicated never having this experience. With the exception of one item assessing knowledge that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer, between-group differences in attitudes, beliefs, and intent to have a Pap test the next time one is due were not observed. Although we hypothesized that women ever having an abnormal Pap test may have actively sought to learn more about cervical cancer and its prevention, findings suggest that this is not the case. Informing women of an abnormal result could be coupled with a high-intensity counseling designed to improve attitudes and beliefs relative to women's role in protecting themselves from cervical cancer.
Peeters, Bart; Geerts, Inge; Van Mullem, Mia; Micalessi, Isabel; Saegeman, Veroniek; Moerman, Jan
Many hospitals opt for early postnatal discharge of newborns with a potential risk of readmission for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Assays/algorithms with the possibility to improve prediction of significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are needed to optimize screening protocols and safe discharge of neonates. This study investigated the predictive value of umbilical cord blood (UCB) testing for significant hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal UCB bilirubin, UCB direct antiglobulin test (DAT), and blood group were determined, as well as the maternal blood group and the red blood cell antibody status. Moreover, in newborns with clinically apparent jaundice after visual assessment, plasma total bilirubin (TB) was measured. Clinical factors positively associated with UCB bilirubin were ABO incompatibility, positive DAT, presence of maternal red cell antibodies, alarming visual assessment and significant hyperbilirubinemia in the first 6 days of life. UCB bilirubin performed clinically well with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.80-0.84). The combined UCB bilirubin, DAT, and blood group analysis outperformed results of these parameters considered separately to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia and correlated exponentially with hyperbilirubinemia post-test probability. Post-test probabilities for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can be calculated using exponential functions defined by UCB bilirubin, DAT, and ABO compatibility results. • The diagnostic value of the triad umbilical cord blood bilirubin measurement, direct antiglobulin testing and blood group analysis for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains unclear in literature. • Currently no guideline recommends screening for hyperbilirubinemia using umbilical cord blood. What is New: • Post-test probability for hyperbilirubinemia correlated exponentially with umbilical cord blood bilirubin in different risk groups defined by direct antiglobulin test and ABO blood group
A high-sensitivity blood test, known as a troponin test, could predict the risk of heart attack and death and patients' response to statins, say researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
De Smet, Delphine; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Verplaetse, Jan
Research indicating the effects of real blood or of its iconic representation on human behaviour has thus far concentrated on phobia and aggressiveness. Little is known about other responses or, more fundamentally, about the biological basis of all such responses. In this study it is examined whether or not humans are able to detect real blood. Human subjects (n = 89) were asked to distinguish different kinds of blood from red control fluids under varying visual and choice conditions. Relevant differences between subjects were tested for through written questionnaires, including standardized scales for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and blood phobia (MBPI) and performance on two clinical olfactory tests. Analysis of variance shows that humans are excellent detectors of animal blood (in casu pig blood), whereas the ability of detecting human blood is much less developed. Surprisingly, differences in olfactory capacities and personal experience with blood have no effect on blood detection, while blood fear lowers and disgust sensitivity ameliorates this performance. This study allows further mapping of the exact role of disgust sensitivity in human behaviour, as well as a deliberate choice of materials in blood-related experiments. It is imperative for further research on the behavioural and psychological impact 'blood' resorts on humans.
... from which plasma is separated for the preparation of Cryoprecipitated AHF shall be tested as... obtained from plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and record-keeping responsibilities...
... from which plasma is separated for the preparation of Cryoprecipitated AHF shall be tested as... obtained from plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and record-keeping responsibilities...
... from which plasma is separated for the preparation of Cryoprecipitated AHF shall be tested as... obtained from plasma collected by plasmapheresis shall have testing and record-keeping responsibilities...
Robinson, N; Giraud, S; Saudan, C; Baume, N; Avois, L; Mangin, P; Saugy, M
Objective and method To outline the direct and indirect approaches in the fight against blood doping in sports, the different strategies that have been used and are currently being used to fight efficiently against blood doping are presented and discussed. Results and conclusions The paper outlines the different approaches and diagnostic tools that some federations have to identify and target sportspeople demonstrating abnormal blood profiles. Originally blood tests were introduced for medical reasons and for limiting misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). In this way it became possible to prevent athletes with haematocrit levels well above normal, and potentially dangerous for their health, competing in sport. Today, with nearly a decade of blood testing experience, sports authorities should be familiar with some of the limitations and specially the ability of blood tests performed prior to competitions to fight efficiently against the misuse of rHuEPO, blood transfusion, and artificial haemoglobin. PMID:16799100
Chen, Fang; Dong, Rong Rong; Zhong, Kai Long; Ghosh, Arijit; Tang, Su Su; Long, Yan; Hu, Mei; Miao, Ming Xing; Liao, Jian Min; Sun, Hong Bing; Kong, Ling Yi; Hong, Hao
Previous studies have shown significant changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under diabetic conditions with hypoinsulinemia, which is involved in diabetes-associated cognitive impairment. Present study employed db/db mice with hyperinsulinemia to investigate changes in Aβ transport across the BBB, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restorative effects of antidiabetic drugs. Our results showed that db/db mice exhibited similar changes in Aβ transport across the BBB to that of insulin-deficient mice. Chronic treatment of db/db mice with antidiabetic drugs such as metformin, glibenclamide and insulin glargine significantly decreased Aβ influx across the BBB determined by intra-arterial infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) participating in Aβ influx. Insulin glargine, but not, metformin or glibenclamide increased Aβ efflux across the BBB determined by stereotaxic intra-cerebral infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) participating in Aβ efflux. Moreover, treatment with these drugs significantly decreased hippocampal Aβ(1-40) or Aβ(1-42) and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. The drugs also ameliorated memory impairment confirmed by improved performance on behavioral tasks. However, insulin glargine or glibenclamide, but not metformin, restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity characterized by enhancing in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP). Further study found that these three drugs significantly restrained NF-κB, but only insulin glargine enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activity at the BBB in db/db mice. Our data indicate that the antidiabetic drugs can partially restore abnormal Aβ transport across the BBB and memory impairment under diabetic context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joanna is now 16 weeks pregnant. She has been feeling particularly tired and her mum suggested that she might be anaemic. Louis is rather insulted as he prides himself on buying the best fresh ingredients from the local market, they love cooking and eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. Joanna had a full blood count taken by the community midwife who came to the flat to do her booking history. The midwife said that the surgery would contact her if she needed treatment for anaemia, but she hasn't heard anything yet.
Bertin, F R; Taylor, S D; Bianco, A W; Sojka-Kritchevsky, J E
Published descriptions of the oral sugar test (OST) and insulin response test (IRT) have been inconsistent when specifying the protocol for fasting horses before testing. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of fasting duration on blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration, glucose/insulin ratio, OST, and IRT results in horses. Ten healthy adult horses. Both OST and IRT were performed on horses without fasting and after fasting for 3, 6, and 12 hours. Thus, 8 tests were performed per horse in a randomized order. Blood collected at the initial time point of the OST was analysed for both blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations so that baseline concentrations and the glucose/insulin ratio could be determined. Unless fasted, horses had free-choice access to grass hay. There was no effect of fasting and fasting duration on blood glucose concentration, serum insulin concentration, glucose/insulin ratio, or the OST. Response to insulin in the IRT was decreased in fasted horses. The effect increased with fasting duration, with the least response to insulin administration after a 12-hour fast. These data indicate that insulin sensitivity is not a fixed trait in horses. Fasting a horse is not recommended for a glucose/insulin ratio or IRT, and fasting a horse for 3 hours is recommended for the OST. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Goldstein, Brittany N; Wesler, Jordan; Nowacki, Amy S; Reineks, Edmunds; Natowicz, Marvin R
An assessment of blood ammonia concentration is common medical practice in the evaluation of an individual with an unexplained mental status change or coma. The determination of a blood ammonia level is most commonly done using a glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)-based assay, although there are many potential sources of artifact and the literature is inconsistent regarding key preanalytic issues. Using a GLDH-based assay, we first investigated matrix effects using three anticoagulants: heparin, EDTA and oxalate. Heparin-anticoagulated plasma was substantially less precise than EDTA- and oxalate-anticoagulated plasma. Oxalate-anticoagulated plasma showed a greater baseline of apparent ammonia than either heparin- or EDTA-derived plasma, presumably due to interferants. We then evaluated the stability of EDTA-anticoagulated plasma for assessment of ammonia when stored at 4°C,-14°C or -70°C. There was a linear increase of ammonia with storage at both 4°C and -14°C. Plasma kept at -70°C for up to three weeks showed no change in measured ammonia relative to the baseline determination. This work clarifies preanalytic conditions for which a precise determination of ammonia can be accomplished using a GLDH-based assay. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werhun, Alexander; Hamilton, William
Diagnostic testing is increasing in primary care, including for thyroid disease. This study examined which clinical features were associated with an abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) result. This was a cross-sectional study in one general practice of 16,487 patients in Exeter, Devon, UK. We examined the primary care records relating to every TSH test taken in the year from August 2012, and extracted symptoms and/or the indication for testing. Associations with an abnormal result were tested using multivariable logistic regression. A cohort study was then performed of 100 patients newly recorded with each of the six features associated with an abnormal test result in the cross-sectional study, and the proportions tested for TSH and the results of that testing identified. Two thousand thirty-five patients (12% of the practice population) had TSH testing in the year. Of these 35 (1.7%) had a TSH >4.5 mIU/l, suggesting hypothyroidism, and 7 (0.3%) had TSH <0.01 mIu/l suggesting hyperthyroidism. Features associated with an abnormal TSH were: pregnancy, odds ratio 41 (95% confidence interval 9.3-180), constipation 9.7 (2.1-45), palpitations 23 (3.4-150), hair loss, 21 (2.0-230), weight gain, 18 (1.6-190) and diarrhoea, 13 (1.2-130); in separate analyses only pregnancy and constipation were associated with a raised TSH, and the remaining four features with a low TSH. The diagnostic yield of thyroid disease in this study was 2.1% suggests testing could be better targeted without missing diagnoses. The symptoms associated with thyroid disease differ from those generally reported. This may represent fewer patients presenting with advanced disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
activity found that only one device has been validated for ChE testing in the field: the Model 400 Test-mate™ ChE kit by EQM Research, Inc. (Cincinnati...OH). Suggested future modifications to the Model 400 Test-mate™ ChE kit include displaying/recording of acetyl-ChE activity uncorrected for...cholinesterase activity , that are routinely monitored by the Department of Defense (DoD). Within DoD, definitive cholinesterase testing is conducted by
Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Beecham, Brady D; Montgomery, Susan P; Lanciotti, Robert S; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Giachetti, Cristina; Pietrelli, Larry A; Stramer, Susan L; Safranek, Thomas J
A case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis associated with transfusion of blood that did not react when tested for WNV by minipool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) is described. A Nebraska man developed clinical encephalitis 13 days after surgery and transfusion of 26 blood components. Antibody testing confirmed WNV infection. An investigation was initiated to determine the source of this infection. The patient's family members were interviewed to identify risk factors for WNV infection. Residual samples were retested for WNV RNA using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Blood donors' follow-up serum samples were collected. All samples were tested for WNV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. The patient's family denied recent mosquito exposure. The 20 blood components collected after July 2003 did not react when tested for WNV in a six-member MP-NAT at the time of donation. Retrospective individual testing identified one sample as WNV-reactive by the TMA assay and one of the PCR assays. Seroconversion was demonstrated in the donor associated with this sample. WNV RNA detection by individual donation NAT demonstrates viremic blood escaping MP-NAT and supports transfusion-related WNV transmission. MP-NAT may not detect all WNV-infected blood donors, allowing WNV transmission to continue at low levels. WNV NAT assays might vary in sensitivity and pooling donations could further impact test performance. Understanding MP NAT limitations can improve strategies to maintain safety of the blood supply in the United States.
Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V
Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cohen, Paul A; Flowers, Nicola; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie; Pertile, Mark D; Hui, Lisa
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) identifies fetal aneuploidy by sequencing cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. Pre-symptomatic maternal malignancies have been incidentally detected during NIPT based on abnormal genomic profiles. This low coverage sequencing approach could have potential for ovarian cancer screening in the non-pregnant population. Our objective was to investigate whether plasma DNA sequencing with a clinical whole genome NIPT platform can detect early- and late-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC). This is a case control study of prospectively-collected biobank samples comprising preoperative plasma from 32 women with HGSOC (16 'early cancer' (FIGO I-II) and 16 'advanced cancer' (FIGO III-IV)) and 32 benign controls. Plasma DNA from cases and controls were sequenced using a commercial NIPT platform and chromosome dosage measured. Sequencing data were blindly analyzed with two methods: (1) Subchromosomal changes were called using an open source algorithm WISECONDOR (WIthin-SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR). Genomic gains or losses ≥ 15 Mb were prespecified as "screen positive" calls, and mapped to recurrent copy number variations reported in an ovarian cancer genome atlas. (2) Selected whole chromosome gains or losses were reported using the routine NIPT pipeline for fetal aneuploidy. We detected 13/32 cancer cases using the subchromosomal analysis (sensitivity 40.6 %, 95 % CI, 23.7-59.4 %), including 6/16 early and 7/16 advanced HGSOC cases. Two of 32 benign controls had subchromosomal gains ≥ 15 Mb (specificity 93.8 %, 95 % CI, 79.2-99.2 %). Twelve of the 13 true positive cancer cases exhibited specific recurrent changes reported in HGSOC tumors. The NIPT pipeline resulted in one "monosomy 18" call from the cancer group, and two "monosomy X" calls in the controls. Low coverage plasma DNA sequencing used for prenatal testing detected 40.6 % of all HGSOC, including 38 % of early stage cases. Our
Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko
Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing. PMID:28316631
Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.
Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)
... such as HIV/AIDS or hepatitis C. Normal Results Normal fetal blood sample results are: Normal pH: ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean A fetal scalp blood pH level of ...
Hartung, Thomas; Fennrich, Stefan; Fischer, Matthias; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Wendel, Albrecht
When cells of the immune system, especially blood monocytes and macrophages, come into contact with pyrogenic (fever-inducing) contaminations, they secrete messenger molecules which initiate an hyperthermic reaction in the organism. Of this group of endogenous pyrogens, most is known about interleukin-1 (IL-1). A new pyrogen test makes use of this reaction as a system for detection: The substances which are to be screened are incubated with a small volume of blood from a healthy donor. Any pyrogens present induce the production of IL-1 which can be detected by ELISA. This test has a higher sensitivity and is more economical than the conventional pyrogen test in rabbits and furthermore reflects the reaction of the relevant species. In contrast to the customary alternative method, the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL), this test is not restricted to endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria and is also not hindered by substances which bind endotoxins, such as blood proteins, to the same extent. Consequently, more than 50 non-endotoxin pyrogens have already been traced by this test. The whole blood test is even superior to the LAL in regard to the detection of endotoxins: in a comparison of about 60 endotoxins, there was a correlation of the potency of the individual endotoxins between the whole blood test and the pyrogen test in rabbits, but neither test correlated with the LAL test. In some cases, endotoxins with equal effects in the LAL test differed in potency in the human blood model by a factor of 10 000. A method has been developed by which cryopreserved blood can be put to use in the test. In this way, blood donations from a donor can be pre-tested so that uniform material may be employed in the test. This test opens up entirely new perspectives on pyrogen testing for Gram-positive or fungal pyrogens as well as in medicinal products. In addition, it could fill the dangerous security gap which might result from the limitations of testing medications and blood
Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil
A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.
Donders, G; Bellen, G; Donders, F; Pinget, J; Vandevelde, I; Michiels, T; Byamughisa, J
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p < 0.0001) and from 2.5 to 1.9 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Similarly, strong improvements in the AV score were seen in both treatment regimens: moderate and severe AV declined from AV scores of 6.3 to 3.6 (p = 0.003) and from 6.6 to 4.1 (p < 0.004), respectively. Also, women with AVF (deceased or absent lactobacilli) showed similar improvements when compared with placebo. Women with normal flora and Candida at the initial visit showed less Candida after 4 weeks in the group treated with DQC (p = 0.014). Even after a short duration of intravaginal treatment with local non-absorbable antiseptics or antibiotics produced significant
Trumble, D R; Magovern, J A
A pneumatic ventricular assist device (Sarns/3M) has been redesigned for low volume hydraulic actuation to accommodate muscle powered drive systems. Design modifications include adding a bellows/piston mechanism (to compress the blood sac) and a compliance chamber for volume compensation. A simple prototype device was constructed to measure the efficacy of piston pump actuation and to validate pusher plate design. Device manufacture was affected by removing the drive line housing from the pneumatic pump and replacing it with a piston/bushing mechanism. A convex piston profile was chosen to maximize ejection fraction and minimize device size. Stroke volume was found to be a linear function of piston displacement (approximately 3 ml/mm) and reached a maximum value of 45 ml. Mean compression forces of 46-56 N acting during a 12 mm stroke (2.1 L/min at 60 cycles/min) were sufficient to generate mean afterload pressures of 70-110 mm Hg in a mock circulatory loop. Peak compression forces ranged from 72 to 86 N and work input was calculated to be 552-672 mJ/stroke. These data indicate that this method for delivering muscle power to the bloodstream is both mechanically viable and compatible with the functional capacity of conditioned latissimus dorsi muscle.
Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)
Niedermaier, Tobias; Weigl, Korbinian; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common but largely preventable cancer. Although fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) detect the majority of CRCs, they miss some of the cancers and most advanced adenomas (AAs). The potential of blood tests in complementing FITs for the detection of CRC or AA has not yet been systematically investigated. Methods We conducted a systematic review of performance of FIT combined with an additional blood test for CRC and AA detection versus FIT alone. PubMed and Web of Science were searched until June 9, 2017. Results Some markers substantially increased sensitivity for CRC when combined with FIT, albeit typically at a major loss of specificity. For AA, no relevant increase in sensitivity could be achieved. Conclusion Combining FIT and blood tests might be a promising approach to enhance sensitivity of CRC screening, but comprehensive evaluation of promising marker combinations in screening populations is needed. PMID:29435309
Olia, Salim E; Herbertson, Luke H; Malinauskas, Richard A; Kameneva, Marina V
Bench-top in vitro hemolysis testing is a fundamental tool during the design and regulatory safety evaluation of blood-contacting medical devices. While multiple published experimental protocols exist, descriptions of the test loop reservoir remain ambiguous. A critical fixture within the circuit, there is no readily available blood reservoir that ensures thorough mixing and complete air evacuation: two major factors which can affect results. As part of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, we developed a three-piece reservoir consisting of a 3D-printed base, a plastic clamp set, and a medical-grade blood bag. This simple, reusable, and cost-effective design was used successfully in the hemolysis assessment of FDA benchmark nozzles and prototype rotary blood pumps, and may be useful as an integral component to any in vitro blood circulation loop. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.
Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed
... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...
Kilway, Denise M
This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.
Vennemann, Marielle; Scott, Georgina; Curran, Lynn; Bittner, Felix; Tobe, Shanan S
Despite their wide use, the limits of presumptive tests can be poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of conventional, as well as innovative, presumptive tests for blood, semen and saliva. We investigated Kastle-Meyer (KM) and leucomalachite green (LMG) tests for blood with regard to their sensitivity and specificity in the presence of oxidizing (hypochlorite) and anti-oxidizing (ascorbic acid) agents. The suitability and specificity of the red starch paper (RSP) test for saliva was assessed. Finally, the inhibitory effect of detergent on the acid phosphatase (AP) test for semen was investigated along with possible cross reactions to tea stains. Our results confirm previous findings of higher sensitivity and specificity of the KM test compared to LMG test for blood. Contrary to previous studies, no statistically significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the tests between dry and wet stains. The novel RSP test was found to successfully detect saliva. We demonstrated that acid phosphatase (AP) testing for semen is possible on used RSP. A common multipurpose detergent had an inhibitory effect on AP tests. False positive results were obtained from tea stains. Testing different sorts of tea (black, green and herbal teas) revealed that only Camellia varieties produce positive result with the AP test, due to AP being present in the plants. From our results we conclude that specific knowledge of each test, including substances that may affect the test outcome, is imperative to ensure correct interpretation of presumptive test results.
Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Henao Roldan, Catherine; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María; Ruiz Navas, Patricia
Prolonged Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) is associated with life-threatening complications in the pediatric population, being cholestasis one of the most important ones. The source of fatty acids, the amount of phytosterols and the dose of lipids in the nutritional support, have been linked to the development of this complication. To describe the behavior of liver function tests in pediatric patients with TPN where lipid based omega 3 fatty acids (OmegavenR) were used. A retrospective research was made in a population of children under 18 years old where omega 3 fatty acids were used for a minimum of 8 days. Patients were initially classified into two groups: cholestasis and abnormal liver tests. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) before and after treatment with OmegavenR was evaluated. 33 patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment with OmegavenR, 82.4% of patients who initially presented cholestasis showed resolution or improvement. The group of patients with abnormal liver tests 18.8% progressed to cholestasis. Our study suggests that the use of OmegavenR in pediatric patients with TPN and DB ≥ 2 mg/dL, seem to reverse or improve cholestasis while in patients with abnormal liver tests we still don't have clear effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Wearn, Andy; Nakatsuji, Miriam; Bhoopatkar, Harsh
Peer physical examination (PPE), where students examine each other, is common in contemporary clinical skills learning. A range of benefits and risks have been explored in the literature. One persistent concern has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings. Two previous studies have attempted to quantify the risk, one through the discussion of two exemplar cases and the other with a retrospective student survey. Here, we report the first prospective study of the number and type of abnormalities encountered as part of early clinical skills learning in a medical programme. We have a formal written consent process for PPE, which includes the management of abnormal findings through the completion of an event form. Our data come from cohorts undertaking years 2 and 3 of the programme between 2003 and 2014. One persistent concern (of PPE) has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings RESULTS: Nineteen event forms were completed over this period. The incidence rates per year ranged from 0.23 to 1.05 per cent. Abnormal findings included raised blood pressure, heart murmur, abnormal bedside test values, and eye and skin conditions. The low event rate, along with a feasible process for dealing with this issue, goes some way to reassuring those with concerns. We acknowledge that some abnormalities may have been missed, and that some data may have been lost as a result of incorrect process; however, even the highest annual rate is low in absolute terms. We recommend a formal process for managing abnormalities. Ideally this would be part of an overall PPE written policy, communicated to students, enacted by tutors and approved by the local ethics committee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the ... Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action ...
Demorat, Hubert; Lopes, Amanda; Chopin, Dorothée; Delcey, Véronique; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Simoneau, Guy; Evans, John; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Sellier, Pierre
Guidelines recommend routine universal HIV testing in adults to reduce the pool of infected patients unaware of their status, without specific recommendations concerning the method. We compared acceptability and feasibility of HIV testing by ELISA tests or rapid tests from finger-stick whole blood. Prospective randomized multi-center study comparing acceptability and feasibility of routine universal HIV testing by ELISA tests, with a charge, subsequently reimbursed by Social Security for affiliated patients, or rapid tests from finger-stick whole blood, without any charge from the patients or the general practitioner for the study. A single investigator performed all interventions. After consent, all adults (18-70 years old) consulting their general practitioner in Paris, France, unaware of their status, were enrolled. Testing was performed immediately for the patients in the rapid test arm; a prescription was given for testing in a lab for the patients in the ELISA arm. The primary endpoint was acceptability of each method. The secondary endpoint was feasibility of each method, assessed one month after the consultation. Two hundred and seventy patients were enrolled: 133 patients in the ELISA arm, 137 in the rapid test arm. Acceptability of the rapid test (92%) was higher than that of the ELISA (63.9%), P<0.0001. Feasibility of the rapid test (100%) was higher than that of the ELISA (50.5%), P<0.0001. A center effect was shown concerning feasibility of ELISA but not concerning feasibility of rapid tests. Rapid testing from finger-stick whole blood is more acceptable and feasible than ELISA for routine universal HIV testing. A larger use of rapid tests, ideally free of charge, by general practitioners could reduce the pool of infected patients unaware of their status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse
The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…
Baig, Ayaz; Siddiqui, Imran; Jabbar, Abdul; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Sabir, Salman; Alam, Shahryar; Ghani, Farooq
To determine the accuracy, turnaround time and cost effectiveness of bedside monitoring of blood glucose levels by non-laboratory health care workers and centralized testing of blood glucose by automated analyzer in a tertiary care hospital. The study was conducted in Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University and Hospital Karachi, from April 2005 to March 2006. One hundred and ten patients were included in the study. The blood glucose levels were analyzed on glucometer (Precision Abbott) by finger stick, using Biosensor Technology. At the same time venous blood was obtained to analyze glucose in clinical laboratory on automated analyzer (SYNCHRON CX7) by glucose oxidase method. We observed good correlation between bed side glucometer and laboratory automated analyzer for glucose values between 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dl) and 16.7 (300 mg/dl). A significant difference was observed for glucose values less than 3.3 mmol/L (p = 0.002) and glucose values more than 16.67 mmol/l (p = 0.049). Mean Turnaround time for glucometer and automated analyzer were 0.08 hours and 2.49 hours respectively. The cost of glucose testing with glucometer was 48.8% lower than centralized lab based testing. Bedside glucometer testing, though less expensive does not have good accuracy in acutely ill patient with either very high or very low blood glucose levels.
Chong, Yong Pil; Jang, Seongsoo; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Woo Sung
Background To evaluate patients with fever of unknown origin or those with suspected bacteremia, the precision of blood culture tests is critical. An inappropriate step in the test process or error in a parameter could lead to a false-positive result, which could then affect the direction of treatment in critical conditions. Mobile health apps can be used to resolve problems with blood culture tests, and such apps can hence ensure that point-of-care guidelines are followed and processes are monitored for blood culture tests. Objective In this pilot project, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a mobile blood culture app to manage blood culture test quality. We implemented the app at a university hospital in South Korea to assess the potential for its utilization in a clinical environment by reviewing the usage data among a small group of users and by assessing their feedback and the data related to blood culture sampling. Methods We used an iOS-based blood culture app that uses an embedded camera to scan the patient identification and sample number bar codes. A total of 4 medical interns working at 2 medical intensive care units (MICUs) participated in this project, which spanned 3 weeks. App usage and blood culture sampling parameters (including sampler, sampling site, sampling time, and sample volume) were analyzed. The compliance of sampling parameter entry was also measured. In addition, the participants’ opinions regarding patient safety, timeliness, efficiency, and usability were recorded. Results In total, 356/644 (55.3%) of all blood culture samples obtained at the MICUs were examined using the app, including 254/356 (71.3%) with blood collection volumes of 5-7 mL and 256/356 (71.9%) with blood collection from the peripheral veins. The sampling volume differed among the participants. Sampling parameters were completely entered in 354/356 cases (99.4%). All the participants agreed that the app ensured good patient safety, disagreed on its
Lee, Guna; Lee, Yura; Chong, Yong Pil; Jang, Seongsoo; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho
To evaluate patients with fever of unknown origin or those with suspected bacteremia, the precision of blood culture tests is critical. An inappropriate step in the test process or error in a parameter could lead to a false-positive result, which could then affect the direction of treatment in critical conditions. Mobile health apps can be used to resolve problems with blood culture tests, and such apps can hence ensure that point-of-care guidelines are followed and processes are monitored for blood culture tests. In this pilot project, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a mobile blood culture app to manage blood culture test quality. We implemented the app at a university hospital in South Korea to assess the potential for its utilization in a clinical environment by reviewing the usage data among a small group of users and by assessing their feedback and the data related to blood culture sampling. We used an iOS-based blood culture app that uses an embedded camera to scan the patient identification and sample number bar codes. A total of 4 medical interns working at 2 medical intensive care units (MICUs) participated in this project, which spanned 3 weeks. App usage and blood culture sampling parameters (including sampler, sampling site, sampling time, and sample volume) were analyzed. The compliance of sampling parameter entry was also measured. In addition, the participants' opinions regarding patient safety, timeliness, efficiency, and usability were recorded. In total, 356/644 (55.3%) of all blood culture samples obtained at the MICUs were examined using the app, including 254/356 (71.3%) with blood collection volumes of 5-7 mL and 256/356 (71.9%) with blood collection from the peripheral veins. The sampling volume differed among the participants. Sampling parameters were completely entered in 354/356 cases (99.4%). All the participants agreed that the app ensured good patient safety, disagreed on its timeliness, and did not believe that it was
Fletcher, A M; Gelberg, K H; Marshall, E G
The purpose of this study was to examine the circumstances under which women receive blood lead tests in New York State and to characterize the sources of lead exposure among women of childbearing age with moderate blood lead levels. Telephone interviews were conducted with 135 women between the ages of 18 and 45, with blood lead levels from 10 through 25 micrograms/dl, were used to collect information on the reason for their blood lead test and possible sources of lead exposure. It was found that the two most common reasons to be tested for blood lead were workplace screening (47%) and pregnancy (27%). Occupational exposure was the primary source of lead exposure in this population (46%). Another common source of lead exposure was home renovation (24%). A significant proportion (31%) of women with blood lead levels from 10 through 25 micrograms/dl had no known current source of lead exposure. Based on New York's sample, there are a significant number of women of reproductive age with potentially fetotoxic blood lead levels.
Bernstein, R; Jenkins, T; Dawson, B; Wagner, J; Dewald, G; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S
A mentally retarded female child with multiple congenital abnormalities had an abnormal X chromosome and a Y chromosome; the karyotype was interpreted as 46,dup(X)(p21 leads to pter)Y. Prenatal chromosome studies in a later pregnancy indicated the same chromosomal abnormality in the fetus. The fetus and proband had normal female genitalia and ovarian tissue. H--Y antigen was virtually absent in both sibs, a finding consistent with the view that testis-determining genes of the Y chromosome may be suppressed by regulatory elements of the X. The abnormal X chromosome was present in the mother, the maternal grandmother, and a female sib: all were phenotypically normal and showed the karyotype 46,Xdup(X)(p21 leads to pter) with non-random inactivation of the abnormal X. Anomalous segregation of the Xga allele suggests that the Xg locus was involved in the inactivation process or that crossing-over at meiosis occurred. Images PMID:7193738
Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE).
Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F
Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. The results of this study will be
Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun
The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.
Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V
In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.
Daly, Amanda R.; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E.; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V.
In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596
Mirzazadeh, Mehdi; Morovat, Alireza; James, Tim; Smith, Ian; Kirby, Justin; Shine, Brian
Point-of-care testing allows rapid analysis of samples to facilitate prompt clinical decisions. Electrolyte and calcium abnormalities are common in acutely ill patients and can be associated with life-threatening consequences. There is uncertainty whether clinical decisions can be based on the results obtained from blood gas analysers or if laboratory results should be awaited. To assess the agreement between sodium, potassium and calcium results from blood gas and laboratory mainstream analysers in a tertiary centre, with a network consisting of one referral and two peripheral hospitals, consisting of three networked clinical biochemistry laboratories. Using the laboratory information management system database and over 11 000 paired samples in three hospital sites, the results of sodium, potassium and ionised calcium on blood gas analysers were studied over a 5-year period and compared with the corresponding laboratory results from the same patients booked in the laboratory within 1 h. The Pearson's linear correlation coefficient between laboratory and blood gas results for sodium, potassium and calcium were 0.92, 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. Deming regression analysis showed a slope of 1.04 and an intercept of -5.7 for sodium, slope of 0.93 and an intercept of 0.22 for potassium and a slope of 1.23 with an intercept of -0.55 for calcium. With some strict statistical assumptions, percentages of results lying outside the least significant difference were 9%, 26.7% and 20.8% for sodium, potassium and calcium, respectively. Most clinicians wait for the laboratory confirmation of results generated by blood gas analysers. In a large retrospective study we have shown that there is sufficient agreement between the results obtained from the blood gas and laboratory analysers to enable prompt clinical decisions to be made. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lin, Chia-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing
In this report, we describe in detail a microfluidic analyzer, which is able to conduct blood coagulation tests using whole blood samples. Sample preparation steps, such as whole blood aliquoting and metering, plasma separation, decanting, and mixing with reagents were performed in sequence through microfluidic functions integrated on a disk. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were carried out on the same platform and the test results can be reported in 5 min. Fifty clinical samples were tested for both PT and aPTT utilizing the microfluidic disk analyzer and the instrument used in hospitals. The test results showed good correlation and agreement between the two instruments. PMID:25332733
Webb, Joanne L; Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I
Presumptive blood detection tests are used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood or to investigate suspicious stains. Through the years, a number of articles have been published on the popular techniques of the day. However, there is no single paper that critiques and compares the five most common presumptive blood detection tests currently in use: luminol, phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer), leucomalachite green, Hemastix and the forensic light source. The present authors aimed to compare the above techniques with regard to their sensitivity, ease of use and safety. The luminol test was determined to be the most sensitive of the techniques, while Hemastix is a suitable alternative when the luminol test is not appropriate. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Borkent-Raven, Barbara A; Janssen, Mart P; van der Poel, Cees L; Bonsel, Gouke J; van Hout, Ben A
During the past decade, blood screening tests such as triplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or I (HTLV-I/II) antibody testing were added to existing serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In some low-prevalence regions these additional tests yielded disputable benefits that can be valuated by cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). CEAs are used to support decision making on implementation of medical technology. We present CEAs of selected additional screening tests that are not uniformly implemented in the EU. Cost-effectiveness was analyzed of: 1) HBV, HCV, and HIV triplex NAT in addition to serologic testing; 2) HTLV-I/II antibody test for all donors, for first-time donors only, and for pediatric recipients only; and 3) hepatitis A virus (HAV) for all donations. Disease progression of the studied viral infections was described in five Markov models. In the Netherlands, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of triplex NAT is €5.20 million per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for testing minipools of six donation samples and €4.65 million/QALY for individual donation testing. The ICER for anti-HTLV-I/II is €45.2 million/QALY if testing all donations, €2.23 million/QALY if testing new donors only, and €27.0 million/QALY if testing blood products for pediatric patients only. The ICER of HAV NAT is €18.6 million/QALY. The resulting ICERs are very high, especially when compared to other health care interventions. Nevertheless, these screening tests are implemented in the Netherlands and elsewhere. Policy makers should reflect more explicit on the acceptability of costs and effects whenever additional blood screening tests are implemented. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Structural relationships between human erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma and abnormal sialoglycoproteins found in certain rare human erythrocyte variants lacking the Gerbich blood-group antigen(s).
Reid, M E; Anstee, D J; Tanner, M J; Ridgwell, K; Nurse, G T
The human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma are important for the maintenance of the discoid shape of the normal erythrocyte. In this paper we show that the human erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma (hereafter called beta and gamma) are structurally related. Rabbit antisera produced against purified beta and beta 1 and rendered specific to the cytoplasmic portion of these proteins also react with the cytoplasmic portion of gamma. Some human anti-Gerbich (Ge) sera react with the extracellular portion of both beta and gamma. This reactivity is shown to be directed towards a common epitope on beta and gamma. However, most anti-Ge sera do not react with beta, but react with an extracellular epitope only present on gamma. All individuals who lack the Ge antigens lack beta and gamma. In some cases abnormal sialoglycoproteins are present in the erythrocytes, and these are shown to be structurally related to beta and gamma. Rabbit antisera raised against the purified abnormal sialoglycoprotein from a Ge-negative erythrocyte type reacted with the cytoplasmic portion of both beta and gamma. Unlike normal beta and gamma, the abnormal sialoglycoproteins found in Ge-negative erythrocytes migrate as a diffuse band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Studies using endoglycosidases suggest that the diffuse nature of these bands results from carbohydrate heterogeneity and that the abnormal sialoglycoproteins contain N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides with repeating lactosamine units. Such polylactosamine chains are not present on normal beta or gamma. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2444210
Nishimura, Akiko; Harashima, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Daisuke; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yanyan; Inagaki, Nobuya
To compare the effects of structured and routine testing regimens used in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) on glycemic control and diabetes self-management in insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes patients. Sixty-two outpatients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated into two less-frequent SMBG usage groups: a structured testing group (STG) and a routine testing group (RTG). Subjects in STG measured 7-points on SMBG for 3 consecutive days once every two months without daily testing; subjects in RTG measured SMBG 3 times each week before breakfast on Monday and Friday and before dinner on Wednesday. The primary endpoint was HbA1c reduction. The secondary endpoints were change in body weight, blood pressure, treatment change, and self-management performance change. HbA1c levels were significantly decreased by 0.32% (3.50mmol/mol) in STG, partly because physicians changed medications more actively. In contrast, body weight and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced by 0.94kg and 6.8/4.7mmHg, respectively, in RTG, possibly related to the increased diet and exercise score in RTG. Structured testing without daily testing is beneficial for glycemic control; routine testing 3 times a week is more helpful for daily self-management. In low SMBG frequency usage, these two regimens can be utilized according to individual diabetic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clough, Stacey; Shehabi, Zahra; Morgan, Claire; Sheppey, Claire
People with learning disabilities (LDs) have poorer health than their non-disabled peers due to failures in reasonable adjustments. One hundred patients with severe LD and challenging behaviour attended for dental treatment under GA, during which routine blood testing was provided. Communication with general medical practitioners (GMPs) and blood test results were evaluated, showing poor communication with GMPs and significant undiagnosed disease among this group. Blood tests generate similar costs in primary and secondary care but a holistic approach to care under GA reduces expenses brought by lost clinical time and resources due to complex behaviours in an out-patient setting. Clinical relevance: This article discusses a holistic approach to healthcare for people with severe LD, including patient outcomes, financial and resource implications, and offers practical guidance on venepuncture technique, which is relevant to many aspects of both community and hospital dental practice.
Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of
Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.
Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.
Zheng, Tianyu; Pierre-Pierre, Nickisha; Yan, Xin; Huo, Qun; Almodovar, Alvin J O; Valerio, Felipe; Rivera-Ramirez, Inoel; Griffith, Elizabeth; Decker, David D; Chen, Sixue; Zhu, Ning
When citrate ligands-capped gold nanoparticles are mixed with blood sera, a protein corona is formed on the nanoparticle surface due to the adsorption of various proteins in the blood to the nanoparticles. Using a two-step gold nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay, we discovered that the amount of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the gold nanoparticle protein corona is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to noncancer controls. Two pilot studies conducted on blood serum samples collected at Florida Hospital and obtained from Prostate Cancer Biorespository Network (PCBN) revealed that the test has a 90-95% specificity and 50% sensitivity in detecting early stage prostate cancer, representing a significant improvement over the current PSA test. The increased amount of human IgG found in the protein corona is believed to be associated with the autoantibodies produced in cancer patients as part of the immunodefense against tumor. Proteomic analysis of the nanoparticle protein corona revealed molecular profile differences between cancer and noncancer serum samples. Autoantibodies and natural antibodies produced in cancer patients in response to tumorigenesis have been found and detected in the blood of many cancer types. The test may be applicable for early detection and risk assessment of a broad spectrum of cancer. This new blood test is simple, low cost, requires only a few drops of blood sample, and the results are obtained within minutes. The test is well suited for screening purpose. More extensive studies are being conducted to further evaluate and validate the clinical potential of the new test.
Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C
Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.
Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Lin, Wei-Shiang
The diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is typically reserved for patients who experience ventricular pre-excitation and symptoms that are related to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, such as chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness, palpitations, or syncope. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at our outpatient department because of exercise intolerance. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 pansystolic murmur over the left lower sternal border. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm at a rate of 76 beats/min, with a significant delta wave. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed abnormal left ventricular systolic function. The results of a thallium stress test were also abnormal. Coronary artery disease was suspected; however, coronary angiography yielded normal results. Electrophysiologic study revealed a para-Hisian Kent bundle and a dual atrioventricular nodal pathway. After radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed, the patient's left ventricular function improved and her symptoms disappeared. In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony can yield abnormal findings on echocardiography and thallium scanning--even in persons who have no cardiovascular risk factors. Physicians who are armed with this knowledge can avoid performing coronary angiography unnecessarily. Catheter ablation can reverse the dyssynchrony of the ventricle and improve the patient's symptoms.
Buseyne, Florence; Betsem, Edouard; Montange, Thomas; Njouom, Richard; Bilounga Ndongo, Chanceline; Hermine, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine
A spillover of simian foamy virus (SFV) to humans, following bites from infected nonhuman primates (NHPs), is ongoing in exposed populations. These retroviruses establish persistent infections of unknown physiological consequences to the human host. We performed a case-control study to compare 24 Cameroonian hunters infected with gorilla SFV and 24 controls matched for age and ethnicity. A complete physical examination and blood test were performed for all participants. Logistic regression and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare cases and controls. The cases had significantly lower levels of hemoglobin than the controls (median, 12.7 vs 14.4 g/dL; P = .01). Basophil levels were also significantly lower in cases than controls, with no differences for other leukocyte subsets. Cases had significantly higher urea, creatinine, protein, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels and lower bilirubin levels than controls. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of general, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiorespiratory signs. The first case-control study of apparently healthy SFV-infected Cameroonian hunters showed the presence of hematological abnormalities. A thorough clinical and laboratory workup is now needed to establish the medical relevance of these observations because more than half of cases had mild or moderate anemia. NCT03225794.
De Ceglia, Francesco Paolo
In the late Middle Ages, rumors began to spread throughout Europe regarding blood miracles associated with the relics of martyrs. Centuries-old blood, pulverized or solidified and black in color, was said to return to its original bright red color, or else to liquefy or bubble under certain circumstances or on certain dates in the liturgical calendar. With the Reformation, in Protestant countries most of these relics were either destroyed or forgotten. In Catholic countries, on the contrary, blood miracles multiplied, reaching a peak between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This article reconstructs the debate that sprang up in eighteenth-century Europe over the blood of Saint Januarius and the attempts made to disprove its miraculous properties, often not in written works, but by staging highly theatrical demonstrations. It examines the way in which, with phenomena as complex as miracles, the activities of testing alleged facts, creating elucidative models, and staging imitations intertwined over the centuries, often overlapping and becoming confused.
Bienek, Diane R; Charlton, David G
Rapid user-friendly ABO-Rh blood typing kits (Eldon Home Kit 2511, ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit) were evaluated to determine their accuracy when used under simulated military field conditions and after long-term storage at various temperatures and humidities. Rates of positive tests between control groups, experimental groups, and industry standards were measured and analyzed using the Fisher's exact chi-square method to identify significant differences (p < or = 0.05). When Eldon Home Kits 2511 were used in various operational conditions, the results were comparable to those obtained with the control group and with the industry standard. The performance of the ABO-Rh Combination Blood Typing Experiment Kit was adversely affected by prolonged storage in temperatures above 37 degrees C. The diagnostic performance of commercial blood typing kits varies according to product and environmental storage conditions.
Objectives: Titmuss hypothesized that paying blood donors would reduce the quality of the blood donated and would be economically inefficient. We report here the first systematic review to test these hypotheses, reporting on both financial and nonfinancial incentives. Method: Studies deemed eligible for inclusion were peer-reviewed, experimental studies that presented data on the quantity (as a proxy for efficiency) and quality of blood donated in at least two groups: those donating blood when offered an incentive, and those donating blood with no offer of an incentive. The following were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO using OVID SP, CINAHL via EBSCO and CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Econlit via EBSCO, JSTOR Health and General Science Collection, and Google. Results: The initial search yielded 1100 abstracts, which resulted in 89 full papers being assessed for eligibility, of which seven studies, reported in six papers, met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 93,328 participants. Incentives had no impact on the likelihood of donation (OR = 1.22 CI 95% 0.91–1.63; p = .19). There was no difference between financial and nonfinancial incentives in the quantity of blood donated. Of the two studies that assessed quality of blood, one found no effect and the other found an adverse effect from the offer of a free cholesterol test (β = 0.011 p < .05). Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that Titmuss’ hypothesis of the economic inefficiency of incentives is correct. There is insufficient evidence to assess their likely impact on the quality of the blood provided. PMID:24001244
Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Alander, Jarmo
The colour of the skin reflects many physiological and pathological states of an individual. Usually, the skin colour is examined by the bare eye alone. Several scaling systems have been developed to quantify the sensory evaluation of skin colour. In this work, the reflectance of the skin is measured directly using an objective instrument. Haemoglobin inside the dermal circulation is one of the key factors of skin colour and it also has a major role in the appearance of many skin lesions and scars. To quantitatively measure and analyse such conditions, the relation between the skin colour and the haemoglobin concentration in the skin needs to be resolved. To examine the effect of blood concentration on the skin colour, five Allen's tests were performed on 20 persons. The skin colour change was measured using a spectrophotometer by changing the blood concentration by the Allen's test. Light interaction with the skin was simulated with a Monte Carlo model, tuning the blood concentration parameter until the simulated and the measured spectra matched, yielding the relationship between the skin colour and the blood concentration. The simulation produced spectra similar to those measured. The change in the blood concentration in the simulation model and in the skin produced changes similar to the spectra. The reflectance of the skin was found to be a nonlinear function of the blood concentration. The relationship found between skin colour and blood concentration makes it possible to quantify those skin conditions expressed by blood volume better than plain colour. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lock, John Paul; Brazg, Ronald; Bernstein, Robert M; Taylor, Elizabeth; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Chen, Ting; Welsh, Zoë; Amor, Walter; Bhogal, Claire; Ng, Ronald
a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip. laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip. for glucose concentrations <75 mg/dL, 73%, 100%, and 100% of the individual capillary blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell within ± 5, 10, and 15 mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell within ± 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60 s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity. our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.
Calès, P; Boursier, J; Lebigot, J; de Ledinghen, V; Aubé, C; Hubert, I; Oberti, F
In chronic hepatitis C, the European Association for the Study of the Liver and the Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado recommend performing transient elastography plus a blood test to diagnose significant fibrosis; test concordance confirms the diagnosis. To validate this rule and improve it by combining a blood test, FibroMeter (virus second generation, Echosens, Paris, France) and transient elastography (constitutive tests) into a single combined test, as suggested by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. A total of 1199 patients were included in an exploratory set (HCV, n = 679) or in two validation sets (HCV ± HIV, HBV, n = 520). Accuracy was mainly evaluated by correct diagnosis rate for severe fibrosis (pathological Metavir F ≥ 3, primary outcome) by classical test scores or a fibrosis classification, reflecting Metavir staging, as a function of test concordance. Score accuracy: there were no significant differences between the blood test (75.7%), elastography (79.1%) and the combined test (79.4%) (P = 0.066); the score accuracy of each test was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in discordant vs. concordant tests. Classification accuracy: combined test accuracy (91.7%) was significantly (P < 0.001) increased vs. the blood test (84.1%) and elastography (88.2%); accuracy of each constitutive test was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in discordant vs. concordant tests but not with combined test: 89.0 vs. 92.7% (P = 0.118). Multivariate analysis for accuracy showed an interaction between concordance and fibrosis level: in the 1% of patients with full classification discordance and severe fibrosis, non-invasive tests were unreliable. The advantage of combined test classification was confirmed in the validation sets. The concordance recommendation is validated. A combined test, expressed in classification instead of score, improves this rule and validates the
Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali
The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.
Kurach, Jayme D R; Hansen, Adele L; Turner, Tracey R; Jenkins, Craig; Acker, Jason P
Nondestructive testing of blood components could permit in-process quality control and reduce discards. Tubing segments, generated during red blood cell (RBC) component production, were tested to determine their suitability as a sample source for quality testing. Leukoreduced RBC components were produced from whole blood (WB) by two different methods: WB filtration and buffy coat (BC). Components and their corresponding segments were tested on Days 5 and 42 of hypothermic storage (HS) for spun hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb) content, percentage hemolysis, hematologic indices, and adenosine triphosphate concentration to determine whether segment quality represents unit quality. Segment samples overestimated hemolysis on Days 5 and 42 of HS in both BC- and WB filtration-produced RBCs (p < 0.001 for all). Hct and Hb levels in the segments were also significantly different from the units at both time points for both production methods (p < 0.001 for all). Indeed, for all variables tested different results were obtained from segment and unit samples, and these differences were not consistent across production methods. The quality of samples from tubing segments is not representative of the quality of the corresponding RBC unit. Segments are not suitable surrogates with which to assess RBC quality. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B
Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and
Smart, Laura; Mumtaz, Khalid; Scharpf, Danielle; Gray, Nicole O'Bleness; Traetow, Daniel; Black, Sylvester; Michaels, Anthony J; Elkhammas, Elmahdi; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Hanje, A James
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be associated with significant bleeding requiring multiple blood product transfusions. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a point-of-care device that has been used to monitor coagulation during OLT. Whether it reduces blood loss/transfusions during OLT remains controversial. We aim to compare ROTEM with conventional coagulation tests (aPTT, PT, INR, platelet count, fibrinogen) to guide transfusion of platelets, cryoprecipitate, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) during OLT over 3 years. Thirty-four patients who had transfusions guided by ROTEM were compared to 34 controls who received transfusions guided by conventional coagulation tests (CCT). Intraoperative blood loss, type/ amount of blood products transfused, and direct costs were compared between the two groups. The ROTEM group had significantly less intra-operative blood loss (2.0 vs. 3.0 L, p = 0.04) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion (4 units vs. 6.5 units, p = 0.015) compared to the CCT group (2.0L vs. 3.0L, p = 0.04). However, total number of patients transfused cryoprecipitate was increased in ROTEM (n = 25;73%) as compared to CCT (n = 19; 56%), p = 0.033. The direct cost of blood products plus testing was reduced in the ROTEM group ($113,142.89 vs. $127,814.77). In conclusion implementation of a ROTEM-guided transfusion algorithm resulted in a reduction in intra-operative blood loss, FFP transfusion and a decrease in direct cost during OLT. ROTEM is a useful and safe point of care device in OLT setting.
Signore, A; Glaudemans, A W J M; Malviya, G; Lazzeri, E; Prandini, N; Viglietti, A L; De Vries, E F J; Dierckx, R A J O
White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well equipped laboratories with trained personnel. We invented, developed and tested a disposable, sterile, closed device for blood manipulation, WBC purification and radionuclide labelling without exposing patient's blood and the operator to contamination risks. This device prototype and a final industrialized device (Leukokit®) were tested for WBC labelling and compared to standard procedure. Leukokit® was also tested in an international multi-centre study for easiness of WBC purification and labelling. On the device prototype we tested in parallel, with blood samples from 7 volunteers, the labelling procedure compared to the standard procedure of the International Society of Radiolabeled Blood Elements (ISORBE) consensus protocol with respect to cell recovery, labelling efficiency (LE), cell viability (Trypan Blue test) and sterility (haemoculture). On the final Leukokit® we tested the biocompatibility of all components, and again the LE, erythro-sedimentation rate, cell viability, sterility and apyrogenicity. ACD-A, HES and PBS provided by Leukokit® were also compared to Heparin, Dextran and autologous plasma, respectively. In 4 samples, we tested the chemotactic activity of purified WBC against 1 mg/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chemotaxis of 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled WBC (925 MBq) was compared to that of unlabelled cells. For the multi-centre study, 70 labellings were performed with the Leukokit® by 9 expert operators and 3 beginners from five centers using blood from both patients and volunteers. Finally, Media-Fill tests were performed by 3 operators on two different days (11 procedures) by replacing blood and kit reagents with bacterial culture media (Tryptic Soy Broth
Ye, Xianlin; Yang, Baocheng; Zhu, Weigang; Zheng, Xin; Du, Peng; Zeng, Jingfeng; Li, Chengyao
A six-year pilot study on nucleic acid testing for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 has been undertaken on sero-negative plasmas in mini-pool and individual donation testing at Shenzhen Blood Center. Of 307,740 sero-negative blood samples, 95 of 102 HBV DNA yields were confirmed positive, 80/95 (84.2%) were classified as occult HBV infection (OBI) and 15 (15.8%) as window period cases. Amongst OBIs, 45% carried anti-HBc only, 41.3% anti-HBc and anti-HBs and 13.7% anti-HBs only. HBV DNA yield was 1:3239. One HCV WP and one HIV-1 infected donations were detected. High residual risk was found in current blood donations screening in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hopkins, Heidi; Oyibo, Wellington; Luchavez, Jennifer; Mationg, Mary Lorraine; Asiimwe, Caroline; Albertini, Audrey; González, Iveth J; Gatton, Michelle L; Bell, David
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used by remote health personnel with minimal training in laboratory techniques. RDTs must, therefore, be as simple, safe and reliable as possible. Transfer of blood from the patient to the RDT is critical to safety and accuracy, and poses a significant challenge to many users. Blood transfer devices were evaluated for accuracy and precision of volume transferred, safety and ease of use, to identify the most appropriate devices for use with RDTs in routine clinical care. Five devices, a loop, straw-pipette, calibrated pipette, glass capillary tube, and a new inverted cup device, were evaluated in Nigeria, the Philippines and Uganda. The 227 participating health workers used each device to transfer blood from a simulated finger-prick site to filter paper. For each transfer, the number of attempts required to collect and deposit blood and any spilling of blood during transfer were recorded. Perceptions of ease of use and safety of each device were recorded for each participant. Blood volume transferred was calculated from the area of blood spots deposited on filter paper. The overall mean volumes transferred by devices differed significantly from the target volume of 5 microliters (p < 0.001). The inverted cup (4.6 microliters) most closely approximated the target volume. The glass capillary was excluded from volume analysis as the estimation method used is not compatible with this device. The calibrated pipette accounted for the largest proportion of blood exposures (23/225, 10%); exposures ranged from 2% to 6% for the other four devices. The inverted cup was considered easiest to use in blood collection (206/226, 91%); the straw-pipette and calibrated pipette were rated lowest (143/225 [64%] and 135/225 [60%] respectively). Overall, the inverted cup was the most preferred device (72%, 163/227), followed by the loop (61%, 138/227). The performance of blood transfer devices varied in this evaluation of accuracy
Beloeil, H; Ruchard, D; Drewniak, N; Molliex, S
Following publication of guidelines on routine preoperative tests, the French Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (SFAR), in association with French national public health insurance, conducted a survey to evaluate adherence to guidelines and the economic consequences. Using the French Hospital Discharge Database and National Health Insurance Information system, tests performed during the 30 days before surgery were analysed for two situations: (1) standard laboratory coagulation tests and ABO blood typing in children able to walk and scheduled for tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy; and (2) ABO blood typing in adults before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thyroidectomy, lumbar discectomy or breast surgery. Guidelines do not recommend any preoperative tests in these settings. Between 2013 and 2015, a coagulation test was performed in 49% of the 241 017 children who underwent tonsillectomy and 39% of the 133 790 children who underwent adenoidectomy. A similar pattern was observed for ABO blood typing although re-operation rates for bleeding on the first postoperative day were very low (0.12-0.31% for tonsillectomy and 0.01-0.02% for adenoidectomy). Between 2012 and 2015, ABO blood typing was performed in 32-45% of the 1 114 082 patients who underwent one of the four selected procedures. The transfusion rate was very low (0.02-0.31%). The mean cost for the four procedures over the 4 yr period was €5 310 000 (sd €325 000). Standard laboratory coagulation tests and ABO blood typing are still routinely prescribed before surgery and anaesthesia despite current guidelines. This over-prescription represents a high and unnecessary cost, and should therefore be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Delgado-Corcoran, Claudia; Bodily, Stephanie; Frank, Deborah U; Witte, Madolin K; Castillo, Ramon; Bratton, Susan L
To safely optimize blood testing and costs for pediatric cardiac surgical patients without adversely impacting patient outcomes. This is a quality improvement cohort project with pre- and postintervention groups. University-affiliated pediatric cardiac ICU in a tertiary care children's hospital. All patients were surgical patients for whom Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery categories allowed for stratification by complexity. The preintervention group was treated in 2010 and the postintervention group in 2011. Laboratory ordering processes were analyzed, and practice changed to limit standing blood test orders and requires individualized ordering. Three hundred nineteen patients were studied in 2010 and 345 in 2011. Groups were similar in median age, weight, length of stay (ICU length of stay), and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery category. There was a reduction in the total blood tests per patient (24 vs 38; p < 0.0001) and length of stay adjusted tests per patient-day (10.4 vs 14.4; p = 0.0001) in the postintervention group. The largest test reductions were blood gases and single electrolytes. Adverse outcomes, such as extubation failure (6.4% vs 5.6%), central catheter-associated bloodstream infection (2.2 vs 1.5), and hospital mortality (0.6% vs 0.6%), were not significantly different between the groups. Cost analysis demonstrated an overall laboratory cost savings of 32%. In addition, the volume of packed RBC transfusions was also significantly decreased in the postintervention group among the most complex patients (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery, 6). Blood testing rates were safely decreased in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients by changing laboratory ordering practices. In addition, packed RBC transfusion was decreased among the most complex patients.
... the narrowed or blocked blood vessel. Then the balloon is inflated, opening the narrowed artery. Awire mesh tube, called a stent, may be left in place to help keep the artery open. Angioplasty may be done during a heart attack. There are many medical tests and procedures to find and treat heart ...
Goldsmith, Lesley; Woodward, Val; Jackson, Leigh; Skirton, Heather
This article is a report of a study of informed consent in people with a learning disability. The aims of the study were to explore the information needs of people with mild-to-moderate learning disabilities with respect to consent for blood tests and to identify ways of facilitating informed consent. The recent political agenda for social change in the UK has emphasized the right of people with a learning disability to have more autonomy and make their own decisions. As in other countries, there has also been a shift towards shared decision-making in healthcare practice. Qualitative study using an ethnographic approach. An ethnographic approach was used for this qualitative study. Phase 1 involved observation of six participants with a learning disability having a routine blood test in general practice, followed by semi-structured interviews with 14 participants with a learning disability in Phase 2. Data were collected between February 2009-February 2010. The data showed that consent procedures were often inadequate and provision of information to patients prior to a blood test was variable. People with a learning disability expressed clearly their information requirements when having a routine blood test; this included not wanting any information in some cases. Healthcare practitioners and people with a learning disability need to be familiar with current consent law in their own country to facilitate valid consent in the healthcare context. This study demonstrated the value of qualitative research in exploring the knowledge and attitudes of people with learning disability. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G
The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, sweat rate, and forearm skin blood flow. Subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) by immersing a hand in an ice water slurry for 3 min while otherwise normothermic and while heat stressed (i.e., increase core temperature ~0.7°C via water-perfused suit). Mean responses from the final minute of the CPT were evaluated. In both thermal conditions CPT induced significant increases in MSNA and MAP without altering heart rate. Although the increase in MSNA to the CPT was similar between thermal conditions (normothermia: Δ14.0 ± 2.6; heat stress: Δ19.1 ± 2.6 bursts/min; P = 0.09), the accompanying increase in MAP was attenuated when subjects were heat stressed (normothermia: Δ25.6 ± 2.3, heat stress: Δ13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that heat stress can attenuate the pressor response to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus.
Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter
Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263
Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)
Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.
Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J; Roche, Peter; Greaves, Ronda F
Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; "blood spot" and "mass spectrometry"; while excluding "newborn"; and "neonate". In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required.
Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Kidoń, Zenon; Syczewska, Małgorzata
Development of a reliable and objective test of spasticity is important for assessment and treatment of children with cerebral palsy. The pendulum test has been reported to yield reliable measurements of spasticity and to be sensitive to variations in spasticity in these children. However, the relationship between the pendulum test scores and other objective measures of spasticity has not been studied. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an accelerometer-based pendulum test as a measurement of spasticity in CP, and to explore the correlation between the measurements of this test and the global index of deviation from normal gait in in children with cerebral palsy. We studied thirty-six children with cerebral palsy, including 18 with spastic hemiplegia and 18 with spastic diplegia, and a group of 18 typically-developing children. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed bilaterally using the accelerometer-based pendulum test and three-dimensional gait analysis. The Gillette Gait Index was calculated from the results of the gait analysis. The data from the accelerometer-based pendulum test could be used to distinguish between able-bodied children and children with cerebral palsy. Additionally, two of the measurements, first swing excursion and relaxation index, could be used to differentiate the degree of knee extensor spasticity in the children with cerebral palsy. Only a few moderate correlations were found between the Gillette Gait Index and the pendulum test data. This study demonstrates that the pendulum test can be used to discriminate between typically developing children and children with CP, as well as between various degrees of spasticity, such as spastic hemiplegia and spastic diplegia, in the knee extensor muscle of children with CP. Deviations from normal gait in children with CP were not correlated with the results of the pendulum test.
Li, Jing-Jing; Gao, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Dong; Kang, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Luo-Chuan; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Juan
Internal quality control (IQC) is a critical component of laboratory quality management, and IQC products can determine the reliability of testing results. In China, given the fact that most blood transfusion compatibility laboratories do not employ IQC products or do so minimally, there is a lack of uniform and standardized IQC methods. To explore the reliability of IQC products and methods, we studied 697 results from IQC samples in our laboratory from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in anti-B testing were 100% and 99.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching were all 100%. The reliability analysis indicated that 97% of anti-B testing results were at a 99% confidence level, and 99.9% of forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching results were at a 99% confidence level. Therefore, our IQC products and methods are highly sensitive, specific, and reliable. Our study paves the way for the establishment of a uniform and standardized IQC method for pre-transfusion compatibility testing in China and other parts of the world. PMID:26488582
Naidu, N. K.; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran
Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results: The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions: What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors, there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction. PMID:27011677
Brunet, J L; Cozon, G; Sainte-Laudy, J; Boissel, J P; Delair, S; Peyramond, D
By measuring the activation of different cell models (lymphocytes and lymphocytic subsets) in the presence of Candida albicans with flow cytometry reading, it is possible to show that successive dilutions of Candida albicans can lead to lymphocyte activation in abnormally-sensitized subjects. In a first trial, 10 subjects were tested in duplicate. The decrease of activity of the dilutions does not appear to be regular in relation to the progression of the dilutions. The activity of the dilutions wanes relatively rapidly with the first dilutions, then recurs later very distinctly, at the 6th dilution, then ebbs, then reappears in similar manner at the 9th, the 14th, and finally, the 19th dilution. Cell reactivity appears to differ depending on the subject. It can be represented through the calculated slope of the regression line, for each series of data. It therefore appears feasible to determine a threshold of reactivity and a scale of sensitivity, to make it possible to specify the degree of abnormal reactivity existing at a given time for a given subject. The constancy of the activity of the different dilutions tested, on 10 cultures of a single cell suspension, is especially well demonstrated in the second trial, showing unusually small standard deviations. Thus, the question arises as to the exact nature of the observed phenomenon and of its analysis from a physical-chemical point of view, with regard to the pharmacological effect of successive dilutions of Candida albicans.
Louie, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M
Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually.
... matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A ... during pregnancy. Careful testing can prevent a severe anemia in the newborn and jaundice .
Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N
Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari
Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at <10-week pregnancy age in health care medical centers in Mashhad city in 2014. The form of individual-midwifery information and informed choice questionnaire and decisional conflict scale were used as tools for data collection. The face-to-face and group education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20-22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P < 0.05 was considered as a significant. The results showed that there was statically significant difference between three groups in terms of frequency of informed choice in screening of fetal abnormalities ( P = 0.001) in such a way that at next step of intervention, 62 participants (77.5%) in face-to-face education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional conflict scale among pregnant women regarding
Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari
BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. METHODS: This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at <10-week pregnancy age in health care medical centers in Mashhad city in 2014. The form of individual-midwifery information and informed choice questionnaire and decisional conflict scale were used as tools for data collection. The face-to-face and group education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20–22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann–Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P < 0.05 was considered as a significant. RESULTS: The results showed that there was statically significant difference between three groups in terms of frequency of informed choice in screening of fetal abnormalities (P = 0.001) in such a way that at next step of intervention, 62 participants (77.5%) in face-to-face education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional
Siedner, Mark J; Santorino, Data; Lankowski, Alexander J; Kanyesigye, Michael; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R
Up to 50 % of HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa are lost from care between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Structural barriers, including cost of transportation to clinic and poor communication systems, are major contributors. We conducted a prospective, pragmatic, before-and-after clinical trial to evaluate a combination mobile health and transportation reimbursement intervention to improve care at a publicly operated HIV clinic in Uganda. Patients undergoing CD4 count testing were enrolled, and clinicians selected a result threshold that would prompt early return for ART initiation or further care. Participants enrolled in the pre-intervention period (January - August 2012) served as a control group. Participants in the intervention period (September 2012 - November 2013) were randomized to receive daily short message service (SMS) messages for up to seven days in one of three formats: 1) messages reporting an abnormal result directly, 2) personal identification number-protected messages reporting an abnormal result, or 3) messages reading "ABCDEFG" to confidentially convey an abnormal result. Participants returning within seven days of their first message received transportation reimbursements (about $6USD). Our primary outcomes of interest were time to return to clinic and time to ART initiation. There were 45 participants in the pre-intervention period and 138 participants in the intervention period (46, 49, and 43 in the direct, PIN, and coded groups, respectively) with low CD4 count results. Median time to clinic return was 33 days (IQR 11-49) in the pre-intervention period and 6 days (IQR 3-16) in the intervention period (P < 0.001); and median time to ART initiation was 47 days (IQR 11-75) versus 12 days (IQR 5-19), (P < 0.001). In multivariable models, participants in the intervention period had earlier return to clinic (AHR 2.32, 95 %CI 1.53 to 3.51) and earlier time to ART initiation (AHR 2.27, 95 %CI 1.38 to 3
Strong, D Michael; Nelson, Karen; Pierce, Marge; Stramer, Susan L
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) has reduced the risk of transmitting infectious disease through blood transfusion. Currently NAT for HIV-1 and HCV are FDA licensed and performed by nearly all blood collection facilities, but HBV NAT is performed under an investigational study protocol. Residual risk estimates indicate that NAT could potentially reduce disease transmission through transplanted tissue. However, tissue donor samples obtained post-mortem have the potential to produce an invalid NAT result due to inhibition of amplification reactions by hemolysis and other factors. The studies reported here summarize the development of protocols to allow NAT of deceased donor samples with reduced rates of invalid results. Using these protocols, inventories from two tissue centers were tested with greater than 99% of samples producing a valid test result.
Huang, Ay Huey; Wu, Jiunn Jong; Weng, Yu Mei; Ding, Hwia Cheng; Chang, Tsung Chain
Nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are commonly isolated from blood cultures. The feasibility of using an electrochemical method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of GNB in positive blood cultures was evaluated. An aliquot (10 μl) of 1:10-diluted positive blood cultures containing GNB was inoculated into the Bactometer module well (bioMérieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) containing 1 ml of Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with an antibiotic. Susceptibility tests were performed in a breakpoint broth dilution format, with the results being categorized as resistant, intermediate, or susceptible. Seven antibiotics (ampicillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin) were used in this study, with each agent being tested at the two interpretive breakpoint concentrations. The inoculated modules were incubated at 35°C, and the change in impedance in each well was continuously monitored for 24 h by the Bactometer. The MICs of the seven antibiotics for each blood isolate were also determined by the standardized broth microdilution method. Of 146 positive blood cultures (1,022 microorganism-antibiotic combinations) containing GNB tested by the direct method, the rates of very major, major, and minor errors were 0, 1.1, and 2.5%, respectively. The impedance method was simple; no centrifugation, preincubation, or standardization of the inocula was required, and the susceptibility results were normally available within 3 to 6 h after inoculation. The rapid method may allow proper antimicrobial treatment almost 30 to 40 h before the results of the standard methods are available. PMID:9738038
Yousuf, R; Abdul Ghani, S A; Abdul Khalid, N; Leong, C F
'InTec Blood Grouping Test kit' using solid-phase technology is a new method which may be used at outdoor blood donation site or at bed side as an alternative to the conventional tile method in view of its stability at room temperature and fulfilled the criteria as point of care test. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of this solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit) with the conventional tile method in determining the ABO and RhD blood group of healthy donors. A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard. For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively. The 'InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.
Pliasunova, S A; Balugian, R Sh; Khmel'nitskiĭ, K E; Medovyĭ, V S; Parpara, A A; Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Sokolinskiĭ, B Z; Dem'ianov, V L; Nikolaenko, D S
The paper presents the results of medical tests of a group of computer-aided procedures for microscopic analysis by means of a MECOS-Ts2 complex (ZAO "MECOS", Russia), which have been conducted at the Republican Children's Clinical Hospital, the Research Institute of Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Traumatology, and Moscow City Clinical Hospital No. 23. Computer-aided procedures for calculating the differential count and for analyzing the morphology of red blood cells were tested on blood smears from a total of 443 patients and donors, computer-aided calculation of the count of reticulocytes was tested on 318 smears. The tests were carried out under the US standard NCCLS-H20A. Manual microscopy (443 smears) and flow blood analysis on a Coulter GEN*S (125 smears) were used as reference methods. The quality of collection of samples and laboriousness were additionally assessed. The certified MECOS-Ts2 subsystems were additionally used as reference tools. The tests indicated the advantage of computer-aided MECOS-Tsl2 complex microscopy over manual microscopy.
Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa; Vallejo-De la Hoz, Gorka; Fernández-Aedo, Irrintzi
To analyse vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain among adult patients in the emergency department and to explore pain score-related factors. An observational and multicentre research study was performed. Patients undergoing vein catheterisation or arterial puncture for gas test were included consecutively. After each procedure, patients scored the pain experienced using the NRS-11. 780 vein catheterisations and 101 blood gas tests were analysed. Venipuncture was scored with an average score of 2.8 (95% CI: 2.6-3), and arterial puncture with 3.6 (95%CI 3.1-4). Iatrogenic pain scores were associated with moderate - high difficulty procedures (P<.001); with the choice of the humeral rather than the radial artery (P=.02) in the gas test and correlated to baseline pain in venipunctures (P<.001). Pain scores related to other variables such as sex, place of origin or needle gauge did not present statistically significant differences. Vein catheterisation and blood gas test-related pain can be considered mild to moderately and moderately painful procedures, respectively. The pain score is associated with certain variables such as the difficulty of the procedure, the anatomic area of the puncture or baseline pain. A better understanding of painful effects related to emergency nursing procedures and the factors associated with pain self-perception could help to determine when and how to act to mitigate this undesired effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dobec, Marinko; Bannwart, Fridolin; Kaeppeli, Franz; Cassinotti, Pascal
There is a need for reliable, automated high throughput HPV detection and genotyping methods for pre- and post-prophylactic vaccine intervention analyses. To optimize the linear array (LA) HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz) in regard to possible automation steps for the routine laboratory diagnosis of HPV infections and to analyze the HPV genotype distribution in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland. 680 cervical cell specimens with normal cytology, obtained from women undergoing routine cervical screening by liquid-based Pap smear, were analyzed by the LA HPV genotyping test for HPV-DNA. The automation of the LA HPV genotyping test resulted in a total hands-on time reduction of 255 min (from 480 to 225 min; 53%). Any of 37 HPV genotypes were detected in 117 (17.2%) and high-risk (HR) HPV in 55 (8.1%) of 680 women with normal cytology. The highest prevalence of any HPV (28.1%) and HR-HPV (15.1%) was observed in age-group 21-30 and showed a continuous decrease in older age-groups. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (12%), HPV-31 (9.4%), HPV-52 (6%), HPV-51 (5.1%), HPV-45 (4.3%), HPV-58 (4.3%) and HPV-59 (4.3%). The optimization and automation of the LA HPV genotyping test makes it suited for high throughput HPV detection and typing. The epidemiological data provides information about distribution of HPV genotypes in women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland and may be important for determining the future impact of vaccines and potential changes in the country's epidemiological HPV profile.
Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D.; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P.; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F.; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M.
Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306
Hu, Huiying; Jiang, Yulin; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Hao, Na; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, Liangkun
To evaluate, side by side, the efficiency of dried blood spots (DBSs) against serum screening for Down's syndrome, and then, to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven low-risk Chinese women, with singleton pregnancy, were enrolled for the study. Alpha-fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin were measured for the serum as well as for the parallel DBS samples. Partial high-risk pregnant women identified by primary blood testing (n = 38) were also subject to the secondary cfDNA screening. Diagnostic amniocentesis was utilized to confirm the screening results. The true positive rate for Down's syndrome detection was 100% for both blood screening methods; however, the false-positive rate was 3.0% for DBS and 4.0% for serum screening, respectively. DBS correlated well with serum screening on Down's syndrome detection. Three out of 38 primary high-risk women displayed chromosomal abnormalities by cfDNA analysis, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Either the true detection rate or the false-positive rate for Down's syndrome between DBS and the serum test is comparable. In addition, blood primary screening aligned with secondary cfDNA analysis, a "before and after" two-tier screening strategy, can massively decrease the false-positive rate, which, then, dramatically reduces the demand for invasive diagnostic operation. Impact statement Children born with Down's syndrome display a wide range of mental and physical disability. Currently, there is no effective treatment to ease the burden and anxiety of the Down's syndrome family and the surrounding society. This study is to evaluate the efficiency of dried blood spots against serum screening for Down's syndrome and to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal
Sydó, Nóra; Sydó, Tibor; Gonzalez Carta, Karina A; Hussain, Nasir; Merkely, Béla; Murphy, Joseph G; Squires, Ray W; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Allison, Thomas G
A decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with exercise is considered normal, but the significance of an increase in DBP has not been validated. Our aim was to determine the relationship of DBP increasing on a stress test regarding comorbidities and mortality. Our database was reviewed from 1993-2010 using the first stress test of a patient. Non-Minnesota residence, baseline CV disease, rest DBP <60 or >100 mmHg, and age <30 or ≥80 were exclusion criteria. DBP response was classified Normal if peak DBP-rest DBP <0, Borderline 0-9, Abnormal ≥10mmHg. Mortality was determined from Mayo Clinic records and Minnesota Death Index. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of DBP response to presence of comorbidities. Cox regression was used to determine total and CV mortality risk by DBP response. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex and resting DBP. 20760 patients were included (51±11 years, female n=7314). Rest/peak averaged DBP 82±8/69 ±15 mmHg in normal vs 79±9/82±9 mmHg in borderline vs 76±9/92±11 mmHg in abnormal DBP response. There were 1582 deaths (8%) with 557 (3%) CV deaths over 12±5 years of follow-up. In patients with borderline and abnormal DBP response, odds ratios for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and current smoking were significant, while hazard ratios for total and CV death were not significant compared to patients with normal DBP response. DBP response to exercise is significantly associated with important comorbidities at the time of the stress test but does not add to the prognostic yield of stress test.
Anderson-Jackson, LaTecia D.
Approximately one in every three adults age 20 older are diagnosed with high blood pressure or hypertension. It is estimated that hypertension affects 78 million people in the United States, is equally prevalent in both men and woman (Crabtree, Stuart-Shor, & McAllister, 2013). In the United States, around 78% of people suffering from hypertension are aware of their condition, with only 68% using hypertensive medications to control their blood pressure (Writing Group et al., 2010). Clinically, blood pressure measurements may lack accuracy, which can be attributed to various factors, including device limitations, cuff mis-sizing and misplacement, white-coat effect, masked hypertension, and lifestyle factors. The development of an arm phantom to simulate physiologic properties of a human arm and arterial BP waveforms may allow us to better assess the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors. The objective of this study are to: (1) Develop an arm phantom to replicate physiological properties of the human arm, and (2) Incorporate the arm phantom into a mock circulatory flow loop to simulate different physiological blood pressure readings on the bench. A tissue mimicking material, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS), a co-block polymer was used to develop the arm phantom for in-vitro testing. To determine the optimal mechanical properties for the arm phantom, individual arm components were isolated and tested. A protocol was developed to evaluate various components for optimal arm phantom development. Mechanical testing was conducted on 10%, 15%, and 20% SEBS gel samples for modulus of elasticity measurements in order to simulate physiological properties of the human arm. As a result of the SEBS polymer being a new material for this application, this investigation will contribute to resolving the limitations that occurred during experimentation. In this study, we demonstrated that although SEBS polymer may be an ideal material to use for simulating
Marque-Juillet, S; Touzard, A; Monnier, S; Fernand-Laurent, C; Therby, A; Rigaudeau, S; Harzic, M
Diagnosing the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the blood of immunodepressed patients is often done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) even though the reference method remains the antigenemia pp65 (Ag-pp65) test. To define the predictive value of the Q-PCR in the diagnosis of CMV disease and assess treatment efficacy using the CMV R-gene test. To compare the Q-PCR results and feasibility with those of the Ag-pp65 test. The Q-PCR was performed in 34 whole blood samples (frozen at -80 degrees C until use) from five patients diagnosed with CMV disease, defined as the presence of clinical signs and Ag-pp65 in the nuclei of more than two cells. After extraction, viral DNA was quantified in each sample using the Q-PCR CMV R-gene kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Immediately after blood was drawn, the Ag-pp65 test had been performed in 32 samples using CINAkit (Argene). The 16 samples positive by the Ag-pp65 test were also positive by PCR; six samples negative by the Ag-pp65 test were positive by PCR; and the remaining 10 samples were negative by both techniques. During treatment, the two markers' kinetics were similar. The CMV R-gene test has a predictive value as good as that of the Ag-pp65 test but is fast and easier to use. A prospective study with a greater number of patients is needed to define the prediction threshold for CMV disease. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.
Saá, Paula; Proctor, Melanie; Foster, Gregory; Krysztof, David; Winton, Colleen; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Brodsky, Jaye P; Limberger, Ronald J; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L
Because of the potential severe clinical consequences of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, the large numbers of asymptomatic travelers returning from ZIKV-active areas, the detection of ZIKV nucleic acid in blood, and reports of transmission of ZIKV through transfusion, in 2016 the Food and Drug Administration released recommendations for individual-unit nucleic acid testing to minimize the risk of transmission of ZIKV through blood transfusions. The American Red Cross implemented investigational screening of donated blood for ZIKV RNA by means of transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). Confirmatory testing of reactive donations involved repeat TMA, TMA testing in exploratory minipools, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, IgM serologic testing, and red-cell TMA. Viral loads in plasma and red cells were estimated by means of end-point TMA. The costs of interdicting a donation that was confirmed to be positive were calculated for the 15-month period between June 2016 and September 2017. Of the 4,325,889 donations that were screened, 393,713 (9%) were initially tested in 24,611 minipools, and no reactive donations were found. Of the 3,932,176 donations that were subsequently tested individually, 160 were initially reactive and 9 were confirmed positive (a 1:480,654 confirmed-positive rate overall; positive predictive value, 5.6%; specificity, 99.997%). Six (67%) of the confirmed-positive donations were reactive on repeat TMA, of which 4 were IgM-negative; of these 4, all 3 that could be tested were reactive on minipool TMA. Two confirmed-positive donors had infections that had been transmitted locally (in Florida), 6 had traveled to ZIKV-active areas, and 1 had received an experimental ZIKV vaccine. ZIKV RNA levels in red cells ranged from 40 to 800,000 copies per milliliter and were detected up to 154 days after donation, as compared with 80 days of detection in plasma at levels of 12 to 20,000 copies per milliliter. On the basis of industry
Eshraghi, Ali; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Golnezhad, Reza
It is believed that an exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to exercise stress test is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. It is also assumed that QT dispersion (QT-d), which was originally proposed to measure the spatial dispersion of ventricular recovery times, may have a relationship to cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of changes in QT-d, Maxi-QT, Mini-QT, and QT-c (corrected QT interval) of the electrocardiogram in two groups of patients with exaggerated blood pressure responses (EBPR group) and normal responses (control group) to exercise testing. Also, the diagnostic value of each of these criteria in the prediction of EBPR was studied. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to February 2016 on patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing exercise testing who had been referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad (Iran). All patients underwent a treadmill exercise test with the 12-lead ECG, which was optically scanned and digitized for analysis of QT-d, QT max, and QT min. Patients were divided into two groups of normal and EBPR to exercise testing. QT changes of ECG were compared between the two groups, and the diagnostic accuracy of QT variables for prediction of EBPR to exercise testing was studied. A multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), Pearson Chi-qquare, independent samples t-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used as statistical methods in IBM SPSS version 19. Sixty patients (55% male) with a mean age of 50.48 ± 10.89 years were studied in two groups of normal (n=30) and exaggerated blood pressure response (n=30) to exercise testing. Maximum QT and QT dispersion were statistically different in individuals' exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise stress test (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that none of our parameters predicted the EBPR. The ROC curve showed that 50 and 345
Tinmouth, Jill; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Allison, James E
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, it is fortunately amenable to screening with faecal tests for occult blood and endoscopic tests. Despite the evidence for the efficacy of guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests (gFOBT), they have not been popular with primary care providers in many jurisdictions, in part because of poor sensitivity for advanced colorectal neoplasms (advanced adenomas and CRC). In order to address this issue, high sensitivity gFOBT have been recommended, however, these tests are limited by a reduction in specificity compared with the traditional gFOBT. Where colonoscopy is available, some providers have opted to recommend screening colonoscopy to their patients instead of faecal testing, as they believe it to be a better test. Newer methods for detecting occult human blood in faeces have been developed. These tests, called faecal immunochemical tests (FIT), are immunoassays specific for human haemoglobin. FIT hold considerable promise over the traditional guaiac methods including improved analytical and clinical sensitivity for CRC, better detection of advanced adenomas, and greater screenee participation. In addition, the quantitative FIT are more flexible than gFOBT as a numerical result is reported, allowing customisation of the positivity threshold. When compared with endoscopy, FIT are less sensitive for the detection of advanced colorectal neoplasms when only one time testing is applied to a screening population; however, this is offset by improved participation in a programme of annual or biennial screens and a better safety profile. This review will describe how gFOBT and FIT work and will present the evidence that supports the use of FIT over gFOBT, including the cost-effectiveness of FIT relative to gFOBT. Finally, specific issues related to FIT implementation will be discussed, particularly with respect to organised CRC screening programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Paik, Ho Kyu; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Kang; Kim, Chul-Eung; Yoon, Seung Hwan
Objective The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea. Methods The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared. Results Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. Conclusion Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea. PMID:22053230
Oomen, H A; Schipperijn, A J; Drexhage, H A
Cognitive and affective functioning is sensitive to changes in thyroid hormones. We have sought to determine: (1) the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities in a psychiatric population on admission (as compared to the prevalence in a normal population), and (2) whether such thyroid function abnormalities are associated with the occurrence or development of cognitive and affective disorders. Serum was collected 2-3 weeks after hospitalization in 3 major clinics from 3756 psychiatric patients in 1987-1990, stored, and assayed in 1993 for the presence of antibodies against the TSH-receptor and thyroperoxidase (TPO-Ab) and for TSH levels. The psychiatric cohort was matched with a control population of healthy individuals living in the same area (n = 1877). The prevalence study was followed by a case-control study involving patients from one clinic that had routinely assigned a DSM-IIIR classification to its patients. Cases were those admissions with thyroid abnormalities and three subgroups of cases were randomly formed demonstrating either TSH less than 0.4 mU/l (n = 44) or over 4.0 mU/l (n = 44), or TPO-Ab positivity (n = 50). Cases were compared to random controls from the same psychiatric population, viz patients without thyroid abnormalities (n = 83). Comparison was with respect to their psychiatric follow-up diagnosis (the investigator was blinded to the thyroid test results). Prevalence study. The percentage of patients positive for TSH-receptor-Ab was 0.26 (9/3504), for TPO-Ab was 10.0 (331/3316) and outside the TSH range of 0.4-4.0 mU/l was 10.0 ((332/3316): 5.9% (198/3316) > 4.0 mU/l and 4.1% (134/3316) < 0.4 mU/l). Abnormal total thyroxine levels were found in only 9.8% of subjects with abnormal TSH, indicating the predominantly subclinical character of the thyroid alteration. In comparison, the healthy area controls over 55 years of age showed the same prevalence of positive TPO-antibodies and TSH under 0.4 mU/l, but a higher prevalence of TSH over 4
Tegbaru, Belete; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Wolday, Dawit; Meles, PhD Hailu; Tesema, Desalegn; Birhanu, Hiwot; Tesfaye, Girma; Bond, Kyle B; Martin, Robert; Rayfield, Mark A; Wuhib, Tadesse; Fekadu, Makonnen
Five simple and rapid HIV antibody detection assays viz. Determine, Capillus, Oraquick, Unigold and Hemastrip were evaluated to examine their performance and to develop an alternative rapid test based testing algorithm for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Ethiopia. All the kits were tested on whole blood, plasma and serum. The evaluation had three phases: Primary lab review, piloting at point of service and implementation. This report includes the results of the first two phases. A total of 2,693 specimens (both whole blood and plasma) were included in the evaluation. Results were compared to double Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Discordant EIA results were resolved using Western Blot. The assays had very good sensitivities and specificities, 99-100%, at the two different phases of the evaluation. A 98-100% result agreement was obtained from those tested at VCT centers and National Referral Laboratory for AIDS (NRLA), in the quality control phase of the evaluation. A testing strategy yielding 100% [95% CI; 98.9-100.0] sensitivity was achieved by the sequential use of the three rapid test kits. Direct cost comparison showed serial testing algorithm reduces the cost of testing by over 30% compared to parallel testing in the current situation. Determine, Capillus/Oraquick (presence/absence of frefrigeration) and Unigold were recommended as screening, confirmation and tiebreaker tests, respectively.
Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.
When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…
Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J; Davison, Jon M; Prichard, Jeffrey W; Reese, Lia M; Zhang, Yi; Repa, Kathleen; Li, Jinhong; Diehl, David L; Jhala, Nirag C; Ginsberg, Gregory G; DeMarshall, Maureen; Foxwell, Tyler; Jobe, Blair A; Zaidi, Ali H; Duits, Lucas C; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Rustgi, Anil; Falk, Gary W
There is a need for improved tools to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus. In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in Barrett's esophagus. Our aim was to determine whether this risk classifier could detect a field effect in nondysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND), or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients. The risk classifier was evaluated in ND, IND, and LGD biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients diagnosed with HGD/EAC on repeat endoscopy (prevalent cases, n = 30, median time to HGD/EAC diagnosis 140.5 days) and nonprogressors (controls, n = 145, median HGD/EAC-free surveillance time 2,015 days). The risk classifier stratified prevalent cases and non-progressor patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk classes [OR, 46.0; 95% confidence interval, 14.86-169 (high-risk vs. low-risk); P < 0.0001]. The classifier also provided independent prognostic information that outperformed the subspecialist and generalist diagnosis. A tissue systems pathology test better predicts prevalent HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients than pathologic variables. The results indicate that molecular and cellular changes associated with malignant transformation in Barrett's esophagus may be detectable as a field effect using the test. A tissue systems pathology test may provide an objective method to facilitate earlier identification of Barrett's esophagus patients requiring therapeutic intervention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 240-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Pevalin, David J.; O’Moore, Éamonn
Background: People in prison have a higher burden of blood-borne virus (BBV) infection than the general population, and prisons present an opportunity to test for BBVs in high-risk, underserved groups. Changes to the BBV testing policies in English prisons have recently been piloted. This review will enable existing evidence to inform policy revisions. We describe components of routine HIV, hepatitis B and C virus testing policies in prisons and quantify testing acceptance, coverage, result notification and diagnosis. Methods: We searched five databases for studies of both opt-in (testing offered to all and the individual chooses to have the test or not) and opt-out (the individual is informed the test will be performed unless they actively refuse) prison BBV testing policies. Results: Forty-four studies published between 1989 and 2013 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 82% were conducted in the USA, 91% included HIV testing and most tested at the time of incarceration. HIV testing acceptance rates ranged from 22 to 98% and testing coverage from 3 to 90%. Mixed results were found for equity in uptake. Six studies reported reasons for declining a test including recent testing and fear. Conclusions: While the quality of evidence is mixed, this review suggests that reasonable rates of uptake can be achieved with opt-in and, even better, with opt-out HIV testing policies. Little evidence was found relating to hepatitis testing. Policies need to specify exclusion criteria and consider consent processes, type of test and timing of the testing offer to balance acceptability, competence and availability of individuals. PMID:26219884
Lee, Won Chan; Smith, Elise; Chubb, Barrie; Wolden, Michael Lyng
Through a retrospective database analysis, this study seeks to provide an understanding of the utilization of SMBG by insulin therapy and diabetes type and to estimate healthcare costs of blood glucose monitoring in the UK diabetes population. Data were obtained from the IMS LifeLink Electronic Medical Record-Europe (EMR-EU) Database, a longitudinal database containing anonymized patient records from physician-practice data systems of office-based physicians in the UK. Depending on the insulin types used for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, patients were sub-categorized into one of four insulin regimen groups (basal, bolus, pre-mixed, or basal-bolus). Frequency of blood glucose testing was assessed descriptively throughout the 12-month post-index period, and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effect of baseline characteristics, including insulin type, on the likelihood of blood glucose test utilization. Healthcare resource utilization and costs for all-cause services were assessed by insulin type. This study identified 8322 type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients with two insulin pharmacy records between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. After applying study inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 2676 (32.2%) insulin-treated diabetes mellitus patients in the UK were identified, with the number of pharmacy blood glucose test strips averaging 771.1 (median 600). The glucose testing frequency was lowest among basal-only insulin patients and pre-mixed insulin patients (mean=576.2 [median=450] and mean=599.5 [median=500], respectively; non-significantly different) compared to other insulin types. Although the data did not capture the glucose frequency comprehensively, it varied significantly by insulin types, and was higher than what is recommended in the guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Rodzi, Mohd; Ihda, Shozo; Yokozeki, Masako; Takeichi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu
A study was conducted to compare the storage conditions and transportation period for blood samples collected from residents living in areas near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Experiments were performed to simulate storage and shipping environments. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood was stored in 15-ml tubes (condition A: current transport method) in the absence or in 50-ml flasks (condition B: previous transport method) in the presence of RPMI-1640 and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Samples were kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and cell viability was assessed after 3, 8, 12 and 14 days of storage. RPMI-1640, 20% FBS and further PHA were added to blood samples under condition A in 50-ml flasks for culture. Whole-blood samples under condition B were directly incubated without further sub-culturing process, neither media nor PHA were added, to adopt a similar protocol to that employed in the previous transport method. Samples in condition A and condition B were incubated for 48 hr at 37 degrees C and their mitotic index was determined. The results showed that viable lymphocytes were consistent in both storage conditions but the mitotic index was higher in condition A than in condition B. Although further confirmation studies have to be carried out, previous chromosomal studies and the present experiment have shown that PHA-stimulated blood could be stored without culture medium for up to 8 days under condition A. The present results will be useful for cytogenetic analysis of blood samples that have been transported long distances wherever a radiation accident has occurred.
Christiansen, Stefan; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Reul, Helmut; Autschbach, Rüdiger
The incidence of isolated right ventricular (RV) failure is rare in postcardiotomy patients, but high in patients undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device or cardiac transplantation. Therefore, we have developed a new microaxial flow device and report on our first in vivo animal trials. Six healthy adult female sheep weighing 80-90 kg underwent implantation of the microaxial blood pump for partial unloading of the right ventricle. This pump is a miniaturized rotary blood pump with a diameter of only 6.4 mm and a weight of 11 g. The inner volume of the pump is limited to 12 mL, and the inner artificial blood contacting surface is 65 cm(2). The pump consists of a rotor driven by an incorporated brushless direct current motor, the housing of the rotor, the inflow cage, the outflow cannula, and the driveline. At the maximum speed of 32,500 rotations/min, a flow of 6 L/min can be delivered. The inflow and outflow conduit were anastomosed to the right atrium and the main pulmonary artery, respectively. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data as well as blood samples were measured over the whole test period of 7 days. The hearts and lungs as well as the pump were explanted for a thorough examination at the end of the trial. Systemic arterial blood pressures remained unchanged during the entire test period. RV cardiac output was diminished significantly as demonstrated by the echocardiographic studies. The number of platelets decreased perioperatively, but recovered within the test period. The free hemoglobin was not enhanced postoperatively indicating no significant hemolysis. Liver function was only slightly impaired due to operative reasons (increase in bilirubin on the first postoperative day but normalization within the test period). The pathologic examination revealed some clots at the inflow cage and fibrin depositions on the impeller as well as on the inner surface of the outflow graft without an impairment of pump function. Our results
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Gelati, Matteo; Volanski, Waldemar; Boritiza, Katia Cristina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
To evaluate the effect of tubes mixing (gentle vs. vigorous) on diagnostic blood specimens collected in vacuum tube systems by venipuncture. Blood was collected for routine coagulation, immunochemistry and hematological testing from one hundred volunteers into six vacuum tubes: two 3.6 mL vacuum tubes containing 0.4 mL of buffered sodium citrate (9NC) 0.109 mol/L: 3.2 W/V%; two 3.5 mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator; and two 3.0 mL vacuum tubes containing 5.9 mg K(2)EDTA (Terumo Europe, Belgium). Immediately after the venipuncture all vacuum tubes (each of one additive type) were processed through two different procedures: i) Standard: blood specimens in K(2)EDTA- or sodium citrate-vacuum tubes were gently inverted five times whereas the specimens in tubes with clot activator and gel separator were gently inverted ten times, as recommended by the manufacturer; ii) Vigorous mix: all blood specimens were shaken up vigorously during 3-5s independently of the additive type inside the tubes. The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by Student's t-test or Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. No significant difference (P<0.05) was detected between the procedures for all tested parameters. Surprisingly only a visual alteration (presence of foam on the top) was shown by all the tubes mixed vigorously before centrifugation (Fig. 1 A, B and C). Moreover the serum tubes from vigorous mixing procedure shows a "blood ring" on the tube top after stopper removal (Fig. 1 D). Our results drop out a paradigm suggesting that the incorrect primary blood tubes mixing promotes laboratory variability. We suggest that similar evaluation should be done using other brands of vacuum tubes by each laboratory manager. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki
In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C
Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, P<0.005). AOF was estimated by the combination of hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST, ALT, platelets and prothrombin index ((a) R(2) =0.530), while FD was estimated by hyaluronic acid, glycaemia, AST/ALT, weight and platelets ((a) R(2) =0.529). (ii) Evaluation. Although NASH-CRN was a better system for fibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (P<10(-3)). FibroMeter showed a significantly higher AUROC than the NAFLD fibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, P<10(-3)) was well reflected by the relationship between respective blood tests (r(s) =0.852, P<10(-3)). Different characteristics of fibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S
Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N
From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.
Doern, G V; Scott, D R; Rashad, A L; Kim, K S
A total of 556 unique blood culture isolates of nonfastidious aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were examined by direct and standardized disk susceptibility test methods (4,234 antibiotic-organism comparisons). When discrepancies which could be accounted for by the variability inherent in disk diffusion susceptibility tests were excluded, the direct method demonstrated 96.8% overall agreement with the standardized method. A total of 1.6% minor, 1.5% major, and 0.1% very major discrepancies were noted. PMID:7325634
Plotnikov, M B; Vasil'ev, A S; Aliev, O I; Zibareva, L N
Hyperviscosity syndrome was described in Brattleboro rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of Brattleboro rats using, as a test system for the study of agents with hemorheological activity. Under conditions of this model of high blood viscosity syndrome in Brattleboro rats, Lychnis chalcedonica L. extract (150 mg/kg) administered intragastrically for 10 days exhibited hemorheological activity by modulating macro- (plasma viscosity, fibrinogen concentration) and microrheological (erythrocyte aggregation and deformability parameters. Hence, Brattleboro rats are an adequate model of hyperviscosity syndrome that can be used for search and testing of substances with hemorheological activity.
Youssef, Marylen; Ghassemi, Azadeh; Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina Marysol; Kugathasan, Thiffya Arabi; Kilgour, Robert D; Darlington, Peter J
The cold pressor test (CPT) involves acute hand or foot exposure to cold water. CPT hyper-responders have unique traits, including risk of hypertension and a greater vasoconstrictor reserve and g force tolerance compared to hypo-responders. The purpose of this study was to uncover differences in cardiovascular and sympathetic biomarkers between responder types. Healthy volunteers (N = 30) submerged one hand into cold water (3.3 ± 0.8°C) for 5 min. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac parameters were recorded using an automated monitor, impedance cardiography, and a beat-to-beat monitoring system. We analyzed for salivary α-amylase (SαA), which is a convenient biomarker of the sympathetic nervous system. Subjects were stratified post hoc into hyper-responders (≥ 22 mmHg) and hypo-responders (< 22 mmHg) based on change in systolic blood pressure during CPT. Hyper-responders had a significantly lower baseline heart rate (64 ± 7 bpm), cardiac output (5.6 ± 0.9 L · min-1), and SαA (60 ± 37 U · mL-1) compared to hypo-responders (73 ± 9 bpm, 6.9 ± 1.3 L · min-1, 165 ± 122 U · mL-1). During the cold immersion, hyper-responders had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (150 ± 14 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (91 ± 10 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (129 ± 17 mmHg), and systemic vascular resistance (1780 ± 640 dyn · s-1 · cm-5) than hypo-responders (130 ± 14 mmHg, 81 ± 10 mmHg, 110 ± 9 mmHg, 1290 ± 220 dyn · s-1 · cm-5). The change in systolic blood pressure correlated with baseline SαA (r = -0.455, P = 0.011) and baseline heart rate (r = -0.374, P = 0.042). Baseline characteristics influenced by sympathetic tone such as SαA, heart rate, and cardiac output are indicative of responses to CPT. Our data supports the use of baseline values to predict blood pressure response to acute cold exposure and indicates an intrinsic difference between CPT responder phenotypes.Youssef M, Ghassemi A, Carvajal Gonczi CM, Kugathasan TA
Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L
The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.
Akinbami, Felix; Segal, Scott; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Mills, Jonathan; Rogers, Selwyn O
Pre- and intraoperative glycemic control has been identified as a putative target to improve outcomes of surgical patients. Glycemic control requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with appropriate adjustments. However, monitoring standards have been called into question, especially in cases in which capillary samples are used. Point-of-care testing (POCT) using capillary samples and glucometers has been noted to give relatively accurate results for critically ill patients. However, the package inserts of most glucometers warn that they should not be used for patients in shock. This has led clinicians to doubt their accuracy in the operating room. The accuracy of capillary samples when tested in patients undergoing surgical procedures has not been proven. This study aims to determine the accuracy of intraoperative blood glucose values using capillary samples relative to arterial samples. A prospective study was conducted by collecting paired capillary and arterial samples of patients undergoing major operations at a tertiary medical center from August 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were a convenience sample of patients who had arterial lines and needed glucose testing while undergoing the procedure. Precision Xceed Pro (Abbott) handheld glucometers were used to obtain the blood glucose values. Our primary outcome of interest was the degree of correlation between capillary and arterial blood glucose values or the degree to which arterial glucose levels can be predicted by capillary glucose samples. We used linear regression and the Student t tests for statistical analyses. Seventy-two-paired samples were collected. Of the cases, 54% were major abdominal operations, whereas 24% were vascular operations. The mean values ± standard deviation for glucose levels were 146 ± 35 mg/dL (capillary) and 147 ± 36 mg/dL (arterial). The mean time ± standard deviation between the collection of both samples was 3.5 ± 1.3 minutes. The regression coefficient showed a
Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua
Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.
Ward, S T; Weston, C J; Hepburn, E; Damery, S; Hejmadi, R K; Morton, D G; Middleton, G; Ismail, T; Adams, D H
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue and associated with disease progression. A blood test may form a more acceptable diagnostic test for CRC although LOX has not previously been measured in the serum. We therefore sought to determine the clinical usefulness of a serum LOX test for CRC in a symptomatic population. Adult patients referred to a hospital colorectal clinic with bowel symptoms completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serum LOX measurement. Associations between presenting symptoms, serum LOX concentrations and outcomes of investigations were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if serum LOX was clinically useful in the prediction of CRC. LOX expression in CRC and adjacent colon biopsies was evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-one cases of colorectal cancer and 16 high-risk polyps were identified from a total of 962 participants. There was no association between serum LOX concentration and the presence of CRC, high-risk polyps or cancers at any site. LOX expression was significantly increased in CRC tissue compared to adjacent colon. Despite overexpression of LOX in CRC tissue, elevated serum levels could not be demonstrated. Serum LOX measurement is therefore not a clinically useful test for CRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein
The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.
Markham, Larry W; Knecht, Sandra K; Daniels, Stephen R; Mays, Wayne A; Khoury, Philip R; Knilans, Timothy K
Often, the lack of systemic arterial hypertension and the lack of a resting arm-leg blood pressure gradient are used to assess the adequacy of the anatomic result after intervention for coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Some patients with no arm-leg gradient at rest may develop a gradient with exercise, leading caregivers to question the success of the repair. It is not clear what the prevalence is of patients who have undergone a successful intervention for CoA and have no arm-leg gradient at rest but develop a significant gradient with exercise and which factors may predict the development of an arm-leg gradient with exercise. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of an exercise-induced arm-leg gradient in subjects who have undergone an apparently successful intervention for CoA.
Muntner, Paul; Lewis, Cora E; Diaz, Keith M; Carson, April P; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi
Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8 ± 3.8 years and 30.8 ± 3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age-gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99-6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39-4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Ondoa, Pascale; Omolo, Paul; Akoth, Benta; Lwamba, Humphrey; Lando, Richard; Williamson, John; Otieno, Juliana; Masaba, Rose; Weidle, Paul; Thomas, Timothy
Anemia results in increased morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its pathophysiology amongst HIV-exposed and infected children in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where most infant HIV exposure and infections occur. This analysis used samples obtained from children in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS). KiBS was a longitudinal phase IIB, open-label, one-arm clinical trial, designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a maternal triple-antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, during late pregnancy and early infancy while breastfeeding. Blood samples from 482 children were obtained at birth, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Severity of anemia was graded using the NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. We describe the proportion of children with anemia and anomalies in red blood cell parameters at various time points over 24 months and compare rates of anemia between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and by mothers' ARV regimen and infant malaria infection. The proportion of children with anemia significantly increased after the breastfeeding period in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with higher proportion among HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected children (RR: 1.72; CI: 1.22-2.44, p = 0.002). Maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen was not associated with infant anemia (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin between HIV-uninfected children with and without malaria at each time point except at 24 months. A relatively lower proportion of children with severe anemia during the breastfeeding period suggest that exposure to mother's triple antiretroviral combinations through breast milk, posed minimal risk of hematologic toxicity.
Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Ondoa, Pascale; Omolo, Paul; Akoth, Benta; Lwamba, Humphrey; Lando, Richard; Williamson, John; Otieno, Juliana; Masaba, Rose; Weidle, Paul; Thomas, Timothy
Background Anemia results in increased morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its pathophysiology amongst HIV-exposed and infected children in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where most infant HIV exposure and infections occur. Methods This analysis used samples obtained from children in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS). KiBS was a longitudinal phase IIB, open-label, one-arm clinical trial, designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a maternal triple-antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, during late pregnancy and early infancy while breastfeeding. Blood samples from 482 children were obtained at birth, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Severity of anemia was graded using the NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. We describe the proportion of children with anemia and anomalies in red blood cell parameters at various time points over 24 months and compare rates of anemia between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and by mothers’ ARV regimen and infant malaria infection. Results The proportion of children with anemia significantly increased after the breastfeeding period in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with higher proportion among HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected children (RR: 1.72; CI: 1.22–2.44, p = 0.002). Maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen was not associated with infant anemia (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin between HIV-uninfected children with and without malaria at each time point except at 24 months. Conclusion A relatively lower proportion of children with severe anemia during the breastfeeding period suggest that exposure to mother’s triple antiretroviral combinations through breast milk, posed minimal risk of hematologic toxicity. PMID:26529316
Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Bardou, Derek; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; de Lédinghen, Victor
Elastometry is more accurate than blood tests for cirrhosis diagnosis. However, blood tests were developed for significant fibrosis, with the exception of CirrhoMeter developed for cirrhosis. We compared the performance of Fibroscan and CirrhoMeter, and classic binary cirrhosis diagnosis versus new fibrosis staging for cirrhosis diagnosis. The diagnostic population included 679 patients with hepatitis C and liver biopsy (Metavir staging and morphometry), Fibroscan, and CirrhoMeter. The prognostic population included 1110 patients with chronic liver disease and both tests. Binary diagnosis: AUROCs for cirrhosis were: Fibroscan: 0.905; CirrhoMeter: 0.857; and P=0.041. Accuracy (Youden cutoff) was: Fibroscan: 85.4%; CirrhoMeter: 79.2%; and P<0.001. Fibrosis classification provided 6 classes (F0/1, F1/2, F2±1, F3±1, F3/4, and F4). Accuracy was: Fibroscan: 88.2%; CirrhoMeter: 88.8%; and P=0.77. A simplified fibrosis classification comprised 3 categories: discrete (F1±1), moderate (F2±1), and severe (F3/4) fibrosis. Using this simplified classification, CirrhoMeter predicted survival better than Fibroscan (respectively, χ=37.9 and 19.7 by log-rank test), but both predicted it well (P<0.001 by log-rank test). Comparison: binary diagnosis versus fibrosis classification, respectively, overall accuracy: CirrhoMeter: 79.2% versus 88.8% (P<0.001); Fibroscan: 85.4% versus 88.2% (P=0.127); positive predictive value for cirrhosis by Fibroscan: Youden cutoff (11.1 kPa): 49.1% versus cutoffs of F3/4 (17.6 kPa): 67.6% and F4 classes (25.7 kPa): 82.4%. Fibroscan's usual binary cutoffs for cirrhosis diagnosis are not sufficiently accurate. Fibrosis classification should be preferred over binary diagnosis. A cirrhosis-specific blood test markedly attenuates the accuracy deficit for cirrhosis diagnosis of usual blood tests versus transient elastometry, and may offer better prognostication.
Holme, Øyvind; Bretthauer, Michael; Fretheim, Atle; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Hoff, Geir
Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent cancer in the world. As the sojourn time for this cancer is several years and a good prognosis is associated with early stage diagnosis, screening has been implemented in a number of countries. Both screening with faecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy have been shown to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer in randomised controlled trials. The comparative effectiveness of these tests on colorectal cancer mortality has, however, never been evaluated, and controversies exist over which test to choose. To compare the effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer with flexible sigmoidoscopy to faecal occult blood testing. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (November 16, 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 11) and reference lists for eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy or faecal occult blood testing to each other or to no screening. Only studies reporting mortality from colorectal cancer were included. Faecal occult blood testing had to be repeated (annually or biennially). Data retrieval and assessment of risk of bias were performed independently by two review authors. Standard meta-analyses using a random-effects model were conducted for flexible sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) separately and we calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used a Bayesian approach (a contrast-based network meta-analysis method) for indirect analyses and presented the results as posterior median relative risk with 95% credibility intervals. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE. We identified nine studies comprising 338,467 individuals randomised to screening and 405,919 individuals to the control groups. Five studies compared flexible sigmoidoscopy to no screening and four studies compared repetitive guaiac-based FOBT (annually and biennially) to no screening. We did not
Cristol, R; Debray, J
The fingertip blood flow measured by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion, at 22 degrees C room temperature, had significantly lower mean values in 190 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (55 men aged 49 yrs +/- 16, 135 women aged 48 yrs +/- 16) than in 40 age and sex matched controls: 18 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 14.6 versus 35 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 15 at level p less than 0.01. The mean fingertip blood flow was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in 31 cases of scleroderma and 32 cases of pulpar necrosis (respectively 13 ml +/- 13 and 11 ml +/- 8) than in 55 cases of primary Raynaud's disease (no detectable etiology and normal capillaroscopy 5 years after onset) or in 34 cases of mild Raynaud's phenomenon (respectively 21.6 +/- 16 and 24.4 +/- 18). A warming test (both hands in water at 45 degrees C during 3 minutes) was performed in 50 cases with low basal fingertip blood flow. It induced a "normalized" flow in 22 cases (mostly primary or mild Raynaud), a partly improved flow in 20 cases (mostly secondary Raynaud) and no improvement in 8 cases (scleroderma). The warming test appears to be clinically useful to assess the vasospasm and the vasodilating capabilities.
Seltsam, Axel; Blasczyk, Rainer
The present review elucidates the potentials of recombinant blood group proteins (BGPs) for red blood cell (RBC) antibody detection and identification in pretransfusion testing and the achievements in this field so far. Many BGPs have been eukaryotically and prokaryotically expressed in sufficient quantity and quality for RBC antibody testing. Recombinant BGPs can be incorporated in soluble protein reagents or solid-phase assays such as ELISA, color-coded microsphere and protein microarray chip-based techniques. Because novel recombinant protein-based assays use single antigens, a positive reaction of a serum with the recombinant protein directly indicates the presence and specificity of the target antibody. Inversely, conventional RBC-based assays use panels of human RBCs carrying a huge number of blood group antigens at the same time and require negative reactions of samples with antigen-negative cells for indirect determination of antibody specificity. Because of their capacity for single-step, direct RBC antibody determination, recombinant protein-based assays may greatly facilitate and accelerate the identification of common and rare RBC antibodies.
Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kalibatienė, Lina
Background In Lithuania, governmentally covered remuneration for whole blood donations prevails. Donors may choose to accept or reject the remuneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of nucleic acid testing (NAT) discriminatory-positive markers for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in seronegative, first-time and repeat, remunerated and non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania during the period from 2005 to 2010. Materials and methods All seronegative whole blood and blood component donations were individually analysed by NAT for HIV-1, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified. The prevalence of discriminatory-positive NAT per 100,000 donations in the donor groups and the odds ratios comparing the remunerated and non-remunerated donations were determined. Results Significant differences were observed for HBV NAT results: 47.42 and 26.29 per 100,000 remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 10.6 and 3.58 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. The differences were also significant for HCV NAT results: 47.42 and 51.99 for remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 2.12 and 0 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. No seronegative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. The odds of discriminatory HBV and HCV NAT positive results were statistically significantly higher for both first-time and repeat remunerated donations compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations. Discussion First-time and repeat remunerated seronegative donations were associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence and odds for discriminatory-positive HBV and HCV NAT results compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania. PMID
A defendant accused of being the father of an illegitimate child denies responsibility. Blood samples from the child, mother, and alleged father are studied and the results reveal that the alleged father is excluded. What weight, if any, should the court (if a trial is held) or the jury give to the evidence of nonpaternity? Should the evidence be treated as conclusive proof of nonpaternity or should other evidence be admitted in the trial to overcome the nonpaternity evidence? A medical expert might conclude that a controversy exists because of the court's questioned trustworthiness of the paternity blood testing, while a legal expert might conclude that the controversy arises because of burdens of proof. Both conclusions are valid. The Berry v. Chaplin case held in California in 1946 illustrates this circumstance. In refreshing our memories on this case, we can review the problem in light of today's knowledge.
Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.
Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka
Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prasad, K J; Oberoi, J K; Goel, N; Wattal, C
Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.
Adler, Andreas; Geiger, Sebastian; Keil, Anne; Bias, Harald; Schatz, Philipp; deVos, Theo; Dhein, Jens; Zimmermann, Mathias; Tauber, Rudolf; Wiedenmann, Bertram
Despite strong recommendations for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, participation rates are low. Understanding factors that affect screening choices is essential to developing future screening strategies. Therefore, this study assessed patient willingness to use non-invasive stool or blood based screening tests after refusing colonoscopy. Participants were recruited during regular consultations. Demographic, health, psychological and socioeconomic factors were recorded. All subjects were advised to undergo screening by colonoscopy. Subjects who refused colonoscopy were offered a choice of non-invasive tests. Subjects who selected stool testing received a collection kit and instructions; subjects who selected plasma testing had a blood draw during the office visit. Stool samples were tested with the Hb/Hp Complex Elisa test, and blood samples were tested with the Epi proColon® 2.0 test. Patients who were positive for either were advised to have a diagnostic colonoscopy. 63 of 172 subjects were compliant to screening colonoscopy (37%). 106 of the 109 subjects who refused colonoscopy accepted an alternative non-invasive method (97%). 90 selected the Septin9 blood test (83%), 16 selected a stool test (15%) and 3 refused any test (3%). Reasons for blood test preference included convenience of an office draw, overall convenience and less time consuming procedure. 97% of subjects refusing colonoscopy accepted a non-invasive screening test of which 83% chose the Septin9 blood test. The observation that participation can be increased by offering non-invasive tests, and that a blood test is the preferred option should be validated in a prospective trial in the screening setting.
Wang, Zhan-hong; Li, De-yi
To seek a new non-traumative method applied to the diagnosis of gingival bleeding; Studies on the internal relationship between gingival bleeding and microbacteria. 102 saliva samples were tested for salivary occult blood test(Sobt),1600 sites for gingival crevicular fluid occult blood test (GCFobt) by the test strips, clinical assessments including sulcus bleeding index(SBI) and probing depth(PD); 79,32 subgingival plaque samples for smearing and bacteria culture respectively. Studies on the relationship between GCFobt and clinical index and subgingival bacteria. The sensitivity of GCFobt as a predictor for gingival bleeding was 68.0% and the specificity was 80.5%, GCFobt could more correctly indicated the local gingival inflammation than Sobt. Significant correlation was found between GCFobt and SBI (P<0.001); The percentage of spirochetes, rods and cocci had significant differences between GCFobt negative and positive( P<0.001); Significant differences in the detection of black bacteria within the GCFobt 0 and 3( P<0.01), the same as fusobacteria within GCFobt 0 and 2,3(P<0.05). GCFobt is a rapid,convenient susceptible and non-traumative method for assessing gingival bleeding, can be used as an objective index for clinical periodontal examination.
... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...
... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...
de Cueto, Marina; Ceballos, Esther; Martinez-Martinez, Luis; Perea, Evelio J.; Pascual, Alvaro
In order to further decrease the time lapse between initial inoculation of blood culture media and the reporting of results of identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for microorganisms causing bacteremia, we performed a prospective study in which specially processed fluid from positive blood culture bottles from Bactec 9240 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.) containing aerobic media were directly inoculated into Vitek 2 system cards (bio-Mérieux, France). Organism identification and susceptibility results were compared with those obtained from cards inoculated with a standardized bacterial suspension obtained following subculture to agar; 100 consecutive positive monomicrobic blood cultures, consisting of 50 gram-negative rods and 50 gram-positive cocci, were included in the study. For gram-negative organisms, 31 of the 50 (62%) showed complete agreement with the standard method for species identification, while none of the 50 gram-positive cocci were correctly identified by the direct method. For gram-negative rods, there were 50% categorical agreements between the direct and standard methods for all drugs tested. The very major error rate was 2.4%, and the major error rate was 0.6%. The overall error rate for gram-negatives was 6.6%. Complete agreement in clinical categories of all antimicrobial agents evaluated was obtained for 19 of 50 (38%) gram-positive cocci evaluated; the overall error rate was 8.4%, with 2.8% minor errors, 2.4% major errors, and 3.2% very major errors. These findings suggest that the Vitek 2 cards inoculated directly from positive Bactec 9240 bottles do not provide acceptable bacterial identification or susceptibility testing in comparison with corresponding cards tested by a standard method. PMID:15297523
Coy, Johannes F
Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of biomarkers, thereby providing high sensitivity and specificity, because the intracellular presence of biomarkers is due to an innate immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of blood enables the detection of macrophages and phagocytosed intracellular biomarkers. In order to establish a pan-cancer test, biomarkers for two fundamental biophysical mechanisms have been exploited. The DNaseX/Apo10 protein epitope is a characteristic of tumor cells with abnormal apoptosis and proliferation. Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) is a marker for an anaerobic glucose metabolism (Warburg effect), which is concomitant with invasive growth/metastasis and resistant to radical and apoptosis inducing therapies. The detection of Apo10 and TKTL1 in blood macrophages allowed a sensitive (95.8%) and specific (97.3%) detection of prostate, breast and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Since TKTL1 represents a drugable target, the EDIM based detection of TKTL1 enables a targeted cancer therapy using the vitamin derivatives oxythiamine or benfo-oxythiamine.
Calès, P; Boursier, J; Oberti, F; Hubert, I; Gallois, Y; Rousselet, M-C; Dib, N; Moal, V; Macchi, L; Chevailler, A; Michalak, S; Hunault, G; Chaigneau, J; Sawadogo, A; Lunel, F
FibroMeters are blood tests for liver fibrosis with several specificities: two main diagnostic targets (fibrosis stage and area of fibrosis); adaptation to specific causes; and results confirmed by an expert system. Thus, FibroMeters comprise six different tests: one for staging and one for quantitation of liver fibrosis in each of the three main causes of chronic liver disease-chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FibroMeters display a high overall diagnostic accuracy and are the only tests to correctly classify 100% of HCV patients without fibrosis or with cirrhosis. They have 90% predictive values in a higher proportion of patients than with other usual blood tests. A 90% correct classification is available in 100% of HCV patients with the following reliable diagnostic intervals: F0/1, F1/2, F2+/-1, F3+/-1. In real-life conditions, the reproducibility of FibroMeters is higher than that of liver biopsy or ultrasonographic elastometry. FibroMeters are robust tests with the most stable diagnostic performance across different centers. Optional tests are also available, such as a specific one for cirrhosis, which has a diagnostic accuracy of 93.0% (AUROC: 0.92) and a 100% positive predictive value for diagnosis of HCV cirrhosis. Determination by FibroMeters of the area of fibrosis - the only direct, non-invasive, quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis - are especially useful for following-up cirrhosis as it correlates well with clinical events. FibroMeters are also very accurate in HVB or HIV-HCV co-infected patients. The tests specific for ALD and NAFLD also have a high diagnostic accuracy (AUROCs: 0.96 and 0.94, respectively, for significant fibrosis).
Chamorro, Laura; García-Cano, Ana; Busto, Rebeca; Martínez-González, Javier; Albillos, Agustín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Pastor, Oscar
The lack of analytical methods specific for each lipid class, particularly for phospholipids and sphyngolipids, makes necessary their separation by preparative techniques before quantification. LC-MS would be the election method but for daily work in the clinical laboratory this is not feasible for different reasons, both economic and time consuming. In the present work, we have optimized an HPLC method to quantify lipid classes in plasma and erythrocytes and applied it to samples from patients with cirrhosis. Lipid classes were analyzed by normal phase liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. We employed a quaternary solvent system to separate twelve lipid classes in 15 min. Interday, intraday and recovery for quantification of lipid classes in plasma were excellent with our methodology. The total plasma lipid content of cirrhotic patients vs control subjects was decreased with diminished CE (81±33 vs 160±17 mg/dL) and PC (37±16 vs 60±19 mg/dL). The composition of erythrocytes showed a decrease in acidic phospholipids: PE, PI and PS. Present methodology provides a reliable quantification of lipid classes in blood. The lipid profile of cirrhotics showed alterations in the PC/PE plasma ratio and in the phospholipid content of erythrocytes, which might reflect alterations in hepatocyte and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roccatello, D; Mengozzi, G; Ferro, M; Cesano, G; Polloni, R; Mosso, R; Bonetti, G; Inconis, T; Paradisi, L; Sena, L M
An endothelin urinary hyperexcretion, which is not counterbalanced by an adequate increase in cGMP biosynthesis, was previously detected in some patients with IgA Nephropathy (IgAN). Since this imbalance might potentiate local ET1-mediated hemodynamics effects, 9 IgAN patients with an increased (> or = 0.1) urinary ET1/cGMP ratio (group 1) and 5 IgAN patients with comparable renal function and reduced ET1/cGMP ratio (group 2) were given standard doses of isosorbide 5 mononitrate (as a nitric oxide source). Blood nitric oxide (NO) levels, as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance, significantly increased after isosorbide administration (p < 0.01) and decreased after drug discontinuation in both groups. Nitric oxide levels were significantly related with those of the effective renal plasma flow (p < 0.02), but not with the glomerular filtration rate. Proteinuria levels significantly decreased after drug administration (p < 0.009) in group 1 and returned to baseline levels thereafter, except two cases showing persisting low levels. Values of filtration fraction in the same group decreased after iso5M administration (p < 0.02 compared to basal levels). These results may possibly be related to the counterbalancing effects of nitric oxide on endothelin-mediated mesangial contraction.
Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio
Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.
Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe
Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895
Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe
More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.
MacMillan, Thomas E; Gudgeon, Patrick; Yip, Paul M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B
Red blood cell folate is a laboratory test with limited clinical utility. Previous attempts to reduce physician ordering of unnecessary laboratory tests, including folate, have resulted in only modest success. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and impacts of restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record. This was a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2016 at a large academic healthcare network in Toronto, Canada. All inpatients and outpatients who underwent at least 1 red blood cell folate or vitamin B12 test during the study period were included. Red blood cell folate ordering was restricted to clincians in gastroenterology and hematology and was removed from other physicians' computerized order entry screen in the electronic health record in June 2013. Red blood cell folate testing decreased by 94.4% during the study, from a mean of 493.0 (SD 48.0) tests/month before intervention to 27.6 (SD 10.3) tests/month after intervention (P<.001). Restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record resulted in a large and sustained reduction in red blood cell folate testing. Significant cost savings estimated at over a quarter-million dollars (CAD) over three years were achieved. There was no significant clinical impact of the intervention on the diagnosis of folate deficiency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Mani, Shrinidi; Sittig, Dean; Arora, Harvinder; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.
Background Given the fragmentation of outpatient care, timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results remains a challenge. We hypothesized that an EMR that facilitates the transmission and availability of critical imaging results through either automated notification (alerting) or direct access to the primary report would eliminate this problem. Methods We studied critical imaging alert notifications in the outpatient setting of a tertiary care VA facility from November 2007 to June 2008. Tracking software determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider opened the message for viewing) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. We reviewed medical records and contacted providers to determine timely follow-up actions (e.g. ordering a follow-up test or consultation) within 4 weeks of transmission. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering effect by providers analyzed predictors for two outcomes; lack of acknowledgment and lack of timely follow-up. Results Of 123,638 studies (including X-rays, CT scans, ultrasounds, MRI and mammography), 1196 (0.97%) images generated alerts; 217 (18.1%) of these were unacknowledged. Alerts had a higher risk of being unacknowledged when ordering providers were trainees (OR, 5.58;95%CI, 2.86-10.89) and when dual (more than one provider alerted) as opposed to single communication was used (OR, 2.02;95%CI, 1.22-3.36). Timely follow-up was lacking in 92 (7.7% of all alerts) and was similar for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (7.3% vs. 9.7%;p=0.2). Risk for lack of timely follow-up was higher with dual communication (OR,1.99;95%CI, 1.06-3.48) but lower when additional verbal communication was used by the radiologist (OR, 0.12;95%CI: 0.04-0.38). Nearly all abnormal results lacking timely follow-up at 4 weeks were eventually found to have measurable clinical impact in terms of further diagnostic testing or treatment. Conclusions Critical imaging results may not
Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.
We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.
Calès, Paul; Halfon, Philippe; Batisse, Dominique; Carrat, Fabrice; Perré, Philippe; Penaranda, Guillaume; Guyader, Dominique; d'Alteroche, Louis; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Michelet, Christian; Veillon, Pascal; Lambert, Jérôme; Weiss, Laurence; Salmon, Dominique; Cacoub, Patrice
We compared 5 non-specific and 2 specific blood tests for liver fibrosis in HCV/HIV co-infection. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were included into derivation (n=183) or validation (n=284) populations. Within these populations, the diagnostic target, significant fibrosis (Metavir F > or = 2), was found in 66% and 72% of the patients, respectively. Two new fibrosis tests, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test, were constructed in the derivation population. Unadjusted AUROCs in the derivation population were: APRI: 0.716, Fib-4: 0.722, Fibrotest: 0.778, Hepascore: 0.779, FibroMeter: 0.783, HICV test: 0.822, FibroMeter HICV: 0.828. AUROCs adjusted on classification and distribution of fibrosis stages in a reference population showed similar values in both populations. FibroMeter, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test had the highest correct classification rates in F0/1 and F3/4 (which account for high predictive values): 77-79% vs. 70-72% in the other tests (p=0.002). Reliable individual diagnosis based on predictive values > or = 90% distinguished three test categories: poorly reliable: Fib-4 (2.4% of patients), APRI (8.9%); moderately reliable: Fibrotest (25.4%), FibroMeter (26.6%), Hepascore (30.2%); acceptably reliable: HICV test (40.2%), FibroMeter HICV (45.6%) (p<10(-3) between tests). FibroMeter HICV classified all patients into four reliable diagnosis intervals (< or =F1, F1+/-1, > or =F1, > or =F2) with an overall accuracy of 93% vs. 79% (p<10(-3)) for a binary diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Tests designed for HCV infections are less effective in HIV/HCV infections. A specific test, like FibroMeter HICV, was the most interesting test for diagnostic accuracy, correct classification profile, and a reliable diagnosis. With reliable diagnosis intervals, liver biopsy can therefore be avoided in all patients. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
James, Paul D; Rabeneck, Linda; Yun, Lingsong; Paszat, Lawrence; Baxter, Nancy N; Govindarajan, Anand; Antonova, Lilia; Tinmouth, Jill M
Objective To evaluate the association between repeated faecal occult blood testing and advanced colorectal cancer risk at population level in Canada. Methods A retrospective cohort study of all Ontario residents aged 56-74 diagnosed with colorectal cancer from 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2010, identified using health administrative data. The primary outcome was stage IV colorectal cancer, and primary exposure was faecal occult blood testing use within five years prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis. Patients were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on their exposure to faecal occult blood testing in the five years prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis: none, pre-diagnostic, repeated, and sporadic. Logistic regression was utilized to adjust for confounders. Results Of 7753 patients (median age 66, interquartile range 61-70, 62% male) identified, 1694 (22%) presented with stage I, 2056 (27%) with stage II, 2428 (31%) with stage III, and 1575 (20%) with stage IV colorectal cancer. There were 4092 (53%) with no record of prior faecal occult blood testing, 1485 (19%) classified as pre-diagnostic, 1693 (22%) as sporadic, and 483 (6%) as repeated faecal occult blood testing. After adjusting for confounders, patients who had repeated faecal occult blood testing were significantly less likely to present with stage IV colorectal cancer at diagnosis (Odds ratio 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval 0.34-0.62) than those with no prior faecal occult blood testing. Conclusions Repeated faecal occult blood testing is associated with a decreased risk of advanced colorectal cancer. Our findings support the use of organized screening programmes that employ repeated faecal occult blood testing to improve colorectal cancer outcomes at population level.
Chen, Zi-Qi; Du, Ming-Ying; Zhao, You-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Jing; Lui, Su; Hu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qi-Yong
Background Published meta-analyses of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included patients receiving antidepressants, which might affect brain activity and thus bias the results. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated regional homogeneity changes in medication-free patients with MDD. Moreover, an association between regional homogeneity and rCBF has been demonstrated in some brain regions in healthy controls. We sought to explore to what extent resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Methods Using the effect-size signed differential mapping method, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of rCBF and regional homogeneity studies of medication-free patients with MDD. Results Our systematic search identified 14 rCBF studies and 9 regional homogeneity studies. We identified conjoint decreases in resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus in medication-free patients with MDD compared with controls. Other changes included altered resting-state rCBF in the precuneus and in the frontal–limbic–thalamic–striatal neural circuit as well as altered regional homogeneity in the uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Meta-regression revealed that the percentage of female patients with MDD was negatively associated with resting-state rCBF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and that the age of patients with MDD was negatively associated with rCBF in the left insula and with regional homogeneity in the left uncus. Limitations The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the included studies were heterogeneous. Conclusion The conjoint alterations of rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus may be core neuropathological changes in medication-free patients with MDD and serve as a specific region of interest for further studies
Chen, Zi-Qi; Du, Ming-Ying; Zhao, You-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Jing; Lui, Su; Hu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Kemp, Graham J; Gong, Qi-Yong
Published meta-analyses of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included patients receiving antidepressants, which might affect brain activity and thus bias the results. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated regional homogeneity changes in medication-free patients with MDD. Moreover, an association between regional homogeneity and rCBF has been demonstrated in some brain regions in healthy controls. We sought to explore to what extent resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Using the effect-size signed differential mapping method, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of rCBF and regional homogeneity studies of medication-free patients with MDD. Our systematic search identified 14 rCBF studies and 9 regional homogeneity studies. We identified conjoint decreases in resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus in medication-free patients with MDD compared with controls. Other changes included altered resting-state rCBF in the precuneus and in the frontal-limbic-thalamic-striatal neural circuit as well as altered regional homogeneity in the uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Meta-regression revealed that the percentage of female patients with MDD was negatively associated with resting-state rCBF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and that the age of patients with MDD was negatively associated with rCBF in the left insula and with regional homogeneity in the left uncus. The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the included studies were heterogeneous. The conjoint alterations of rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus may be core neuropathological changes in medication-free patients with MDD and serve as a specific region of interest for further studies on MDD.
Nitescu, Nicoletta; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Guron, Gregor
The aim was to examine the role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in endotoxemia. Experiments were performed on anesthetized rats 16 h after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle administration. After baseline measurements, groups Sham-Saline, LPS-Saline and LPS-Candesartan received isotonic saline or candesartan (10 μg kg(-1) i.v.). Data were collected during eight consecutive 20-min clearance periods (C1-8). Transfer function (TF) analysis in the frequency domain was used to examine dynamic autoregulation of RBF. Endotoxemic rats showed an approximate 50% reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and RBF (p < 0.05 vs. Sham-Saline). Candesartan significantly increased RBF (+40 ± 6% vs. baseline; p < 0.05) but did not significantly influence GFR. Endotoxemic animals showed a normal myogenic response but had elevated TF gain values in the frequency range of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF; 0.01-0.03 Hz) reflecting impaired autoregulation (periods C3-4, 2.2 ± 1.6 vs. -2.6 ± 0.6 dB, p < 0.05, and C7-8, -0.4 ± 1.3 vs. -4.0 ± 0.8 dB, p < 0.05; in groups LPS-Saline and Sham-Saline, respectively). Candesartan normalized TF gain in this frequency range (periods C7-8, -6.1 ± 2.3 dB in group LPS-Candesartan, p < 0.05 vs. LPS-Saline). Candesartan ameliorates the adverse effect of endotoxin on the TGF component of dynamic autoregulation of RBF. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Casutt, M; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G
This study investigated the influence of the oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa rivaroxaban on blood coagulation measured by rotation thrombelastometry ROTEM™. Blood was obtained from 11 healthy male volunteers before and 2.5 h after oral administration of 10 mg rivaroxaban. In addition to standard coagulation tests clot formation was measured by ROTEM™ analyzing extrinsic (Extem) and intrinsic thrombelastometry (Intem). Significant differences to the baseline values were found in the Extem clotting time (Extem-CT, 58 ± 9 s and 87 ± 17 s, p < 0.01), Intem-CT (194 ± 26 s and 239 ± 43 s; p = 0.02), prothrombin time (PT, 86 ± 9% and 67 ± 7%; p < 0.01) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, 28 ± 1 s and 35 ± 2 s; p < 0.01). There was a low correlation between Extem-CT and PT as well as between Intem-CT and aPTT before and after rivaroxaban intake. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis determined aPTT to be the most appropriate parameter for the prediction of rivaroxaban-induced anticoagulation, Intem-CT and Extem-CT proved to be moderate tests and PT had no significance in the prediction of rivaroxaban-induced anticoagulation. Of utmost clinical importance was the fact that rivaroxaban treated patients could still show normal ROTEM™ values. Thus, ROTEM™ cannot be a suitable test method to exclude inhibition of blood coagulation by rivaroxaban.
Truett, April A; Letizia, Andrew; Malyangu, Evans; Sinyangwe, Frank; Morales, Brandi N; Crum, Nancy F; Crowe, Suzanne M
Manual CD4 tests such as Dynal T4 Quant (Dynabeads, Dynal Biotech, Oslo, Norway) are less expensive alternatives to flow cytometry in resource-limited countries. Whereas blood preservatives have proven useful for stabilizing blood samples to allow delayed CD4 testing by flow cytometry, they have not been verified for manual tests. A method for preservation of blood prior to manual CD4 testing is needed for long-distance transport or sample batching. Blood from HIV-positive Zambian military beneficiaries was mixed (1:1) with Cyto-Chex (Streck Laboratories, La Vista, NE) blood preservative, and the blood was stored at refrigerated, ambient, and incubator (37 degrees C) temperatures prior to Dynabeads CD4 testing at 0, 3, 6, and 9 days after collection. Baseline flow cytometry and Dynabeads testing without preservative were performed for comparison. Twenty-seven patient samples were analyzed. Dynabeads vs. flow cytometry had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. There was excellent correlation (r = 0.96) between baseline Dynabeads testing and Cyto-Chex-preserved samples. Refrigerated samples showed strong correlation with baseline Dynabeads (r = 0.93-0.95) on days 3, 6, and 9 without decline in CD4 count (P = 0.73). Samples stored at ambient temperature yielded inferior results (r = 0.76-0.81), with a significant decline in CD4 count by day 3 (P < 0.001). The incubator arm had especially poor correlation (r = 0.30-0.49). Addition of Cyto-Chex to peripheral blood (1:1) adequately preserves refrigerated blood samples for up to 9 days for subsequent testing with Dynabeads CD4 test. Cyto-Chex, however, cannot be recommended for delayed Dynabeads CD4 testing with storage at 37 degrees C or ambient temperatures in tropical areas similar to the site of this study.
Nagle, C; Gunn, J; Bell, R; Lewis, S; Meiser, B; Metcalfe, S; Ukoumunne, O C; Halliday, J
To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for prenatal testing of fetal abnormalities compared with a pamphlet in supporting women's decision making. A cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary health care. Women in early pregnancy consulting a GP. GPs were randomised to provide women with either a decision aid or a pamphlet. The decision aid was a 24-page booklet designed using the Ottowa Decision Framework. The pamphlet was an existing resource available in the trial setting. Validated scales were used to measure the primary outcomes, informed choice and decisional conflict, and the secondary outcomes, anxiety, depression, attitudes to the pregnancy/fetus and acceptability of the resource. Outcomes were measured at 14 weeks of gestation from questionnaires that women completed and returned by post. Women in the intervention group were more likely to make an informed decision 76% (126/165) than those in the control group 65% (107/165) (adjusted OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.14-3.81). A greater proportion of women in the intervention group 88% (147/167) had a 'good' level of knowledge than those in the control group 72% (123/171) (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.79-6.58). Mean (SD) decisional conflict scores were low in both groups, decision aid 1.71 (0.49), pamphlet 1.65 (0.55) (adjusted mean difference 0.10; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.22). There was no strong evidence of differences between the trial arms in the measures of psychological or acceptability outcomes. A tailored prenatal testing decision aid plays an important role in improving women's knowledge of first and second trimester screening tests and assisting them to make decisions about screening and diagnostic tests that are consistent with their values.
van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Pleunis-van Empel, Marjolein C H; Koch, Hèlen; Grol, Richard P T M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van der Weijden, Trudy
General practitioners often take their impression of patients' expectations into account in their decision to have blood tests done. It is commonly recommended to involve patients in decision-making during consultations. The study aimed to obtain detailed information on patients' expectations about blood tests. Qualitative study among patients in waiting rooms of general practices. Each patient was presented with a short questionnaire about their preferences in terms of diagnostics. Patients who would like blood tests to be done were interviewed. Fifty-seven (26%) of the 224 respondents wanted blood tests. Twenty-two were interviewed. Patients overestimated the qualities of blood tests. Favourable test results were regarded as proof of good health. Patients regarded blood tests as a useful instrument to screen for serious disorders, and were confirmed in this belief by people in their social environment and by the media. Many patients expected their GP to take an active test ordering approach, though some indicated that they might be convinced if their GP proposed a wait-and-see policy. GPs' perceptions about patient expectations seem justified: patients appear to have high hopes for testing as a diagnostic tool. They expect diagnostic certainty without mistakes and a proof of good health. The question is whether it would be desirable to remove patients' misconceptions, allowing them to participate in policy decisions on the basis of sound information, or whether it would be better to leave the misconceptions uncontested, in order to retain the 'magic' of additional tests and reassure patients. We expect that clarifying the precise nature of patients' expectations by the GP may be helpful in creating a diagnostic strategy that satisfies both patients and GPs. GPs will have to balance the benefits of reassuring their patients by means of blood tests which may be unnecessary against the benefits of avoiding unnecessary tests. Further research is needed into the
Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui
Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP
Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun
Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061
Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia
Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.
Amada, Takako; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Gamage, Chandika D; Nishio, Sanae; Takakura, Akira; Arikawa, Jiro
Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp. animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Skinner, Jack; Gore, John; Heckers, Stephan
Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for