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Sample records for abnormal blood vessel

  1. Why are tumour blood vessels abnormal and why is it important to know?

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, J A; Chang, S-H; Dvorak, A M; Dvorak, H F

    2009-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels differ from their normal counterparts for reasons that have received little attention. We report here that they are of at least six distinct types, we describe how each forms, and, looking forward, encourage the targeting of tumour vessel subsets that have lost their vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) dependency and so are likely unresponsive to anti-VEGF-A therapies. PMID:19240721

  2. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  3. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  4. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Heart and Blood Vessels in Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common of these problems affects the aorta, the main blood vessel carrying blood from the ... have problems in blood vessels other than the aorta. Even though heart and blood vessel problems affect ...

  6. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  7. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  8. Automated measurement of retinal blood vessel tortuosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.

  9. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  10. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    PubMed

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) ... may not even realize you have a subconjunctival hemorrhage until you look in the mirror and notice ...

  12. The effects of blood vessels on electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Vansteensel, M. J.; Huiskamp, G. M.; Hermes, D.; Aarnoutse, E. J.; Ferrier, C. H.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2011-08-01

    Electrocorticography, primarily used in a clinical context, is becoming increasingly important for fundamental neuroscientific research, as well as for brain-computer interfaces. Recordings from these implanted electrodes have a number of advantages over non-invasive recordings in terms of band width, spatial resolution, smaller vulnerability to artifacts and overall signal quality. However, an unresolved issue is that signals vary greatly across electrodes. Here, we examine the effect of blood vessels lying between an electrode and the cortex on signals recorded from subdural grid electrodes. Blood vessels of different sizes cover extensive parts of the cortex causing variations in the electrode-cortex connection across grids. The power spectral density of electrodes located on the cortex and electrodes located on blood vessels obtained from eight epilepsy patients is compared. We find that blood vessels affect the power spectral density of the recorded signal in a frequency-band-specific way, in that frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz are attenuated the most. Here, the signal is attenuated on average by 30-40% compared to electrodes directly on the cortex. For lower frequencies this attenuation effect is less pronounced. We conclude that blood vessels influence the signal properties in a non-uniform manner.

  13. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nemeno-Guanzon, Judee Grace; Lee, Soojung; Berg, Johan Robert; Jo, Yong Hwa; Yeo, Jee Eun; Nam, Bo Mi; Koh, Yong-Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering. PMID:23251085

  14. Flow in Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Stroud, Jenn S.

    2000-11-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions occur in arteries where there are major changes in flow structure, e.g. bifurcations and junctions. The reduction of vessel lumen alters the flow, including the mechanical forces on the walls. We have examined the flow in carotid artery bifurcations with realistic plaque contours. The unsteady, incompressible, Navier-Stokes equations are solved in finite-volume form. Steady and pulsatile flows have been analyzed for laminar and turbulent flows, using for the latter a low-Reynolds number k- ɛ model and a k-ω model. Non-Newtonian viscosity is also considered using a power-law model. In general the very irregular contours of the vessels lead to recirculating regions, strong spatial variations of wall shear stresses, and in some cases, vortex shedding. Even steady inlet flow exhibits fluctuating, unsteady behavior. Neither turbulence models captures all the physics of the flow. The flow, in fact, appears to be transitional and not fully turbulent. For unsteady flow, there are also strong temporal variations of normal and shear stresses, which together with the strong spatial variations, has important implications for the onset and progression of atherosclerotic disease.

  15. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and…

  16. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  17. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood

  18. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  19. A probe for blood-vessel and spinal interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Probe design allows insertion into lumen of blood vessels to perform oximetry and investigate plaque on interior vessel walls. Probe is more accurate than standard oximetry procedures of determining oxygenation of circulating blood.

  20. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  1. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  2. Zone-specific remodeling of tumor blood vessels affects tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Derya; Kilic, Nerbil; Sevinc, Sema; Zywietz, Friedrich; Stief, Christian G; Ergun, Suleyman

    2007-11-15

    Chaotic organization, abnormal leakiness, and structural instability are characteristics of tumor vessels. However, morphologic events of vascular remodeling in relation to tumor growth are not sufficiently studied yet. By using the rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor model vascular morphogenesis was studied by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in relation to tumor regions such as tumor surrounding (TSZ), marginal (TMZ), intermediate (TIZ), and center (TCZ) zones. The analyses revealed that blood vessels of TSZ display a regular ultrastructure, whereas blood vessels of TMZ showed a chaotic organization and unstable structure with a diffuse or even lacking basal lamina, and missing or irregular assembled periendothelial cells. In contrast, blood vessels of TIZ and TCZ exhibited a more or less stabilized vessel structure with increased diameter. Correspondingly, normal assembly of alpha-smooth-muscle-actin (alpha-SMA)-positive cells into the vessel wall was observed in blood vessels of TSZ, TIZ, and TCZ. Also, Ang1 immunostaining was strongest in large vessels of TIZ and TCZ, whereas Ang2 staining was prominent in small vessels of TIZ. Tie2 staining was detectable in small and large vessels of all tumor zones. Immunostaining for alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin was strongest in small vessels of TMZ, whereas large vessels of TIZ and TCZ were almost negative. The results indicate a zone-specific remodeling of tumor blood vessels by stabilization of vessels in TIZ and TCZ, whereas small vessels of these zones obviously undergo regression leading to tumor necrosis. Thus, a better understanding of vascular remodeling and stabilization in tumors would enable new strategies in tumor therapy and imaging. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  3. Obesity, Blood Pressure, and Retinal Vessels: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Köchli, Sabrina; Endes, Katharina; Infanger, Denis; Zahner, Lukas; Hanssen, Henner

    2018-06-01

    Retinal vessel imaging is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. Childhood obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) are associated with retinal microvascular alterations. To systematically review and meta-analyze associations between obesity, BP, and physical activity with retinal vessel diameters in children. We conducted a literature search through the databases of PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. School- and population-based cross-sectional data. General information, study design, participants, exposure, and outcomes. A total of 1751 studies were found, and 30 full-text articles were analyzed for eligibility. Twenty-two articles (18 865 children and adolescents) were used for further assessment and reflection. Eleven articles were finally included in the meta-analysis. We found that a higher BMI is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar (pooled estimate effect size -0.37 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.50 to -0.24]) and wider venular diameters (0.35 [95% CI: 0.07 to 0.63]). Systolic and diastolic BP are associated with retinal arteriolar narrowing (systolic BP: -0.63 [95% CI: -0.92 to -0.34]; diastolic BP: -0.60 [95% CI -0.95 to -0.25]). Increased physical activity and fitness are associated with favorable retinal vessel diameters. Long-term studies are needed to substantiate the prognostic relevance of retinal vessel diameters for cardiovascular risk in children. Our results indicate that childhood obesity, BP, and physical inactivity are associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities. Retinal vessel diameters seem to be sensitive microvascular biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification in children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  5. Blood coagulation abnormalities in multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Débora Santos da; Teixeira, Lisandra Antonia Castro; Beghini, Daniela Gois; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Pinho, Márcia de Berredo Moreira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Ribeiro, Marli Rambaldi; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Tovar, Ana Maria Freire; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Perales, Jonas; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Esquenazi, Danuza; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2018-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.

  6. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  8. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  9. Induction of Pancreatic Differentiation by Signals from Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Cleaver, Ondine; Melton, Douglas

    2001-10-01

    Blood vessels supply developing organs with metabolic sustenance. Here, we demonstrate a role for blood vessels as a source of developmental signals during pancreatic organogenesis. In vitro experiments with embryonic mouse tissues demonstrate that blood vessel endothelium induces insulin expression in isolated endoderm. Removal of the dorsal aorta in Xenopus laevis embryos results in the failure of insulin expression in vivo. Furthermore, using transgenic mice, we show that ectopic vascularization in the posterior foregut leads to ectopic insulin expression and islet hyperplasia. These results indicate that vessels not only provide metabolic sustenance, but also provide inductive signals for organ development.

  10. "Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing".

    PubMed

    DiVito, Kyle A; Daniele, Michael A; Roberts, Steven A; Ligler, Frances S; Adams, André A

    2017-10-01

    This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled "Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization" (DiVito et al., 2017) [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF). Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into 'bullseye-like" cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.

  11. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  12. Vessel abnormalization: another hallmark of cancer? Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    De Bock, Katrien; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Carmeliet, Peter

    2011-02-01

    As a result of excessive production of angiogenic molecules, tumor vessels become abnormal in structure and function. By impairing oxygen delivery, abnormal vessels fuel a vicious cycle of non-productive angiogenesis, which creates a hostile microenvironment from where tumor cells escape through leaky vessels and which renders tumors less responsive to chemoradiation. While anti-angiogenic strategies focused on inhibiting new vessel growth and destroying pre-existing vessels, clinical studies showed modest anti-tumor effects. For many solid tumors, anti-VEGF treatment offers greater clinical benefit when combined with chemotherapy. This is partly due to a normalization of the tumor vasculature, which improves cytotoxic drug delivery and efficacy and offers unprecedented opportunities for anti-cancer treatment. Here, we overview key novel molecular players that induce vessel normalization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    PubMed

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  14. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  15. An update on the blood vessel in migraine.

    PubMed

    Brennan, K C; Charles, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    The cranial blood vessel is considered an integral player in the pathophysiology of migraine, but its perceived role has been subject to much discussion and controversy over the years. We will discuss the evolution in our scientific understanding of cranial blood vessels (primarily arteries) in migraine. Recent developments have clarified the role of cranial blood vessels in the trigemino-vascular system and in cortical spreading depression. An underlying theme is the intimate relation between vascular activity and neural function, and we will emphasize the various roles of the blood vessel that go beyond delivering blood. We conclude that migraine cannot be understood, either from a research or clinical point of view, without an understanding of the vascular derangements that accompany it. Migraine is accompanied by significant derangements in vascular function that may represent important targets for investigation and treatment.

  16. An update on the blood vessel in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, K.C.; Charles, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The cranial blood vessel is considered an integral player in the pathophysiology of migraine, but its perceived role has been subject to much discussion and controversy over the years. We will discuss the evolution in our scientific understanding of cranial blood vessels (primarily arteries) in migraine. Recent findings Recent developments have clarified the role of cranial blood vessels in the trigemino-vascular system and in cortical spreading depression. An underlying theme is the intimate relation between vascular activity and neural function, and we will emphasize the various roles of the blood vessel that go beyond delivering blood. We conclude that migraine cannot be understood, either from a research or clinical point of view, without an understanding of the vascular derangements that accompany it. Summary Migraine is accompanied by significant derangements in vascular function that may represent important targets for investigation and treatment. PMID:20216215

  17. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Leukemic Cells "Gas Up" Leaky Bone Marrow Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-09-11

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Passaro et al. demonstrate how leukemia through aberrant induction of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production trigger marrow vessel leakiness, instigating pro-leukemic function. Disrupted tumor blood vessels promote exhaustion of non-malignant stem and progenitor cells and may facilitate leukemia relapse following chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  20. Computer Analysis of Eye Blood-Vessel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.; White, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapidly diagnoses diabetes mellitus. Photographs of "whites" of patients' eyes scanned by computerized image analyzer programmed to quantify density of small blood vessels in conjuctiva. Comparison with data base of known normal and diabetic patients facilitates rapid diagnosis.

  1. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - aging; Atherosclerosis - aging ... Some changes in the heart and blood vessels normally occur with age. However, many other changes that are common with aging are due to modifiable ...

  2. Development of blood vessel searching system for HMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandani, Hirofumi; Uenoya, Toshiyuki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we develop a new 3D miniature blood vessel searching system by using near-infrared LED light, a CMOS camera module with an image processing unit for a health monitoring system (HMS), a drug delivery system (DDS) which requires very high performance for automatic micro blood volume extraction and automatic blood examination. Our objective is to fabricate a highly reliable micro detection system by utilizing image capturing, image processing, and micro blood extraction devices. For the searching system to determine 3D blood vessel location, we employ the stereo method. The stereo method is a common photogrammetric method. It employs the optical path principle to detect 3D location of the disparity between two cameras. The principle for blood vessel visualization is derived from the ratio of hemoglobin's absorption of the near-infrared LED light. To get a high quality blood vessel image, we adopted an LED, with peak a wavelength of 940nm. The LED is set on the dorsal side of the finger and it irradiates the human finger. A blood vessel image is captured by a CMOS camera module, which is set below the palmer side of the finger. 2D blood vessel location can be detected by the luminance distribution of a one pixel line. To examine the accuracy of our detecting system, we carried out experiments using finger phantoms with blood vessel diameters of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0mm, at the depths of 0.5 ~ 2.0 mm from the phantom's surface. The experimental results of the estimated depth obtained by our detecting system shows good agreements with the given depths, and the viability of this system is confirmed.

  3. Invasive Electrical Impedance Tomography for Blood Vessel Detection

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Kalvøy, Håvard; Grimnes, Sverre; Nordbotten, Bernt; Hol, Per Kristian; Fosse, Erik; Myklebust, Helge; Becker, Lance B

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel method for localization of large blood vessels using a bioimpedance based needle positioning system on an array of ten monopolar needle electrodes. The purpose of the study is to develop a portable, low cost tool for rapid vascular access for cooling and controlled reperfusion of cardiac arrest patients. Preliminary results show that localization of blood vessels is feasible with this method, but larger studies are necessary to improve the technology. PMID:21611140

  4. [Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels].

    PubMed

    Tilki, D; Singer, B; Seitz, M; Stief, C G; Ergün, S

    2007-09-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of the anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of vascular remodeling. Tumor imaging by X-ray, CT, MRI and ultrasound has to be improved by coupling with molecular markers targeting the tumor vessels. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not result in a reduction of tumor diameter. But remodeling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter for tumor imaging. Despite the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodeling of the microtumor vessels. Thus, new imaging approaches are needed to overcome this issue.

  5. Optic disc segmentation: level set methods and blood vessels inpainting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroa, A.; Sun, Weiwei; Alodhayb, Sami; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-03-01

    Segmenting the optic disc (OD) is an important and essential step in creating a frame of reference for diagnosing optic nerve head (ONH) pathology such as glaucoma. Therefore, a reliable OD segmentation technique is necessary for automatic screening of ONH abnormalities. The main contribution of this paper is in presenting a novel OD segmentation algorithm based on applying a level set method on a localized OD image. To prevent the blood vessels from interfering with the level set process, an inpainting technique is applied. The algorithm is evaluated using a new retinal fundus image dataset called RIGA (Retinal Images for Glaucoma Analysis). In the case of low quality images, a double level set is applied in which the first level set is considered to be a localization for the OD. Five hundred and fifty images are used to test the algorithm accuracy as well as its agreement with manual markings by six ophthalmologists. The accuracy of the algorithm in marking the optic disc area and centroid is 83.9%, and the best agreement is observed between the results of the algorithm and manual markings in 379 images.

  6. NEURONAL ACTION ON THE DEVELOPING BLOOD VESSEL PATTERN

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer M.; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2011-01-01

    The nervous system relies on a highly specialized network of blood vessels for development and neuronal survival. Recent evidence suggests that both the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS) employ multiple mechanisms to shape the vascular tree to meet its specific metabolic demands, such as promoting nerve-artery alignment in the PNS or the development the blood brain barrier in the CNS. In this article we discuss how the nervous system directly influences blood vessel patterning resulting in neuro-vascular congruence that is maintained throughout development and in the adult. PMID:21978864

  7. Analysis of Blood Flow in a Partially Blocked Bifurcated Blood Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Elkassabgi, Yousri; Punati, Pavan K.; Nasser, Naseer

    2009-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death in the United States. It is the narrowing of the lumens of the coronary blood vessel by a gradual build-up of fatty material, atheroma, which leads to the heart muscle not receiving enough blood. This my ocardial ischemia can cause angina, a heart attack, heart failure as well as sudden cardiac death [9]. In this project a solid model of bifurcated blood vessel with an asymmetric stenosis is developed using GAMBIT and imported into FLUENT for analysis. In FLUENT, pressure and velocity distributions in the blood vessel are studied under different conditions, where the size and position of the blockage in the blood vessel are varied. The location and size of the blockage in the blood vessel are correlated with the pressures and velocities distributions. Results show that such correlation may be used to predict the size and location of the blockage.

  8. Blood Vessel Adaptation with Fluctuations in Capillary Flow Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Cai, David; Rangan, Aaditya V.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the life of animals and human beings, blood vessel systems are continuously adapting their structures – the diameter of vessel lumina, the thickness of vessel walls, and the number of micro-vessels – to meet the changing metabolic demand of the tissue. The competition between an ever decreasing tendency of luminal diameters and an increasing stimulus from the wall shear stress plays a key role in the adaptation of luminal diameters. However, it has been shown in previous studies that the adaptation dynamics based only on these two effects is unstable. In this work, we propose a minimal adaptation model of vessel luminal diameters, in which we take into account the effects of metabolic flow regulation in addition to wall shear stresses and the decreasing tendency of luminal diameters. In particular, we study the role, in the adaptation process, of fluctuations in capillary flow distribution which is an important means of metabolic flow regulation. The fluctuation in the flow of a capillary group is idealized as a switch between two states, i.e., an open-state and a close-state. Using this model, we show that the adaptation of blood vessel system driven by wall shear stress can be efficiently stabilized when the open time ratio responds sensitively to capillary flows. As micro-vessel rarefaction is observed in our simulations with a uniformly decreased open time ratio of capillary flows, our results point to a possible origin of micro-vessel rarefaction, which is believed to induce hypertension. PMID:23029014

  9. Assessement of angiogenesis reveals blood vessel heterogeneity in lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    BIRAU, AMALIA; CEAUSU, RALUCA AMALIA; CIMPEAN, ANCA MARIA; GAJE, PUSA; RAICA, MARIUS; OLARIU, TEODORA

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, the prognosis for lung cancer patients remains poor. Angiogenesis appears to be a promising target for lung cancer therapy; however, the clinical significance of vascular changes are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the types and morphology of blood vessels in various lung carcinomas. Using double immunostaining, we investigated 39 biopsies from patients admitted with various histological types of lung carcinoma. Tumor blood vessels were quantified separately for CD34/smooth muscle actin and described as either immature, intermediate or mature. Double immunostaining evaluation of the type of blood vessels in lung carcinomas revealed a marked heterogeneity. The immature and intermediate type of vessels were more common in adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the lung. Small cell lung carcinomas revealed a significant correlation between pathological and immature types of blood vessels. Therefore, quantifying the types of tumor vessels in lung carcinomas may be an important element to improve the results of anti-vascular therapy. PMID:23205116

  10. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests

    PubMed Central

    Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. PMID:29122851

  11. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  12. What determines blood vessel structure? Genetic prespecification vs. hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth A V; le Noble, Ferdinand; Eichmann, Anne

    2006-12-01

    Vascular network remodeling, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis play an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Based on recent studies of vascular network development in the embryo, several novel aspects to angiogenesis have been identified as crucial to generate a functional vascular network. These aspects include specification of arterial and venous identity in vessels and network patterning. In early embryogenesis, vessel identity and positioning are genetically hardwired and involve neural guidance genes expressed in the vascular system. We demonstrated that, during later stages of embryogenesis, blood flow plays a crucial role in regulating vessel identity and network remodeling. The flow-evoked remodeling process is dynamic and involves a high degree of vessel plasticity. The open question in the field is how genetically predetermined processes in vessel identity and patterning balance with the contribution of blood flow in shaping a functional vascular architecture. Although blood flow is essential, it remains unclear to what extent flow is able to act on the developing cardiovascular system. There is significant evidence that mechanical forces created by flowing blood are biologically active within the embryo and that the level of mechanical forces and the type of flow patterns present in the embryo are able to affect gene expression. Here, we highlight the pivotal role for blood flow and physical forces in shaping the cardiovascular system.

  13. Retinal blood vessel extraction using tunable bandpass filter and fuzzy conditional entropy.

    PubMed

    Sil Kar, Sudeshna; Maity, Santi P

    2016-09-01

    Extraction of blood vessels on retinal images plays a significant role for screening of different opthalmologic diseases. However, accurate extraction of the entire and individual type of vessel silhouette from the noisy images with poorly illuminated background is a complicated task. To this aim, an integrated system design platform is suggested in this work for vessel extraction using a sequential bandpass filter followed by fuzzy conditional entropy maximization on matched filter response. At first noise is eliminated from the image under consideration through curvelet based denoising. To include the fine details and the relatively less thick vessel structures, the image is passed through a bank of sequential bandpass filter structure optimized for contrast enhancement. Fuzzy conditional entropy on matched filter response is then maximized to find the set of multiple optimal thresholds to extract the different types of vessel silhouettes from the background. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to determine the optimal gain in bandpass filter and the combination of the fuzzy parameters. Using the multiple thresholds, retinal image is classified as the thick, the medium and the thin vessels including neovascularization. Performance evaluated on different publicly available retinal image databases shows that the proposed method is very efficient in identifying the diverse types of vessels. Proposed method is also efficient in extracting the abnormal and the thin blood vessels in pathological retinal images. The average values of true positive rate, false positive rate and accuracy offered by the method is 76.32%, 1.99% and 96.28%, respectively for the DRIVE database and 72.82%, 2.6% and 96.16%, respectively for the STARE database. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in detecting the various types of vessels and the neovascularization structures. The combination of curvelet transform and tunable bandpass

  14. Participation of blood vessel cells in human adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George

    2012-01-01

    Circulating T cells contact blood vessels either when they extravasate across the walls of microvessels into inflamed tissues or when they enter into the walls of larger vessels in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The blood vessel wall is largely composed of three cell types: endothelial cells lining the entire vascular tree; pericytes supporting the endothelium of microvessels; and smooth muscle cells forming the bulk of large vessel walls. Each of these cell types interacts with and alters the behavior of infiltrating T cells in different ways, making these cells active participants in the processes of immune-mediated inflammation. In this review, we compare and contrast what is known about the nature of these interactions in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal vessel of the ear associated with congenital arteriovenous malformation in the postauricular region.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shilpi Gupta; Dixit, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Variations in the branching pattern of the common, external, and internal carotid arteries can present as arteriovenous malformations, and their basis can be explained embryologically. Our case was a rare variation presenting as a congenital, very gradually increasing bluish painless swelling at the region of the left lobule of the ear arising from an abnormal vessel (from the postauricular artery) which was explored under general anesthesia through a postauricular curved incision. The abnormal vessel and other feeding vessels were ligated and a sclerosing agent injected. Anomalies of pharyngeal arch arteries like our case can be found resulting from the persistence of channels that normally disappear, and prior knowledge of these anomalies is essential before surgeries like mastoidectomy to prevent alarming hemorrhage.

  16. Laparoscopic prototype for optical sealing of renal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Larson, Eric R.; Gonzalez, David A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Energy-based, radiofrequency and ultrasonic devices provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternative for vessel sealing with less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated vessel sealing in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices in surgical use was developed, and tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels. The 5-mm-OD prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core fiber and side-delivery from the lower jaw, with beam dimensions of 18-mm-length x 1.2-mm-width. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3 s activation time. A total of 69 porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3 +/- 1.7 mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5 mm were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038 +/- 474 mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174 +/- 221 mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7 +/- 0.8, 3.4 +/- 0.7, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 mm. A novel optical laparoscopic prototype with 5-mm- OD shaft integrated within a standard Maryland jaw design consistently sealed vessels less than 5 mm with minimal thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

  17. Visualizing blood vessel trees in three dimensions: clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullitt, Elizabeth; Aylward, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    A connected network of blood vessels surrounds and permeates almost every organ of the human body. The ability to define detailed blood vessel trees enables a variety of clinical applications. This paper discusses four such applications and some of the visualization challenges inherent to each. Guidance of endovascular surgery: 3D vessel trees offer important information unavailable by traditional x-ray projection views. How best to combine the 2- and 3D image information is unknown. Planning/guidance of tumor surgery: During tumor resection it is critical to know which blood vessels can be interrupted safely and which cannot. Providing efficient, clear information to the surgeon together with measures of uncertainty in both segmentation and registration can be a complex problem. Vessel-based registration: Vessel-based registration allows pre-and intraoperative images to be registered rapidly. The approach both provides a potential solution to a difficult clinical dilemma and offers a variety of visualization opportunities. Diagnosis/staging of disease: Almost every disease affects blood vessel morphology. The statistical analysis of vessel shape may thus prove to be an important tool in the noninvasive analysis of disease. A plethora of information is available that must be presented meaningfully to the clinician. As medical image analysis methods increase in sophistication, an increasing amount of useful information of varying types will become available to the clinician. New methods must be developed to present a potentially bewildering amount of complex data to individuals who are often accustomed to viewing only tissue slices or flat projection views.

  18. Mesoscale Simulation of Blood Flow in Small Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2007-01-01

    Computational modeling of blood flow in microvessels with internal diameter 20–500 μm is a major challenge. It is because blood in such vessels behaves as a multiphase suspension of deformable particles. A continuum model of blood is not adequate if the motion of individual red blood cells in the suspension is of interest. At the same time, multiple cells, often a few thousands in number, must also be considered to account for cell-cell hydrodynamic interaction. Moreover, the red blood cells (RBCs) are highly deformable. Deformation of the cells must also be considered in the model, as it is a major determinant of many physiologically significant phenomena, such as formation of a cell-free layer, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. In this article, we present two-dimensional computational simulation of blood flow in vessels of size 20–300 μm at discharge hematocrit of 10–60%, taking into consideration the particulate nature of blood and cell deformation. The numerical model is based on the immersed boundary method, and the red blood cells are modeled as liquid capsules. A large RBC population comprising of as many as 2500 cells are simulated. Migration of the cells normal to the wall of the vessel and the formation of the cell-free layer are studied. Results on the trajectory and velocity traces of the RBCs, and their fluctuations are presented. Also presented are the results on the plug-flow velocity profile of blood, the apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The numerical results also allow us to investigate the variation of apparent blood viscosity along the cross-section of a vessel. The computational results are compared with the experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents the first simulation to simultaneously consider a large ensemble of red blood cells and the cell deformation. PMID:17208982

  19. Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Serena; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Valdembri, Donatella; Wesseling, Pieter; Arap, Marco A; Hajitou, Amin; Ozawa, Michael G; Trepel, Martin; Giordano, Ricardo J; Nanus, David M; Dijkman, Henri B P M; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Sidman, Richard L; Cooper, Max D; Bussolino, Federico; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2004-02-01

    We show that a membrane-associated protease, aminopeptidase A (APA), is upregulated and enzymatically active in blood vessels of human tumors. To gain mechanistic insight, we evaluated angiogenesis in APA null mice. We found that, although these mice develop normally, they fail to mount the expected angiogenic response to hypoxia or growth factors. We then isolated peptide inhibitors of APA from a peptide library and show that they specifically bind to and inhibit APA, suppress migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, inhibit angiogenesis, and home to tumor blood vessels. Finally, we successfully treated tumor-bearing mice with APA binding peptides or anti-APA blocking monoclonal antibodies. These data show that APA is a regulator of blood vessel formation, and can serve as a functional vascular target.

  20. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension—all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H2O2 exposure (1 μM–1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 μM), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H2O2, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca2+-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague–Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension. PMID:17095030

  1. Lymphatic and blood vessels in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Joanna; Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Harazin-Lechowska, Agnieszka; Martynow, Dariusz; Adamczyk, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    It is assumed that lymphatic vessels are responsible for breast cancer dissemination. In 32 male breast carcinomas we evaluated the correlation between: (i) lymphatic vessel density (LVD), distribution of podoplanin-immunostained vessels (DPV), blood vessel density (BVD), infiltration of immune cells and (ii) known clinicopathological parameters. Lymphatic and blood vessels were found in 77.8% and 100% of breast carcinomas, respectively. Double-negative estrogen and progesterone receptor tumors (ER-/PR-) presented significantly higher LVD than ER/PR positive cases, while high-grade tumors exhibited significantly higher DPV than low-grade carcinomas. We detected significantly higher frequency of vascular invasion in high-grade and double-negative carcinomas than in low-grade and ER/PR-positive ones, respectively. The relationship between high number of lymphatic vessels and high tumor grade or steroid receptor negativity might confirm the hypothesis regarding the influence of lymphangiogenesis on the formation of a more aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern Recognition Of Blood Vessel Networks In Ocular Fundus Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, K.; Kuga, H.

    1982-11-01

    We propose a computer method of recognizing blood vessel networks in color ocular fundus images which are used in the mass diagnosis of adult diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. A line detection algorithm is applied to extract the blood vessels, and the skeleton patterns of them are made to analyze and describe their structures. The recognition of line segments of arteries and/or veins in the vessel networks consists of three stages. First, a few segments which satisfy a certain constraint are picked up and discriminated as arteries or veins. This is the initial labeling. Then the remaining unknown ones are labeled by utilizing the physical level knowledge. We propose two schemes for this stage : a deterministic labeling and a probabilistic relaxation labeling. Finally the label of each line segment is checked so as to minimize the total number of labeling contradictions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  3. Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert; Twietmeyer, Karen; Chipman, Russell; Beaudry, Neil; Salyer, David

    2005-04-01

    Imaging of retinal blood vessels may assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertension. However, close examination reveals that the contrast and apparent diameter of vessels are dependent on the wavelength of the illuminating light. In this study multispectral images of large arteries and veins within enucleated swine eyes are obtained with a modified fundus camera by use of intravitreal illumination. The diameters of selected vessels are measured as a function of wavelength by cross-sectional analysis. A fixed scale with spectrally independent dimension is placed above the retina to isolate the chromatic effects of the imaging system and eye. Significant apparent differences between arterial and venous diameters are found, with larger diameters observed at shorter wavelengths. These differences are due primarily to spectral absorption in the cylindrical blood column.

  4. The effect of irreversible electroporation on blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Maor, Elad; Ivorra, Antoni; Leor, Jonathan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2007-08-01

    We present a pilot study on the long term effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on a large blood vessel. The study was motivated by the anticipated use of IRE for treatment of cancer tumors abutting large blood vessels. A sequence of 10 direct current IRE pulses of 3800 V/cm, 100 micros each, at a frequency of 10 pulses per second, were applied directly to the carotid artery in six rats. Measuring tissue conductivity during the procedure showed, as predicted, an increase in conductivity during the application of the pulse, which suggests that this measurement can be used to control the application of IRE. All the animals survived the procedure and showed no side effects. Histology performed 28 days after the procedure showed that the connective matrix of the blood vessels remained intact and the number of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in the arterial wall decreased with no evidence of aneurysm, thrombus formation or necrosis. Average VSMC density was significantly lower following IRE ablation compared with control (24 +/- 11 vs. 139 +/- 14, P<0.001), with no apparent damage to extra cellular matrix components and structure. In addition to the relevance of this study to treatment of cancer near large blood vessels these findings tentatively suggest that IRE has possible applications to treatment of pathological processes in which it is desired to reduce the proliferation of VSMC population, such as restenosis and for attenuating atherosclerotic processes in clinical important locations such as coronary, carotid and renal arteries.

  5. Gene Expression Analysis in Human Breast Cancer Associated Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dylan T.; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M. J.; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J. Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5–72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel

  6. Blood vessel segmentation in color fundus images based on regional and Hessian features.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Ayaz Ali; Tang, Tong Boon; Faye, Ibrahima; Laude, Augustinus

    2017-08-01

    To propose a new algorithm of blood vessel segmentation based on regional and Hessian features for image analysis in retinal abnormality diagnosis. Firstly, color fundus images from the publicly available database DRIVE were converted from RGB to grayscale. To enhance the contrast of the dark objects (blood vessels) against the background, the dot product of the grayscale image with itself was generated. To rectify the variation in contrast, we used a 5 × 5 window filter on each pixel. Based on 5 regional features, 1 intensity feature and 2 Hessian features per scale using 9 scales, we extracted a total of 24 features. A linear minimum squared error (LMSE) classifier was trained to classify each pixel into a vessel or non-vessel pixel. The DRIVE dataset provided 20 training and 20 test color fundus images. The proposed algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 72.05% with 94.79% accuracy. Our proposed algorithm achieved higher accuracy (0.9206) at the peripapillary region, where the ocular manifestations in the microvasculature due to glaucoma, central retinal vein occlusion, etc. are most obvious. This supports the proposed algorithm as a strong candidate for automated vessel segmentation.

  7. Suppression of tumour growth by orally administered osteopontin is accompanied by alterations in tumour blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rittling, S R; Wejse, P L; Yagiz, K; Warot, G A; Hui, T

    2014-03-04

    The integrin-binding protein osteopontin is strongly associated with tumour development, yet is an abundant dietary component as a constituent of human and bovine milk. Therefore, we tested the effect of orally administered osteopontin (o-OPN) on the development of subcutaneous tumours in mice. Bovine milk osteopontin was administered in drinking water to tumour-bearing immune-competent mice. Tumour growth, proliferation, necrosis, apoptosis and blood vessel size and number were measured. Expression of the α₉ integrin was determined. o-OPN suppressed tumour growth, increased the extent of necrosis, and induced formation of abnormally large blood vessels. Anti-OPN reactivity detected in the plasma of OPN-null mice fed OPN suggested that tumour-blocking peptides were absorbed during digestion, but the o-OPN effect was likely distinct from that of an RGD peptide. Expression of the α₉ integrin was detected on both tumour cells and blood vessels. Potential active peptides from the α₉ binding site of OPN were identified by mass spectrometry following in vitro digestion, and injection of these peptides suppressed tumour growth. These results suggest that peptides derived from o-OPN are absorbed and interfere with tumour growth and normal vessel development. o-OPN-derived peptides that target the α₉ integrin are likely involved.

  8. Extraction of liver volumetry based on blood vessel from the portal phase CT dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-02-01

    At liver surgery planning stage, the liver volumetry would be essential for surgeons. Main problem at liver extraction is the wide variability of livers in shapes and sizes. Since, hepatic blood vessels structure varies from a person to another and covers liver region, the present method uses that information for extraction of liver in two stages. The first stage is to extract abdominal blood vessels in the form of hepatic and nonhepatic blood vessels. At the second stage, extracted vessels are used to control extraction of liver region automatically. Contrast enhanced CT datasets at only the portal phase of 50 cases is used. Those data include 30 abnormal livers. A reference for all cases is done through a comparison of two experts labeling results and correction of their inter-reader variability. Results of the proposed method agree with the reference at an average rate of 97.8%. Through application of different metrics mentioned at MICCAI workshop for liver segmentation, it is found that: volume overlap error is 4.4%, volume difference is 0.3%, average symmetric distance is 0.7 mm, Root mean square symmetric distance is 0.8 mm, and maximum distance is 15.8 mm. These results represent the average of overall data and show an improved accuracy compared to current liver segmentation methods. It seems to be a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes.

  9. Continuum mathematical modelling of pathological growth of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, N. E.; Dats, E. P.

    2018-04-01

    The present study is devoted to the mathematical modelling of a human blood vessel pathological growth. The vessels are simulated as the thin-walled circular tube. The boundary value problem of the surface growth of an elastic thin-walled cylinder is solved. The analytical solution is obtained in terms of velocities of stress strain state parameters. The condition of thinness allows us to study finite displacements of cylinder surfaces by means of infinitesimal deformations. The stress-strain state characteristics, which depend on the mechanical parameters of the biological processes, are numerically computed and graphically analysed.

  10. Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Gautam; Hussmann, G. Patrick; Pandey, Deepesh; Cao, Suyi; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Jong Taek; Steppan, Jochen; Kim, Jae Hyung; Barodka, Viachaslau; Myers, Allen C.; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Nyhan, Daniel; Halushka, Marc K.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4−/− mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ∼430–460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor. PMID:25404319

  11. Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Gautam; Hussmann, G Patrick; Pandey, Deepesh; Cao, Suyi; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Jong Taek; Steppan, Jochen; Kim, Jae Hyung; Barodka, Viachaslau; Myers, Allen C; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Nyhan, Daniel; Halushka, Marc K; Koehler, Raymond C; Snyder, Solomon H; Shimoda, Larissa A; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2014-12-16

    Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4(-/-) mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ∼430-460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor.

  12. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Matsuda, H; Hashimoto, T; Kunihiro, T; Nishikawa, M; Uema, T; Sasaki, M

    2000-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of autism have shown abnormalities in the limbic system and cerebellar circuits and additional sites. These findings are not, however, specific or consistent enough to build up a coherent theory of the origin and nature of the brain abnormality in autistic patients. Twenty-three children with infantile autism and 26 non-autistic controls matched for IQ and age were examined using brain-perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer. In autistic subjects, we assessed the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom profiles. Images were anatomically normalized, and voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed. Decreases in rCBF in autistic patients compared with the control group were identified in the bilateral insula, superior temporal gyri and left prefrontal cortices. Analysis of the correlations between syndrome scores and rCBF revealed that each syndrome was associated with a specific pattern of perfusion in the limbic system and the medial prefrontal cortex. The results confirmed the associations of (i) impairments in communication and social interaction that are thought to be related to deficits in the theory of mind (ToM) with altered perfusion in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus, and (ii) the obsessive desire for sameness with altered perfusion in the right medial temporal lobe. The perfusion abnormalities seem to be related to the cognitive dysfunction observed in autism, such as deficits in ToM, abnormal responses to sensory stimuli, and the obsessive desire for sameness. The perfusion patterns suggest possible locations of abnormalities of brain function underlying abnormal behaviour patterns in autistic individuals.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Blood Flow in Blood Vessels with the Rolling Massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Xu, Shi-Xiong; Qian, Yue-Hong; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2005-12-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to improve the circulation by pushing, pulling and kneading of the muscle. A model for the rolling massage manipulation is proposed and the lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the blood flow in the blood vessels. The simulation results show that the blood flux is considerably modified by the rolling massage and the explicit value depends on the rolling frequency, the rolling depth, and the diameter of the vessel. The smaller the diameter of the blood vessel, the larger the enhancement of the blood flux by the rolling massage. The model, together with the simulation results, is expected to be helpful to understand the mechanism and further development of rolling massage techniques.

  14. Blood vessel crosstalk during organogenesis – Focus on Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessels form a highly branched, interconnected and largely stereotyped network of tubes that sustains every organ and tissue in vertebrates. How vessels come to take on their particular architecture, or how they are ‘patterned’, and in turn, how they influence surrounding tissues are fundamental questions of organogenesis. Decades of work have begun to elucidate how endothelial progenitors arise and home to precise locations within tissues, integrating attractive and repulsive cues to build vessels where they are needed. Conversely, more recent findings have revealed an exciting facet of blood vessel interaction with tissues, where vascular cells provide signals to developing organs and progenitors therein. Here, we discuss the exchange of reciprocal signals between endothelial cells (ECs) and neighboring tissues during embryogenesis, with a special focus on the developing pancreas. Understanding the mechanisms driving both sides of these interactions will be crucial to the development of therapies, from improving organ regeneration to efficient production of cell based therapies. Specifically, elucidating the interface of the vasculature with pancreatic lineages, including endocrine cells, will instruct approaches such as generation of replacement beta cells for Type I diabetes. PMID:27328421

  15. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Olmo, Luigi; Zanusso, Ilenia; Di Liddo, Rosa; Chioato, Tatiana; Bertalot, Thomas; Conconi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm) blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM-) based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs) were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old) received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm). The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels. PMID:25136610

  16. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  17. Regulation of blood vessels by prolactin and vasoinhibins.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie; Macotela, Yazmín; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Triebel, Jakob; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) either directly through actions on endothelial cells or indirectly by upregulating proangiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, PRL acquires antiangiogenic properties after undergoing proteolytic cleavage to vasoinhibins, a family of PRL fragments (including 16 kDa PRL) with potent antiangiogenic, vasoconstrictive, and antivasopermeability effects. In view of the opposing actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, the regulation of the proteases responsible for specific PRL cleavage represents an efficient mechanism for controlling blood vessel growth and function. This review briefly describes the vascular actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, and addresses how their interplay could help drive biological effects of PRL in the context of health and disease.

  18. Fluid Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Lauren; Sewell, Mary Kathryn; Brazel, Christopher S.

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be used to locally target therapies and offer the benefit of using an AC magnetic field to combine hyperthermia treatment with the triggered release of therapeutic agents. Here, we investigate localization of MNPs in a simulated environment to understand the relationship between magnetic field intensity and bulk fluid dynamics to determine MNP retention in a simulated blood vessel. As MNPs travel through blood vessels, they can be slowed or trapped in a specific area by applying a magnetic field. Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized and labeled with a fluorescent rhodamine tag to visualize patterns in a flow cell, as monitored by a fluorescence microscope. Particle retention was determined as a function of flow rate, concentration, and magnetic field strength. Understanding the relationship between magnetic field intensity, flow behavior and nanoparticle characteristics will aid in the development of therapeutic systems specifically targeted to diseased tissue.

  19. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    PubMed

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  20. Pharmacological characteristics of endothelin receptors on sheep rectal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Scholefield, John H; Dashwood, Michael R; Wilson, Vincent G

    2011-06-01

    Haemorrhoids is associated with high blood flow of the anorectal region. The question of whether pharmacological manipulation of vascular supply can relieve the symptoms of haemorrhoids has been raised. In order to undertake this type of clinical investigation, it is first essential to gain a better understanding of the properties of vascular receptors that may regulate blood flow into anal cushions and haemorrhoids. Due to the limited availability of human anorectal specimens and the good reliability of sheep tissue as an experimental model of human anorectal diseases, we studied the properties of endothelin receptors in sheep rectal artery (SRA) and vein (SRV), the vessels contributing to the blood flow of haemorrhoidal plexus, using isometric tension recordings. We found that endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin 6a were very potent constrictor agents in both SRA and SRV. The selective ET(A) receptor antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) produced a parallel rightward displacement of ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels and abolished sarafotoxin 6a-induced contractions in the SRA. PD156707 (3 μM) practically abolished contractions to ET-1 in the SRA, suggesting that the response is entirely mediated by ET(A) receptors. While, the selective ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 nM) caused no significant change in ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels, a minor role for ET(B) receptor subtype to responses to sarafotoxin 6a in the artery was suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. M1-like macrophages change tumor blood vessels and microenvironment in murine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska, Natalia; Matuszczak, Sybilla; Cichoń, Tomasz; Pamuła-Piłat, Jolanta; Czapla, Justyna; Smolarczyk, Ryszard; Skwarzyńska, Daria; Kulik, Klaudia; Szala, Stanisław

    2018-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a significant role in at least two key processes underlying neoplastic progression: angiogenesis and immune surveillance. TAMs phenotypic changes play important role in tumor vessel abnormalization/ normalization. M2-like TAMs stimulate immunosuppression and formation of defective tumor blood vessels leading to tumor progression. In contrast M1-like TAMs trigger immune response and normalize irregular tumor vascular network which should sensitize cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapy and lead to tumor growth regression. Here, we demonstrated that combination of endoglin-based DNA vaccine with interleukin 12 repolarizes TAMs from tumor growth-promoting M2-like phenotype to tumor growth-inhibiting M1-like phenotype. Combined therapy enhances tumor infiltration by CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells. Depletion of TAMs as well as CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells, but not CD4+ lymphocytes, reduces the effect of combined therapy. Furthermore, combined therapy improves tumor vessel maturation, perfusion and reduces hypoxia. It caused that suboptimal doses of doxorubicin reduced the growth of tumors in mice treated with combined therapy. To summarize, combination of antiangiogenic drug and immunostimulatory agent repolarizes TAMs phenotype from M2-like (pro-tumor) into M1-like (anti-tumor) which affects the structure of tumor blood vessels, improves the effect of chemotherapy and leads to tumor growth regression. PMID:29320562

  2. Relaxant effects of butylidenephthalide in isolated dog blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wun Chang; Liao, Chao-Chiun; Shih, Chih-Hsien; Lei, Chien-Bang; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2002-11-01

    We investigated the reason why butylidenephthalide (Bdph) can have an antianginal effect without changing blood pressure in conscious rats. Isolated dog coronary artery (CA), femoral vein (FV), femoral artery (FA), and mesenteric artery (MA) were used to evaluate the relaxant effects of Bdph. Bdph concentration-dependently relaxed isolated CA, FV, FA, and MA precontracted by KCl (60 mM) and phenylephrine (phe, 5 microM) with the exception that CA was precontracted by prostaglandin F 2 alpha (PGF 2 alpha, 2 microM) instead of phe. The potency order of Bdph to these blood vessels was FV > CA > FA > or = MA. Bdph also concentration-dependently and non-competitively inhibited cumulative KCl (5 - 120 mM)- and phe (0.1 - 100 microM)-induced contractions in normal, and inhibited cumulative Ca 2+-induced contractions in depolarized blood vessels. The potency order of Bdph to these blood vessels was FV congruent with CA > FA congruent with MA. Bdph (0.02 - 0.04 mM) concentration-dependently and leftward-shifted the log concentration-response curves in parallel and significantly increased the pD 2 value of forskolin, but not nitroprusside in FV. Bdph (0.1 mM) did both in CA. Bdph (0.225 - 0.45 mM) did the opposite to that of nitroprusside, but not forskolin, in FA. Bdph (0.45 - 0.9 mM) did neither in MA. Bdph (0.1 - 1 mM) significantly inhibited cAMP- but not cGMP-PDE activities in these four blood vessels, suggesting that Bdph more selectively inhibited the former in these tissues. The above results suggest that the higher potencies of Bdph on FV and CA than on FA and MA, may be interpreted as the reason why Bdph is useful in the treatment of angina pectoris without changing blood pressure, after Bdph administration in vivo, because the venoreturn may be reduced and the coronary flow may be increased without affecting the arterioles, such as MA, the main determinant of blood pressure. Abbreviations. Bdph:butylidenephthalide Phe:phenylephrine PGF 2alpha :prostaglandin F 2

  3. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  4. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  5. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection by spur removal and Gaussian matched filtering compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. In this paper, we proposed approaches for improving the quality of blood vessel detection based on our initial blood vessel detection methods. A blood vessel spur pruning method has been developed for removing the blood vessel spurs both on vessel medial lines and binary vessel masks, which are caused by artifacts and side-effect of Gaussian matched vessel enhancement. A Gaussian matched filtering compensation method has been developed for removing incorrect vessel branches in the areas of low illumination. The proposed approaches were applied and tested on the color fundus images from one publicly available database and our diabetic retinopathy screening dataset. A preliminary result has demonstrated the robustness and good performance of the proposed approaches and their potential application for improving retinal blood vessel detection.

  6. Deposition of collagen type I onto skeletal endothelium reveals a new role for blood vessels in regulating bone morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ben Shoham, Adi; Rot, Chagai; Stern, Tomer; Krief, Sharon; Akiva, Anat; Dadosh, Tali; Sabany, Helena; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, blood vessels have been implicated in the morphogenesis of various organs. The vasculature is also known to be essential for endochondral bone development, yet the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. We show that a unique composition of blood vessels facilitates the role of the endothelium in bone mineralization and morphogenesis. Immunostaining and electron microscopy showed that the endothelium in developing bones lacks basement membrane, which normally isolates the blood vessel from its surroundings. Further analysis revealed the presence of collagen type I on the endothelial wall of these vessels. Because collagen type I is the main component of the osteoid, we hypothesized that the bone vasculature guides the formation of the collagenous template and consequently of the mature bone. Indeed, some of the bone vessels were found to undergo mineralization. Moreover, the vascular pattern at each embryonic stage prefigured the mineral distribution pattern observed one day later. Finally, perturbation of vascular patterning by overexpressing Vegf in osteoblasts resulted in abnormal bone morphology, supporting a role for blood vessels in bone morphogenesis. These data reveal the unique composition of the endothelium in developing bones and indicate that vascular patterning plays a role in determining bone shape by forming a template for deposition of bone matrix. PMID:27621060

  7. Microprobes For Blood Flow Measurements In Tissue And Small Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, P. A.; Salerud, E. G.

    1988-04-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a method for the continuous and non-invasive recording of tissue blood flow. The method has already proved to be advantageous in a number of clinical as well as theoretical medical disciplines. In dermatology, plastic- and gastrointestinal surgery laser Doppler measurements have substantially contributed to increase knowledge of microvascular perfusion. In experimental medicine, the method has been used in the study of a great variety of microvascular problems. Spontaneous rhythmical variations, spatial and temporal fluctuations in human skin blood flow are mentioned as examples of problem areas in which new knowledge has been generated. The method has facilitated further investigations of the nature of spongeous bone blood flow, testis and kidney cortex blood flow. Recently we have showed that a variant of the laser Doppler method principle, using a single optical fiber, can be advantageous in deep tissue measurements. With this method laser light is transmitted bidirectionally in a single fiber. The tissue trauma which affects blood flow can be minimized by introducing small diameter fibers (0.1-0.5 mm). A special set-up utilizing the same basic principle has been used for the recording of blood flow in small vessels.

  8. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; hide

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  9. Automatic retinal blood vessel parameter calculation in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehbe, Hassan; Ruggeri, Marco; Jiao, Shuliang; Gregori, Giovanni; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2007-02-01

    Measurement of retinal blood vessel parameters like the blood blow in the vessels may have significant impact on the study and diagnosis of glaucoma, a leading blinding disease worldwide. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that can provide not only microscopic structural imaging of the retina but also functional information like the blood flow velocity in the retina. The aim of this study is to automatically extract the parameters of retinal blood vessels like the 3D orientation, the vessel diameters, as well as the corresponding absolute blood flow velocity in the vessel. The parameters were extracted from circular OCT scans around the optic disc. By removing the surface reflection through simple segmentation of the circular OCT scans a blood vessel shadowgram can be generated. The lateral coordinates and the diameter of each blood vessel are extracted from the shadowgram through a series of signal processing. Upon determination of the lateral position and the vessel diameter, the coordinate in the depth direction of each blood vessel is calculated in combination with the Doppler information for the vessel. The extraction of the vessel coordinates and diameter makes it possible to calculate the orientation of the vessel in reference to the direction of the incident sample light, which in turn can be used to calculate the absolute blood flow velocity and the flow rate.

  10. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, P<0.05). This was the first study to determine the sampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  11. [Blood vessels of the epiphysis in comparative-anatomical aspect].

    PubMed

    Selin, Iu M

    1977-05-01

    The structure of the epiphysis and its inner blood vessels were studied in the representatives of nine orders of placental mammals and in man by means of injection of stained masses into the arteries and veins and subsequent preparation of histological sections. Not only form and topography of the organ differ in the representatives of different orders, but histological picture of the epiphysis is specific for each of them. In insectivores and chiroptera the loops of the inner three-dimensional capillary network are stretched along the longitudinal axis of the organ. In the epiphysis of carnivores, ungulata and monkey, the intraorganic vessels are situated in stromal trabeculae and the loops of the capillary network have polygonal shape. The intraepiphyseal vessels in man are arranged in peculiar baskets which envelope parenchymal lobules. The intraorganic veins beginning from the loops of the capillary network do not follow the arteries penetrating into the organ, but independently go to different surface parts of the organ where they flow into extraorganic veins.

  12. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  13. Thin and open vessel windows for intra-vital fluorescence imaging of murine cochlear blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaorui; Zhang, Fei; Urdang, Zachary; Dai, Min; Neng, Lingling; Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    Normal microvessel structure and function in the cochlea is essential for maintaining the ionic and metabolic homeostasis required for hearing function. Abnormal cochlear microcirculation has long been considered an etiologic factor in hearing disorders. A better understanding of cochlear blood flow (CoBF) will enable more effective amelioration of hearing disorders that result from aberrant blood flow. However, establishing the direct relationship between CoBF and other cellular events in the lateral wall and response to physio-pathological stress remains a challenge due to the lack of feasible interrogation methods and difficulty in accessing the inner ear. Here we report on new methods for studying the CoBF in a mouse model using a thin or open vessel-window in combination with fluorescence intra-vital microscopy (IVM). An open vessel-window enables investigation of vascular cell biology and blood flow permeability, including pericyte (PC) contractility, bone marrow cell migration, and endothelial barrier leakage, in wild type and fluorescent protein-labeled transgenic mouse models with high spatial and temporal resolution. Alternatively, the thin vessel-window method minimizes disruption of the homeostatic balance in the lateral wall and enables study CoBF under relatively intact physiological conditions. A thin vessel-window method can also be used for time-based studies of physiological and pathological processes. Although the small size of the mouse cochlea makes surgery difficult, the methods are sufficiently developed for studying the structural and functional changes in CoBF under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24780131

  14. Thin and open vessel windows for intra-vital fluorescence imaging of murine cochlear blood flow.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaorui; Zhang, Fei; Urdang, Zachary; Dai, Min; Neng, Lingling; Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Nuttall, Alfred L

    2014-07-01

    Normal microvessel structure and function in the cochlea is essential for maintaining the ionic and metabolic homeostasis required for hearing function. Abnormal cochlear microcirculation has long been considered an etiologic factor in hearing disorders. A better understanding of cochlear blood flow (CoBF) will enable more effective amelioration of hearing disorders that result from aberrant blood flow. However, establishing the direct relationship between CoBF and other cellular events in the lateral wall and response to physio-pathological stress remains a challenge due to the lack of feasible interrogation methods and difficulty in accessing the inner ear. Here we report on new methods for studying the CoBF in a mouse model using a thin or open vessel-window in combination with fluorescence intra-vital microscopy (IVM). An open vessel-window enables investigation of vascular cell biology and blood flow permeability, including pericyte (PC) contractility, bone marrow cell migration, and endothelial barrier leakage, in wild type and fluorescent protein-labeled transgenic mouse models with high spatial and temporal resolution. Alternatively, the thin vessel-window method minimizes disruption of the homeostatic balance in the lateral wall and enables study CoBF under relatively intact physiological conditions. A thin vessel-window method can also be used for time-based studies of physiological and pathological processes. Although the small size of the mouse cochlea makes surgery difficult, the methods are sufficiently developed for studying the structural and functional changes in CoBF under normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamical clustering of red blood cells in capillary vessels.

    PubMed

    Boryczko, Krzysztof; Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A

    2003-02-01

    We have modeled the dynamics of a 3-D system consisting of red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and capillary walls using a discrete-particle approach. The blood cells and capillary walls are composed of a mesh of particles interacting with harmonic forces between nearest neighbors. We employ classical mechanics to mimic the elastic properties of RBCs with a biconcave disk composed of a mesh of spring-like particles. The fluid particle method allows for modeling the plasma as a particle ensemble, where each particle represents a collective unit of fluid, which is defined by its mass, moment of inertia, translational and angular momenta. Realistic behavior of blood cells is modeled by considering RBCs and plasma flowing through capillaries of various shapes. Three types of vessels are employed: a pipe with a choking point, a curved vessel and bifurcating capillaries. There is a strong tendency to produce RBC clusters in capillaries. The choking points and other irregularities in geometry influence both the flow and RBC shapes, considerably increasing the clotting effect. We also discuss other clotting factors coming from the physical properties of blood, such as the viscosity of the plasma and the elasticity of the RBCs. Modeling has been carried out with adequate resolution by using 1 to 10 million particles. Discrete particle simulations open a new pathway for modeling the dynamics of complex, viscoelastic fluids at the microscale, where both liquid and solid phases are treated with discrete particles. Figure A snapshot from fluid particle simulation of RBCs flowing along a curved capillary. The red color corresponds to the highest velocity. We can observe aggregation of RBCs at places with the most stagnant plasma flow.

  16. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    BahadarKhan, Khan; A Khaliq, Amir; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina) databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts. PMID:27441646

  17. The crosstalk between autonomic nervous system and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yulan; Zhu, Li

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can mediate vasodilation. On the other hand, vascular factors, such as endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO), and constriction factor endothelin, play an important role in the autonomic nervous system in physiologic conditions. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are associated with the sympathetic nerve activity in the pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. The dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system could be a risk factor for vascular diseases and the overactive sympathetic nerve is detrimental to the blood vessel. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the crosstalk between ANS and blood vessels in both physiological and pathological conditions and hope to provide insight into the development of therapeutic interventions of vascular diseases. PMID:29593847

  18. Microfluidic strategy to investigate dynamics of small blood vessel function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasotharan, Sanjesh; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Guenther, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Resistance arteries (RAs, 30-300 microns in diameter) that are located within the terminal part of the vascular tree regulate the laminar perfusion of tissue with blood, via the peripheral vascular resistance, and hence controls the systemic blood pressure. The structure of RAs is adapted to actively controlling flow resistance by dynamically changing their diameter, which is non-linearly dependent on the temporal variation of the transmural pressure, perfusion flow rate and spatiotemporal changes in the chemical environment. Increases in systemic blood pressure (hypertension) resulting from pathologic changes in the RA response represent the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We use a microfluidic strategy to investigate small blood vessels by quantifying structural variations within the arterial wall, RA outer contour and diameter over time. First, we document the artery response to vasomotor drugs that were homogeneously applied at step-wise increasing concentration. Second, we investigate the response in the presence of well-defined axial and circumferential heterogeneities. Artery per- and superfusion is discussed based on microscale PIV measurements of the fluid velocity on both sides of the arterial wall. Structural changes in the arterial wall are quantified using cross-correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition analyses of bright-field micrographs.

  19. Malformation of certain brain blood vessels caused by TCDD activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 signaling in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Akira; Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J; Peterson, Richard E; Hiraga, Takeo

    2010-08-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The AHR also plays important roles in normal development in mice, and AHR(-/-) mice show abnormal development of vascular structures in various blood vessels. Our previous studies revealed that Ahr type 2 (Ahr2) activation by TCDD and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) caused a significant decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain of zebrafish embryos. Here we report effects of TCDD exposure on the morphology of some blood vessels in the head of developing zebrafish. TCDD caused concentration-dependent anatomical rearrangements in the shape of the prosencephalic artery in zebrafish larvae. In contrast, no major vascular defects were recognized in the trunk and tail regions following exposure to TCDD at least at the concentrations used. Essentially, the same observations were also confirmed in BNF-exposed larvae. Knock-down of either Ahr2 or Ahr nuclear translocator type 1 (Arnt1) by morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) protected larvae against abnormal shape of the prosencephalic artery caused by TCDD and BNF. On the other hand, knock-down of Ahr2 or Arnt1 in vehicle-exposed zebrafish larvae had no clear effect on morphology of the prosencephalic artery or trunk vessels. Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, protected against the TCDD-induced decrease in blood flow through the prosencephalic artery, but not the abnormal morphological changes in the shape of this artery. These results indicate that activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 pathway by TCDD and BNF affects the shape of certain blood vessels in the brain of developing zebrafish. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Apigenin in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and protection of blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Song, Wei; Li, Dalin; Jin, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Seeking natural compounds in medicinal plants capable of reducing blood fat and studying their mechanisms of action has been the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms of apigenin in regulating cholesterol metabolism and protecting blood vessels, and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of apigenin. The mouse model of hyperlipidemia was established to verify the efficacy of apigenin in improving hyperlipidemia and to observe the mechanism of action of apigenin in reducing cholesterol content. In vitro cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of apigenin in mediating reverse cholesterol transport. Additionally, H2O2-injured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells) were used for further study on the roles of apigenin in resisting oxidization and protecting vascular endothelial cells. Apigenin significantly regulated blood fat, reduced animal weight, and reduced total cholesterol (P=0.024), triglyceride (P=0.031) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.014) in the serum of the high-fat diet mice. Apigenin improved the blood lipid metabolism of the hyper-lipidemia model mice. Body weight and serum cholesterol content increased abnormally (P=0.003) as a consequence of high-fat diet. Apigenin increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in EA.hy926 cells (P=0.043) and increased the amount of nitric oxide secreted by the cells (P=0.038). Apigenin also inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner (P=0.036). In conclusion, apigenin can regulate cholesterol metabolism in vivo and plays a role in reducing the level of blood fat by promoting cholesterol absorption and conversion, and accelerating reverse cholesterol transport. Apigenin also has a role in resisting oxidization and protecting blood vessels. PMID:28565758

  1. Apigenin in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and protection of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Song, Wei; Li, Dalin; Jin, Xing

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Seeking natural compounds in medicinal plants capable of reducing blood fat and studying their mechanisms of action has been the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms of apigenin in regulating cholesterol metabolism and protecting blood vessels, and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of apigenin. The mouse model of hyperlipidemia was established to verify the efficacy of apigenin in improving hyperlipidemia and to observe the mechanism of action of apigenin in reducing cholesterol content. In vitro cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of apigenin in mediating reverse cholesterol transport. Additionally, H 2 O 2 -injured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells) were used for further study on the roles of apigenin in resisting oxidization and protecting vascular endothelial cells. Apigenin significantly regulated blood fat, reduced animal weight, and reduced total cholesterol (P=0.024), triglyceride (P=0.031) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.014) in the serum of the high-fat diet mice. Apigenin improved the blood lipid metabolism of the hyper-lipidemia model mice. Body weight and serum cholesterol content increased abnormally (P=0.003) as a consequence of high-fat diet. Apigenin increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in EA.hy926 cells (P=0.043) and increased the amount of nitric oxide secreted by the cells (P=0.038). Apigenin also inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner (P=0.036). In conclusion, apigenin can regulate cholesterol metabolism in vivo and plays a role in reducing the level of blood fat by promoting cholesterol absorption and conversion, and accelerating reverse cholesterol transport. Apigenin also has a role in resisting oxidization and protecting blood vessels.

  2. Parametrically defined cerebral blood vessels as non-invasive blood input functions for brain PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselin, Marie-Claude; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Amano, Shigeko; Gunn, Roger N.; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-03-01

    A non-invasive alternative to arterial blood sampling for the generation of a blood input function for brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies is presented. The method aims to extract the dimensions of the blood vessel directly from PET images and to simultaneously correct the radioactivity concentration for partial volume and spillover. This involves simulation of the tomographic imaging process to generate images of different blood vessel and background geometries and selecting the one that best fits, in a least-squares sense, the acquired PET image. A phantom experiment was conducted to validate the method which was then applied to eight subjects injected with 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA and one subject injected with [11C]CO-labelled red blood cells. In the phantom study, the diameter of syringes filled with an 11C solution and inserted into a water-filled cylinder were estimated with an accuracy of half a pixel (1 mm). The radioactivity concentration was recovered to 100 ± 4% in the 8.7 mm diameter syringe, the one that most closely approximated the superior sagittal sinus. In the human studies, the method systematically overestimated the calibre of the superior sagittal sinus by 2-3 mm compared to measurements made in magnetic resonance venograms on the same subjects. Sources of discrepancies related to the anatomy of the blood vessel were found not to be fundamental limitations to the applicability of the method to human subjects. This method has the potential to provide accurate quantification of blood radioactivity concentration from PET images without the need for blood samples, corrections for delay and dispersion, co-registered anatomical images, or manually defined regions of interest.

  3. Illustration of the heart and blood vessels in medieval times.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Majid; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Alakbarli, Farid; Newman, Andrew J

    2010-08-06

    Throughout history, illustrations had played a key role in the promotion and evolution of medicine by providing a medium for transmission of scientific observations. Due to religious prohibitions, color drawings of the human body did not appear in medieval Persia and during the Islamic Golden Age. This tradition, however, has been overlooked with the publication of the first color atlas and text of human anatomy, Tashrihi Mansuri (Mansur's Anatomy), by Mansur ibn Ilyas in the fourteenth century AD. Written in Persian and containing several vivid illustrations of the human body, this book gained widespread attention by both scholars and lay persons. In this article, a brief history of Mansur's Anatomy and an English translation of selected sections from this book regarding the heart and blood vessels are presented. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Von Willebrand factor regulation of blood vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Randi, Anna M; Smith, Koval E; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2018-06-04

    Several important physiological processes, from permeability to inflammation to haemostasis, take place at the vessel wall and are regulated by endothelial cells (EC). Thus, proteins that have been identified as regulators of one process are increasingly found to be involved in other vascular functions. Such is the case for Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), a large glycoprotein best known for its critical role in haemostasis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that lack of VWF causes enhanced vascularisation, both constitutively and following ischemia. This evidence is supported by studies on blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) from patients with lack of VWF synthesis (type 3 von Willebrand disease [VWD]). The molecular pathways are likely to involve VWF binding partners, such as integrin αvβ3, and components of Weibel Palade bodies (WPB), such as Angiopoietin-2 and Galectin-3, whose storage is regulated by VWF; these converge on the master regulator of angiogenesis and endothelial homeostasis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling. Recent studies suggest that the roles of VWF may be tissue-specific. The ability of VWF to regulate angiogenesis has clinical implications for a subset of VWD patients with severe, intractable gastrointestinal bleeding due to vascular malformations. In this article, we review the evidence showing that VWF is involved in blood vessel formation, discuss the role of VWF high molecular weight multimers in regulating angiogenesis, and the value of studies on BOEC in developing a precision medicine approach to validate novel treatments for angiodysplasia in congenital VWD and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  5. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    PubMed

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p<0.05) in the old vs. young rats. Calcified and ossified vessel volumes per tissue volume and calcified vessel volume per patent vessel volume were augmented (p<0.05) 262%, 375% and 263%, respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Ossified and patent vessel number was higher (171%) and lower (40%), respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Finally, adipocyte volume per patent vessel volume was higher (86%) with age. This study is the first to report ossification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in "microvascular dead space" in regard to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the

  6. Influence of cerebral blood vessel movements on the position of perivascular synapses.

    PubMed

    Urrecha, Miguel; Romero, Ignacio; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic activity is regulated and limited by blood flow, which is controlled by blood vessel dilation and contraction. Traditionally, the study of neurovascular coupling has mainly focused on energy consumption and oxygen delivery. However, the mechanical changes that blood vessel movements induce in the surrounding tissue have not been considered. We have modeled the mechanical changes that movements of blood vessels cause in neighboring synapses. Our simulations indicate that synaptic densities increase or decrease during vascular dilation and contraction, respectively, near the blood vessel walls. This phenomenon may alter the concentration of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall and thus may have an influence on local blood flow.

  7. Influence of cerebral blood vessel movements on the position of perivascular synapses

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic activity is regulated and limited by blood flow, which is controlled by blood vessel dilation and contraction. Traditionally, the study of neurovascular coupling has mainly focused on energy consumption and oxygen delivery. However, the mechanical changes that blood vessel movements induce in the surrounding tissue have not been considered. We have modeled the mechanical changes that movements of blood vessels cause in neighboring synapses. Our simulations indicate that synaptic densities increase or decrease during vascular dilation and contraction, respectively, near the blood vessel walls. This phenomenon may alter the concentration of neurotransmitters and vasoactive substances in the immediate vicinity of the vessel wall and thus may have an influence on local blood flow. PMID:28199396

  8. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  9. An Unsupervised Approach for Extraction of Blood Vessels from Fundus Images.

    PubMed

    Dash, Jyotiprava; Bhoi, Nilamani

    2018-04-26

    Pathological disorders may happen due to small changes in retinal blood vessels which may later turn into blindness. Hence, the accurate segmentation of blood vessels is becoming a challenging task for pathological analysis. This paper offers an unsupervised recursive method for extraction of blood vessels from ophthalmoscope images. First, a vessel-enhanced image is generated with the help of gamma correction and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). Next, the vessels are extracted iteratively by applying an adaptive thresholding technique. At last, a final vessel segmented image is produced by applying a morphological cleaning operation. Evaluations are accompanied on the publicly available digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE) and Child Heart And Health Study in England (CHASE_DB1) databases using nine different measurements. The proposed method achieves average accuracies of 0.957 and 0.952 on DRIVE and CHASE_DB1 databases respectively.

  10. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  11. [Analysis of heat transfer in the biological tissue layer with distributed system of blood vessels].

    PubMed

    Bogatov, N M; Pelipenko, O N

    2005-09-01

    Processes of heat transfer in the skin layer with blood vessels were investigated using mathematical modeling. Analysis of influence of a pathological state of blood vessels on heterogeneity of thermal field of the skin surface was carried out. For each site of body surface, there is a certain difference of temperature between normal and pathological sites, being specific for differential diagnosis of diseases of dermal and hypodermic vessels.

  12. Cardiovascular abnormalities with normal blood pressure in tissue kallikrein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneton, Pierre; Bloch-Faure, May; Hagege, Albert A.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Huang, Wei; Bergaya, Sonia; Ceiler, Debbie; Gehring, Doris; Martins, Isabelle; Salmon, Georges; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Nussberger, Jürg; Crozatier, Bertrand; Gasc, Jean-Marie; Heudes, Didier; Bruneval, Patrick; Doetschman, Tom; Ménard, Joël; Alhenc-Gelas, François

    2001-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein is a serine protease thought to be involved in the generation of bioactive peptide kinins in many organs like the kidneys, colon, salivary glands, pancreas, and blood vessels. Low renal synthesis and urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein have been repeatedly linked to hypertension in animals and humans, but the exact role of the protease in cardiovascular function has not been established largely because of the lack of specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates that mice lacking tissue kallikrein are unable to generate significant levels of kinins in most tissues and develop cardiovascular abnormalities early in adulthood despite normal blood pressure. The heart exhibits septum and posterior wall thinning and a tendency to dilatation resulting in reduced left ventricular mass. Cardiac function estimated in vivo and in vitro is decreased both under basal conditions and in response to βadrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, flow-induced vasodilatation is impaired in isolated perfused carotid arteries, which express, like the heart, low levels of the protease. These data show that tissue kallikrein is the main kinin-generating enzyme in vivo and that a functional kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for normal cardiac and arterial function in the mouse. They suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system could be involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Predictive simulation of bidirectional Glenn shunt using a hybrid blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Leow, Wee Kheng; Chiu, Ing-Sh

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for performing predictive simulation of cardiac surgery. It applies a hybrid approach to model the deformation of blood vessels. The hybrid blood vessel model consists of a reference Cosserat rod and a surface mesh. The reference Cosserat rod models the blood vessel's global bending, stretching, twisting and shearing in a physically correct manner, and the surface mesh models the surface details of the blood vessel. In this way, the deformation of blood vessels can be computed efficiently and accurately. Our predictive simulation system can produce complex surgical results given a small amount of user inputs. It allows the surgeon to easily explore various surgical options and evaluate them. Tests of the system using bidirectional Glenn shunt (BDG) as an application example show that the results produc by the system are similar to real surgical results.

  14. 3D simulations of early blood vessel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Gamba, A.; Naldi, G.; Semplice, M.; Valdembri, D.; Serini, G.

    2007-08-01

    Blood vessel networks form by spontaneous aggregation of individual cells migrating toward vascularization sites (vasculogenesis). A successful theoretical model of two-dimensional experimental vasculogenesis has been recently proposed, showing the relevance of percolation concepts and of cell cross-talk (chemotactic autocrine loop) to the understanding of this self-aggregation process. Here we study the natural 3D extension of the computational model proposed earlier, which is relevant for the investigation of the genuinely three-dimensional process of vasculogenesis in vertebrate embryos. The computational model is based on a multidimensional Burgers equation coupled with a reaction diffusion equation for a chemotactic factor and a mass conservation law. The numerical approximation of the computational model is obtained by high order relaxed schemes. Space and time discretization are performed by using TVD schemes and, respectively, IMEX schemes. Due to the computational costs of realistic simulations, we have implemented the numerical algorithm on a cluster for parallel computation. Starting from initial conditions mimicking the experimentally observed ones, numerical simulations produce network-like structures qualitatively similar to those observed in the early stages of in vivo vasculogenesis. We develop the computation of critical percolative indices as a robust measure of the network geometry as a first step towards the comparison of computational and experimental data.

  15. Agmatine Modulation of Noradrenergic Neurotransmission in Isolated Rat Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Török, Jozef; Zemančíková, Anna

    2016-06-30

    Agmatine, a vasoactive metabolite of L-arginine, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues including blood vessels. Agmatine binding to imidazoline and α₂-adrenoceptors induces a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. We investigated the effect of agmatine on contractile responses of the rat pulmonary artery and portal vein induced by electrical stimulation of perivascular nerves and by exogenous adrenergic substances. Experiments were performed on isolated segments of rat main pulmonary artery and its extralobular branches, and portal vein suspended in organ bath containing modified Krebs bicarbonate solution and connected to a force-displacement transducer for isometric tension recording. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced tetrodotoxin-sensitive contractile responses of pulmonary artery and portal vein. Besides the well known vasorelaxant actions, we found that agmatine also produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of neurogenic contractions induced by EFS in pulmonary arteries; however, the agmatine treatment did not influence the responses to exogenous noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect on EFS-induced contractions was not abolished by the α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine. In portal vein, in contrast, agmatine increased spontaneous mechanical contractions and enhanced the contractions induced by EFS. The results suggest that agmatine can significantly influence vascular function of pulmonary arteries and portal veins by modulating sympathetically mediated vascular contractions by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms.

  16. Blood vessel control of macrophage maturation promotes arteriogenesis in ischemia.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Kapanadze, Tamar; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Beger, Christian; Häger, Christine; Lozanovski, Vladimir J; Falk, Christine S; Napp, L Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Mack, Matthias; Haller, Hermann; Weber, Christian; Adams, Ralf H; Limbourg, Florian P

    2017-10-16

    Ischemia causes an inflammatory response that is intended to restore perfusion and homeostasis yet often aggravates damage. Here we show, using conditional genetic deletion strategies together with adoptive cell transfer experiments in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, that blood vessels control macrophage differentiation and maturation from recruited monocytes via Notch signaling, which in turn promotes arteriogenesis and tissue repair. Macrophage maturation is controlled by Notch ligand Dll1 expressed in vascular endothelial cells of arteries and requires macrophage canonical Notch signaling via Rbpj, which simultaneously suppresses an inflammatory macrophage fate. Conversely, conditional mutant mice lacking Dll1 or Rbpj show proliferation and transient accumulation of inflammatory macrophages, which antagonizes arteriogenesis and tissue repair. Furthermore, the effects of Notch are sufficient to generate mature macrophages from monocytes ex vivo that display a stable anti-inflammatory phenotype when challenged with pro-inflammatory stimuli. Thus, angiocrine Notch signaling fosters macrophage maturation during ischemia.Molecular mechanisms of macrophage-mediated regulation of artery growth in response to ischemia are poorly understood. Here the authors show that vascular endothelium controls macrophage maturation and differentiation via Notch signaling, which in turn promotes arteriogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery.

  17. Correlation between blood and lymphatic vessel density and results of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    PubMed

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Walasek, Tomasz; Ryś, Janusz; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique used for detection of tumour vascularity by imaging the moment in which contrast, delivered to the lesion by blood vessels, leaks out of them, and flows out through lymphatic vessels. In our study, we included 174 women for whom spectral mammography was performed for diagnostic purposes. The relationship between enhancement in CESM and blood vessel density (BVD), lymphatic vessel density (LVD) or the percentage of fields with at least one lymphatic vessel (distribution of podoplanin-positive vessels - DPV) and other related parameters was assessed in 55 cases. BVD, LVD and DPV were assessed immunohistochemically, applying podoplanin and CD31/CD34 as markers of lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. The sensitivity (in detection of malignant lesions) of CESM was 100%, while its specificity - 39%. We found a significant positive correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and BVD (p = 0.007, r = 0.357) and a negative correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and DPV (p = 0.003, r = -0.390). Lesions with the highest enhancement in CESM showed a high number of blood vessels and a low number of lymphatics. 1) CESM is a method characterized by high sensitivity and acceptable specificity; 2) the correlation between CESM results and blood/lymphatic vessel density confirms its utility in detection of tissue angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis.

  18. Cell-free collagen-based scaffolds used for making blood vessels in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, Sh D; Afanas'ev, S A; Egorova, M V; Andreev, S L; Ivanov, A V; Rogovskaia, Yu V; Usov, V Yu; Shvedov, A N; Steinhoff, G

    2012-01-01

    The present article deals with the technology of obtaining decellularized cell-free collagen-based scaffolds from arterial vessels and surgical assessment of the possibility of experimentally implanting them into the blood system of laboratory animals for experimental purposes. The study was performed on arterial vessels (n=60) and fragments of the human internal thoracic artery (n=20). Described herein is a method of obtaining a connective-tissue matrix of a blood vessel by means of vessel's perfusion for 2-3 hours with detergent solutions. Cell-free collagen-based conduits were implanted to a total of ten dogs. After the operation, the blood flow remained functional. The anastomoses established turned out to be leak-proof and the acellular vessels were able to withstand the haemodynamic load of the arterial blood flow.

  19. Fpga based hardware synthesis for automatic segmentation of retinal blood vessels in diabetic retinopathy images.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Kavitha, G; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Real-Time mass screening system for DR is vital for timely diagnosis and periodic screening to prevent the patient from severe visual loss. Human retinal fundus images are widely used for an automated segmentation of blood vessel and diagnosis of various blood vessel disorders. In this work, an attempt has been made to perform hardware synthesis of Kirsch template based edge detection for segmentation of blood vessels. This method is implemented using LabVIEW software and is synthesized in field programmable gate array board to yield results in real-time application. The segmentation of blood vessels using Kirsch based edge detection is compared with other edge detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt and Canny. The texture features such as energy, entropy, contrast, mean, homogeneity and structural feature namely ratio of vessel to vessel free area are obtained from the segmented images. The performance of segmentation is analysed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It is observed from the results that the Kirsch based edge detection technique segmented the edges of blood vessels better than other edge detection techniques. The ratio of vessel to vessel free area classified the normal and DR affected retinal images more significantly than other texture based features. FPGA based hardware synthesis of Kirsch edge detection method is able to differentiate normal and diseased images with high specificity (93%). This automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels system could be used in computer-assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening in real-time application.

  20. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  1. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Dix, David; Rountree, Michael; Baker, Nancy; Sipes, Nisha; Reif, David; Spencer, Richard; Knudsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC) behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/) modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a morphogenetic

  2. Grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michiko; Hasebe, Takahiro; Shimada, Hiroko; Takeuchi, Hideki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shimizu, Michio; Yasuda, Masanori; Ueda, Shigeto; Shigekawa, Takashi; Osaki, Akihiko; Saeki, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    We previously reported that the number of mitotic and apoptotic figures in tumor cells in blood vessel tumor emboli had the greatest significant power for the accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The purpose of the present study was to devise a grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli based on the mitotic and apoptotic figures of tumor cells in blood vessel tumor emboli, enabling accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We classified 263 invasive ductal carcinomas into the following 3 grades according to the numbers of mitotic and apoptotic figures in tumor cells located in blood vessels within 1 high-power field: grade 0, no blood vessel invasion; grade 1, absence of mitotic figures and presence of any number of apoptotic figures, or 1 mitotic figure and 0 to 2 apoptotic figures; and grade 2, 1 mitotic figure and 3 or more apoptotic figures, or 2 or more mitotic figures and 1 or more apoptotic figures. Multivariate analyses with well-known prognostic factors demonstrated that grade 2 blood vessel tumor emboli significantly increased the hazard ratios for tumor recurrence independent of the nodal status, pathological TNM stage, hormone receptor status, or HER2 status. The presently reported grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli is the strongest histologic factor for accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Role of C5b-9 expression in skeletal muscle blood vessels in necrotizing myopathy].

    PubMed

    Cong, Lu; Pu, Chuanqiang; Mao, Yanling; Liu, Jiexiao; Lu, Xianghui; Wang, Qian

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the expression of C5b-9 in the skeletal muscle blood vessels in patients with necrotizing myopathy and explore its role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The expression of C5b-9 and MHC-I in the skeletal muscular fibers and blood vessels in 4 patients with necrotizing myopathy was detected using enzymohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Focal or dispersive necrotic muscle fibers with obvious phagocytosis were observed in all the 4 patients. No inflammatory cell infiltration was found in the perimysium or perivascular regions. HE staining showed a decreased number of local small blood vessels, and the some small blood vessels showed thickened vascular walls. Immunohistochemistry detected prominent C5b-9 expression in the necrotic muscle fibers and the blood vessels, and diffuse strong C5b-9 expression was found in the vascular walls, vascular endothelial cells and the smooth muscle layer. No MHC-I deposition was detected in the muscular fibers and blood vessels. C5b-9 contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing myopathy mediated by pathologies in the blood vessels.

  4. Laser optical method of visualizing cutaneous blood vessels and its applications in biometry and photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and examine a new approach to visualizing a local network of cutaneous blood vessels using laser optical methods for applications in biometry and photomedicine. Various optical schemes of the formation of biometrical information on the architecture of blood vessels of skin tissue are analyzed. We developed an optical model of the interaction of the laser radiation with the biological tissue and a mathematical algorithm of processing of measurement results. We show that, in medicine, the visualization of blood vessels makes it possible to calculate and determine regions of disturbance of blood microcirculation and to control tissue hypoxia, as well as to maintain the local concentration of oxygen at a level necessary for the normal cellular metabolism. We propose noninvasive optical methods for modern photomedicine and biometry for diagnostics and elimination of tissue hypoxia and for personality identification and verification via the pattern of cutaneous blood vessels.

  5. An approach to localize the retinal blood vessels using bit planes and centerline detection.

    PubMed

    Fraz, M M; Barman, S A; Remagnino, P; Hoppe, A; Basit, A; Uyyanonvara, B; Rudnicka, A R; Owen, C G

    2012-11-01

    The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessel tree from the retinal images. The centerlines are extracted by using the first order derivative of a Gaussian filter in four orientations and then evaluation of derivative signs and average derivative values is performed. Mathematical morphology has emerged as a proficient technique for quantifying the blood vessels in the retina. The shape and orientation map of blood vessels is obtained by applying a multidirectional morphological top-hat operator with a linear structuring element followed by bit plane slicing of the vessel enhanced grayscale image. The centerlines are combined with these maps to obtain the segmented vessel tree. The methodology is tested on three publicly available databases DRIVE, STARE and MESSIDOR. The results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparable with state of the art techniques in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust Hidden Markov Model based intelligent blood vessel detection of fundus images.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi; Amin, Muhammad; Murtza, Iqbal; Khan, Asifullah; Chaudhry, Asmatullah

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of detecting retinal vessel networks. Precise detection of retinal vessel networks is vital for accurate eye disease diagnosis. Most of the blood vessel tracking techniques may not properly track vessels in presence of vessels' occlusion. Owing to problem in sensor resolution or acquisition of fundus images, it is possible that some part of vessel may occlude. In this scenario, it becomes a challenging task to accurately trace these vital vessels. For this purpose, we have proposed a new robust and intelligent retinal vessel detection technique on Hidden Markov Model. The proposed model is able to successfully track vessels in the presence of occlusion. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is evaluated on publically available standard DRIVE dataset of the fundus images. The experiments show that the proposed technique not only outperforms the other state of the art methodologies of retinal blood vessels segmentation, but it is also capable of accurate occlusion handling in retinal vessel networks. The proposed technique offers better average classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of 95.7%, 81.0%, 97.0%, and 90.0% respectively, which shows the usefulness of the proposed technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  8. TNF-alpha drives remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in sustained airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Baluk, Peter; Yao, Li-Chin; Feng, Jennifer; Romano, Talia; Jung, Sonia S; Schreiter, Jessica L; Yan, Li; Shealy, David J; McDonald, Donald M

    2009-10-01

    Inflammation is associated with blood vessel and lymphatic vessel proliferation and remodeling. The microvasculature of the mouse trachea provides an ideal opportunity to study this process, as Mycoplasma pulmonis infection of mouse airways induces widespread and sustained vessel remodeling, including enlargement of capillaries into venules and lymphangiogenesis. Although the mediators responsible for these vascular changes in mice have not been identified, VEGF-A is known not to be involved. Here, we sought to determine whether TNF-alpha drives the changes in blood vessels and lymphatics in M. pulmonis-infected mice. The endothelial cells, but not pericytes, of blood vessels, but not lymphatics, were immunoreactive for TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and lymphotoxin B receptors. Most TNF-R2 immunoreactivity was on leukocytes. Infection resulted in a large and sustained increase in TNF-alpha expression, as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and smaller increases in lymphotoxins and TNF receptors that preceded vessel remodeling. Substantially less vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis occurred when TNF-alpha signaling was inhibited by a blocking antibody or was silenced in Tnfr1-/- mice. When administered after infection was established, the TNF-alpha-specific antibody slowed but did not reverse blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis. The action of TNF-alpha on blood vessels is probably mediated through direct effects on endothelial cells, but its effects on lymphangiogenesis may require inflammatory mediators from recruited leukocytes. We conclude that TNF-alpha is a strong candidate for a mediator that drives blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis in inflammation.

  9. A functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel development in the early postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Astroglia are a major cell type in the brain and play a key role in many aspects of brain development and function. In the adult brain, astrocytes are known to intimately ensheath blood vessels and actively coordinate local neural activity and blood flow. During development of the neural retina, blood vessel growth follows a meshwork of astrocytic processes. Several genes have also been implicated in retinal astrocytes for regulating vessel development. This suggests a role of astrocytes in promoting angiogenesis throughout the central nervous system. To determine the roles that astrocytes may play during brain angiogenesis, we employ genetic approaches to inhibit astrogliogenesis during perinatal corticogenesis and examine its effects on brain vessel development. We find that conditional deletion from glial progenitors of orc3, a gene required for DNA replication, dramatically reduces glial progenitor cell number in the subventricular zone and astrocytes in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. This, in turn, results in severe reductions in both the density and branching frequency of cortical blood vessels. Consistent with a delayed growth but not regression of vessels, we find neither significant net decreases in vessel density between different stages after normalizing for cortical expansion nor obvious apoptosis of endothelial cells in these mutants. Furthermore, concomitant with loss of astroglial interactions, we find increased endothelial cell proliferation, enlarged vessel luminal size as well as enhanced cytoskeletal gene expression in pericytes, which suggests compensatory changes in vascular cells. Lastly, we find that blood vessel morphology in mutant cortices recovers substantially at later stages, following astrogliosis. These results thus implicate a functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel growth during brain development.

  10. Numerical investigation of hyperelastic wall deformation characteristics in a micro-scale stenotic blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Taqi Ahmad; Park, Cheol Woo

    2013-08-01

    Stenosis is the drastic reduction of blood vessel diameter because of cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall. In addition to the changes in blood flow characteristics, significant changes occur in the mechanical behavior of a stenotic blood vessel. We conducted a 3-D study of such behavior in micro-scale blood vessels by considering the fluid structure interaction between blood flow and vessel wall structure. The simulation consisted of one-way coupled analysis of blood flow and the resulting structural deformation without a moving mesh. A commercial code based on a finite element method with a hyperelastic material model (Neo-Hookean) of the wall was used to calculate wall deformation. Three different cases of stenosis severity and aspect ratios with and without muscles around the blood vessel were considered. The results showed that the wall deformation in a stenotic channel is directly related to stenosis severity and aspect ratio. The presence of muscles reduces the degree of deformation even in very severe stenosis.

  11. Truncated Hormone Inhibits Breast Tumor Blood Vessel Formation, Not Tumor Growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The hormone prolactin (PRL) plays a critical role in normal breast development by stimulating the proliferation of mammary cells, the production of milk proteins, and the formation of new mammary blood vessels. Unfortunately, the same cell and vessel growth pathways controlled by PRL in normal cells also operate in breast cancer cells, and elevated plasma PRL is a risk factor

  12. Automatic detection of blood vessels in retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, D Siva Sundhara; Vasuki, S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. DR is mainly caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels in the diabetic patients. It is essential to detect and segment the retinal blood vessels for DR detection and diagnosis, which prevents earlier vision loss in diabetic patients. The computer aided automatic detection and segmentation of blood vessels through the elimination of optic disc (OD) region in retina are proposed in this paper. The OD region is segmented using anisotropic diffusion filter and subsequentially the retinal blood vessels are detected using mathematical binary morphological operations. The proposed methodology is tested on two different publicly available datasets and achieved 93.99% sensitivity, 98.37% specificity, 98.08% accuracy in DRIVE dataset and 93.6% sensitivity, 98.96% specificity, and 95.94% accuracy in STARE dataset, respectively.

  13. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  14. Histomorphometric comparative study of blood vessels and their pattern in follicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Safora; Feizi, Farideh; Khafri, Thoraya; Aram, Mehrdad

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at assessment and histomorphometric analysis of intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) blood vessels in odontogenic lesions and their pattern on their clinical behavior by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. In a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, 45 paraffin blocks of ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, and follicular cyst were selected and stained immunohistochemically for CD34. In each slide, images of 3 microscopic fields with the highest microvessel density in intratumoral and peritumoral (cystic) areas were captured at 40× magnification with attached camera system. Inner vascular diameter (IVD) and outer vascular diameter (OVD), cross-sectional area (CSA), and the wall thickness (WT) of the vessels were measured with Motic Plus 2 software. The vascular pattern in odontogenic lesions was analyzed. Outer vascular diameter, IVD, and CSA of the vessels in peritumoral (cystic) areas were greater in ameloblastoma than keratocyst (P = 0.001) and follicular cyst (P < 0.001). However, WT of the blood vessels did not show any significant statistical difference among the 3 odontogenic lesions (P = 0.05). The differences in OVD, IVD (P = 0.8), CSA (P = 0.6), and WT (P = 0.4) of the blood vessels in intratumoral (cystic) areas were not statistically significant. The blood vessel pattern was circumferential in ameloblastoma, and it was directional in keratocyst and follicular cyst. Morphometric specifications of blood vessels (IVD, OVD, CSA) and their pattern in peritumoral (cystic) areas may influence the aggressive clinical behavior of ameloblastoma in comparison with keratocyst and follicular cyst.

  15. A study of the sink effect by blood vessels in radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, George; Samaras, Theodoros

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the current work was to study the sink effect in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) caused by a blood vessel located close to an electrode in a two-compartment numerical model, consisting of a spherical tumor embedded in healthy liver tissue. Several blood vessels of different sizes were studied at different distances from the electrode. It was found that when a straight blood vessel, cylindrical in shape, is located parallel to the electrode, the minimum distance for a drop of only 10% in the isothermal treatment volume above 50°C, compared to the model without the blood vessel, varies from 4.49 mm (for a vessel of 2mm in diameter) to 20.02 mm (for a vessel 20mm in diameter). The results can be used as a guideline to clinical practitioners, in order to quickly assess the potential impact of existing blood vessels on the resulting treatment volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering a Blood Vessel Network Module for Body-on-a-Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyunryul; Oh, Soojung; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Hae Kwang; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-06-01

    The blood circulatory system links all organs from one to another to support and maintain each organ's functions consistently. Therefore, blood vessels have been considered as a vital unit. Engineering perfusable functional blood vessels in vitro has been challenging due to difficulties in designing the connection between rigid macroscale tubes and fragile microscale ones. Here, we propose a generalizable method to engineer a "long" perfusable blood vessel network. To form millimeter-scale vessels, fibroblasts were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in close proximity. In contrast to previous works, in which all cells were permanently placed within the device, we developed a novel method to culture paracrine factor secreting fibroblasts on an O-ring-shaped guide that can be transferred in and out. This approach affords flexibility in co-culture, where the effects of secreted factors can be decoupled. Using this, blood vessels with length up to 2 mm were successfully produced in a reproducible manner (>90%). Because the vessels form a perfusable network within the channel, simple links to inlets and outlets of the device allowed connections to the outside world. The robust and reproducible formation of in vitro engineered vessels can be used as a module to link various organ components as parts of future body-on-a-chip applications. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P < 0.05) and more with D-D (P < 0.01), while age, sex, type of AL, WBC count, Plt count and abnormality of cytogenetics did not correlate with abnormal blood coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated

  18. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  19. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies.

    PubMed

    Cilip, Christopher M; Rosenbury, Sarah B; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C; Schweinsberger, Gino R; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578 ± 154, 530 ± 171, and 426 ± 174  mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0 ± 0.4  mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4  mm outer diameter).

  20. Increased Skin Inflammation and Blood Vessel Density in Human and Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Ana; Kafanas, Antonios; Leal, Ermelindo C; Tecilazich, Francesco; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Auster, Michael E; Kontoes, Iraklis; Paolino, Jacqueline; Carvalho, Eugenia; Nabzdyk, Leena Pradhan; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, the authors investigated changes in skin inflammation and skin blood vessels in human and experimental diabetes. Comparing to the non-DM human subjects, the total number of inflammatory cells per biopsy and the number of inflammatory cells around blood vessels, a strong indication of inflammation, were higher in DM subjects irrespective of their risk for developing diabetic foot ulcer. Inflammatory cell infiltration was robustly increased in all diabetic animal models compared to their non-diabetic controls. The number and density of blood vessels and CD31 positive proliferating endothelial cells around pre-existing skin vessels was also higher in the DM patients. However, there were no differences in the skin blood flow between the non-DM and DM subjects. The number of skin blood vessels was also increased in the DM animals; however, these differences were less obvious than the ones observed for inflammatory cells. We conclude that skin inflammation and skin blood vessel density is increased in diabetic human subjects and in rodent and rabbit models of diabetes. PMID:23446362

  1. Heterogeneity of the tumor vasculature: the need for new tumor blood vessel type-specific targets.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F

    2012-10-01

    Therapies directed against VEGF-A and its receptors are effective in treating many mouse tumors but have been less so in treating human cancer patients. To elucidate the reasons that might be responsible for this difference in response, we investigated the nature of the blood vessels that appear in human and mouse cancers and the tumor "surrogate" blood vessels that develop in immunodeficient mice in response to an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A(164). Both tumor and tumor surrogate blood vessels are heterogeneous and form by two distinct processes, angiogenesis and arterio-venogenesis. The first new angiogenic blood vessels to form are mother vessels (MV); MV arise from preexisting venules and capillaries and evolve over time into glomeruloid microvascular proliferations (GMP) and subsequently into capillaries and vascular malformations (VM). Arterio-venogenesis results from the remodeling and enlargement of preexisting arteries and veins, leading to the formation of feeder arteries (FA) and draining veins (DV) that supply and drain angiogenic vessels. Of these different blood vessel types, only the two that form first, MV and GMP, were highly responsive to anti-VEGF therapy, whereas "late"-formed capillaries, VM, FA and DV were relatively unresponsive. This finding may explain, at least in part, the relatively poor response of human cancers to anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapies, because human cancers, present for months or years prior to discovery, are expected to contain a large proportion of late-formed blood vessels. The future of anti-vascular cancer therapy may depend on finding new targets on "late" vessels, apart from those associated with the VEGF/VEGFR axis.

  2. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  3. Effect of blood vessels on light distribution in optogenetic stimulation of cortex.

    PubMed

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, the impact of blood vessels on light distribution during photostimulation of cortical tissue in small rodents is investigated. Brain optical properties were extracted using a double-integrating sphere setup, and optical coherence tomography was used to image cortical vessels and capillaries to generate a three-dimensional angiogram of the cortex. By combining these two datasets, a complete volumetric structure of the cortical tissue was developed and linked to a Monte Carlo code which simulates light propagation in this inhomogeneous structure and illustrates the effect of blood vessels on the penetration depth and pattern preservation in optogenetic stimulation.

  4. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  5. Vascular bursts enhance permeability of tumour blood vessels and improve nanoparticle delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Nichols, Joseph W.; Toh, Kazuko; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Christie, R. James; Yamada, Naoki; Ogura, Tadayoshi; Kano, Mitsunobu R.; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Bae, You Han; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced permeability in tumours is thought to result from malformed vascular walls with leaky cell-to-cell junctions. This assertion is backed by studies using electron microscopy and polymer casts that show incomplete pericyte coverage of tumour vessels and the presence of intercellular gaps. However, this gives the impression that tumour permeability is static amid a chaotic tumour environment. Using intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the permeability of tumour blood vessels includes a dynamic phenomenon characterized by vascular bursts followed by brief vigorous outward flow of fluid (named ‘eruptions’) into the tumour interstitial space. We propose that ‘dynamic vents’ form transient openings and closings at these leaky blood vessels. These stochastic eruptions may explain the enhanced extravasation of nanoparticles from the tumour blood vessels, and offer insights into the underlying distribution patterns of an administered drug.

  6. [Pathological changes of the blood vessels in rabbit femoral head with glucocorticoid-induced necrosis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-ming; Wang, Hai-bin; Zhou, Ming-qian; Yao, Xin-sheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Xiao-ning

    2006-06-01

    To observe the pathological changes in the blood vessels in rabbit femoral head with glucocorticoid-induced necrosis and investigate the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, namely group A. which was injected with horse serum and prednisone and group B as the control group. Chinese ink was injected into the femoral cavity of the rabbits to observe the blood vessels in the femoral head under optical microscope and the femoral head was examined histopathologically. Compared with the normal control group, the rabbits in group A had significantly decreased number of perfused vessels, which was featured by defective perfusion, osteocytie pyknosis or necrosis, increase of empty ostoocyte lacunae and fat cells, decrease of hematopoietic tissue, and blood vessel occlusion. Vascular occlusion and vasculitis due to glucocorticoid treatment may cause avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  7. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek A; Brewster, Luke P; Caves, Jeffrey M; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-09-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (< 6 mm) vessel replacements. While synthetic polymer alternatives to date have failed to meet the performance of autogenous conduits, tissue-engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research.

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Walls Constructed by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Guo, Fangfang; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into smooth muscle cells and have been engineered into elastic small diameter blood vessel walls in vitro. However, the mechanisms involved in the development of three-dimensional (3D) vascular tissue remain poorly understood. The present study analyzed protein expression profiles of engineered blood vessel walls constructed by human ASCs using methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). These results were compared to normal arterial walls. A total of 1701±15 and 1265±26 protein spots from normal and engineered blood vessel wall extractions were detected by 2DE, respectively. A total of 20 spots with at least 2.0-fold changes in expression were identified, and 38 differently expressed proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and ion trap MS. These proteins were classified into seven functional categories: cellular organization, energy, signaling pathway, enzyme, anchored protein, cell apoptosis/defense, and others. These results demonstrated that 2DE, followed by ion trap MS, could be successfully utilized to characterize the proteome of vascular tissue, including tissue-engineered vessels. The method could also be employed to achieve a better understanding of differentiated smooth muscle protein expression in vitro. These results provide a basis for comparative studies of protein expression in vascular smooth muscles of different origin and could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of action needed for constructing blood vessels that exhibit properties consistent with normal blood vessels. PMID:22963350

  9. Proteomic profiling of tissue-engineered blood vessel walls constructed by adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Guo, Fangfang; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Zhigang; Cui, Lei

    2013-02-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into smooth muscle cells and have been engineered into elastic small diameter blood vessel walls in vitro. However, the mechanisms involved in the development of three-dimensional (3D) vascular tissue remain poorly understood. The present study analyzed protein expression profiles of engineered blood vessel walls constructed by human ASCs using methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). These results were compared to normal arterial walls. A total of 1701±15 and 1265±26 protein spots from normal and engineered blood vessel wall extractions were detected by 2DE, respectively. A total of 20 spots with at least 2.0-fold changes in expression were identified, and 38 differently expressed proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and ion trap MS. These proteins were classified into seven functional categories: cellular organization, energy, signaling pathway, enzyme, anchored protein, cell apoptosis/defense, and others. These results demonstrated that 2DE, followed by ion trap MS, could be successfully utilized to characterize the proteome of vascular tissue, including tissue-engineered vessels. The method could also be employed to achieve a better understanding of differentiated smooth muscle protein expression in vitro. These results provide a basis for comparative studies of protein expression in vascular smooth muscles of different origin and could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of action needed for constructing blood vessels that exhibit properties consistent with normal blood vessels.

  10. A rigid disc for protection of exposed blood vessels during negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Anesäter, Erik; Borgquist, Ola; Torbrand, Christian; Roupé, K Markus; Ingemansson, Richard; Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin

    2013-02-01

    There are increasing reports of serious complications and deaths associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Bleeding may occur when NPWT is applied to a wound with exposed blood vessels. Inserting a rigid disc in the wound may protect these structures. The authors examined the effects of rigid discs on wound bed tissue pressure and blood flow through a large blood vessel in the wound bed during NPWT. Wounds were created over the femoral artery in the groin of 8 pigs. Rigid discs were inserted. Wound bed pressures and arterial blood flow were measured during NPWT. Pressure transduction to the wound bed was similar for control wounds and wounds with discs. Blood flow through the femoral artery decreased in control wounds. When a disc was inserted, the blood flow was restored. NPWT causes hypoperfusion in the wound bed tissue, presumably as a result of mechanical deformation. The insertion of a rigid barrier alleviates this effect and restores blood flow.

  11. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio L; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S; Salemi, Vera M C; Ianni, Barbara M; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Eduard L

    2013-01-01

    Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors. Several

  12. HIFU procedures at moderate intensities--effect of large blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, P; Myers, M R; Banerjee, R K

    2007-06-21

    A three-dimensional computational model is presented for studying the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures targeted near large blood vessels. The analysis applies to procedures performed at intensities below the threshold for cavitation, boiling and highly nonlinear propagation, but high enough to increase tissue temperature a few degrees per second. The model is based upon the linearized KZK equation and the bioheat equation in tissue. In the blood vessel the momentum and energy equations are satisfied. The model is first validated in a tissue phantom, to verify the absence of bubble formation and nonlinear effects. Temperature rise and lesion-volume calculations are then shown for different beam locations and orientations relative to a large vessel. Both single and multiple ablations are considered. Results show that when the vessel is located within about a beam width (few mm) of the ultrasound beam, significant reduction in lesion volume is observed due to blood flow. However, for gaps larger than a beam width, blood flow has no major effect on the lesion formation. Under the clinically representative conditions considered, the lesion volume is reduced about 40% (relative to the no-flow case) when the beam is parallel to the blood vessel, compared to about 20% for a perpendicular orientation. Procedures involving multiple ablation sites are affected less by blood flow than single ablations. The model also suggests that optimally focused transducers can generate lesions that are significantly larger (>2 times) than the ones produced by highly focused beams.

  13. HIFU procedures at moderate intensities—effect of large blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, P.; Myers, M. R.; Banerjee, R. K.

    2007-07-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is presented for studying the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures targeted near large blood vessels. The analysis applies to procedures performed at intensities below the threshold for cavitation, boiling and highly nonlinear propagation, but high enough to increase tissue temperature a few degrees per second. The model is based upon the linearized KZK equation and the bioheat equation in tissue. In the blood vessel the momentum and energy equations are satisfied. The model is first validated in a tissue phantom, to verify the absence of bubble formation and nonlinear effects. Temperature rise and lesion-volume calculations are then shown for different beam locations and orientations relative to a large vessel. Both single and multiple ablations are considered. Results show that when the vessel is located within about a beam width (few mm) of the ultrasound beam, significant reduction in lesion volume is observed due to blood flow. However, for gaps larger than a beam width, blood flow has no major effect on the lesion formation. Under the clinically representative conditions considered, the lesion volume is reduced about 40% (relative to the no-flow case) when the beam is parallel to the blood vessel, compared to about 20% for a perpendicular orientation. Procedures involving multiple ablation sites are affected less by blood flow than single ablations. The model also suggests that optimally focused transducers can generate lesions that are significantly larger (>2 times) than the ones produced by highly focused beams.

  14. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreamingmore » CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.« less

  15. Blood vessel adaptation to gravity in a semi-arboreal snake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, D. J.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Olson, K. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive agonists on systemic blood vessels were examined with respect to anatomical location and gravity acclimation in the semi-arboreal snake, Elaphe Obsoleta. Major blood vessels were reactive to putative neurotransmitters, hormones or local factors in vessel specific patterns. Catecholamines, adenosine triphosphate, histamine and high potassium (80 mM) stimulated significantly greater tension per unit vessel mass in posterior than anterior arteries. Anterior vessels were significantly more sensitive to catecholamines than midbody and posterior vessels. Angiotensin II stimulated significantly greater tension in carotid artery than in midbody and posterior dorsal aorta. Arginine vasotocin strongly contracted the left and right aortic arches and anterior dorsal aorta. Veins were strongly contracted by catecholamines, high potassium and angiotensin II, but less so by adenosine triphosphate, arginine vasotocin and histamine. Precontracted vessel were relaxed by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, but not by atrial natriuretic peptide or bradykinin. Chronic exposure of snakes to intermittent hypergravity stress ( + 1.5 Gz at tail) did not affect the majority of vessel responses. These data demonstrate that in vitro tension correlates with that catecholamines, as well as other agonists, are important in mediating vascular responses to gravitational stresses in snakes.

  16. Association of parental blood pressure with retinal microcirculatory abnormalities indicative of endothelial dysfunction in children.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Bux, Rasool; Hashmi, Shiraz; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D

    2014-03-01

    Microcirculatory abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and may explain its familial nature. We examined the relationship between parental blood pressure (BP) and offspring retinal microvasculature in Pakistani trios [father, mother, and child (aged 9-14 years)]. This is a substudy of a population-based trial of BP reduction. Data were available on 358 normotensive, and 410 offspring of at least one hypertensive parent. Retinal vessel characteristics were measured from digital images. Multivariable linear regression models were built to assess the associations between maternal and paternal BP and offspring retinal microvasculature. Optimality deviation was greatest in offspring of two hypertensive parents, compared with those with one or no hypertensive parent (P=0.030 for trend). Paternal SBP and DBP were each significantly associated with optimality deviation in offspring (P=0.023 and P=0.006, respectively). This relationship persisted after accounting for offspring cardiovascular risk factors [increase in optimality deviation (95% confidence interval, CI) 0.0053 (0.0001-0.0106, P=0.047) and 0.0109 (0.0025-0.0193, P=0.011), for each 10 mmHg increase in paternal SBP and DBP, respectively]. Maternal DBP was inversely associated with offspring arteriovenous ratio -0.0102 (-0.0198 to -0.0007, P=0.035). Microvascular endothelial dysfunction in children is associated with increasing levels of parental hypertension. The association with paternal BP is independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including the child's BP. Higher maternal DBP is associated with evidence of arteriolar narrowing in offspring. These early microcirculatory changes may help explain familial predisposition to hypertension in people of Pakistani origin at an early age. :

  17. Evaluation of the Contribution of Signals Originating from Large Blood Vessels to Signals of Functionally Specific Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jun-Young; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is known to play a pivotal role in face processing. The FFA is located in the ventral region, at the base of the brain, through which large blood vessels run. The location of the FFA via functional MRI (fMRI) may be influenced by these large blood vessels. Responses of large blood vessels may not exactly correspond to neuronal activity in a target area, because they may be diluted and influenced by inflow effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of large blood vessels in the FFA, that is, whether the FFA includes large blood vessels and/or whether inflow signals contribute to fMRI signals of the FFA. For this purpose, we used susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences to visualize large blood vessels and dual-echo gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) to measure inflow effects. These results showed that the location and response signals of the FFA were not influenced by large blood vessels or inflow effects, although large blood vessels were located near the FFA. Therefore, the data from the FFA obtained by individual analysis were robust to large blood vessels but leaving a warning that the data obtained by group analysis may be prone to large blood vessels. PMID:26413511

  18. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor bloodmore » vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.« less

  19. Use of kurtosis for locating deep blood vessels in raw speckle imaging using a homogeneity representation.

    PubMed

    Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Perez-Corona, Elizabeth; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben; Chiu, Roger; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C

    2017-06-01

    Visualization of deep blood vessels in speckle images is an important task as it is used to analyze the dynamics of the blood flow and the health status of biological tissue. Laser speckle imaging is a wide-field optical technique to measure relative blood flow speed based on the local speckle contrast analysis. However, it has been reported that this technique is limited to certain deep blood vessels (about ? = 300 ?? ? m ) because of the high scattering of the sample; beyond this depth, the quality of the vessel’s image decreases. The use of a representation based on homogeneity values, computed from the co-occurrence matrix, is proposed as it provides an improved vessel definition and its corresponding diameter. Moreover, a methodology is proposed for automatic blood vessel location based on the kurtosis analysis. Results were obtained from the different skin phantoms, showing that it is possible to identify the vessel region for different morphologies, even up to 900 ?? ? m in depth.

  20. Ligament, nerve, and blood vessel anatomy of the lateral zone of the lumbar intervertebral foramina.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Guo; Wen, You-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Li, Yi-Kai

    2015-11-01

    To provide an anatomical basis for intrusive treatment using an approach through the lateral zones of the lumbar intervertebral foramina (LIF), especially for acupotomology lysis, percutaneous transforaminal endoscopy, and lumbar nerve root block. Blood vessels, ligaments, nerves, and adjacent structures of ten cadavers were exposed through the L1-2 to L5-S1 intervertebral foramina and examined. The lateral zones of the LIF were almost filled by ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels, which were separated into compartments by superior/inferior transforaminal ligaments and corporotransverse superior/inferior ligaments. Two zones relatively lacking in blood vessels and nerves (triangular working zones) were found beside the lamina of the vertebral arch and on the root of the transverse processus. Both the ascending lumbar vein and branches of the intervetebral vein were observed in 12 Kambin's triangles, and in only seven Kambin's triangles were without any veins. Nerves and blood vessels are fixed and protected by transforaminal ligaments and/or corporotransverse ligaments. It is necessary to distinguish the ligaments from nerves using transforaminal endoscopy so that the ligaments can be cut without damaging nerves. Care needs to be taken in intrusive operations because of the veins running through Kambin's triangle. We recommend injecting into the lamina of the vertebral arch and the midpoint between the adjacent roots of the transverse processus when administering nerve root block. Blind percutaneous incision and acupotomology lysis is dangerous in the lateral zones of the LIF, as they are filled with nerves and blood vessels.

  1. Notch3 is necessary for blood vessel integrity in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Henshall, Tanya L; Keller, Annika; He, Liqun; Johansson, Bengt R; Wallgard, Elisabet; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Jin, Shaobo; Betsholtz, Christer; Lendahl, Urban

    2015-02-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are important for contraction, blood flow distribution, and regulation of blood vessel diameter, but to what extent they contribute to the integrity of blood vessels and blood-brain barrier function is less well understood. In this report, we explored the impact of the loss of VSMC in the Notch3(-/-) mouse on blood vessel integrity in the central nervous system. Notch3(-/-) mice showed focal disruptions of the blood-brain barrier demonstrated by extravasation of tracers accompanied by fibrin deposition in the retinal vasculature. This blood-brain barrier leakage was accompanied by a regionalized and patchy loss of VSMC, with VSMC gaps predominantly in arterial resistance vessels of larger caliber. The loss of VSMC appeared to be caused by progressive degeneration of VSMC resulting in a gradual loss of VSMC marker expression and a progressive acquisition of an aberrant VSMC phenotype closer to the gaps, followed by enhanced apoptosis and cellular disintegration in the gaps. Arterial VSMC were the only mural cell type that was morphologically affected, despite Notch3 also being expressed in pericytes. Transcriptome analysis of isolated brain microvessels revealed gene expression changes in Notch3(-/-) mice consistent with loss of arterial VSMC and presumably secondary transcriptional changes were observed in endothelial genes, which may explain the compromised vascular integrity. We demonstrate that Notch3 is important for survival of VSMC, and reveal a critical role for Notch3 and VSMC in blood vessel integrity and blood-brain barrier function in the mammalian vasculature. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Engineered living blood vessels: functional endothelia generated from human umbilical cord-derived progenitors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dörthe; Asmis, Lars M; Odermatt, Bernhard; Kelm, Jens; Breymann, Christian; Gössi, Matthias; Genoni, Michele; Zund, Gregor; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2006-10-01

    Tissue-engineered living blood vessels (TEBV) with growth capacity represent a promising new option for the repair of congenital malformations. We investigate the functionality of TEBV with endothelia generated from human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Tissue-engineered living blood vessels were generated from human umbilical cord-derived myofibroblasts seeded on biodegradable vascular scaffolds, followed by endothelialization with differentiated cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells. During in vitro maturation the TEBV were exposed to physiologic conditioning in a flow bioreactor. For functional assessment, a subgroup of TEBV was stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Control vessels endothelialized with standard vascular endothelial cells were treated in parallel. Analysis of the TEBV included histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry (extracellular matrix analysis, DNA), and biomechanical testing. Endothelia were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (CD31, von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, tissue factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Histologically, a three-layered tissue organization of the TEBV analogous to native vessels was observed, and biochemistry revealed the major matrix constituents (collagen, proteoglycans) of blood vessels. Biomechanical properties (Young's modulus, 2.03 +/- 0.65 MPa) showed profiles resembling those of native tissue. Endothelial progenitor cells expressed typical endothelial cell markers CD31, von Willebrand factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase comparable to standard vascular endothelial cells. Stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha resulted in physiologic upregulation of tissue factor and downregulation of thrombomodulin expression. These results indicate that TEBV with tissue architecture and functional endothelia similar to native blood vessels can be successfully generated from human umbilical cord progenitor cells. Thus, blood

  3. Immature blood vessels in rheumatoid synovium are selectively depleted in response to anti-TNF therapy.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Elena; Cañete, Juan D; Celis, Raquel; Santiago, Begoña; Usategui, Alicia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Del Rey, Manuel J; Pablos, José L

    2009-12-02

    Angiogenesis is considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) where it has been proposed as a therapeutic target. In other settings, active angiogenesis is characterized by pathologic, immature vessels that lack periendothelial cells. We searched for the presence of immature vessels in RA synovium and analyzed the dynamics of synovial vasculature along the course of the disease, particularly after therapeutic response to TNF antagonists. Synovial arthroscopic biopsies from RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls were analyzed by double labeling of endothelium and pericytes/smooth muscle mural cells to identify and quantify mature/immature blood vessels. To analyze clinicopathological correlations, a cross-sectional study on 82 synovial biopsies from RA patients with variable disease duration and severity was performed. A longitudinal analysis was performed in 25 patients with active disease rebiopsied after anti-TNF-alpha therapy. We found that most RA synovial tissues contained a significant fraction of immature blood vessels lacking periendothelial coverage, whereas they were rare in OA, and inexistent in normal synovial tissues. Immature vessels were observed from the earliest phases of the disease but their presence or density was significantly increased in patients with longer disease duration, higher activity and severity, and stronger inflammatory cell infiltration. In patients that responded to anti-TNF-alpha therapy, immature vessels were selectively depleted. The mature vasculature was similarly expanded in early or late disease and unchanged by therapy. RA synovium contains a significant fraction of neoangiogenic, immature blood vessels. Progression of the disease increases the presence and density of immature but not mature vessels and only immature vessels are depleted in response to anti-TNFalpha therapy. The different dynamics of the mature and immature vascular fractions has important implications for the

  4. Truncated Hormone Inhibits Breast Tumor Blood Vessel Formation, Not Tumor Growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The hormone prolactin (PRL) plays a critical role in normal breast development by stimulating the proliferation of mammary cells, the production of milk proteins, and the formation of new mammary blood vessels. Unfortunately, the same cell and vessel growth pathways controlled by PRL in normal cells also operate in breast cancer cells, and elevated plasma PRL is a risk factor for breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women.

  5. Tumor surrogate blood vessel subtypes exhibit differential susceptibility to anti-VEGF therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sitohy, Basel; Nagy, Janice A.; Shih, Shou-Ching; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-vascular therapy directed against VEGF or its receptors has been successful when administered at early stages of tumor vessel growth, but is less effective when administered later. Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, so vessel subpopulations may differ in their requirements for tumor cell-secreted VEGF and in their susceptibility to anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy. Human cancers contain several distinct blood vessel types, including mother vessels (MV), glomeruloid microvascular proliferations (GMP), vascular malformations (VM), feeding arteries (FA) and draining veins (DV), all of which can be generated in mice in the absence of tumor cells using expression vectors for VEGF-A164. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of each of these vessel types to anti-VEGF therapy with aflibercept ® (VEGF Trap), a potent inhibitor of VEGF-A164. Administering VEGF Trap treatment before or shortly after injection of a recombinant VEGF-A164 expressing adenovirus could prevent or regress tumor-free neovasculature, but it was progressively less effective if initiated at later times. Early-forming MVs and GMPs in which the lining endothelial cells expressed high levels of VEGFR-2 were highly susceptible to blockade by VEGF Trap. In contrast, late-forming VMs, FAs, and DVs that expressed low levels of VEGFR-2 were largely resistant. Together, our findings define the susceptibility of different blood vessel subtypes to anti-VEGF therapy, offering a possible explanation for the limited effectiveness of anti-VEGF-A/VEGFR treatment of human cancers, which are typically present for months to years before discovery and are largely populated by late-forming blood vessels. PMID:21937680

  6. Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) coordinates discrete stages of blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, John C.; Cluceru, Julia G.; Nesmith, Jessica E.; Mouillesseaux, Kevin P.; Bradley, Vanessa B.; Hartland, Caitlin M.; Hashambhoy-Ramsay, Yasmin L.; Walpole, Joseph; Peirce, Shayn M.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In developing blood vessel networks, the overall level of vessel branching often correlates with angiogenic sprout initiations, but in some pathological situations, increased sprout initiations paradoxically lead to reduced vessel branching and impaired vascular function. We examine the hypothesis that defects in the discrete stages of angiogenesis can uniquely contribute to vessel branching outcomes. Methods and results Time-lapse movies of mammalian blood vessel development were used to define and quantify the dynamics of angiogenic sprouting. We characterized the formation of new functional conduits by classifying discrete sequential stages—sprout initiation, extension, connection, and stability—that are differentially affected by manipulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signalling via genetic loss of the receptor flt-1 (vegfr1). In mouse embryonic stem cell-derived vessels genetically lacking flt-1, overall branching is significantly decreased while sprout initiations are significantly increased. Flt-1−/− mutant sprouts are less likely to retract, and they form increased numbers of connections with other vessels. However, loss of flt-1 also leads to vessel collapse, which reduces the number of new stable conduits. Computational simulations predict that loss of flt-1 results in ectopic Flk-1 signalling in connecting sprouts post-fusion, causing protrusion of cell processes into avascular gaps and collapse of branches. Thus, defects in stabilization of new vessel connections offset increased sprout initiations and connectivity in flt-1−/− vascular networks, with an overall outcome of reduced numbers of new conduits. Conclusions These results show that VEGF-A signalling has stage-specific effects on vascular morphogenesis, and that understanding these effects on dynamic stages of angiogenesis and how they integrate to expand a vessel network may suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27142980

  7. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  8. Expression of the Growth Factor Progranulin in Endothelial Cells Influences Growth and Development of Blood Vessels: A Novel Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2–promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5–14.5) and later (E15.5–17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects

  9. Ex-vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peijun; Karnowski, Karol; Yu, Paula; An, Dong; Yu, Dao-Yi; Sampson, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Label-free imaging of the blood and lymphatic vessel networks of the conjunctiva of the eye is important in assessing the drainage pathways affected by glaucoma. We utilize the characteristically low signal in optical coherence tomography (OCT) provided by such vessels in ex vivo tissue to characterize their morphology in two and three dimensions. We demonstrate this method on conjunctiva from six porcine eyes, showing the ready visualization of both vessel networks. Such ex vivo characterization is a necessary precursor for future in vivo studies directed towards improving glaucoma surgery.

  10. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  11. Ridge-branch-based blood vessel detection algorithm for multimodal retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Hutchings, N.; Knighton, R. W.; Gregori, G.; Lujan, B. J.; Flanagan, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    Automatic detection of retinal blood vessels is important to medical diagnoses and imaging. With the development of imaging technologies, various modals of retinal images are available. Few of currently published algorithms are applied to multimodal retinal images. Besides, the performance of algorithms with pathologies is expected to be improved. The purpose of this paper is to propose an automatic Ridge-Branch-Based (RBB) detection algorithm of blood vessel centerlines and blood vessels for multimodal retinal images (color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms, fundus autofluorescence images, SLO fundus images and OCT fundus images, for example). Ridges, which can be considered as centerlines of vessel-like patterns, are first extracted. The method uses the connective branching information of image ridges: if ridge pixels are connected, they are more likely to be in the same class, vessel ridge pixels or non-vessel ridge pixels. Thanks to the good distinguishing ability of the designed "Segment-Based Ridge Features", the classifier and its parameters can be easily adapted to multimodal retinal images without ground truth training. We present thorough experimental results on SLO images, color fundus photograph database and other multimodal retinal images, as well as comparison between other published algorithms. Results showed that the RBB algorithm achieved a good performance.

  12. Vascular Cells in Blood Vessel Wall Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, R; Dave, J M; Chandran, R R; Misra, A; Sheikh, A Q; Greif, D M

    2017-01-01

    The vessel wall is composed of distinct cellular layers, yet communication among individual cells within and between layers results in a dynamic and versatile structure. The morphogenesis of the normal vascular wall involves a highly regulated process of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The use of modern developmental biological and genetic approaches has markedly enriched our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these developmental events. Additionally, the application of similar approaches to study diverse vascular diseases has resulted in paradigm-shifting insights into pathogenesis. Further investigations into the biology of vascular cells in development and disease promise to have major ramifications on therapeutic strategies to combat pathologies of the vasculature. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro fabrication of functional three-dimensional tissues with perfusable blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Dobashi, Izumi; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Umezu, Mitsuo; Okano, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro fabrication of functional vascularized three-dimensional tissues has been a long-standing objective in the field of tissue engineering. Here we report a technique to engineer cardiac tissues with perfusable blood vessels in vitro. Using resected tissue with a connectable artery and vein as a vascular bed, we overlay triple-layer cardiac cell sheets produced from coculture with endothelial cells, and support the tissue construct with media perfused in a bioreactor. We show that endothelial cells connect to capillaries in the vascular bed and form tubular lumens, creating in vitro perfusable blood vessels in the cardiac cell sheets. Thicker engineered tissues can be produced in vitro by overlaying additional triple-layer cell sheets. The vascularized cardiac tissues beat and can be transplanted with blood vessel anastomoses. This technique may create new opportunities for in vitro tissue engineering and has potential therapeutic applications. PMID:23360990

  14. Lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Haiping; Wang, Zuowei; Lin, Zhifang; Liu, Muren

    2002-05-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels is presented by introducing a boundary condition for elastic and moving boundaries. The mass conservation for the boundary condition is tested in detail. The viscous flow in elastic vessels is simulated with a pressure-radius relationship similar to that of the pulmonary blood vessels. The numerical results for steady flow agree with the analytical prediction to very high accuracy, and the simulation results for pulsatile flow are comparable with those of the aortic flows observed experimentally. The model is expected to find many applications for studying blood flows in large distensible arteries, especially in those suffering from atherosclerosis, stenosis, aneurysm, etc.

  15. Image-guided optical measurement of blood oxygen saturation within capillary vessels (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akons, Kfir; Zeidan, Adel; Yeheskely-Hayon, Daniella; Minai, Limor; Yelin, Dvir

    2016-03-01

    Values of blood oxygenation levels are useful for assessing heart and lung conditions, and are frequently monitored during routine patient care. Independent measurement of the oxygen saturation in capillary blood, which is significantly different from that of arterial blood, is important for diagnosing tissue hypoxia and for increasing the accuracy of existing techniques that measure arterial oxygen saturation. Here, we developed a simple, non-invasive technique for measuring the reflected spectra from individual capillary vessels within a human lip, allowing local measurement of the blood oxygen saturation. The optical setup includes a spatially incoherent broadband light that was focused onto a specific vessel below the lip surface. Backscattered light was imaged by a camera for identifying a target vessel and pointing the illumination beam to its cross section. Scattered light from the vessel was then collected by a single-mode fiber and analyzed by a fast spectrometer. Spectra acquired from small capillary vessels within a volunteer lip showed the characteristic oxyhemoglobin absorption bands in real time and with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Measuring capillary oxygen saturation using this technique would potentially be more accurate compared to existing pulse oximetry techniques due to its insensitivity to the patient's skin color, pulse rate, motion, and medical condition. It could be used as a standalone endoscopic technique for measuring tissue hypoxia or in conjunction with conventional pulse oximetry for a more accurate measurement of oxygen transport in the body.

  16. Differential distribution of blood and lymphatic vessels in the murine cornea.

    PubMed

    Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Yuen, Don; Chen, Lu

    2010-05-01

    Because of its unique characteristics, the cornea has been widely used for blood and lymphatic vessel research. However, whether limbal or corneal vessels are evenly distributed under normal or inflamed conditions has never been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question and to examine whether and how the distribution patterns change during corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis (LG) and hemangiogenesis (HG). Corneal inflammatory LG and HG were induced in two most commonly used mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6 (6-8 weeks of age), by a standardized two-suture placement model. Oriented flat-mount corneas together with the limbal tissues were used for immunofluorescence microscope studies. Blood and lymphatic vessels under normal and inflamed conditions were analyzed and quantified to compare their distributions. The data demonstrate, for the first time, greater distribution of both blood and lymphatic vessels in the nasal side in normal murine limbal areas. This nasal-dominant pattern was maintained during corneal inflammatory LG, whereas it was lost for HG. Blood and lymphatic vessels are not evenly distributed in normal limbal areas. Furthermore, corneal LG and HG respond differently to inflammatory stimuli. These new findings will shed some light on corneal physiology and pathogenesis and on the development of experimental models and therapeutic strategies for corneal diseases.

  17. Blood vessel damage correlated with irradiance for in vivo vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Niu, Xiangyu; Lin, Linsheng; Lin, Huiyun; Li, Buhong

    2016-10-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely utilized for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, port-wine stains and prostate cancer. In order to quantitative assessment the blood vessel damage during V-PDT, nude mice were implanted with Titanium dorsal skin window chambers for in vivo V-PDT studies. For treatments, various irradiances including 50, 75, 100 and 200 mW/cm2 provided by a 532 nm semiconductor laser were performed with the same total light dose of 30 J/cm2 after the mice were intravenously injection of Rose Bengal for 25 mg/Kg body weight. Laser speckle imaging and microscope were used to monitor blood flow dynamics and vessel constriction during and after V-PDT, respectively. The V-PDT induced vessel damages between different groups were compared. The results show that significant difference in blood vessel damage was found between the lower irradiances (50, 75 and 100 mW/cm2) and higher irradiance (200 mW/cm2), and the blood vessel damage induced by V-PDT is positively correlated with irradiance. This study implies that the optimization of irradiance is required for enhancing V-PDT therapeutic efficiency.

  18. Hyperintense Vessels on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR in Patients with Acute MCA Stroke: Prediction of Arterial Stenosis and Perfusion Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Ahn, S J; Suh, S H; Lee, K-Y; Kim, J H; Seo, K-D; Lee, S

    2015-11-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels in stroke represent leptomeningeal collateral flow. We presumed that FLAIR hyperintense vessels would be more closely associated with arterial stenosis and perfusion abnormality in ischemic stroke on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR than on T2-FLAIR. We retrospectively reviewed 35 patients with middle cerebral territorial infarction who underwent MR imaging. FLAIR hyperintense vessel scores were graded according to the number of segments with FLAIR hyperintense vessels in the MCA ASPECTS areas. We compared the predictability of FLAIR hyperintense vessels between T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR and T2-FLAIR for large-artery stenosis. The interagreement between perfusion abnormality and FLAIR hyperintense vessels was assessed. In subgroup analysis (9 patients with MCA horizontal segment occlusion), the association of FLAIR hyperintense vessels with ischemic lesion volume and perfusion abnormality volume was evaluated. FLAIR hyperintense vessel scores were significantly higher on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR than on T2-FLAIR (3.50 ± 2.79 versus 1.21 ± 1.47, P < .01), and the sensitivity for large-artery stenosis was significantly improved on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR (93% versus 68%, P = .03). FLAIR hyperintense vessels on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR were more closely associated with perfusion abnormalities than they were on T2-FLAIR (κ = 0.64 and κ = 0.27, respectively). In subgroup analysis, FLAIR hyperintense vessels were positively correlated with ischemic lesion volume on T2-FLAIR, while the mismatch of FLAIR hyperintense vessels between the 2 sequences was negatively correlated with ischemic lesion volume (P = .01). In MCA stroke, FLAIR hyperintense vessels were more prominent on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR compared with T2-FLAIR. In addition, FLAIR hyperintense vessels on T2-PROPELLER-FLAIR have a significantly higher sensitivity for predicting large-artery stenosis than they do on T2-FLAIR. Moreover, the areas showing FLAIR hyperintense vessels on T2-PROPELLER

  19. Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

  20. Engineering blood vessels by gene and cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarbiv, Gabriel; Preis, Meir; Ben-Yosef, Yaara; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular-related syndromes are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Arterial narrowing and blockage due to atherosclerosis cause reduced blood flow to the brain, heart and legs. Bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart and legs in these patients is performed in hundreds of thousands of patients every year. Autologous grafts, such as the internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein, are used in most patients, but in a significant number of patients such grafts are not available and synthetic grafts are used. Synthetic grafts have higher failure rates than autologous grafts due to thrombosis and scar formation within graft lumen. Cell and gene therapy combined with tissue engineering hold a great promise to provide grafts that will be biocompatible and durable. This review describes the field of vascular grafts in the context of tissue engineering using cell and gene therapies.

  1. Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou Hui

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  2. Tumoral micro-blood vessels and vascular microenvironment in human astrocytic tumors. A transmission electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Castellano, Alan

    2005-07-01

    The development of peritumoral edema is thought to be due to extravasation of plasma water and macromolecules through a defective blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the exact mechanism by which occurs is poorly understood. The aim of this study was analyze at submicroscopic level the morphological changes in both micro-blood vessels and vascular microenvironment of astrocytic tumors in an attempt of understanding the pathological aspects that may help in the future researches for the design of future therapeutic strategies. Biopsies of 25 patients with pathological diagnosis of astrocytic tumors were examined with the transmission electron microscope. Both open and close tight junctions were observed in the micro-blood vessels, inclusive in a same tumor. Cytoskeletal disorganization associated with disintegrated perijunctional actin filaments were seen. The paracellular space showed enlargement and commonly occupied by fluid proteinaceous, endothelial cells display oncotic and ischemic changes, basal lamina reveals enlargement, edema, vacuolization and collagen fibers disposed in irregular array. Pericytes exhibited edema and phagocytoced material, astrocytic perivascular-feet showed signs of oncosis and necrosis, co-option vessels totally surrounding by neoplastic cells also were seen. The ultrastructural abnormalities observed in both junctional complexes and vascular microenvironment suggest a multi-factorial pathobiology process, probably hypoxia intratumoral, calcium overload in endothelial cells, and degradative effects of metalloproteinases over the basal membrane appear as determinant factors that leading to structural modifications of junctional complexes, therefore, treatment with both HIF-1alpha and metalloproteinases inhibitors possibly can contribute with the pharmacological handling of the peritumoral edema associated with astrocytic tumors.

  3. Blood vessel segmentation algorithms - Review of methods, datasets and evaluation metrics.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Sara; De Momi, Elena; El Hadji, Sara; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2018-05-01

    Blood vessel segmentation is a topic of high interest in medical image analysis since the analysis of vessels is crucial for diagnosis, treatment planning and execution, and evaluation of clinical outcomes in different fields, including laryngology, neurosurgery and ophthalmology. Automatic or semi-automatic vessel segmentation can support clinicians in performing these tasks. Different medical imaging techniques are currently used in clinical practice and an appropriate choice of the segmentation algorithm is mandatory to deal with the adopted imaging technique characteristics (e.g. resolution, noise and vessel contrast). This paper aims at reviewing the most recent and innovative blood vessel segmentation algorithms. Among the algorithms and approaches considered, we deeply investigated the most novel blood vessel segmentation including machine learning, deformable model, and tracking-based approaches. This paper analyzes more than 100 articles focused on blood vessel segmentation methods. For each analyzed approach, summary tables are presented reporting imaging technique used, anatomical region and performance measures employed. Benefits and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. Despite the constant progress and efforts addressed in the field, several issues still need to be overcome. A relevant limitation consists in the segmentation of pathological vessels. Unfortunately, not consistent research effort has been addressed to this issue yet. Research is needed since some of the main assumptions made for healthy vessels (such as linearity and circular cross-section) do not hold in pathological tissues, which on the other hand require new vessel model formulations. Moreover, image intensity drops, noise and low contrast still represent an important obstacle for the achievement of a high-quality enhancement. This is particularly true for optical imaging, where the image quality is usually lower in terms of noise and contrast with respect to magnetic

  4. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  5. Identification and characterization of a resident vascular stem/progenitor cell population in preexisting blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Hisamichi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Wakabayashi, Taku; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the in-situ assembly of angioblast or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), may persist into adult life, contributing to new blood vessel formation. However, EPCs are scattered throughout newly developed blood vessels and cannot be solely responsible for vascularization. Here, we identify an endothelial progenitor/stem-like population located at the inner surface of preexisting blood vessels using the Hoechst method in which stem cell populations are identified as side populations. This population is dormant in the steady state but possesses colony-forming ability, produces large numbers of endothelial cells (ECs) and when transplanted into ischaemic lesions, restores blood flow completely and reconstitutes de-novo long-term surviving blood vessels. Moreover, although surface markers of this population are very similar to conventional ECs, and they reside in the capillary endothelium sub-population, the gene expression profile is completely different. Our results suggest that this heterogeneity of stem-like ECs will lead to the identification of new targets for vascular regeneration therapy. PMID:22179698

  6. [A case of neurofibromatosis type I associated with basal meningocele and abnormal vessels].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, H; Sakoda, K; Kohno, H; Hada, H; Hanaya, R; Arita, K; Kurisu, K

    1998-03-01

    A 21-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) had many widespread cutaneous neurofibroma on his right face. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed basal meningocele due to dysplasia of the skull base. Carotid and vertebral angiograms revealed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery, persistent primitive trigeminal artery. We have reviewed the clinical and radiographic features of this case of neurofibromatosis, meningocele and cerebral arterial abnormalities. NF associated with both intracranial vascular malformation and meningocele is very rare, and in our case both were thought to arise congenitally as a manifestation of mesodermal dysplasia. Careful follow up using MRI and MR angiography should be performed for such patients.

  7. The behaviors of ferromagnetic nano-particles in and around blood vessels under applied magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2011-03-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figs. 5-8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood.

  8. Polysaccharides from astragali radix restore chemical-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish. Methods Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR. Results Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D < molecular weight & diameter < 0.1 μm) and P5 (molecular diameter > 0.1 μm), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis. PMID:22357377

  9. The role of blood vessels in high-resolution volume conductor head modeling of EEG.

    PubMed

    Fiederer, L D J; Vorwerk, J; Lucka, F; Dannhauer, M; Yang, S; Dümpelmann, M; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Aertsen, A; Speck, O; Wolters, C H; Ball, T

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of the electrical sources of human EEG activity at high spatio-temporal accuracy is an important aim in neuroscience and neurological diagnostics. Over the last decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that realistic modeling of head anatomy improves the accuracy of source reconstruction of EEG signals. For example, including a cerebro-spinal fluid compartment and the anisotropy of white matter electrical conductivity were both shown to significantly reduce modeling errors. Here, we for the first time quantify the role of detailed reconstructions of the cerebral blood vessels in volume conductor head modeling for EEG. To study the role of the highly arborized cerebral blood vessels, we created a submillimeter head model based on ultra-high-field-strength (7T) structural MRI datasets. Blood vessels (arteries and emissary/intraosseous veins) were segmented using Frangi multi-scale vesselness filtering. The final head model consisted of a geometry-adapted cubic mesh with over 17×10(6) nodes. We solved the forward model using a finite-element-method (FEM) transfer matrix approach, which allowed reducing computation times substantially and quantified the importance of the blood vessel compartment by computing forward and inverse errors resulting from ignoring the blood vessels. Our results show that ignoring emissary veins piercing the skull leads to focal localization errors of approx. 5 to 15mm. Large errors (>2cm) were observed due to the carotid arteries and the dense arterial vasculature in areas such as in the insula or in the medial temporal lobe. Thus, in such predisposed areas, errors caused by neglecting blood vessels can reach similar magnitudes as those previously reported for neglecting white matter anisotropy, the CSF or the dura - structures which are generally considered important components of realistic EEG head models. Our findings thus imply that including a realistic blood vessel compartment in EEG head models will be helpful to

  10. Wave reflection and transmission in multiply stented blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanasiou, T. K.; Movchan, A. B.; Bigoni, D.

    2017-06-01

    Closed circulatory systems display an exquisite balance between vascular elasticity and viscous fluid effects, to induce pulse-smoothing and avoid resonance during the cardiac cycle. Stents in the arterial tree alter this balance through stiffening and because a periodic structure is introduced, capable of interacting with the fluid in a complex way. While the former feature has been investigated, the latter received no attention so far. But periodic structures are the building blocks of metamaterials, known for their `non-natural' behaviour. Thus, the investigation of a stent's periodic microstructure dynamical interactions is crucial to assess possible pathological responses. A one-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model, simple enough to allow an analytical solution for situations of interest involving one or two interacting stents, is introduced. It is determined: (i) whether or not frequency bands exist in which reflected blood pulses are highly increased and (ii) if these bands are close to the characteristic frequencies of arteries and finally, (iii) if the internal structure of the stent can sensibly affect arterial blood dynamics. It is shown that, while the periodic structure of an isolated stent can induce anomalous reflection only in pathological conditions, the presence of two interacting stents is more critical, and high reflection can occur at frequencies not far from the physiological values.

  11. Wave reflection and transmission in multiply stented blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Movchan, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Closed circulatory systems display an exquisite balance between vascular elasticity and viscous fluid effects, to induce pulse-smoothing and avoid resonance during the cardiac cycle. Stents in the arterial tree alter this balance through stiffening and because a periodic structure is introduced, capable of interacting with the fluid in a complex way. While the former feature has been investigated, the latter received no attention so far. But periodic structures are the building blocks of metamaterials, known for their ‘non-natural’ behaviour. Thus, the investigation of a stent's periodic microstructure dynamical interactions is crucial to assess possible pathological responses. A one-dimensional fluid–structure interaction model, simple enough to allow an analytical solution for situations of interest involving one or two interacting stents, is introduced. It is determined: (i) whether or not frequency bands exist in which reflected blood pulses are highly increased and (ii) if these bands are close to the characteristic frequencies of arteries and finally, (iii) if the internal structure of the stent can sensibly affect arterial blood dynamics. It is shown that, while the periodic structure of an isolated stent can induce anomalous reflection only in pathological conditions, the presence of two interacting stents is more critical, and high reflection can occur at frequencies not far from the physiological values. PMID:28690408

  12. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity.

    PubMed

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; González-Castro, Victor; Chappell, Francesca M; Sakka, Eleni; Makin, Stephen; Armitage, Paul A; Nailon, William H; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in small vessel disease (SVD). We used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal-Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with Fazekas scores. Textural "homogeneity" increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural "homogeneity" increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores ( p  < 0.01) and SVD scores ( p  < 0.05) and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients ( p  < 0.002) and lacunar stroke ( p  = 0.04). Hypertension (74% patients), WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume), and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3) predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast. A consistent general pattern of increasing textural "homogeneity" with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  13. Feasibility of Using the Marginal Blood Vessels as Reference Landmarks for CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to show the spatial relationship of the colonic marginal blood vessels and the teniae coli on CT colonography (CTC) and the use of the marginal blood vessels for supine-prone registration of polyps and for determination of proper connectivity of collapsed colonic segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS We manually labeled the marginal blood vessels on 15 CTC examinations. Colon segmentation, centerline extraction, teniae detection, and teniae identification were automatically performed. For assessment of their spatial relationships, the distances from the marginal blood vessels to the three teniae coli and to the colon were measured. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the differences among these distances. To evaluate the reliability of the marginal vessels as reference points for polyp correlation, we analyzed 20 polyps from 20 additional patients who underwent supine and prone CTC. The average difference of the circumferential polyp position on the supine and prone scans was computed. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the supine-prone differences of the distance. We performed a study on 10 CTC studies from 10 patients with collapsed colonic segments by manually tracing the marginal blood vessels near the collapsed regions to resolve the ambiguity of the colon path. RESULTS The average distances (± SD) from the marginal blood vessels to the tenia mesocolica, tenia omentalis, and tenia libera were 20.1 ± 3.1 mm (95% CI, 18.5–21.6 mm), 39.5 ± 4.8 mm (37.1–42.0 mm), and 36.9 ± 4.2 mm (34.8–39.1 mm), respectively. Pairwise comparison showed that these distances to the tenia libera and tenia omentalis were significantly different from the distance to the tenia mesocolica (p < 0.001). The average distance from the marginal blood vessels to the colon wall was 15.3 ± 2.0 mm (14.2–16.3 mm). For polyp localization, the average difference of the circumferential polyp

  14. Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice transgenically overexpressing angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G; Suri, C; Smith, K; McClain, J; Sato, T N; Yancopoulos, G D; McDonald, D M

    1999-12-24

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. Direct comparison of transgenic mice overexpressing these factors in the skin revealed that the VEGF-induced blood vessels were leaky, whereas those induced by Ang1 were nonleaky. Moreover, vessels in Ang1-overexpressing mice were resistant to leaks caused by inflammatory agents. Coexpression of Ang1 and VEGF had an additive effect on angiogenesis but resulted in leakage-resistant vessels typical of Ang1. Ang1 therefore may be useful for reducing microvascular leakage in diseases in which the leakage results from chronic inflammation or elevated VEGF and, in combination with VEGF, for promoting growth of nonleaky vessels.

  15. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p <0.05) in old vs. young rats. Calcified and ossified vessel volumes per tissue volume and calcified vessel volume per patent vessel volume were augmented (p <0.05) 262%, 375% and 263%, respectively, in old vs. young rats. Ossified and patent vessel number was higher (171%) and lower (40%), respectively, in old vs. young rats. Finally, adipocyte volume per patent vessel volume was higher (86%) with age. This study is the first to report ossification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in “microvascular dead space” in regards to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the

  16. Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.

  17. Bioconjugated gold nanoparticles accelerate the growth of new blood vessels through redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Mukherjee, Sudip; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-11-28

    We have designed and developed novel pro-angiogenic bio-synthesized gold nanoconjugates (b-Au-HP) that make new blood vessels, as observed by several in vitro and in vivo assays, suggesting their future potential applications in alternative treatment strategies for wound healing, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and ischemic diseases using a nanomedicine approach.

  18. Generation of Functional Blood Vessels from a Single c-kit+ Adult Vascular Endothelial Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shentong; Wei, Jing; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Leinonen, Hannele; Salven, Petri

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is essential for organ growth and repair. In many disorders including cancer, angiogenesis becomes excessive. The cellular origin of new vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel growth in angiogenic situations has remained unknown. Here, we provide evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) that reside in the blood vessel wall endothelium. VESCs constitute a small subpopulation within CD117+ (c-kit+) ECs capable of undergoing clonal expansion while other ECs have a very limited proliferative capacity. Isolated VESCs can produce tens of millions of endothelial daughter cells in vitro. A single transplanted c-kit-expressing VESC by the phenotype lin−CD31+CD105+Sca1+CD117+ can generate in vivo functional blood vessels that connect to host circulation. VESCs also have long-term self-renewal capacity, a defining functional property of adult stem cells. To provide functional verification on the role of c-kit in VESCs, we show that a genetic deficit in endothelial c-kit expression markedly decreases total colony-forming VESCs. In vivo, c-kit expression deficit resulted in impaired EC proliferation and angiogenesis and retardation of tumor growth. Isolated VESCs could be used in cell-based therapies for cardiovascular repair to restore tissue vascularization after ischemic events. VESCs also provide a novel cellular target to block pathological angiogenesis and cancer growth. PMID:23091420

  19. Direct labeling and visualization of blood vessels with lipophilic carbocyanine dye DiI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwen; Song, Ying; Zhao, Lian; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Laties, Alan M; Wen, Rong

    2009-01-01

    We describe a protocol to rapidly and reliably visualize blood vessels in experimental animals. Blood vessels are directly labeled by cardiac perfusion using a specially formulated aqueous solution containing 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a lipophilic carbocyanine dye, which incorporates into endothelial cell membranes upon contact. By lateral diffusion, DiI also stains membrane structures, including angiogenic sprouts and pseudopodial processes that are not in direct contact. Tissues can be immediately examined by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy. High-quality serial optical sections using confocal microscopy are obtainable from thick tissue sections, especially at low magnification, for three-dimensional reconstruction. It takes less than 1 h to stain the vasculature in a whole animal. Compared with alternative techniques to visualize blood vessels, including space-occupying materials such as India ink or fluorescent dye-conjugated dextran, the corrosion casting technique, endothelial cell-specific markers and lectins, the present method simplifies the visualization of blood vessels and data analysis. PMID:18846097

  20. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Schroeter, Elena R.; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C.; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B.; Lebleu, Valerie S.; Ahlf, Dorothy R.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  1. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-04

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738.

  3. Medical Tests and Procedures for Finding and Treating Heart and Blood Vessel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the narrowed or blocked blood vessel. Then the balloon is inflated, opening the narrowed artery. Awire mesh tube, called a stent, may be left in place to help keep the artery open. Angioplasty may be done during a heart attack. There are many medical tests and procedures to find and treat heart ...

  4. Micro-anatomical changes in major blood vessel caused by dengue virus (serotype 2) infection.

    PubMed

    Priya, Sivan Padma; Sakinah, S; Ling, Mok Pooi; Chee, Hui-Yee; Higuchi, Akon; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Hatamleh, Ashraf A; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E; Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem, Ibrahim Ahmad; Rajan, Mariappan; Benelli, Giovanni; Marlina; Kumar, S Suresh

    2017-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis. These functions can be deregulated during DENV infection. In this study, BALB/c mice infected with DENV serotype 2 were analyzed histologically for changes in major blood vessels in response to DENV infection. In the uninfected mouse model, blood vessels showed normal architecture with intact endothelial monolayer, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. In the infected mouse model, DENV distorted the endothelium lining and disturbed the smooth muscle, elastic laminae and their supporting tissues causing vascular structural disarrangement. This may explain the severe pathological illness in DENV-infected individuals. The overall DENV-induced damages on the endothelial and it's supporting tissues and the dysregulated immune reactions initiated by the host were discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  6. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  7. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  8. Development of glia and blood vessels in the internal capsule of rats.

    PubMed

    Earle, K L; Mitrofanis, J

    1998-02-01

    We have explored two aspects of internal capsule development that have not been described previously, namely, the development of glia and of blood vessels. To these ends, we used antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and to vimentin (to identify astrocytes and to radial glia) and Griffonia simplicifolia (lectin; to identify microglia and blood vessels). Further, we made intracardiac injections of Evans Blue to examine the permeability of this dye in the vessels of the internal capsule during neonatal development. Our results show that large numbers of radial glia, astrocytes and microglia are not labelled with these markers in the white matter of the internal capsule until about birth; very few are labelled earlier, during the critical stages of corticofugal and corticopetal axonal ingrowth (E15-E20). The large glial labelling in the internal capsule at birth is accompanied by a dense vascular innervation of the capsule; as with the glia, very few labelled patent vessels are seen earlier. After intracardiac injections of Evans Blue, we find that the blood vessels of the internal capsule are not particularly permeable to Evans Blue. At each age examined (P0, P5, P15), blood vessels are outlined very clearly and there is no diffuse haze of fluorescence within the extracellular space, which is indicative of a leaky vessel. There are three striking differences between the glial environment of the internal capsule and that of the adjacent thalamus. First, the internal capsule is never rich with radial glial fibres (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) during development (except at P0), whereas the thalamus has many radial fibres from very early development (E15-E17). Second, astrocytes (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) first become apparent in the internal capsule (E20-P0) well before they do in the thalamus (P15). Third, the internal capsule houses a large transient population of amoeboid microglia (P0-P22), whereas the thalamus does not; only ramified

  9. Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: Non-Newtonian effects

    PubMed Central

    Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.

    2009-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model—a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=ρlUmaxd/μapp, in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, ρl is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and μapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), λ, in the range 0.9≤λ≤1.05. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects are taken into account. Both horizontal and vertical vessel geometries have been investigated. Many significant insights are revealed by our study: (i) bubble motion causes large temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the “endothelial cell” (EC) surface lining the blood vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it, and passes it by; (ii) rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress (+ → − → +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble

  10. Retinal blood vessel segmentation using fully convolutional network with transfer learning.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhexin; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yi; Ko, Seok-Bum

    2018-04-26

    Since the retinal blood vessel has been acknowledged as an indispensable element in both ophthalmological and cardiovascular disease diagnosis, the accurate segmentation of the retinal vessel tree has become the prerequisite step for automated or computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, a supervised method is presented based on a pre-trained fully convolutional network through transfer learning. This proposed method has simplified the typical retinal vessel segmentation problem from full-size image segmentation to regional vessel element recognition and result merging. Meanwhile, additional unsupervised image post-processing techniques are applied to this proposed method so as to refine the final result. Extensive experiments have been conducted on DRIVE, STARE, CHASE_DB1 and HRF databases, and the accuracy of the cross-database test on these four databases is state-of-the-art, which also presents the high robustness of the proposed approach. This successful result has not only contributed to the area of automated retinal blood vessel segmentation but also supports the effectiveness of transfer learning when applying deep learning technique to medical imaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  12. Mouse blood vessel imaging by in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Liu, Xiao-Song; Yang, Xin-Rong; Chen, Shao-Liang; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Yuan, Qing-Xi

    2008-10-01

    It is virtually impossible to observe blood vessels by conventional x-ray imaging techniques without using contrast agents. In addition, such x-ray systems are typically incapable of detecting vessels with diameters less than 200 µm. Here we show that vessels as small as 30 µm could be detected using in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging without the use of contrast agents. Image quality was greatly improved by replacing resident blood with physiological saline. Furthermore, an entire branch of the portal vein from the main axial portal vein to the eighth generation of branching could be captured in a single phase-contrast image. Prior to our work, detection of 30 µm diameter blood vessels could only be achieved using x-ray interferometry, which requires sophisticated x-ray optics. Our results thus demonstrate that in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging, using physiological saline as a contrast agent, provides an alternative to the interferometric method that can be much more easily implemented and also offers the advantage of a larger field of view. A possible application of this methodology is in animal tumor models, where it can be used to observe tumor angiogenesis and the treatment effects of antineoplastic agents.

  13. A comparison of blood vessel features and local binary patterns for colorectal polyp classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Stehle, Thomas; Behrens, Alexander; Auer, Roland; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States of America for both women and men. By means of early detection, the five year survival rate can be up to 90%. Polyps can to be grouped into three different classes: hyperplastic, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps. Hyperplastic polyps are benign and are not likely to develop into cancer. Adenomas, on the other hand, are known to grow into cancer (adenoma-carcinoma sequence). Carcinomas are fully developed cancers and can be easily distinguished from adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. A recent narrow band imaging (NBI) study by Tischendorf et al. has shown that hyperplastic polyps and adenomas can be discriminated by their blood vessel structure. We designed a computer-aided system for the differentiation between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Our development aim is to provide the medical practitioner with an additional objective interpretation of the available image data as well as a confidence measure for the classification. We propose classification features calculated on the basis of the extracted blood vessel structure. We use the combined length of the detected blood vessels, the average perimeter of the vessels and their average gray level value. We achieve a successful classification rate of more than 90% on 102 polyps from our polyp data base. The classification results based on these features are compared to the results of Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The results indicate that the implemented features are superior to LBP.

  14. Effects of microbeam radiation therapy on normal and tumoral blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Serduc, Raphäel; Laissue, Jean Albert; Djonov, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new form of preclinical radiotherapy using quasi-parallel arrays of synchrotron X-ray microbeams. While the deposition of several hundred Grays in the microbeam paths, the normal brain tissues presents a high tolerance which is accompanied by the permanence of apparently normal vessels. Conversely, the efficiency of MRT on tumor growth control is thought to be related to a preferential damaging of tumor blood vessels. The high resistance of the healthy vascular network was demonstrated in different animal models by in vivo biphoton microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological studies. While a transient increase in permeability was shown, the structure of the vessels remained intact. The use of a chick chorioallantoic membrane at different stages of development showed that the damages induced by microbeams depend on vessel maturation. In vivo and ultrastructural observations showed negligible effects of microbeams on the mature vasculature at late stages of development; nevertheless a complete destruction of the immature capillary plexus was found in the microbeam paths. The use of MRT in rodent models revealed a preferential effect on tumor vessels. Although no major modification was observed in the vasculature of normal brain tissue, tumors showed a denudation of capillaries accompanied by transient increased permeability followed by reduced tumor perfusion and finally, a decrease in number of tumor vessels. Thus, MRT is a very promising treatment strategy with pronounced tumor control effects most likely based on the anti-vascular effects of MRT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange.

    PubMed

    Porter, William Ruger; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-12-01

    Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally isolated to create representations of vascular pathways. The specimens were then dissected to confirm CT results. Sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in evaporative cooling and cephalic thermoregulation in other diapsids. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were studied to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to neurosensory tissues. Within the orbital region, both the arteries and veins demonstrated consistent branching patterns, with the supraorbital, infraorbital, and ophthalmotemporal vessels supplying and draining the orbit. The venous drainage of the orbital region showed connections to the dural sinuses via the orbital veins and cavernous sinus. The palatal region demonstrated a vast plexus that comprised both arteries and veins. The most direct route of venous drainage of the palatal plexus was through the palatomaxillary veins, essentially bypassing neurosensory tissues. Anastomotic connections with the nasal region, however, may provide an alternative route for palatal venous blood to reach neurosensory tissues. The nasal region in crocodilians is probably the most

  16. Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Masahiro; Elsner, Ann E.; Cheney, Michael C.; Usui, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated a polarimetry method to enhance retinal blood vessels masked by the epiretinal membrane. Depolarized light images were computed by removing the polarization retaining light reaching the instrument and were compared with parallel polarized light images, average reflectance images, and the corresponding images at 514 nm. Contrasts were computed for retinal vessel profiles for arteries and veins. Contrasts were higher in the 514 nm images in normal eyes but higher in the depolarized light image in the eyes with epiretinal membranes. Depolarized light images were useful for examining the retinal vasculature in the presence of retinal disease. PMID:17429490

  17. Towards cavitation-enhanced permeability in blood vessel on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, R.; Silvani, G.; Scognamiglio, C.; Sinibaldi, G.; Peruzzi, G.; Chinappi, M.; Kiani, M. F.; Casciola, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of targeted delivery systems releasing pharmaceutical agents directly at the desired site of action may improve their therapeutic efficiency while minimizing damage to healthy tissues, toxicity to the patient and drug waste. In this context, we have developed a bio-inspired microdevice mimicking the tumour microvasculature which represents a valuable tool for assessing the enhancement of blood vessel permeability due to cavitation. This novel system allows us to investigate the effects of ultrasound-driven microbubbles that temporarily open the endothelial intercellular junctions allowing drug to extravasate blood vessels into tumour tissues. The blood vessel on a chip consists of a tissue chamber and two independent vascular channels (width 200 µm, height 100 µm, length 2762 µm) cultured with endothelial cells placed side-by-side and separated by a series of 3 µm pores. Its geometry and dimensions mimic the three-dimensional morphology, size and flow characteristics of microvessels in vivo. The early stage of this project had a twofold objective: 1. To define the protocol for culturing of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) within the vascular channel; 2. To develop a fluorescence based microscopy technique for measuring permeability. We have developed a reliable and reproducible protocol to culture endothelial cells within the artificial vessels in a realistic manner: HUVECs show the typical elongated shape in the direction of flow, exhibit tight junction formation and form a continuous layer with a central lumen that completely covers the channels wall. As expected, the permeability of cell-free device is higher than the one cultured with HUVECs in the vascular channels. The proposed blood vessel on a chip and the permeability measurement protocol have a significant potential to allow for the study of cavitation-enhanced permeability of the endothelium and improve efficiency in screening drug delivery systems.

  18. On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemair, W.; Tuković, Ž.; Jasak, H.; Poulikakos, D.; Kurtcuoglu, V.

    2012-02-01

    The complex interaction between an ultrasound-driven microbubble and an enclosing capillary microvessel is investigated by means of a coupled, multi-domain numerical model using the finite volume formulation. This system is of interest in the study of transient blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) for drug delivery applications. The compliant vessel structure is incorporated explicitly as a distinct domain described by a dedicated physical model. Red blood cells (RBCs) are taken into account as elastic solids in the blood plasma. We report the temporal and spatial development of transmural pressure (Ptm) and wall shear stress (WSS) at the luminal endothelial interface, both of which are candidates for the yet unknown mediator of BBBD. The explicit introduction of RBCs shapes the Ptm and WSS distributions and their derivatives markedly. While the peak values of these mechanical wall parameters are not affected considerably by the presence of RBCs, a pronounced increase in their spatial gradients is observed compared to a configuration with blood plasma alone. The novelty of our work lies in the explicit treatment of the vessel wall, and in the modelling of blood as a composite fluid, which we show to be relevant for the mechanical processes at the endothelium.

  19. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  20. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  1. Plasminogen Activator of the Blood Vessels in Tumours and in Carrageenin-induced Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Pick, C. R.; Cater, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activity in tumours was studied by the fibrin slide technique. The tumour cells were inactive and fibrinolysis was seen only in areas with young blood vessels. In carrageenin-induced granulomas at 6 days the fibrinolytic activity was small and confined to mature veins, but from 7-14 days activity was high in zones containing young vessels supplying the terminal capillary buds; these latter showed no activity. In old fibrosed granulomas there was no fibrinolytic activity. The vascular permeability changes of inflammation (detected by the colloidal carbon technique) showed no correlation with fibrinolytic activity, and systemic injection of inflammatory agents had no effect on the fibrinolytic activity of the vessels. These findings are discussed in relationship to tumour vascularization. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547651

  2. Comparison of two algorithms in the automatic segmentation of blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Chowdary, Myneni Sushma; Mokkapati, Swapnasri; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Effective timing and treatment are critical to saving the sight of patients with diabetes. Lack of screening, as well as a shortage of ophthalmologists, help contribute to approximately 8,000 cases per year of people who lose their sight to diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of new cases of blindness [1] [2]. Timely treatment for diabetic retinopathy prevents severe vision loss in over 50% of eyes tested [1]. Fundus images can provide information for detecting and monitoring eye-related diseases, like diabetic retinopathy, which if detected early, may help prevent vision loss. Damaged blood vessels can indicate the presence of diabetic retinopathy [9]. So, early detection of damaged vessels in retinal images can provide valuable information about the presence of disease, thereby helping to prevent vision loss. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two blood vessel segmentation algorithms. Methods: Fifteen fundus images from the STARE database were used to develop two algorithms using the CVIPtools software environment. Another set of fifteen images were derived from the first fifteen and contained ophthalmologists' hand-drawn tracings over the retinal vessels. The ophthalmologists' tracings were used as the "gold standard" for perfect segmentation and compared with the segmented images that were output by the two algorithms. Comparisons between the segmented and the hand-drawn images were made using Pratt's Figure of Merit (FOM), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Root Mean Square (RMS) Error. Results: Algorithm 2 has an FOM that is 10% higher than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has a 6%-higher SNR than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has only 1.3% more RMS error than Algorithm 1. Conclusions: Algorithm 1 extracted most of the blood vessels with some missing intersections and bifurcations. Algorithm 2 extracted all the major blood vessels, but eradicated some vessels as well. Algorithm 2 outperformed Algorithm 1 in terms of visual clarity, FOM

  3. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    PubMed

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  4. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  5. Angiopoietin-4 increases permeability of blood vessels and promotes lymphatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Cristina T; Pereira, Ethel R; Cui, Cheryl H; Nelson, Gregory M; Masuck, David J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P

    2015-09-01

    The angiopoietin (Ang) ligands are potential therapeutic targets for lymphatic related diseases, which include lymphedema and cancer. Ang-1 and Ang-2 functions are established, but those of Ang-4 are poorly understood. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy to characterize Ang-4 actions on T241 murine fibrosarcoma-associated vessels in mice. The diameters of lymphatic vessels draining Ang-4- or VEGF-C (positive control)-expressing tumors increased to 123 and 135 μm, respectively, and parental, mock-transduced (negative controls) and tumors expressing Ang-1 or Ang-2 remained at baseline (∼60 μm). Ang-4 decreased human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer permeability by 27% while increasing human dermal blood endothelial cell (BEC) monolayer permeability by 200%. In vivo, Ang-4 stimulated a 4.5-fold increase in tumor-associated blood vessel permeability compared with control when measured using intravital quantitative multiphoton microscopy. Ang-4 activated receptor signaling in both LECs and BECs, evidenced by tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor homology domains-2 (TIE2) receptor, protein kinase B, and Erk1,2 phosphorylation detectable by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ang-4 actions are mediated through cell-type-specific networks and that lymphatic vessel dilation occurs secondarily to increased vascular leakage. Ang-4 also promoted survival of LECs. Thus, blocking Ang-4 may prune the draining lymphatic vasculature and decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) by reducing vascular permeability. © FASEB.

  6. Blood vessel crosstalk during organogenesis-focus on pancreas and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-09-01

    Blood vessels form a highly branched, interconnected, and largely stereotyped network of tubes that sustains every organ and tissue in vertebrates. How vessels come to take on their particular architecture, or how they are 'patterned,' and in turn, how they influence surrounding tissues are fundamental questions of organogenesis. Decades of work have begun to elucidate how endothelial progenitors arise and home to precise locations within tissues, integrating attractive and repulsive cues to build vessels where they are needed. Conversely, more recent findings have revealed an exciting facet of blood vessel interaction with tissues, where vascular cells provide signals to developing organs and progenitors therein. Here, we discuss the exchange of reciprocal signals between endothelial cells and neighboring tissues during embryogenesis, with a special focus on the developing pancreas. Understanding the mechanisms driving both sides of these interactions will be crucial to the development of therapies, from improving organ regeneration to efficient production of cell based therapies. Specifically, elucidating the interface of the vasculature with pancreatic lineages, including endocrine cells, will instruct approaches such as generation of replacement beta cells for Type I diabetes. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:598-617. doi: 10.1002/wdev.240 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Computer-Aided Evaluation of Blood Vessel Geometry From Acoustic Images.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Stefan B; Uhlin, Fredrik; Bjarnegård, Niclas; Gylling, Micael; Nilsson, Kamilla; Svensson, Christina; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Länne, Toste

    2018-04-01

    A method for computer-aided assessment of blood vessel geometries based on shape-fitting algorithms from metric vision was evaluated. Acoustic images of cross sections of the radial artery and cephalic vein were acquired, and medical practitioners used a computer application to measure the wall thickness and nominal diameter of these blood vessels with a caliper method and the shape-fitting method. The methods performed equally well for wall thickness measurements. The shape-fitting method was preferable for measuring the diameter, since it reduced systematic errors by up to 63% in the case of the cephalic vein because of its eccentricity. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot

    PubMed Central

    Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

  9. Fusion of uniluminal vascular spheroids: a model for assembly of blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul A.; Argraves, W. Scott; Gentile, Carmine; Neagu, Adrian; Forgacs, Gabor; Drake, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we evaluated the self-assembly properties of uniluminal vascular spheroids having outer layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and a contiguous inner layer of endothelial cells lining a central lumen. We showed that while pairs of uniluminal vascular spheroids suspended in culture medium fused to form a larger diameter spheroidal structure, spheroids in collagen hydrogels formed elongated structures. These findings highlight the potential use of uniluminal vascular spheroids as modules to engineer blood vessels. We also demonstrate that uniluminal vascular spheroid fusion conforms to models describing the coalescence of liquid drops. Furthermore, the fusion of uniluminal vascular spheroids in vitro closely resembled the in vivo process by which the descending aorta forms from the fusion of the paired dorsal aortae during embryonic development. Together, the findings indicate that tissue liquidity underlies uniluminal vascular spheroid fusion and that in vivo anastomosis of blood vessels may involve a similar mechanism. PMID:19918756

  10. Excess centrosomes perturb dynamic endothelial cell repolarization during blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Erich J.; Ferro, Luke S.; Yu, Zhixian; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel formation requires dynamic movements of endothelial cells (ECs) within sprouts. The cytoskeleton regulates migratory polarity, and centrosomes organize the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, it is not well understood how excess centrosomes, commonly found in tumor stromal cells, affect microtubule dynamics and interphase cell polarity. Here we find that ECs dynamically repolarize during sprouting angiogenesis, and excess centrosomes block repolarization and reduce migration and sprouting. ECs with excess centrosomes initially had more centrosome-derived microtubules but, paradoxically, fewer steady-state microtubules. ECs with excess centrosomes had elevated Rac1 activity, and repolarization was rescued by blockade of Rac1 or actomyosin blockers, consistent with Rac1 activity promoting cortical retrograde actin flow and actomyosin contractility, which precludes cortical microtubule engagement necessary for dynamic repolarization. Thus normal centrosome numbers are required for dynamic repolarization and migration of sprouting ECs that contribute to blood vessel formation. PMID:27099371

  11. Automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels and identification of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Herbert F.; Cree, Michael J.; Leandro, Jorge J. G.; Soares, João V. B.; Cesar, Roberto M.; Luckie, A.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. However, early recognition allows appropriate, timely intervention. Fluorescein-labeled retinal blood vessels of 27 digital images were automatically segmented using the Gabor wavelet transform and classified using traditional features such as area, perimeter, and an additional five morphological features based on the derivatives-of-Gaussian wavelet-derived data. Discriminant analysis indicated that traditional features do not detect early proliferative retinopathy. The best single feature for discrimination was the wavelet curvature with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76. Linear discriminant analysis with a selection of six features achieved an AUC of 0.90 (0.73-0.97, 95% confidence interval). The wavelet method was able to segment retinal blood vessels and classify the images according to the presence or absence of proliferative retinopathy.

  12. A new blood vessel extraction technique using edge enhancement and object classification.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Shahriar; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Tan, Kim Geok; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is increasing progressively pushing the demand of automatic extraction and classification of severity of diseases. Blood vessel extraction from the fundus image is a vital and challenging task. Therefore, this paper presents a new, computationally simple, and automatic method to extract the retinal blood vessel. The proposed method comprises several basic image processing techniques, namely edge enhancement by standard template, noise removal, thresholding, morphological operation, and object classification. The proposed method has been tested on a set of retinal images. The retinal images were collected from the DRIVE database and we have employed robust performance analysis to evaluate the accuracy. The results obtained from this study reveal that the proposed method offers an average accuracy of about 97 %, sensitivity of 99 %, specificity of 86 %, and predictive value of 98 %, which is superior to various well-known techniques.

  13. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M; Adams, Ralf H; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P

    2016-08-31

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation.

  14. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G.; Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Häger, Christine; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J.; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L. Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Adams, Ralf H.; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6Clo monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6Chi monocytes into Ly6Clo monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation. PMID:27576369

  15. The technique of therapeutic apheresis. Removal of abnormal blood elements may succeed when all else fails.

    PubMed

    McLeod, B C

    1991-05-01

    Therapeutic apheresis is a generic term that refers to removal of abnormal blood cells and plasma constituents. The terms "plasmapheresis," "leukapheresis," and "erythrocytapheresis" describe the specific blood element that is removed. Apheresis therapies can be performed in the ICU to manage a number of neurologic, hematologic, and autoimmune disorders, including myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, sickle-cell disease, and Goodpasture's syndrome. Apheresis procedures generally require two points of contact with the circulation--one for blood withdrawal and one for return; the withdrawal site should sustain a flow rate of at least 50 mL/min. Although apheresis is generally quite safe, hemodynamic instability, hypocalcemia, and dilutional coagulopathy can occur.

  16. Circulating fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels during angiogenesis in a paracrine manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqing; Tan, Hong; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Samuelson, Lisa; Li, Xueyong; Cui, Caibin; Gerber, David A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Emergence of Blood and Blood Vessels in the Embryo and Its Relevance to Postnatal Biology and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Tiffany M.; Hirschi, Karen K.

    Blood and blood vessels develop in parallel within mammalian systems, and this temporal and spatial association has led to the confirmation of an endothelial origin of hematopoiesis. The extraembryonic yolk sac and aorto-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region both contain a specialized population of endothelial cells ("hemogenic endothelium") that function to produce hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which then differentiate to provide the full complement of blood cells within the developing embryo and furthermore in the adult system. Therefore, this population has great therapeutic potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This chapter reviews the development of the vascular and hematopoietic systems, characterization and function of the hemogenic endothelium within embryonic and embryonic stem cell (ES cell) models, and speculate on the presence of such a population within the adult system. In order to harness this endothelial subtype for clinical application, we must understand both the normal functions of these cells and the potential for misregulation in disease states.

  18. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  19. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  20. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  1. b-FGF induces corneal blood and lymphatic vessel growth in a spatially distinct pattern.

    PubMed

    Hajrasouliha, Amir R; Sadrai, Zahra; Chauhan, Sunil K; Dana, Reza

    2012-07-01

    To study the spatial variances in ligand expression and angiogenic effect in response to the inflammatory response induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF). b-FGF micropellets (80 ng) were implanted in the temporal side of the cornea of Balb/c mice. On days 1, 3, and 7, blood (heme-) and lymphangiogenesis were observed by immunofluorescence staining of corneal flat mounts with LYVE-1 and CD31 to identify lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. A second group of corneas were harvested for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Each cornea was divided into 2 different areas: (1) pre-pellet area and (2) opposite-pellet area. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction in each respective zone. Blood vessels grew into the cornea from the pre-pellet area, whereas corneal lymphatic vessels grew from the opposite-pellet area toward the center of the cornea. VEGF-A was upregulated in the pre-pellet, whereas VEGF-D expression was mostly observed in the opposite-pellet area. VEGF-C level increased simultaneously in both areas. A single inducing factor, that is, b-FGF, may simultaneously provoke hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in different locations of the cornea through differential expression of VEGF ligands. This distinctive spatial pattern should be considered while evaluating the corneal predilection for inflammation beyond that which is directly visible by slit lamp examination.

  2. Optic cup segmentation: type-II fuzzy thresholding approach and blood vessel extraction

    PubMed Central

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Alodhayb, Sami; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for segmenting optic cup using two-dimensional fundus images. Cup segmentation is the most challenging part of image processing of the optic nerve head due to the complexity of its structure. Using the blood vessels to segment the cup is important. Here, we report on blood vessel extraction using first a top-hat transform and Otsu’s segmentation function to detect the curves in the blood vessels (kinks) which indicate the cup boundary. This was followed by an interval type-II fuzzy entropy procedure. Finally, the Hough transform was applied to approximate the cup boundary. The algorithm was evaluated on 550 fundus images from a large dataset, which contained three different sets of images, where the cup was manually marked by six ophthalmologists. On one side, the accuracy of the algorithm was tested on the three image sets independently. The final cup detection accuracy in terms of area and centroid was calculated to be 78.2% of 441 images. Finally, we compared the algorithm performance with manual markings done by the six ophthalmologists. The agreement was determined between the ophthalmologists as well as the algorithm. The best agreement was between ophthalmologists one, two and five in 398 of 550 images, while the algorithm agreed with them in 356 images. PMID:28515636

  3. Optic cup segmentation: type-II fuzzy thresholding approach and blood vessel extraction.

    PubMed

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Alodhayb, Sami; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for segmenting optic cup using two-dimensional fundus images. Cup segmentation is the most challenging part of image processing of the optic nerve head due to the complexity of its structure. Using the blood vessels to segment the cup is important. Here, we report on blood vessel extraction using first a top-hat transform and Otsu's segmentation function to detect the curves in the blood vessels (kinks) which indicate the cup boundary. This was followed by an interval type-II fuzzy entropy procedure. Finally, the Hough transform was applied to approximate the cup boundary. The algorithm was evaluated on 550 fundus images from a large dataset, which contained three different sets of images, where the cup was manually marked by six ophthalmologists. On one side, the accuracy of the algorithm was tested on the three image sets independently. The final cup detection accuracy in terms of area and centroid was calculated to be 78.2% of 441 images. Finally, we compared the algorithm performance with manual markings done by the six ophthalmologists. The agreement was determined between the ophthalmologists as well as the algorithm. The best agreement was between ophthalmologists one, two and five in 398 of 550 images, while the algorithm agreed with them in 356 images.

  4. Combining cell sheet technology and electrospun scaffolding for engineered tubular, aligned, and contractile blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Heath, Daniel E; Shakouri, Amir; Rujitanaroj, Pim-On; Chew, Sing Yian; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2014-03-01

    Herein we combine cell sheet technology and electrospun scaffolding to rapidly generate circumferentially aligned tubular constructs of human aortic smooth muscles cells with contractile gene expression for use as tissue engineered blood vessel media. Smooth muscle cells cultured on micropatterned and N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted (pNIPAm) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a small portion of which was covered by aligned electrospun scaffolding, resulted in a single sheet of unidirectionally aligned cells. Upon cooling to room temperature, the scaffold, its adherent cells, and the remaining cell sheet detached and were collected on a mandrel to generating tubular constructs with circumferentially aligned smooth muscle cells which possess contractile gene expression and a single layer of electrospun scaffold as an analogue to a small diameter blood vessel's internal elastic lamina (IEL). This method improves cell sheet handling, results in rapid circumferential alignment of smooth muscle cells which immediately express contractile genes, and introduction of an analogue to small diameter blood vessel IEL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multinozzle Multichannel Temperature Deposition System for Construction of a Blood Vessel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanbao; Zhou, Huixing; Lan, Haiming; Liu, Fu; Wang, Xuhan

    2018-02-01

    3D bioprinting is an emerging technology that drives us to construct the complicated tissues and organs consisting of various materials and cells, which has been in widespread use in tissue engineering and organ regeneration. However, the protection and accurate distribution of cells are the most urgent problems to achieve tissue and organ reconstruction. In this article, a multinozzle multichannel temperature deposition and manufacturing (MTDM) system is proposed to fabricate a blood vessel with heterogeneous materials and gradient hierarchical porous structures, which enables not only the reconstruction of a blood vessel with an accurate 3D model structure but also the capacity to distribute bioactive materials such as growth factors, nutrient substance, and so on. In addition, a coaxial focusing nozzle is proposed and designed to extrude the biomaterial and encapsulation material, which can protect the cell from damage. In the MTDM system, the tubular structure of a blood vessel was successfully fabricated with the different biomaterials, which proved that the MTDM system has a potential application prospect in tissue engineering and organ regeneration.

  6. Presence of MUC4 in human milk and at the luminal surfaces of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Perez, Aymee; Yasin, Mohammad; Soto, Pedro; Rong, Min; Theodoropoulos, George; Carothers Carraway, Coralie A; Carraway, Kermit L

    2005-07-01

    MUC4 is a heterodimeric membrane mucin, composed of a mucin subunit ASGP-1 (MUC4alpha) and a transmembrane subunit ASGP-2 (MUC4beta), which has been implicated in the protection of epithelial cell surfaces. Surprisingly, development and characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (mAb), called 1G8, against ASGP-2 demonstrated by immunohistochemistry the presence of MUC4 at the luminal surfaces of blood vessels of both normal tissues and tumors. Muc4 was detected with 1G8 and other Muc4 antibodies in blood vessels from humans, rats and mice. This expression of MUC4 in endothelial cells was confirmed by immunoblotting with 1G8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human iliac artery endothelial cells (HIAECs), and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). MUC4 could be observed on HUVECs grown on either plastic or Matrigel. Finally, MUC4 expression in the three types of endothelial cell lines was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a member of the MUC gene family and membrane mucin in blood vessels. As a luminal surface component, the MUC4 is situated to contribute to the non-adhesive luminal surface and to act as an intrinsic protection and survival factor. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.

  8. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction – a Finite Element Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30–40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach. PMID:27534438

  9. Myeloperoxidase in blood neutrophils during normal and abnormal menstrual cycles in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Sakamoto, J; Osaka, Y; Neyatani, N; Fujita, S; Oka, Y; Takagi, H; Mori, H; Fujita, H; Tanaka, Y; Sasagawa, T

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays a critical role in ovulation, suggesting that neutrophils may maintain ovulation. We assessed myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major and specific enzyme of neutrophils, in women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles to clarify the relationship between MPO and ovulation. We analyzed MPO activity in blood neutrophils of women with abnormal menstrual cycles (indicative of anovulation, n = 12) and age- and body mass index-matched normal menstrual cycles (indicative of ovulation, n = 24) using two parameters as a marker of MPO, Neut X and mean peroxidase index (MPXI). MPO of women with abnormal menstrual cycles was significantly lower than that of women with normal menstrual cycles [Neut X: 62.6 ± 1.1 (mean ± standard error of the mean) vs. 66.2 ± 0.3, P = 0.009; MPXI: -0.54 ± 1.66 vs. 4.91 ± 0.53, P = 0.008]. Among women with normal menstrual cycles, MPO was highest in the follicular phase (Neut X: 67.0 ± 0.3; P = 0.033). The difference in MPO between women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles and the upregulation of MPO before ovulation suggest that neutrophils and MPO are closely related to ovulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Continuous imaging of the blood vessels in tumor mouse dorsal skin window chamber model by using SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao; Yang, Shaozhuang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Qi; Lin, Danying; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Peiqi; Ma, Yiqun; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been widely applied into microstructure imaging of tissues or blood vessels with a series of advantages, including non-destructiveness, real-time imaging, high resolution and high sensitivity. In this study, a Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) system with higher sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was built up, which was used to observe the blood vessel distribution and blood flow in the dorsal skin window chamber of the nude mouse tumor model. In order to obtain comparable data, the distribution images of blood vessels were collected from the same mouse before and after tumor injection. In conclusion, in vivo blood vessel distribution images of the tumor mouse model have been continuously obtained during around two weeks.

  11. Blood supply to the first metatarsal head and vessels at risk with a chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Malal, J J George; Shaw-Dunn, J; Kumar, C Senthil

    2007-09-01

    Chevron osteotomy, a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of hallux valgus, results in osteonecrosis of the first metatarsal head in 0% to 20% of cases. The aim of this study was to map out the arrangement of the vascular supply to the first metatarsal head and its relationship to the limbs of the chevron osteotomy. Ten cadaveric lower limbs were injected with an India ink-latex mixture, and the feet were dissected to assess the blood supply to the first metatarsal head. The dissection was carried out by tracing the branches of the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial vessels. A distal chevron osteotomy was mapped, with the limbs of the osteotomy set at an angle of 60 degrees from the geometric center of the first metatarsal head. The relationship of the limbs of the osteotomy to the blood vessels was recorded. The first metatarsal head was found to be supplied by branches from the first dorsal metatarsal, first plantar metatarsal, and medial plantar arteries. The first dorsal metatarsal artery was the dominant vessel among the three arteries in eight specimens. All of the vessels formed a plexus at the plantar-lateral aspect of the metatarsal neck, just proximal to the capsular attachment, with a varying number of branches from the plexus then entering the metatarsal head. The plantar limb of the proposed chevron cuts exited through this plexus of vessels in all specimens. Contrary to the widely held view, only minor vascular branches could be found entering the dorsal aspect of the neck. The identification of the plantar-lateral corner of the metatarsal neck as the major site of vascular ingress into the first metatarsal head suggests that constructing the chevron osteotomy with a long plantar limb exiting well proximal to the capsular attachment may decrease the postoperative prevalence of osteonecrosis of the first metatarsal head.

  12. Association between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profile and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Shimo, Yasushi; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Ogawa, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Oyama, Genko; Umemura, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2018-01-01

    Circadian blood pressure alterations are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease, but the association between these changes and dementia in the condition remains unclear. Here, we assess the relationship between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles and dementia in Parkinson's disease. We enrolled 137 patients with Parkinson's disease, who underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, following cognitive and clinical assessment. Twenty-seven patients (19.7%) were diagnosed with dementia in this cohort. We observed significant associations of dementia with age, male gender, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) stage, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, presence of cerebrovascular lesions on MRI, and orthostatic hypotension. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that among the patterns of nocturnal blood pressure profiles, the riser pattern was significantly associated with dementia (OR 11.6, 95%CI: 2.14-215.0, P < 0.01), and this trend was observed after adjusting for all confounding factors except orthostatic hypotension (OR 19.2, 95%CI: 1.12-1960.3, P = 0.04). However, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was related to a higher prevalence of dementia (45.2%) than was a riser pattern alone (9.5%). Furthermore, coexistence of a riser pattern and orthostatic hypotension was significantly more associated with dementia than was a riser pattern alone, even after adjusting for confounders (OR 1625.1, 95%CI: 21.9-1343909.5, P < 0.01). Our results suggest a relationship between a riser pattern coexisting with orthostatic hypotension and dementia in Parkinson's disease. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate whether abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles predict dementia in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  14. [Changes of blood vessels in glucocorticoid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Li, Q; Yang, L; Liu, F

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of fatty tamponade in medullary cavity (serious intramedullary fatty infiltration) on the changes of blood vessels in femoral heads during the pathological process of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced avascular necrosis (AVM) of the femoral heads. The animal model of AVN was established with injection of dexamethasone (DEX) at a high dose of 2.5 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in rabbits. Histopathological and morphological changes of blood vessels in the femoral heads were investigated during GC-treatment and after the cessation scanning electron microscope, light microscope, and image analysis. At the 2nd week of DEX-treatment, the fatty tamponade in the medullary cavity appeared in the femoral heads. Intramedullary vascular sinusoids were pressed by an excess of lipocytes and became narrow. The impressions of lipocytes on the surface of vascular sinusoids were definitely displayed on the vascular casts and ink-perfused slides of the femoral heads. These changes were pronounced with the prolongation of the treatment and the vascular sinusoids gradually lost their characteristics. Image analysis showed that the vascular area in the femoral heads continuously decreased. At the 8th week, the effects of fatty tamponade were the most marked. Intramedullary vessels became very sparse and the vascular area decreased to 1/4 of the controls. At the 6th week after the GC-treatment cessation, intramedullary fatty infiltration still existed. The blood vessels were fine and sparse, and the structural features of vascular sinusoids disappeared in the load-bearing regions of the femoral heads. At the 4th week, typical osteonecrosis focuses appeared in the femoral heads. The focuses became larger and the degree of osteonecrosis was increasing with the time of experiment. The fatty tamponade in the medullary cavity is one of the important pathological factors causing ischemic damage to the femoral heads, and plays an important role in the early stage of GC-induced AVN.

  15. Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.

    2016-11-01

    Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n  =  4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p  <  0.05) when comparing two anatomic locations on the same day and when considering the same anatomic location at two separate times (i.e. before and after burn surgery). The study demonstrates an

  16. Increased mast cell density in haemorrhoid venous blood vessels suggests a role in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, M; Wisadeopas, N; Phumsuk, U; Thorner, P S

    2008-12-01

    Haemorrhoids are an abnormal, tortuous dilatation of the arteriovenous plexus of the anus. Although increased resting anorectal pressure is deemed to be a major initiating factor, a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis is still lacking. Mast cells, through release of granules, can affect local vessels with respect to changes in calibre, changes in permeability and thrombosis. Thus, mast cells could play a role in haemorrhoid pathophysiology, although this has not been previously investigated. 48 cases of haemorrhoids were retrospectively collected at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, with normal anorectal tissue from surgically-removed colorectal cancer serving as controls. Mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining and quantitated around venous vessels. Mast cells around haemorrhoidal vessels were significantly more numerous than in normal specimens (p-value is less than 0.001). Similar values were found for haemorrhoids showing chronic changes and those in a more acute stage. These findings support the hypothesis that mast cells may play a role in the pathophysiology of haemorrhoids. Mast cells appear to participate equally in the early and later stages of these lesions. Mast cells are known to affect local vascular conditions through release of their chemical mediators and cytokines, and may influence haemorrhoid symptomatology and progression at this level.

  17. Mammalian Cardiovascular Patterning as Determined by Hemodynamic Forces and Blood Vessel Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gregory Arthur

    Cardiovascular development is a process that involves the timing of multiple molecular events, and numerous subtle three-dimensional conformational changes. Traditional developmental biology techniques have provided large quantities of information as to how these complex organ systems develop. However, the major drawback of the majority of current developmental biological imaging is that they are two-dimensional in nature. It is now well recognized that circulation of blood is required for normal patterning and remodeling of blood vessels. Normal blood vessel formation is dependent upon a complex network of signaling pathways, and genetic mutations in these pathways leads to impaired vascular development, heart failure, and lethality. As such, it is not surprising that mutant mice with aberrant cardiovascular patterning are so common, since normal development requires proper coordination between three systems: the heart, the blood, and the vasculature. This thesis describes the implementation of a three-dimensional imaging technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), in conjunction with a computer-based registration algorithm to statistically analyze developmental differences in groups of wild-type mouse embryos. Embryos that differ by only a few hours' gestational time are shown to have developmental differences in blood vessel formation and heart development progression that can be discerned. This thesis describes how we analyzed mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation by OPT to detect morphological differences in embryonic development in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Both a blood vessel specific mutation and a cardiac specific mutation were analyzed, providing evidence that developmental defects of these types can be quantified. Finally, we describe the implementation of OPT imaging to identify statistically significant phenotypes from three different mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation across a range of developmental time points. Image

  18. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Martin, John D.; Liu, Hao; Lacorre, Delphine A.; Jain, Saloni R.; Kozin, Sergey V.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Mousa, Ahmed S.; Han, Xiaoxing; Adstamongkonkul, Pichet; Popović, Zoran; Huang, Peigen; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan implicated as the primary matrix molecule responsible for vessel compression because of its swelling behaviour. Here we show, unexpectedly, that hyaluronan compresses vessels only in collagen-rich tumours, suggesting that collagen and hyaluronan together are critical targets for decompressing tumour vessels. We demonstrate that the angiotensin inhibitor losartan reduces stromal collagen and hyaluronan production, associated with decreased expression of profibrotic signals TGF-β1, CCN2 and ET-1, downstream of angiotensin-II-receptor-1 inhibition. Consequently, losartan reduces solid stress in tumours resulting in increased vascular perfusion. Through this physical mechanism, losartan improves drug and oxygen delivery to tumours, thereby potentiating chemotherapy and reducing hypoxia in breast and pancreatic cancer models. Thus, angiotensin inhibitors —inexpensive drugs with decades of safe use — could be rapidly repurposed as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24084631

  19. Regulation of cellular communication by signaling microdomains in the blood vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W; Johnstone, Scott R; Biwer, Lauren A; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function.

  20. Regulation of Cellular Communication by Signaling Microdomains in the Blood Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W.; Johnstone, Scott R.; Biwer, Lauren A.; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function. PMID:24671377

  1. Blood Vessel Extraction in Color Retinal Fundus Images with Enhancement Filtering and Unsupervised Classification

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Retinal blood vessels have a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. For this reason, retinal vasculature extraction is important in order to help specialists for the diagnosis and treatment of systematic diseases. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to extract retinal blood vessel network. Our method comprises four stages: (1) preprocessing stage in order to prepare dataset for segmentation; (2) an enhancement procedure including Gabor, Frangi, and Gauss filters obtained separately before a top-hat transform; (3) a hard and soft clustering stage which includes K-means and Fuzzy C-means (FCM) in order to get binary vessel map; and (4) a postprocessing step which removes falsely segmented isolated regions. The method is tested on color retinal images obtained from STARE and DRIVE databases which are available online. As a result, Gabor filter followed by K-means clustering method achieves 95.94% and 95.71% of accuracy for STARE and DRIVE databases, respectively, which are acceptable for diagnosis systems. PMID:29065611

  2. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  3. Beam localization in HIFU temperature measurements using thermocouples, with application to cooling by large blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rupak K; Hariharan, Prasanna; Myers, Matthew R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies of thermal effects in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) procedures are often performed with the aid of fine wire thermocouples positioned within tissue phantoms. Thermocouple measurements are subject to several types of error which must be accounted for before reliable inferences can be made on the basis of the measurements. Thermocouple artifact due to viscous heating is one source of error. A second is the uncertainty regarding the position of the beam relative to the target location or the thermocouple junction, due to the error in positioning the beam at the junction. This paper presents a method for determining the location of the beam relative to a fixed pair of thermocouples. The localization technique reduces the uncertainty introduced by positioning errors associated with very narrow HIFU beams. The technique is presented in the context of an investigation into the effect of blood flow through large vessels on the efficacy of HIFU procedures targeted near the vessel. Application of the beam localization method allowed conclusions regarding the effects of blood flow to be drawn from previously inconclusive (because of localization uncertainties) data. Comparison of the position-adjusted transient temperature profiles for flow rates of 0 and 400ml/min showed that blood flow can reduce temperature elevations by more than 10%, when the HIFU focus is within a 2mm distance from the vessel wall. At acoustic power levels of 17.3 and 24.8W there is a 20- to 70-fold decrease in thermal dose due to the convective cooling effect of blood flow, implying a shrinkage in lesion size. The beam-localization technique also revealed the level of thermocouple artifact as a function of sonication time, providing investigators with an indication of the quality of thermocouple data for a given exposure time. The maximum artifact was found to be double the measured temperature rise, during initial few seconds of sonication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B

  4. Magnetic navigation system for the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, S. M.; Jang, G. H.; Choi, H. C.; Park, S. H.; Park, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    Different magnetic navigation systems (MNSs) have been investigated for the wireless manipulation of microrobots in human blood vessels. Here we propose a MNS and methodology for generation of both the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot to improve its maneuverability in complex human blood vessel. We then present experiments demonstrating the helical and translational motions of a spiral-type microrobot to verify the proposed MNS.

  5. Expert Opinion Editorial Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels as Promising Tools for Testing Drug Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.; Fernandez, Cristina E.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) is a serious problem in preclinical studies of vasoactive molecules and for survivors of pediatric cancers. DIVI is often observed in rodents and some larger animals, primarily with drugs affecting vascular tone, but not in humans; however, DIVI observed in animal studies often precludes a drug candidate from continuing along the development pipeline. Thus, there is great interest by the pharmaceutical industry to identify quantifiable human biomarkers of DIVI. Small scale endothelialized tissue-engineered blood vessels using human cells represent a promising approach to screen drug candidates and developed alternatives to cancer therapeutics in vitro. We identify several technical challenges that remain to be addressed, including high throughput systems to screen large numbers of candidates, identification of suitable cell sources, and establishing and maintaining a differentiated state of the vessel wall cells. Adequately addressing these challenges should yield novel platforms to screen drugs and develop new therapeutics to treat cardiovascular disease. PMID:26028128

  6. Utilizing the Foreign Body Response to Grow Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, Wouter J; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, Joris I

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the number of patients requiring a vascular grafts for use as vessel replacement in cardiovascular diseases, or as vascular access site for hemodialysis is ever increasing. The development of tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBV's) is a promising method to meet this increasing demand vascular grafts, without having to rely on poorly performing synthetic options such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The generation of in vivo TEBV's involves utilizing the host reaction to an implanted biomaterial for the generation of completely autologous tissues. Essentially this approach to the development of TEBV's makes use of the foreign body response to biomaterials for the construction of the entire vascular replacement tissue within the patient's own body. In this review we will discuss the method of developing in vivo TEBV's, and debate the approaches of several research groups that have implemented this method.

  7. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain

  8. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Janušonis, Skirmantas

    2005-01-01

    Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies. PMID

  9. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Janusonis, Skirmantas

    2005-07-19

    A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies.

  10. Assessing blood vessel perfusion and vital signs through retinal imaging photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Harnani; Jaidka, Sheila; Dwyer, Vincent M; Hu, Sijung

    2018-05-01

    One solution to the global challenge of increasing ocular disease is a cost-effective technique for rapid screening and assessment. Current ophthalmic imaging techniques, e.g. scanning and ocular blood flow systems, are expensive, complex to operate and utilize invasive contrast agents during assessment. The work presented here demonstrates a simple retinal imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) system with the potential to provide screening, diagnosis, monitoring and assessment that is non-invasive, painless and radiationless. Time series of individual retinal blood vessel images, captured with an eye fundus camera, are processed using standard filtering, amplitude demodulation and principle component analysis (PCA) methods to determine the values of the heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR), which are in compliance with simultaneously obtained measurements using commercial pulse oximetry. It also seems possible that some information on the dynamic changes in oxygen saturation levels ( SpO 2 ) in a retinal blood vessel may also be obtained. As a consequence, the retinal iPPG modality system demonstrates a potential avenue for rapid ophthalmic screening, and even early diagnosis, against ocular disease without the need for fluorescent or contrast agents.

  11. Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.

  12. [Conjunct changes in the resistance and engorgement of the cerebral vessels in shifts in the blood gas composition].

    PubMed

    Krasil'nikov, V G; Artem'eva, A I

    1982-08-01

    In anesthetized cats, under perfusion and with constant volume of the hemodynamically isolated brain, hypercapnia and hypoxia led to a decrease of cerebral vessels resistance and to a reduction of the brain blood flow, whereas a decrease in the PCO2 and an increase in the PO2 in the blood exerted on opposite effect. The different responses of the vessels had some similar features in respect to threshold changes of the PCO2 and PO2, to potentiation of effects of both parts of the brain vascular system on increased shifts of the blood gas tension, to greater sensitivity of both parts to PCO2 changes, to effect of the blood gas tension on reactivity of both parts to noradrenaline. The authors suggest a possibility of alterations of the filter-absorption interrelationships in the brain due to different responses of arterial and venous vessels to changes of the blood gas tension.

  13. Blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs based on fully convolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lei; Qiu, Ling; Wu, Jun; Xiao, Zhitao

    2018-04-01

    FCN, trained end-to-end, pixels-to-pixels, predict result of each pixel. It has been widely used for semantic segmentation. In order to realize the blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs, a method based on FCN is proposed in this paper. The training datasets are composed of patches extracted from very few images to augment data. The network combines with lower layer and deconvolution to enables precise segmentation. The proposed method frees from the problem that training deep networks need large scale samples. Experimental results on hatching eggs demonstrate that this method can yield more accurate segmentation outputs than previous researches. It provides a convenient reference for fertility detection subsequently.

  14. From Blood Islands to Blood Vessels: Morphologic Observations and Expression of Key Molecules during Hyaloid Vascular System Development

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D. Scott; Hasegawa, Takuya; Baba, Takayuki; Grebe, Rhonda; Galtier d'Auriac, Ines; Merges, Carol; Edwards, Malia; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The mode of development of the human hyaloid vascular system (HVS) remains unclear. Early studies suggested that these blood vessels formed by vasculogenesis, while the current concept seems to favor angiogenesis as the mode of development. We examined embryonic and fetal human HVS using a variety of techniques to gain new insights into formation of this vasculature. Methods. Embryonic and fetal human eyes from 5.5 to 12 weeks gestation (WG) were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis or for light and electron microscopy. Immunolabeling of sections with a panel of antibodies directed at growth factors, transcription factors, and hematopoietic stem cell markers was employed. Results. Light microscopic examination revealed free blood islands (BI) in the embryonic vitreous cavity (5.5–7 WG). Giemsa stain revealed that BI were aggregates of mesenchymal cells and primitive nucleated erythroblasts. Free cells were also observed. Immunolabeling demonstrated that BI were composed of mesenchymal cells that expressed hemangioblast markers (CD31, CD34, C-kit, CXCR4, Runx1, and VEGFR2), erythroblasts that expressed embryonic hemoglobin (Hb-ε), and cells that expressed both. Few cells were proliferating as determined by lack of Ki67 antigen. As development progressed (12 WG), blood vessels became more mature structurally with pericyte investment and basement membrane formation. Concomitantly, Hb-ε and CXCR4 expression was down-regulated and von Willebrand factor expression was increased with the formation of Weibel-Palade bodies. Conclusions. Our results support the view that the human HVS, like the choriocapillaris, develops by hemo-vasculogenesis, the process by which vasculogenesis, erythropoiesis, and hematopoiesis occur simultaneously from common precursors, hemangioblasts. PMID:23092923

  15. Impact of Blood Vessel Quantity and Vascular Expression of CD133 and ICAM-1 on Survival of Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kase, Marju; Saretok, Mikk; Adamson-Raieste, Aidi; Kase, Sandra; Niinepuu, Kristi; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most angiogenic tumor. Nevertheless, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess blood vessel characteristics on survival of GB patients. Surgically excised GB tissues were histologically examined for overall proportion of glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (MP) and the total number of blood vessels. Also, immunohistochemical vascular staining intensities of CD133 and ICAM-1 were determined. Vessel parameters were correlated with patients' overall survival. The survival time depended on the number of blood vessels (p = 0.03) but not on the proportion of MP. Median survival times for patients with low (blood vessels were 9.0 months (95% CI: 7.5–10.5) and 12.0 months (95% CI: 9.3–14.7). Also, median survival times for patients with low (blood vessels emerged as an independent predictor for longer overall survival (HR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–5.0, p = 0.02). For success in antiangiogenic therapy, better understanding about tumor vasculature biology is needed. PMID:29250531

  16. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  17. Transcriptome-wide analysis of blood vessels laser captured from human skin and chronic wound-edge tissue

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sashwati; Patel, Darshan; Khanna, Savita; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Friedman, Avner; Sen, Chandan K.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wounds represent a substantial public health problem. The development of tools that would enable sophisticated scrutiny of clinical wound tissue material is highly desirable. This work presents evidence enabling rapid specific identification and laser capture of blood vessels from human tissue in a manner which lends itself to successful high-density (U133A) microarray analysis. Such screening of transcriptome followed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical verification of candidate genes and their corresponding products were performed by using 3 mm biopsies. Of the 18,400 transcripts and variants screened, a focused set of 53 up-regulated and 24 down-regulated genes were noted in wound-derived blood vessels compared with blood vessels from intact human skin. The mean abundance of periostin in wound-site blood vessels was 96-fold higher. Periostin is known to be induced in response to vascular injury and its expression is associated with smooth muscle cell differentiation in vitro and promotes cell migration. Forty-fold higher expression of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase1 (Sulf1) was noted in wound-site vessels. Sulf1 has been recently recognized to be anti-angiogenic. During embryonic vasculogenesis, CD24 expression is down-regulated in human embryonic stem cells. Wound-site vessels had lower CD24 expression. The findings of this work provide a unique opportunity to appreciate the striking contrast in the transcriptome composition in blood vessels collected from the intact skin and from the wound-edge tissue. Sets of genes with known vascular functions but never connected to wound healing were identified to be differentially expressed in wound-derived blood vessels paving the way for innovative clinically relevant hypotheses. PMID:17728400

  18. Miconazole protects blood vessels from MMP9-dependent rupture and hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ran; Zhang, Yunpei; Huang, Dandan; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Liangren; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zhenming; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide, but its prevention and therapeutic interventions remain a major challenge. Here, we report the identification of miconazole as a hemorrhagic suppressor by a small-molecule screen in zebrafish. We found that a hypomorphic mutant fn40a, one of several known β-pix mutant alleles in zebrafish, had the major symptoms of brain hemorrhage, vessel rupture and inflammation as those in hemorrhagic stroke patients. A small-molecule screen with mutant embryos identified the anti-fungal drug miconazole as a potent hemorrhagic suppressor. Miconazole inhibited both brain hemorrhages in zebrafish and mesenteric hemorrhages in rats by decreasing matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)-dependent vessel rupture. Mechanistically, miconazole downregulated the levels of pErk and Mmp9 to protect vascular integrity in fn40a mutants. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that miconazole protects blood vessels from hemorrhages by downregulating the pERK-MMP9 axis from zebrafish to mammals and shed light on the potential of phenotype-based screens in zebrafish for the discovery of new drug candidates and chemical probes for hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:28153846

  19. Effect of physical variables on capture of magnetic nanoparticles in simulated blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minghui; Brazel, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated how the percent capture of magnetic nanoparticles in a simulated vessel varies with physical variables. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can used as part of therapeutic or diagnostic materials for cancer patients. By capturing these devices with a magnetic field, the particles can be concentrated in an area of diseased tissue. In this study, flow of nanoparticles in simulated blood vessels was used to determine the affect of applying an external magnetic field. This study used maghemite nanoparticles as the MNPs and either water or Fetal Bovine Serum as the carrier fluid. A UV-Vis collected capture data. The percent capture of MNPs was positively influenced by five physical variables: larger vessel diameters, lower linear flow velocity, higher magnetic field strength, better dispersion, lower MNP concentration, and lower protein content in fluid. Free MNPs were also compared to micelles, with the free particles having more successful magnetic capture. Four factors contributed to these trends: the strength of the magnetic field's influence on the MNPs, the MNPs' interactions with other particles and the fluid, the momentum of the nanoparticles, and magnetic mass to total mass ratio of the flowing particles. Funded by NSF REU Site #1062611.

  20. Peripheral blood natural killer cells and mild thyroid abnormalities in women with reproductive failure

    PubMed Central

    Triggianese, P; Perricone, C; Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, MS; Perricone, R; De Carolis, C

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been reported in women with primary infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and several studies have been presented to define cutoff values for abnormal peripheral blood NK cell levels in this context. Elevated levels of NK cells were observed in infertile/RSA women in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), while no studies have been carried out, to date, on NK cells in infertile/RSA women with non-autoimmune thyroid diseases. The contribution of this study is two-fold: (1) the evaluation of peripheral blood NK cell levels in a cohort of infertile/RSA women, in order to confirm related data from the literature; and (2) the assessment of NK cell levels in the presence of both TAI and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in order to explore the possibility that the association between NK cells and thyroid function is not only restricted to TAI but also to SCH. In a retrospective study, 259 age-matched women (primary infertility [n = 49], primary RSA [n = 145], and secondary RSA [n = 65]) were evaluated for CD56+CD16+NK cells by flow cytometry. Women were stratified according to thyroid status: TAI, SCH, and without thyroid diseases (ET). Fertile women (n = 45) were used as controls. Infertile/RSA women showed higher mean NK cell levels than controls. The cutoff value determining the abnormal NK cell levels resulted ⩾15% in all the groups of women. Among the infertile/RSA women, SCH resulted the most frequently associated thyroid disorder while no difference resulted in the prevalence of TAI and ET women between patients and controls. A higher prevalence of women with NK cell levels ⩾15% was observed in infertile/RSA women with SCH when compared to TAI/ET women. According to our data, NK cell assessment could be used as a diagnostic tool in women with reproductive failure and we suggest that the possible association between NK cell levels and thyroid function can be described not only

  1. Analysis of trends and prospects regarding stents for human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eung Do; Jun, Eun Jung; Yoo, Hyoung Sun; Lee, Joon Woo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents. The coronary artery stent is avascular stent that is used for coronary atherosclerosis.The demand is increasing for stents to treat diseases such as those affecting the heart and blood vessels of elderly and middle-aged patients. Due to the current shift in the demographic structure caused by an aging society, the prospect for stents seems to be very bright.The use of a stent designed to prevent acute vascular occlusion and restenosis, which is a side effect of conventional balloon angioplasty, has rapidly become popular because it can prevent acute complications and improve clinical outcomes. Since the initial release of this stent, there have been significant developments in its design, the most notable of which has been the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES). Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have the potential to introduce a paradigm shift in interventional cardiology, a true anatomical and functional "vascular restoration" instead of an artificial stiff tube encased by a persistent metallic foreign body. Data for this research were gathered from primary and secondary sources as well as the databases of the Korea Institute of Science Technology Information (KISTI) located in Seoul, Korea like KISTI Market Report. The sources used for primary research included the databases available from the Korea Institute of Science Technology Information, past industry research services/studies, economic and demographic data, and trade and industry journals. Secondary research was used

  2. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kyle C; Wright, Clinton B; Bergfield, Kaitlin L; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Chen, Kewei; Moeller, James R; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Stern, Yaakov; DeCarli, Charles S; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1) identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2) compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3) relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60-86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Abnormal Invasive Placenta by Ultrasound: Measurement of Highest Peak Systolic Velocity of Subplacental Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Li, Hezhou; Wang, Fang; Qin, Hongyan; Qin, Qiaohong

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study described here was to identify an efficient criterion for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. We evaluated 129 women with anterior placenta previa who underwent trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation in the third trimester. Spectral Doppler ultrasonography was performed to assess the subplacental blood flow of the anterior lower uterine segment by measuring the highest peak systolic velocity and resistive index. These patients were prospectively followed until delivery and evaluated for abnormal placental invasion. The peak systolic velocity and resistive index of patients with and without abnormal placental invasion were then compared. Postpartum examination revealed that 55 of the patients had an abnormal invasive placenta, whereas the remaining 74 did not. Patients with abnormal placental invasion had a higher peak systolic velocity of the subplacental blood flow in the lower segment of the anterior aspect of the uterus (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.96) than did those without abnormal placental invasion. Our preliminary investigations suggest that a peak systolic velocity of 41 cm/s can be considered a cutoff point to diagnose abnormal invasive placenta, with both good sensitivity (87%) and good specificity (78%), and the higher the peak systolic velocity, the greater is the chance of abnormal placental invasion. Resistive index had no statistical significance (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.66) in the diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. In conclusion, measurement of the highest peak systolic velocity of subplacental blood flow in the anterior lower uterine segment can serve as an additional marker of anterior abnormal invasive placenta. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition reduces hypertension through the preservation of resistance blood vessel structure and function.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Rachel E; Werner, Kaitlyn E; Yum, Victoria; Lu, Chao; Tat, Victor; Memon, Muzammil; No, Yejin; Ask, Kjetil; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension by correcting vascular dysfunction. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was used as a model of human essential hypertension with its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat. Animals were subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; 1 g/kg per day, orally) for 5 weeks from 12 weeks of age. BP was measured weekly noninvasively and at endpoint with carotid arterial cannulation. Small mesenteric arteries were removed for vascular studies. Function was assessed with a Mulvany-Halpern style myograph, and structure was assessed by measurement of medial-to-lumen ratio in perfusion fixed vessels as well as three-dimensional confocal reconstruction of vessel wall components. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR and western blotting; oxidative stress was assessed by 3-nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining. 4-PBA significantly lowered BP in SHR (vehicle 206.1 ± 4.3 vs. 4-PBA 178.9 ± 3.1, systolic) but not Wistar Kyoto. 4-PBA diminished contractility and augmented endothelial-dependent vasodilation in SHR small mesenteric arteries, as well as reducing media-to-lumen ratio. 4-PBA significantly reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in SHR resistance vessels. Normotensive resistance vessels, treated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agent, tunicamycin, show decreased endothelial-dependent vasodilation; this was improved with 4-PBA treatment. 3-Nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to reactive oxygen species generation resolvable by 4-PBA treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused endothelial-mediated vascular dysfunction contributing to elevated BP in the SHR model of human essential hypertension.

  5. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits the formation of new blood vessels for its dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Polena, Helena; Boudou, Frédéric; Tilleul, Sylvain; Dubois-Colas, Nicolas; Lecointe, Cécile; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Pelizzola, Mattia; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Charles, Patricia; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Rasolofo, Voahangy; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tailleux, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the airborne pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreads within the lung and leaves its primary niche to colonize other organs, thus inducing extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) in humans, remains poorly understood. Herein, we used a transcriptomic approach to investigate the host cell gene expression profile in M. tuberculosis–infected human macrophages (ΜΦ). We identified 33 genes, encoding proteins involved in angiogenesis, for which the expression was significantly modified during infection, and we show that the potent angiogenic factor VEGF is secreted by M. tuberculosis-infected ΜΦ, in an RD1-dependent manner. In vivo these factors promote the formation of blood vessels in murine models of the disease. Inhibiting angiogenesis, via VEGF inactivation, abolished mycobacterial spread from the infection site. In accordance with our in vitro and in vivo results, we show that the level of VEGF in TB patients is elevated and that endothelial progenitor cells are mobilized from the bone marrow. These results strongly strengthen the most recent data suggesting that mycobacteria take advantage of the formation of new blood vessels to disseminate. PMID:27616470

  7. Investigation of the cerebral hemodynamic response function in single blood vessels by functional photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I.; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Zhao, Wan-Ting; Duong, Timothy Q.; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Chen, You-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The specificity of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) is determined spatially by the vascular architecture and temporally by the evolution of hemodynamic changes. Here, we used functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) to investigate single cerebral blood vessels of rats after left forepaw stimulation. In this system, we analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of the HRFs of the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2). Changes in specific cerebral vessels corresponding to various electrical stimulation intensities and durations were bilaterally imaged with 36×65-μm2 spatial resolution. Stimulation intensities of 1, 2, 6, and 10 mA were applied for periods of 5 or 15 s. Our results show that the relative functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 are highly dependent not only on the intensity of the stimulation, but also on its duration. Additionally, the duration of the stimulation has a strong influence on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the HRF as shorter stimuli elicit responses only in the local vasculature (smaller arterioles), whereas longer stimuli lead to greater vascular supply and drainage. This study suggests that the current fPAM system is reliable for studying relative cerebral hemodynamic changes, as well as for offering new insights into the dynamics of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in small animals. PMID:22734740

  8. Automatic blood vessel based-liver segmentation using the portal phase abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Iinuma, Gen

    2018-02-01

    Liver segmentation is the basis for computer-based planning of hepatic surgical interventions. In diagnosis and analysis of hepatic diseases and surgery planning, automatic segmentation of liver has high importance. Blood vessel (BV) has showed high performance at liver segmentation. In our previous work, we developed a semi-automatic method that segments the liver through the portal phase abdominal CT images in two stages. First stage was interactive segmentation of abdominal blood vessels (ABVs) and subsequent classification into hepatic (HBVs) and non-hepatic (non-HBVs). This stage had 5 interactions that include selective threshold for bone segmentation, selecting two seed points for kidneys segmentation, selection of inferior vena cava (IVC) entrance for starting ABVs segmentation, identification of the portal vein (PV) entrance to the liver and the IVC-exit for classifying HBVs from other ABVs (non-HBVs). Second stage is automatic segmentation of the liver based on segmented ABVs as described in [4]. For full automation of our method we developed a method [5] that segments ABVs automatically tackling the first three interactions. In this paper, we propose full automation of classifying ABVs into HBVs and non- HBVs and consequently full automation of liver segmentation that we proposed in [4]. Results illustrate that the method is effective at segmentation of the liver through the portal abdominal CT images.

  9. Scaffold-free, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngmee; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Zaozao; Fai Chan, Hon; Atchison, Leigh; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George; Leong, Kam W

    2015-10-12

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) can serve as vascular grafts and may also play an important role in the development of organs-on-a-chip. Most TEBV construction involves scaffolding with biomaterials such as collagen gel or electrospun fibrous mesh. Hypothesizing that a scaffold-free TEBV may be advantageous, we constructed a tubular structure (1 mm i.d.) from aligned human mesenchymal cell sheets (hMSC) as the wall and human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC) coating as the lumen. The burst pressure of the scaffold-free TEBV was above 200 mmHg after three weeks of sequential culture in a rotating wall bioreactor and perfusion at 6.8 dynes/cm(2). The interwoven organization of the cell layers and extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of the hMSC-based TEBV resembled that of native blood vessels. The TEBV exhibited flow-mediated vasodilation, vasoconstriction after exposure to 1 μM phenylephrine and released nitric oxide in a manner similar to that of porcine femoral vein. HL-60 cells attached to the TEBV lumen after TNF-α activation to suggest a functional endothelium. This study demonstrates the potential of a hEPC endothelialized hMSC-based TEBV for drug screening.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Ultrasound Radiofrequency Backscatter for the Detection of Intercostal Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Jon D; Haggard, Asher; Fedewa, Russell J; Qiang, Beidi; Cummings, Kenneth; DeGrande, Sean; Vince, D Geoffrey; Elsharkawy, Hesham

    2018-04-19

    Spectral analysis of ultrasound radiofrequency backscatter has the potential to identify intercostal blood vessels during ultrasound-guided placement of paravertebral nerve blocks and intercostal nerve blocks. Autoregressive models were used for spectral estimation, and bandwidth, autoregressive order and region-of-interest size were evaluated. Eight spectral parameters were calculated and used to create random forests. An autoregressive order of 10, bandwidth of 6 dB and region-of-interest size of 1.0 mm resulted in the minimum out-of-bag error. An additional random forest, using these chosen values, was created from 70% of the data and evaluated independently from the remaining 30% of data. The random forest achieved a predictive accuracy of 92% and Youden's index of 0.85. These results suggest that spectral analysis of ultrasound radiofrequency backscatter has the potential to identify intercostal blood vessels. (jokling@siue.edu) © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for Separation of Blood Vessels on the Three-Color Images of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new technology was developed to improve the visibility of blood vessels on images of tissues of hollow human organs(the alimentary tract and respiratory system) based on the relation between the color components of the image, the scattering properties of the tissue, and its hemoglobin content. A statistical operator was presented to convert the three-color image of the tissue into a parametric map objectively characterizing the concentration of hemoglobin in the tissue regardless of the illumination and shooting conditions. An algorithm for obtaining conversion parameters for image systems with known spectral characteristics was presented. An image of a multilayer multiple-scattering medium modeling bronchial tissue was synthesized and was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed conversion system. It was shown that the conversion made it possible to increase the contrast of the blood vessels by almost two orders of magnitude, to significantly improve the clarity of the display of their borders, and to eliminate almost completely the influence of background and nonuniform illumination of the medium in comparison with the original image.

  12. Quantitative phase imaging characterization of tumor-associated blood vessel formation on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Huang, Jing; Moses, Marsha A.

    2018-02-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a biological process that has an essential role in solid tumor growth, development, and progression. Recent advances in Lab-on-a-Chip technology has created an opportunity for scientists to observe endothelial cell (EC) behaviors during the dynamic process of angiogenesis using a simple and economical in vitro platform that recapitulates in vivo blood vessel formation. Here, we use quantitative phase imaging (QPI) microscopy to continuously and non-invasively characterize the dynamic process of tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprout formation on a microfluidic chip. The live tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprouts are generated by multicellular endothelial sprouting into 3 dimensional (3D) Matrigel using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By using QPI, we quantitatively measure a panel of cellular morphological and behavioral parameters of each individual EC participating in this sprouting. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that QPI is a powerful tool that can provide real-time quantitative analysis of biological processes in in vitro 3D biomimetic devices, which, in turn, can improve our understanding of the biology underlying functional tissue engineering.

  13. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in blood flow altered by electroosmosis through tapered micro-vessels.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Ramesh, K; Tripathi, D; Kumar, R

    2018-07-01

    A numerical simulation is presented to study the heat and flow characteristics of blood flow altered by electroosmosis through the tapered micro-vessels. Blood is assumed as non-Newtonian (micropolar) nanofluids. The flow regime is considered as asymmetric diverging (tapered) microchannel for more realistic micro-vessels which is produced by choosing the peristaltic wave train on the walls to have different amplitudes and phase. The Rosseland approximation is employed to model the radiation heat transfer and temperatures of the walls are presumed constants. The mathematical formulation of the present problem is simplified under the long-wavelength, low-Reynolds number and Debye-Hückel linearization approximations. The influence of various dominant physical parameters are discussed for axial velocity, microrotation distribution, thermal temperature distribution and nanoparticle volume fraction field. However, our foremost emphasis is to determine the effects of thermal radiation and coupling number on the axial velocity and microrotation distribution beneath electroosmotic environment. This analysis places a significant observation on the thermal radiation and coupling number which plays an influential role in hearten fluid velocity. This study is encouraged by exploring the nanofluid-dynamics in peristaltic transport as symbolized by heat transport in biological flows and also in novel pharmacodynamics pumps and gastro-intestinal motility enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assembly of tissue engineered blood vessels with spatially-controlled heterogeneities.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Hannah A; Hookway, Tracy; Piola, Marco; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Soncini, Monica; Alsberg, Eben; Rolle, Marsha

    2018-05-04

    Tissue-engineered human blood vessels may enable in vitro disease modeling and drug screening to accelerate advances in vascular medicine. Existing methods for tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) fabrication create homogenous tubes not conducive to modeling the focal pathologies characteristic of vascular disease. We developed a system for generating self-assembled human smooth muscle cell ring-units, which were fused together into TEBVs. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of modular assembly and fusion of ring building units to fabricate spatially-controlled, heterogeneous tissue tubes. We first aimed to enhance fusion and reduce total culture time, and determined that reducing ring pre-culture duration improved tube fusion. Next, we incorporated electrospun polymer ring units onto tube ends as reinforced extensions, which allowed us to cannulate tubes after only 7 days of fusion, and culture tubes with luminal flow in a custom bioreactor. To create focal heterogeneities, we incorporated gelatin microspheres into select ring units during self-assembly, and fused these rings between ring units without microspheres. Cells within rings maintained their spatial position within tissue tubes after fusion. This work describes a platform approach for creating modular TEBVs with spatially-defined structural heterogeneities, which may ultimately be applied to mimic focal diseases such as intimal hyperplasia or aneurysm.

  15. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  16. A computational model of microbubble transport through a blood-filled vessel bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Andres

    2005-11-01

    We are developing a novel gas embolotherapy technique to occlude blood vessels and starve tumors using gas bubbles that are produced by the acoustic vaporization of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets. The droplets are small enough to pass through the microcirculation, but the subsequent bubbles are large enough to lodge in vessels. The uniformity of tumor infarction depends on the transport the blood-borne bubbles before they stick. We examine the transport of a semi-infinite bubble through a single bifurcation in a liquid-filled two-dimensional channel. The flow is governed by the conservation of fluid mass and momentum equations. Reynolds numbers in the microcirculation are small, and we solve the governing equations using the boundary element method. The effect of gravity on bubble splitting is investigated and results are compared with our previous bench top experiments and to a quasi-steady one-dimensional analysis. The effects of daughter tube outlet pressures and bifurcation geometry are also considered. The findings suggest that slow moving bubbles will favor the upper branch of the bifurcation, but that increasing the bubble speed leads to more even splitting. It is also found that some bifurcation geometries and flow conditions result in severe thinning of the liquid film separating the bubble from the wall, suggesting the possibility bubble-wall contact. This work is supported by NSF grant BES-0301278 and NIH grant EB003541.

  17. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ex vivo blood vessel bioreactor for analysis of the biodegradation of magnesium stent models with and without vessel wall integration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Liu, Lumei; Wu, Yifan; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Zhihong; Koo, Youngmi; Zhao, Ansha; Sankar, Jagannathan; Kong, Deling; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2017-03-01

    Current in vitro models fail in predicting the degradation rate and mode of magnesium (Mg) stents in vivo. To overcome this, the microenvironment of the stent is simulated here in an ex vivo bioreactor with porcine aorta and circulating medium, and compared with standard static in vitro immersion and with in vivo rat aorta models. In ex vivo and in vivo conditions, pure Mg wires were exposed to the aortic lumen and inserted into the aortic wall to mimic early- and long-term implantation, respectively. Results showed that: 1) Degradation rates of Mg were similar for all the fluid diffusion conditions (in vitro static, aortic wall ex vivo and in vivo); however, Mg degradation under flow condition (i.e. in the lumen) in vivo was slower than ex vivo; 2) The corrosion mode in the samples can be mainly described as localized (in vitro), mixed localized and uniform (ex vivo), and uniform (in vivo); 3) Abundant degradation products (MgO/Mg(OH) 2 and Ca/P) with gas bubbles accumulated around the localized degradation regions ex vivo, but a uniform and thin degradation product layer was found in vivo. It is concluded that the ex vivo vascular bioreactor provides an improved test setting for magnesium degradation between static immersion and animal experiments and highlights its promising role in bridging degradation behavior and biological response for vascular stent research. Magnesium and its alloys are candidates for a new generation of biodegradable stent materials. However, the in vitro degradation of magnesium stents does not match the clinical degradation rates, corrupting the validity of conventional degradation tests. Here we report an ex vivo vascular bioreactor, which allows simulation of the microenvironment with and without blood vessel integration to study the biodegradation of magnesium implants in comparison with standard in vitro test conditions and with in vivo implantations. The bioreactor did simulate the corrosion of an intramural implant very well, but

  19. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. Fish scale-derived collagen patch promotes growth of blood and lymphatic vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Yeo, Kim Pin; Chun, Yong Yao; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Angeli, Véronique; Choong, Cleo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Type I collagen was extracted from fish scales asa potential alternative source of collagen for tissue engineering applications. Since unmodified collagen typically has poor mechanical and degradation stability both in vitro and in vivo, additional methylation modification and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE) crosslinking steps were used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish scale-derived collagen. Subsequently, in vivo studies using a murine model demonstrated the biocompatibility of the different fish scale-derived collagen patches. In general, favorable integration of the collagen patches to the surrounding tissues, with good infiltration of cells, blood vessels (BVs) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) were observed under growth factor-free conditions. Interestingly, significantly higher (p<0.05) number of LVs was found to be more abundant around collagen patches with methylation modification and BDE crosslinking. Overall, we have demonstrated the potential application of fish scale-derived collagen as a promising scaffolding material for various biomedical applications. Currently the most common sources of collagen are of bovine and porcine origins, although the industrial use of collagen obtained from non-mammalian species is growing in importance, particularly since they have a lower risk of disease transmission and are not subjected to any cultural or religious constraints. However, unmodified collagen typically has poor mechanical and degradation stability both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, in this study, Type I collagen was successfully extracted from fish scales and chemically modified and crosslinked. In vitro studies showed overall improvement in the physicochemical properties of the material, whilst in vivo implantation studies showed improvements in the growth of blood and lymphatic host vessels in the vicinity of the implants. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic resonance angiography with fresh blood imaging for identification of hemangiomas and blood vessels around hemangiomas in oral and maxillofacial regions.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masafumi; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Kito, Shinji; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Otsuka, Kozue; Hayashi, Yuki; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Yoshioka, Izumi; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Kodama, Masaaki; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Ishikawa, Ayataka; Zhang, Min; Matsuo, Kou; Shiiba, Shunji; Seta, Yuji; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate fresh blood imaging (FBI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique that does not use contrast, for identifying hemangiomas and feeding arteries in the oral and maxillofacial regions. For 16 patients with hemangiomas, FBI visualizations of hemangiomas and feeding arteries in the oral and maxillofacial regions were compared with those from 3-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA). Comparisons were based on the conspicuities of blood vessels and the 3D relationships of hemangiomas with the surrounding blood vessels. The conspicuity of hemangiomas, feeding arteries, and blood vessels were significantly better with FBI than with PC-MRA. After differentiating arteries from veins, 3D visualizations of hemangiomas and arteries or veins could be performed with FBI. FBI is a useful method in oral and maxillofacial regions for identifying the relationships between hemangiomas and the surrounding arteries or veins. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenesis and neuroimaging of cerebral large and small vessel disease in type 2 diabetes: A possible link between cerebral and retinal microvascular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Toshitaka; Kawamura, Takahiko; Hotta, Nigishi

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes patients have more than double the risk of ischemic stroke compared with non-diabetic individuals, and its neuroimaging characteristics have important clinical implications. To understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in diabetes, it is important to focus not only on the stroke subtype, but also on the size and location of the occlusive vessels. Specifically, ischemic stroke in diabetes patients might be attributed to both large and small vessels, and intracranial internal carotid artery disease and small infarcts of the posterior circulation often occur. An additional feature is that asymptomatic lacunar infarctions are often seen in the basal ganglia and brain stem on brain magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including lacunar infarctions, white matter lesions and cerebral microbleeds, has been shown to be associated not only with stroke incidence, but also with the development and progression of dementia and diabetic microangiopathy. However, the pathogenesis of cerebral SVD is not fully understood. In addition, data on the association between neuroimaging findings of the cerebral SVD and diabetes are limited. Recently, the clinical importance of the link between cerebral SVD and retinal microvascular abnormalities has been a topic of considerable interest. Several clinical studies have shown that retinal microvascular abnormalities are closely related to cerebral SVD, suggesting that retinal microvascular abnormalities might be pathophysiologically linked to ischemic cerebral SVD. We review the literature relating to the pathophysiology and neuroimaging of cerebrovascular disease in diabetes, and discuss the problems based on the concept of cerebral large and small vessel disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Ovarian blood vessel occlusion as a surgical sterilization method in rats.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Eduardo; Sartori de Camargo, Laíza; Freitas Cardoso, Karym Christine de; Miguel, Marina Pacheco; Tavares, Denise Cláudia; Santos Honsho, Cristiane dos; Ferreira de Souza, Fabiana

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the female sterilization by occlusion of the ovarian blood flow, using the rat as experimental model. Fifty-five females rats were divided into four groups: I (n=10), bilateral ovariectomy, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; II (n=5), opening the abdominal cavity, euthanized at 90 days; III (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using titanium clips, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; and IV (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using nylon thread, euthanized at 60 or 90 days. The estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal cytology. After euthanasia, the reproductive tissues were evaluated histologically. Ovarian atresia was identified macroscopically at 60 days after surgery in the rats in groups III and IV; however, most of the rats in group III maintained cyclicity. Histology of the tissues from group IV revealed that the ovarian tissue was replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue that was slightly vascularized and that intact follicles were absent by 90 days. Ovarian blood vessels occluded caused ischemia, leading to progressive tissue necrosis, and bilateral occlusion using a nylon ligature is a viable method for surgical sterilization.

  4. Effect of collagen and elastin content on the burst pressure of human blood vessel seals formed with a bipolar tissue sealing system.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Cassandra A; Nelson, Meghan; Moore, Camille M; Martin, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels instead of sutures and clips. Recent work examining the impact of vascular proteins on bipolar seal performance found that collagen and elastin (CE) content within porcine arteries was a significant predictor of a vessel's burst pressure (VBPr). This study examined seal performance across a range of human blood vessels to investigate whether a similar relationship existed. In addition, we compared VBPr and CE content between porcine and human blood vessels. Our primary hypothesis is that higher collagen-to-elastin ratio will predict higher VBPr in human vasculature. In six cadavers, 185 blood vessels from nine anatomic locations were sealed using a bipolar electrosurgical system. A linear mixed model framework was used to evaluate the impact of vessel diameter and CE content on VBPr. The effect of CE ratio on VBPr is modified by vessel size, with CE ratio having larger influence on VBPr in smaller diameter vessels. Seal burst pressure of vessels 2-5 mm in diameter was significantly associated with their CE content. Comparison of average VBPr between species revealed porcine carotid and iliac arteries (440-670 mmHg) to be the best vessel types for predicting the seal strength of most human blood vessels (420-570 mmHg) examined. CE content significantly modified the seal strength of small to medium sized blood vessels but had limited impact on vessels >5 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Triamcinolone Acetonide Selectively Inhibits Angiogenesis in Small Blood Vessels and Decreases Vessel Diameter within the Vascular Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Terri L.; Gredeon, Dan J.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Hylton, alan G.; Ribita, Daniela; Olar, Harry H.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent anti-angiogenesis drug used to treat retinal vascular diseases that include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions and choroidal neovascularization. To quantify the effects of TA on branching morphology within the angiogenic microvascular tree of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos. Increasing concentrations of TA (0-16 ng/ml) were applied topically on embryonic day 7 (E7) to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos cultured in Petri dishes, and incubated for an additional 24 or 48 hours until fixation. Binary (black/white) microscopic images of arterial end points were quantified by VESGEN software (for Generational Analysis of Vessel Branching) to obtain major vascular parameters that include vessel diameter (Dv), fractal dimension (Df), tortuosity (Tv) and densities of vessel area, length, number and branch point (Av, Lv, Nv and Brv). For assessment of specific changes in vascular morphology induced by TA, the VESGEN software automatically segmented the vascular tree into branching generations (G1...G10) according to changes in vessel diameter and branching. Vessel density decreased significantly up to 34% as the function of increasing concentration of TA according to Av, Lv, Brv, Nv and Df. TA selectively inhibited the growth of new, small vessels, because Lv decreased from 13.14plus or minus 0.61 cm/cm2 for controls to 8.012 plus or minus 0.82 cm/cm2 at 16 ng TA/ml in smaller branching generations (G7-G10), and for Nv from 473.83 plus or minus 29.85 cm(-)2 to 302.32 plus or minus 33.09 cm-()2. In contrast, vessel diameter (Dv) decreased throughout the vascular tree (G1-G10).

  6. Feasibility evaluation of 3D photoacoustic imaging of blood vessel structure using multiple wavelengths with a handheld probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimoto, Yo; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is anticipated for use in portraying blood vessel structures (e.g. neovascularization in inflamed regions). To reduce invasiveness and enhance ease handling, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging system using multiple wavelengths. The usefulness of the proposed system was investigated in phantom experiments and in vivo measurements. A silicon tube was embedded into chicken breast meat to simulate the blood vessel. The tube was filled with ovine blood. Then laser light was guided to the phantom surface by an optical fiber bundle close to the linear ultrasound probe. Photoacoustic images were obtained at 750-950 nm wavelengths. Strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary between blood and silicon tube are observed in these images. The shape of photoacoustic spectrum at the boundary resembles that of the HbO2 absorption spectrum at 750-920 nm. In photoacoustic images, similarity between photoacoustic spectrum and HbO2 absorption spectrum was evaluated by calculating the normalized correlation coefficient. Results show high correlation in regions of strong photoacoustic signals in photoacoustic images. These analyses demonstrate the feasibility of portraying blood vessel structures under practical conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional vascular imaging, in vivo experiments were conducted using three wavelengths. A right hand and ultrasound probe were set in degassed water. By scanning a probe, cross-sectional ultrasound and photoacoustic images were obtained at each location. Then, all ultrasound or photoacoustic images were piled up respectively. Then three-dimensional images were constructed. Resultant images portrayed blood vessel-like structures three-dimensionally. Furthermore, to distinguish blood vessels from other tissues (e.g. skin), distinguishing images of them were constructed by comparing photoacoustic signal intensity among three wavelengths. The resultant image portrayed blood vessels as

  7. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  8. Improved black-blood imaging using DANTE-SPACE for simultaneous carotid and intracranial vessel wall evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yibin; Yang, Qi; Xie, Guoxi; Pang, Jianing; Fan, Zhaoyang; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work is to develop a 3D black-blood imaging method for simultaneously evaluating carotid and intracranial arterial vessel wall with high spatial resolution and excellent blood suppression with and without contrast enhancement. Methods DANTE preparation module was incorporated into SPACE sequence to improve blood signal suppression. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to quantify image contrast variations induced by DANTE. DANTE-SPACE, SPACE and 2D TSE were compared for apparent SNR, CNR and morphometric measurements in fourteen healthy subjects. Preliminary clinical validation was performed in six symptomatic patients. Results Apparent residual luminal blood was observed in 5 (pre-CE) and 9 (post-CE) subjects with SPACE, and only 2 (post-CE) subjects with DANTE-SPACE. DANTE-SPACE showed 31% (pre-CE) and 100% (post-CE) improvement in wall-to-blood CNR over SPACE. Vessel wall area measured from SPACE was significantly larger than that from DANTE-SPACE due to possible residual blood signal contamination. In patients DANTE-SPACE showed the potential to detect vessel wall dissection and identify plaque components. Conclusion DANTE-SPACE significantly improved arterial and venous blood suppression compared with SPACE. Simultaneous high-resolution carotid and intracranial vessel wall imaging to potentially identify plaque components was feasible with scan time under 6 minutes. PMID:26152900

  9. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-12-22

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute lung inflammation, we demonstrated that intravenously (iv) infused NPs made from denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA) were specifically internalized by activated neutrophils, and subsequently, the neutrophils containing NPs migrated across blood vessels into inflammatory tissues. When neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr-1 in a mouse, the transport of albumin NPs across blood vessel walls was robustly abolished. Furthermore, it was found that albumin nanoparticle internalization did not affect neutrophil mobility and functions. Administration of drug-loaded albumin NPs markedly mitigated the lung inflammation induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate the use of an albumin nanoparticle platform for in situ targeting of activated neutrophils for delivery of therapeutics across the blood vessel barriers into diseased sites. This study demonstrates our ability to hijack neutrophils to deliver nanoparticles to targeted diseased sites.

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance profiling of coronary atherosclerosis: vessel wall remodelling and related myocardial blood flow alterations.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Cosima; Manka, Robert; Kozerke, Sebastian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Gebker, Rolf; Marx, Nikolaus; Paetsch, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    To determine the association between coronary vessel wall morphology and haemodynamic consequences to the myocardium using a combined cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging protocol. Non-invasive CMR profiling of coronary atherosclerotic wall changes and related myocardial blood flow impairment has not been established yet. Sixty-three patients (45 men, 61.5 ± 10.7 years) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent 3.0 Tesla CMR imaging. The combined CMR protocol consisted of the following imaging modules at rest: 3D vessel wall imaging and flow measurement of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA), myocardial T2*, and first-pass perfusion imaging. During adenosine stress coronary flow, T2* and first-pass perfusion imaging were repeated. Coronary X-ray angiography classified patient groups: (i) all-smooth (n = 19); (ii) luminal irregular (diameter reduction < 30%; n = 35); and (iii) stenosed RCA (diameter reduction ≥ 50%; n = 9). The ratio of CMR-derived vessel wall area-to-lumen area significantly increased stepwise for the comparison of all-smooth vs. luminal irregular vs. stenosed RCA (1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.01). Epicardial coronary flow reserve exhibited a stepwise significant decrease (3.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.3, P < 0.01). On the myocardial level, stress-induced percentage gain of T2* values (ΔT2*) was significantly decreased between groups (29.2 ± 10.6 vs. 9.0 ± 9.8 vs. 2.2 ± 11.8%, P < 0.01) while perfusion reserve index decreased in the presence of stenosed RCA only (2.2 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3, P = ns and P < 0.01, respectively). The proposed comprehensive CMR imaging protocol provided a non-invasive approach for direct assessment of coronary vessel wall remodelling and resultant pathophysiological consequences on the level of epicardial coronary and myocardial blood flow in patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The

  11. Importance of Calibration Method in Central Blood Pressure for Cardiac Structural Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2016-09-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P < 0.0001). Although they were modestly correlated (rho = 0.74, P < 0.001), the Bland-Altman plot demonstrated a large bias (21mm Hg) and limits of agreement (24mm Hg). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (P < 0.001) corroborated superior discrimination of LVH by MAP-CSBP. Similarly, MAP-CSBP better distinguished LAD than Stan-CSBP (AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension

  12. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal ofmore » extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries.

  13. Disrupting established tumor blood vessels: an emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Mark J; Baguley, Bruce C

    2010-04-15

    The unique characteristics of tumor vasculature represent an attractive target that may be exploited by vascular-targeting anticancer agents. A promising strategy involves the selective disruption of established tumor blood vessels by tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDAs), which exhibit antivascular activity, resulting in inhibition of tumor blood flow and extensive necrosis within the tumor core. The tumor-VDA class can be subdivided into flavonoid compounds, which are related to flavone acetic acid, and tubulin-binding compounds. ASA404, of the flavonoid class, is the most advanced tumor-VDA in clinical development and has been evaluated preclinically and in several phase 1 and phase 2 studies. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and the inhibition of tumor blood flow. Synergistic activity was observed with ASA404 and with several chemotherapeutic agents, particularly taxanes. In clinical trials, compared with chemotherapy alone, ASA404 was tolerated well and produced improved activity in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Phase 3 clinical trials are ongoing. Selectively targeting established tumor vasculature with tumor-VDAs represents a promising and innovative approach to improving the efficacy of standard anticancer therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  14. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction and cerebral small vessel disease (arteriolosclerosis) in brains of older people.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Leslie R; Andoh, Joycelyn; Lawrence, Andrew J; Khoong, Cheryl H L; Poon, Wayne; Esiri, Margaret M; Markus, Hugh S; Hainsworth, Atticus H

    2014-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier protects brain tissue from potentially harmful plasma components. Small vessel disease (SVD; also termed arteriolosclerosis) is common in the brains of older people and is associated with lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis, and vascular dementia. To determine whether plasma extravasation is associated with SVD, we immunolabeled the plasma proteins fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G, which are assumed to reflect blood-brain barrier dysfunction, in deep gray matter (DGM; anterior caudate-putamen) and deep subcortical white matter (DWM) in the brains of a well-characterized cohort of donated brains with minimal Alzheimer disease pathology (Braak Stages 0-II) (n = 84; aged 65 years or older). Morphometric measures of fibrinogen labeling were compared between people with neuropathologically defined SVD and aged control subjects. Parenchymal cellular labeling with fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G was detectable in DGM and DWM in many subjects (>70%). Quantitative measures of fibrinogen were not associated with SVD in DGM or DWM; SVD severity was correlated between DGM and DWM (p < 0.0001). Fibrinogen in DGM showed a modest association with a history of hypertension; DWM fibrinogen was associated with dementia and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (all p < 0.05). In DWM, SVD was associated with leukoaraiosis identified in life (p < 0.05), but fibrinogen was not. Our data suggest that, in aged brains, plasma extravasation and hence local blood-brain barrier dysfunction are common but do not support an association with SVD.

  15. 3-D trajectory model for MDT using micro-spheres implanted within large blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2016-09-01

    Implant assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets implanted within large blood vessels and subjected to a uniform externally applied magnetic field (H0) has been investigated and reported for the first time. The capture areas (As) of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) were determined from the analysis of particle trajectories simulated from equations of motion. Then, the effects of various parameters, such as types of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the strength of H0 on the As were obtained. Furthermore, the effects of saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials in the MDCPs and within the targets on the As were analyzed. After this, the suitable strengths of H0 and Rp for IA-MDT designs were reported. Dimensionless As, ranging from 2 to 7, was obtained with Rp ranging from 500 to 2500 nm, μ0H0 less than 0.8 T and a blood flow rate of 0.1 m s-1. The target-MDCP materials considered are iron-iron, iron-magnetite and SS409-magnetite, respectively.

  16. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Vin, Harina

    2007-08-01

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5-week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic [Soucy, N.V., Mayka, D., Klei,more » L.R., Nemec, A.A., Bauer, J.A., Barchowsky, A., 2005. Neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression following chronic arsenic exposure in mice. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 5, 29-42]. Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68-positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased, indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic.« less

  17. Retinal blood vessel segmentation in high resolution fundus photographs using automated feature parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, José Ignacio; Fracchia, Marcos; del Río, Valeria; del Fresno, Mariana

    2017-11-01

    Several ophthalmological and systemic diseases are manifested through pathological changes in the properties and the distribution of the retinal blood vessels. The characterization of such alterations requires the segmentation of the vasculature, which is a tedious and time-consuming task that is infeasible to be performed manually. Numerous attempts have been made to propose automated methods for segmenting the retinal vasculature from fundus photographs, although their application in real clinical scenarios is usually limited by their ability to deal with images taken at different resolutions. This is likely due to the large number of parameters that have to be properly calibrated according to each image scale. In this paper we propose to apply a novel strategy for automated feature parameter estimation, combined with a vessel segmentation method based on fully connected conditional random fields. The estimation model is learned by linear regression from structural properties of the images and known optimal configurations, that were previously obtained for low resolution data sets. Our experiments in high resolution images show that this approach is able to estimate appropriate configurations that are suitable for performing the segmentation task without requiring to re-engineer parameters. Furthermore, our combined approach reported state of the art performance on the benchmark data set HRF, as measured in terms of the F1-score and the Matthews correlation coefficient.

  18. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous shape and deformation measurements in a blood vessel model by two wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, Nieves; Pinto, Cristina; Lobera, Julia; Palero, Virginia; Arroyo, M. Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Holographic techniques have been used to measure the shape and the radial deformation of a blood vessel model and a real sheep aorta. Measurements are obtained from several holograms recorded for different object states. For each object state, two holograms with two different wavelengths are multiplexed in the same digital recording. Thus both holograms are simultaneously recorded but the information from each of them is separately obtained. The shape analysis gives a wrapped phase map whose fringes are related to a synthetic wavelength. After a filtering and unwrapping process, the 3D shape can be obtained. The shape data for each line are fitted to a circumference in order to determine the local vessel radius and center. The deformation analysis also results in a wrapped phase map, but the fringes are related to the laser wavelength used in the corresponding hologram. After the filtering and unwrapping process, a 2D map of the deformation in an out-of-plane direction is reconstructed. The radial deformation is then calculated by using the shape information.

  20. [Injuries to blood vessels near the heart caused by central venous catheters].

    PubMed

    Abram, J; Klocker, J; Innerhofer-Pompernigg, N; Mittermayr, M; Freund, M C; Gravenstein, N; Wenzel, V

    2016-11-01

    Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible. The subclavian catheter is at a somewhat lower risk of catheter-associated sepsis and symptomatic venous thrombosis than approaches via the internal jugular and femoral veins. Indeed, access via the subclavian vein carries a substantial risk of pneumo- and hemothorax. Damage to the subclavian vein or artery can also occur during deliberate and inadvertent punctures and result in life-threatening complications. Therefore, careful consideration of the access route is required in relation to the patient and the clinical situation, to keep the incidence of complications as low as possible. For catheterization of the subclavian vein, puncture of the axillary vein in the infraclavicular fossa is a good alternative, because ultrasound imaging of the target vessel is easier than in the subclavian vein and the puncture can be performed much further from the lung.

  1. Angiogenin Expression during Early Human Placental Development; Association with Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Nadine; Guibourdenche, Jean; Degrelle, Séverine A.; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is a transient organ essential for fetal development. During human placental development, chorionic villi grow in coordination with a large capillary network resulting from both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenin is one of the most potent inducers of neovascularisation in experimental models in vivo. We and others have previously mapped angiogenin expression in the human term placenta. Here, we explored angiogenin involvement in early human placental development. We studied, angiogenin expression by in situ hybridisation and/or by RT-PCR in tissues and primary cultured trophoblastic cells and angiogenin cellular distribution by coimmunolabelling with cell markers: CD31 (PECAM-1), vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), Tie-2, von Willebrand factor, CD34, erythropoeitin receptor (Epo-R), alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD45, cytokeratin 7, and Ki-67. Extravillous and villous cytotrophoblasts, isolated and differentiated in vitro, expressed and secreted angiogenin. Angiogenin was detected in villous trophoblastic layers, and structured and nascent fetal vessels. In decidua, it was expressed by glandular epithelial cells, vascular cells and macrophages. The observed pattern of angiogenin expression is compatible with a role in blood vessel formation and in cross-talk between trophoblasts and endothelial cells. In view of angiogenin properties, we suggest that angiogenin may participate in placental vasculogenesis and organogenesis. PMID:25093183

  2. Comparison of the number of gingival blood vessels between type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis patients: An immunohistological study

    PubMed Central

    Penmetsa, Gautami Subhadra; Baddam, Satyanarayana; Manyam, Ravikanth; Dwarakanath, Chinni Doraswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between diabetes and periodontitis has been studied for more than 50 years and is generally agreed that the periodontal disease is more prevalent in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Vascular changes like increased thickness of basement membrane in small vessels has been reported in diabetic patients, but the quantity of blood vessels in gingiva of diabetic patients has not been discussed much. The aim of this study was to compare the number of blood vessels in gingiva between chronic periodontitis (CP) patients, CP with diabetes (type 2), and normal healthy gingiva. Materials and Methods: The study included 75 patients, divided into three groups of 25 patients each-Group I with healthy periodontium (HP), Group II with CP, and Group III with CP with diabetes mellitus (CPDM). Gingival biopsies were obtained from the subjects undergoing crown lengthening procedure for Group I, and in patients with CP and in CPDM biopsies were collected from teeth undergoing extraction. Sections were prepared for immune histochemical staining with CD34. Results: Difference was observed in the average number of blood vessels when compared between HP, CP, and CPDM groups. Statistical significant difference was observed when the HP and CP groups and HP and CPDM groups were compared. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the number of blood vessels in gingival connective tissue is significantly higher in CP and CPDM patients. PMID:26015666

  3. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  4. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-08-31

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED.

  5. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED. PMID:27578199

  6. The mathematical formulation of a generalized Hooke's law for blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2007-08-01

    It is well known that the stress-strain relationship of blood vessels is highly nonlinear. To linearize the relationship, the Hencky strain tensor is generalized to a logarithmic-exponential (log-exp) strain tensor to absorb the nonlinearity. A quadratic nominal strain potential is proposed to derive the second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses by differentiating the potential with respect to the log-exp strains. The resulting constitutive equation is a generalized Hooke's law. Ten material constants are needed for the three-dimensional orthotropic model. The nondimensional constant used in the log-exp strain definition is interpreted as a nonlinearity parameter. The other nine constants are the elastic moduli with respect to the log-exp strains. In this paper, the proposed linear stress-strain relation is shown to represent the pseudoelastic Fung model very well.

  7. Spatiotemporal image correlation analysis of blood flow in branched vessel networks of zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceffa, Nicolo G.; Cesana, Ilaria; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Carra, Silvia; Cotelli, Franco; Sironi, Laura; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Ramification of blood circulation is relevant in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. The oxygen exchange occurs largely in the capillary bed, and the cancer progression is closely linked to the angiogenesis around the tumor mass. Optical microscopy has made impressive improvements in in vivo imaging and dynamic studies based on correlation analysis of time stacks of images. Here, we develop and test advanced methods that allow mapping the flow fields in branched vessel networks at the resolution of 10 to 20 μm. The methods, based on the application of spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy and its extension to cross-correlation analysis, are applied here to the case of early stage embryos of zebrafish.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase in blood vessels of the guinea-pig ovary during different phases of the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Silver, A

    1977-05-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase-containing blood vessels in the ovary has been investigated histochemically during the reproductive cycle of the guinea-pig. Whole mounts as well as frozen sections have been studied. Stained vessels were found in the stroma throughout the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. In the corpus luteum the vascular reaction varied at different stages of the oestrous cycle; while never very pronounced, it was more marked in lactating than in non-lactating animals. A feregnancy advanced an increasing number of vessels were strongly stained. At the end of pregnancy, stained vessels were less prominent. Acetylcholinesterase appeared to be localized prinicipally in the vessels themselves (possibly in muscle cells) rather than in associated nerves. Experiments in which ovaries were injected, via their arterial or venous supply, with starch or coloured gelatine suggested that most stained vessels were arterioles but a reaction also occurred in some vessels which were probably arteries and others which could have been the postulated arterio-venous shunts. Capillaries were unstained; whether the veins were also totally unreactive could not be established. The significance of the changes in acetylcholinesterase staining in varying functional states remains obscure; they may or may not reflect the emergence of certain types of vessel at different stages.

  9. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Allen, S; Chang, A P Y; Henderson, H; Hobson, G C; Karania, B; Morgan, K N; Pek, A S Y; Raghvani, K; Shee, C Y; Shikotra, J; Street, E; Abbas, Z; Ellis, K; Heer, J K; Alexander, S P H

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (-)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3-30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (-)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (-)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. © 2013.

  10. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  11. Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Carol Hsiu-Yueh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with many patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. The current standard is using autografts such as the saphenous vein or intimal mammary artery, however creating a synthetic graft could eliminate this painful and inconvenient procedure. Large diameter grafts have long been established with materials such as DacronRTM and TeflonRTM, however these materials have not proved successful in small-diameter (< 6 mm) grafts where thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia are common in graft failure. With the use of a synthetic biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone) we utilize our expertise in electrospinning and femtosecond laser ablation to create a novel tri-layered tissue engineered blood vessel containing microchannels. The benefits of creating a tri-layer is to mimic native arteries that contain an endothelium to prevent thrombosis in the inner layer, aligned smooth muscle cells in the middle to control vasodilation and constriction, and a mechanically robust outer layer. The following work evaluates the mechanical properties of such a graft (tensile, fatigue, burst pressure, and suture retention strength), the ability to rapidly align cells in laser ablated microchannels in PCL scaffolds, and the biological integration (co-culture of endothelial and smooth muscle cells) with electrospun PCL scaffolds. The conclusions from this work establish that the electrospun tri-layers provide adequate mechanical strength as a tissue engineered blood vessel, that laser ablated microchannels are able to contain the smooth muscle cells, and that cells are able to adhere to PCL fibers. However, future work includes adjusting microchannel dimensions to properly align smooth muscle cells along with perfect co-cultures of endothelial and smooth muscle cells on the electrospun tri-layer.

  12. Blood vessel-based liver segmentation through the portal phase of a CT dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Utsunomiya, Toru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2013-02-01

    Blood vessels are dispersed throughout the human body organs and carry unique information for each person. This information can be used to delineate organ boundaries. The proposed method relies on abdominal blood vessels (ABV) to segment the liver considering the potential presence of tumors through the portal phase of a CT dataset. ABV are extracted and classified into hepatic (HBV) and nonhepatic (non-HBV) with a small number of interactions. HBV and non-HBV are used to guide an automatic segmentation of the liver. HBV are used to individually segment the core region of the liver. This region and non-HBV are used to construct a boundary surface between the liver and other organs to separate them. The core region is classified based on extracted posterior distributions of its histogram into low intensity tumor (LIT) and non-LIT core regions. Non-LIT case includes normal part of liver, HBV, and high intensity tumors if exist. Each core region is extended based on its corresponding posterior distribution. Extension is completed when it reaches either a variation in intensity or the constructed boundary surface. The method was applied to 80 datasets (30 Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) and 50 non-MICCAI data) including 60 datasets with tumors. Our results for the MICCAI-test data were evaluated by sliver07 [1] with an overall score of 79.7, which ranks seventh best on the site (December 2013). This approach seems a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes and low intensity hepatic tumors.

  13. Sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and vessel density in Sherpas at high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Coppel, Jonny; Court, Jo; van der Kaaij, Jildou; Vercueil, Andre; Feelisch, Martin; Levett, Denny; Mythen, Monty; Grocott, Michael P.; Martin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that Sherpa highlanders demonstrate extraordinary tolerance to hypoxia at high altitude, despite exhibiting lower arterial oxygen content than acclimatized lowlanders. This study tested the hypothesis that Sherpas exposed to hypobaric hypoxia on ascent to 5,300 m develop increased microcirculatory blood flow as a means of maintaining tissue oxygen delivery. Incident dark-field imaging was used to obtain images of the sublingual microcirculation from 64 Sherpas and 69 lowlanders. Serial measurements were obtained from participants undertaking an ascent from baseline testing (35 m or 1,300 m) to Everest base camp (5,300 m) and following subsequent descent in Kathmandu (1,300 m). Microcirculatory flow index and heterogeneity index were used to provide indexes of microcirculatory flow, while capillary density was assessed using small vessel density. Sherpas demonstrated significantly greater microcirculatory blood flow at Everest base camp, but not at baseline testing or on return in Kathmandu, than lowlanders. Additionally, blood flow exhibited greater homogeneity at 5,300 and 1,300 m (descent) in Sherpas than lowlanders. Sublingual small vessel density was not different between the two cohorts at baseline testing or at 1,300 m; however, at 5,300 m, capillary density was up to 30% greater in Sherpas. These data suggest that Sherpas can maintain a significantly greater microcirculatory flow per unit time and flow per unit volume of tissue at high altitude than lowlanders. These findings support the notion that peripheral vascular factors at the microcirculatory level may be important in the process of adaptation to hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sherpa highlanders demonstrate extraordinary tolerance to hypoxia at high altitude, yet the physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance remain unknown. In our prospective study, conducted on healthy volunteers ascending to Everest base camp (5,300 m), we demonstrated that Sherpas have a higher

  14. The influence of the blood vessel diameter on the full scattering profile from cylindrical tissues: experimental evidence for the shielding effect.

    PubMed

    Feder, Idit; Duadi, Hamootal; Dreifuss, Tamar; Fixler, Dror

    2016-10-01

    Optical methods for detecting physiological state based on light-tissue interaction are noninvasive, inexpensive, simplistic, and thus very useful. The blood vessels in human tissue are the main cause of light absorbing and scattering. Therefore, the effect of blood vessels on light-tissue interactions is essential for optically detecting physiological tissue state, such as oxygen saturation, blood perfusion and blood pressure. We have previously suggested a new theoretical and experimental method for measuring the full scattering profile, which is the angular distribution of light intensity, of cylindrical tissues. In this work we will present experimental measurements of the full scattering profile of heterogenic cylindrical phantoms that include blood vessels. We show, for the first time that the vessel diameter influences the full scattering profile, and found higher reflection intensity for larger vessel diameters accordance to the shielding effect. For an increase of 60% in the vessel diameter the light intensity in the full scattering profile above 90° is between 9% to 40% higher, depending on the angle. By these results we claim that during respiration, when the blood-vessel diameter changes, it is essential to consider the blood-vessel diameter distribution in order to determine the optical path in tissues. A CT scan of the measured silicon-based phantoms. The phantoms contain the same blood volume in different blood-vessel diameters. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Obesity is the major determinant of the abnormalities in blood pressure found in young women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Mendieta-Azcona, Covadonga; Botella-Carretero, José I; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2007-06-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance predispose patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of obesity on the blood pressure profiles of PCOS patients. PATIENTS, SETTING, AND DESIGN: Thirty-six PCOS patients and 20 healthy women participated in a case-control study at an academic hospital. We conducted ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure determinations. Hypertension (defined as increased office blood pressure confirmed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or by masked hypertension) was present in 12 PCOS patients and eight controls (P = 0.618). No differences between patients and controls were found in office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values and heart rate, yet the nocturnal decrease in mean blood pressure was smaller in patients (P = 0.038). Obese women (13 patients and eight controls) had increased frequencies of office hypertension (29% compared with 3% in lean plus overweight women, P = 0.005), increased diastolic (P = 0.009) and mean (P = 0.015) office blood pressure values, and increased heart rate values during the daytime (P = 0.038), nighttime (P = 0.002), and 24-h (P = 0.009) periods, independently of having PCOS or not. The frequency of a nocturnal nondipper pattern was 62% in obese PCOS patients, compared with 26% in lean plus overweight PCOS patients (P = 0.036) and 25% in obese and in lean plus overweight controls. Abnormalities in the regulation of blood pressure are common in young women with PCOS, yet, with the exception of the nondipper pattern, these abnormalities result from the frequent association of this syndrome with obesity.

  16. Sex differences in associations between blood lipids and cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Z-G; Wang, Q-S; Yu, K; Wang, W-W; Lin, H; Yang, Z-H

    2018-01-01

    Dyslipidemia predicts higher risk of coronary events and stroke and might be associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Previous studies linking blood lipids and SVD have yielded inconsistent results, which may be attributable to sex differences in lipids metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between blood lipids and SVD in neurologically healthy men and women. Consecutive 817 people aged 50 years or more were enrolled and underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans to evaluate the periventricular white matter lesions (PVWMLs), deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and silent brain infarction (SBI). Fasting total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) and apolipoprotein B were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of blood lipids with PVWMLs, DWMLs and SBI. HDL-C (for PVWMLs: OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19-0.71; for DWMLs: OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.20-0.63) and apoA-1 (for PVWMLs: OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.66; for DWMLs: OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.48) were inversely associated with the severity of PVWMLs and DWMLs in women but not in men after adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, daily drinking, body mass index and uric acid. Additionally, no blood lipids were significantly associated with SBI. Our findings demonstrate that sex differences may exist in the associations between lipids and SVD. HDL-C and apoA-1 levels were inversely associated with the severity of PVWMLs and DWMLs in women. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormalities in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; González-Albarrán, Olga; Segura, Julián; de la Cruz, Juan J; Vinyoles, Ernest; Llisterri, José L; Aranda, Pedro; Ruilope, Luis M; Banegas, José R

    2011-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) characteristics or patterns in hypertensive patients with diabetes compared with non-diabetic hypertensives. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a 68,045 patient database from the Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry, a nation-wide network of >1200 primary-care physicians performing ABPM under standardized conditions in daily practice. We identified 12,600 (18.5%) hypertensive patients with diabetes. When compared with patients without diabetes, diabetic hypertensives exhibited higher systolic blood pressure (BP) levels in every ABPM period (daytime 135.4 vs. 131.8, and nighttime 126.0 vs. 121.0 mm Hg, P<0.001 for both) despite they were receiving more antihypertensive drugs (mean number 1.71 vs. 1.23, P<0.001). Consequently, diabetic patients suffered from lack of control of BP more frequently than non-diabetic subjects particularly during the night (65.5% vs. 57.4%, P<0.001). Prevalence of a non-dipping BP profile (64.2% vs. 51.6%, P<0.001) was higher in diabetic patients. In the other hand, prevalence of 'white-coat' hypertension in diabetic patients was 33.0%. We conclude that there was a remarkably high prevalence of alterations in ABPM in patients with diabetes. Abnormalities in systolic BP, particularly during the night, and in circadian BP pattern could be linked with the excess of BP-related cardiovascular risk of diabetes. A wider use of ABPM in diabetic patients should be considered.

  18. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  19. The variation in frequency locations in Doppler ultrasound spectra for maximum blood flow velocities in narrowed vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyun; Zhang, Yufeng; Gao, Lian; Deng, Li; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Kexin; Li, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed the variation in the frequency locations in the Doppler ultrasound spectra for the maximum blood flow velocities of in vessels with different degrees of bilaterally axisymmetric stenosis. This was done by comparing the relationship between the velocity distributions and corresponding Doppler power spectra. First, a geometric vessel model with axisymmetric stenosis was established. This made it possible to obtain the blood flow velocity distributions for different degrees of stenosis from the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Then, the Doppler spectra were calculated for the entire segment of the vessel that was covered by the sound field. Finally, the maximum frequency locations for the spectra were determined based on the intersections of the maximum values chosen from the calculated blood flow velocity distributions and their corresponding spectra. The computational analysis showed that the maximum frequencies, which corresponded to the maximum blood flow velocities for different degrees of stenosis, were located at different positions along the spectral falling edges. The location for a normal (stenosis free) vessel was in the middle of the falling edge. For vessels with increasing degrees of stenosis, this location shifted approximately linearly downward along the falling edge. For 40% stenosis, the location reached a position at the falling edge of 0.32. Results obtained using the Field II simulation tool demonstrated the validity of the theoretical analysis and calculations, and may help to improve the maximum velocity estimation accuracy for Doppler blood flow spectra in stenosed vessels. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rotigotine Improves Abnormal Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hisayoshi; Nakahara, Atuso; Umehara, Tadashi

    2018-05-15

    Cardiovascular autonomic failure is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting the daily lives of patients. Rotigotine was recently reported not to influence cardiovascular autonomic responses in contrast to other dopaminergic drugs. The effect of rotigotine on daily blood pressure (BP) fluctuations might reflect autonomic failure in patients with PD. Twenty-five PD patients who were receiving rotigotine and 12 patients not receiving rotigotine were recruited. Systolic BP during the daytime and nighttime was measured by 24-h BP monitoring at an interval of 2 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the BP fluctuation type: dippers (nocturnal fall in BP ≥10%), non-dippers (0-10%), and risers (< 0%). The time course of BP was compared between the patients given rotigotine and those not given rotigotine. Among the 25 patients who received rotigotine, the BP type worsened in 2 patients, was unchanged in 16 patients, and improved in 7 patients. Among the 12 patients who were not receiving rotigotine, the BP type worsened in 5 patients, was unchanged in 4 patients, and improved only in 3 patients (p = 0.042). Rotigotine improves the abnormal circadian rhythm of BP in patients with PD. Rotigotine was suggested to have favorable effects on cardiovascular autonomic responses and circadian rhythm in patients with PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Blood-Resistant Surgical Glue for Minimally Invasive Repair of Vessels and Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nora; Pereira, Maria J.; Lee, Yuhan; Friehs, Ingeborg; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Feins, Eric N.; Ablasser, Klemens; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Xu, Chenjie; Fabozzo, Assunta; Padera, Robert; Wasserman, Steve; Freudenthal, Franz; Ferreira, Lino S.; Langer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no clinically approved surgical glues that are nontoxic, bind strongly to tissue, and work well within wet and highly dynamic environments within the body. This is especially relevant to minimally invasive surgery that is increasingly performed to reduce postoperative complications, recovery times, and patient discomfort. We describe the engineering of a bioinspired elastic and biocompatible hydrophobic light-activated adhesive (HLAA) that achieves a strong level of adhesion to wet tissue and is not compromised by preexposure to blood. The HLAA provided an on-demand hemostatic seal, within seconds of light application, when applied to high-pressure large blood vessels and cardiac wall defects in pigs. HLAA-coated patches attached to the interventricular septum in a beating porcine heart and resisted supraphysiologic pressures by remaining attached for 24 hours, which is relevant to intracardiac interventions in humans. The HLAA could be used for many cardiovascular and surgical applications, with immediate application in repair of vascular defects and surgical hemostasis. PMID:24401941

  2. Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression.

    PubMed

    Kammertoens, Thomas; Friese, Christian; Arina, Ainhoa; Idel, Christian; Briesemeister, Dana; Rothe, Michael; Ivanov, Andranik; Szymborska, Anna; Patone, Giannino; Kunz, Severine; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Engels, Boris; Leisegang, Matthias; Textor, Ana; Fehling, Hans Joerg; Fruttiger, Marcus; Lohoff, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Yu, Hua; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Uckert, Wolfgang; Hübner, Norbert; Gerhardt, Holger; Beule, Dieter; Schreiber, Hans; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2017-05-04

    The relative contribution of the effector molecules produced by T cells to tumour rejection is unclear, but interferon-γ (IFNγ) is critical in most of the analysed models. Although IFNγ can impede tumour growth by acting directly on cancer cells, it must also act on the tumour stroma for effective rejection of large, established tumours. However, which stroma cells respond to IFNγ and by which mechanism IFNγ contributes to tumour rejection through stromal targeting have remained unknown. Here we use a model of IFNγ induction and an IFNγ-GFP fusion protein in large, vascularized tumours growing in mice that express the IFNγ receptor exclusively in defined cell types. Responsiveness to IFNγ by myeloid cells and other haematopoietic cells, including T cells or fibroblasts, was not sufficient for IFNγ-induced tumour regression, whereas responsiveness of endothelial cells to IFNγ was necessary and sufficient. Intravital microscopy revealed IFNγ-induced regression of the tumour vasculature, resulting in arrest of blood flow and subsequent collapse of tumours, similar to non-haemorrhagic necrosis in ischaemia and unlike haemorrhagic necrosis induced by tumour necrosis factor. The early events of IFNγ-induced tumour ischaemia resemble non-apoptotic blood vessel regression during development, wound healing or IFNγ-mediated, pregnancy-induced remodelling of uterine arteries. A better mechanistic understanding of how solid tumours are rejected may aid the design of more effective protocols for adoptive T-cell therapy.

  3. Transdermal delivery of AT1 receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and reveals a vasodilatory effect in kidney blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Michalatou, Michaila; Androutsou, Maria Eleni; Antonopoulos, Markos; Vlahakos, Demetrios V; Agelis, George; Zulli, Anthony; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Mikkelsen, Kathleen; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Matsoukas, John

    2018-04-19

    The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is pharmacologically targeted to reduce blood pressure, and patient compliance to oral medications is a clinical issue. The mechanisms of action of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in reducing blood pressure are not well understood, and is purported to be via a reduction of angiotensin II signaling. We aimed to develop a transdermal delivery method for ARBs (losartan potassium and valsartan) and to determine if ARBs reveal a vasodilatory effect of the novel RAS peptide, alamandine. In addition we determined the anti-hypertensive effects of the transdermal delivery patch. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to develop an appropriate therapeutic system, promising an alternative and more effective therapy in the treatment of hypertension. A variety of penetration enhancers were selected such as isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, transcutol and dimenthyl sulfoxide to obtain a constant release of drugs through human skin. Small resistance vessels (kidney interlobar arteries) were mounted in organ baths and incubated with an ARB. Vasodilatory curves to alamandine were constructed Results: The in vivo studies demonstrates that systemic absorption of valsartan and losartan potassium using the appropriate formulations provides a steady state release and anti-hypertensive effect even after 24 hours of transdermal administration. No apparent skin irritations (erythema, edema) were observed with the tested formulations. We also show that blocking the AT1 receptor of rabbit interlobar arteries in vitro reveals a vasodilatory effect of alamandine. This study reveals potential mechanism of AT1 receptor blockade via alamandine, and is an important contribution in developing a favorable, convenient and painless antihypertensive therapy of prolonged duration through transdermal delivery of AT1 blockers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Vascular targeting of LIGHT normalizes blood vessels in primary brain cancer and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Jabouille, Arnaud; Steri, Veronica; Johansson-Percival, Anna; Michael, Iacovos P; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Junckerstorff, Reimar; Nowak, Anna K; Hamzah, Juliana; Lee, Gabriel; Bergers, Gabriele; Ganss, Ruth

    2018-06-01

    High-grade brain cancer such as glioblastoma (GBM) remains an incurable disease. A common feature of GBM is the angiogenic vasculature, which can be targeted with selected peptides for payload delivery. We assessed the ability of micelle-tagged, vascular homing peptides RGR, CGKRK and NGR to specifically bind to blood vessels in syngeneic orthotopic GBM models. By using the peptide CGKRK to deliver the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member LIGHT (also known as TNF superfamily member 14; TNFSF14) to angiogenic tumour vessels, we have generated a reagent that normalizes the brain cancer vasculature by inducing pericyte contractility and re-establishing endothelial barrier integrity. LIGHT-mediated vascular remodelling also activates endothelia and induces intratumoural high endothelial venules (HEVs), which are specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte infiltration. Combining CGKRK-LIGHT with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and checkpoint blockade amplified HEV frequency and T-cell accumulation in GBM, which is often sparsely infiltrated by immune effector cells, and reduced tumour burden. Furthermore, CGKRK and RGR peptides strongly bound to blood vessels in freshly resected human GBM, demonstrating shared peptide-binding activities in mouse and human primary brain tumour vessels. Thus, peptide-mediated LIGHT targeting is a highly translatable approach in primary brain cancer to reduce vascular leakiness and enhance immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor signaling affects vascular outgrowth and is required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Frederik; Tembuyser, Bieke; Lenard, Anna; Claes, Filip; Zhang, Jie; Michielsen, Christof; Van Schepdael, Ann; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise; Affolter, Markus; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-10-23

    Angiogenesis contributes to the development of numerous disorders. Even though fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were discovered as mediators of angiogenesis more than 30 years ago, their role in developmental angiogenesis still remains elusive. We use a recently described chemical probe, SSR128129E (SSR), that selectively inhibits the action of multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs), in combination with the zebrafish model to examine the role of FGF signaling in vascular development. We observe that while FGFR signaling is less important for vessel guidance, it affects vascular outgrowth and is especially required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity by ensuring proper cell-cell junctions between endothelial cells. In conclusion, our work illustrates the power of a small molecule probe to reveal insights into blood vessel formation and stabilization and thus of broad interest to the vascular biology community.

  6. Three-dimensional multi-scale model of deformable platelets adhesion to vessel wall in blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Zhiliang; Kim, Oleg; Alber, Mark

    2014-01-01

    When a blood vessel ruptures or gets inflamed, the human body responds by rapidly forming a clot to restrict the loss of blood. Platelets aggregation at the injury site of the blood vessel occurring via platelet–platelet adhesion, tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium is a critical initial step in blood clot formation. A novel three-dimensional multi-scale model is introduced and used in this paper to simulate receptor-mediated adhesion of deformable platelets at the site of vascular injury under different shear rates of blood flow. The novelty of the model is based on a new approach of coupling submodels at three biological scales crucial for the early clot formation: novel hybrid cell membrane submodel to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet, stochastic receptor–ligand binding submodel to describe cell adhesion kinetics and lattice Boltzmann submodel for simulating blood flow. The model implementation on the GPU cluster significantly improved simulation performance. Predictive model simulations revealed that platelet deformation, interactions between platelets in the vicinity of the vessel wall as well as the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors played significant roles in platelet adhesion to the injury site. Variation of the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors as well as changes of platelet stiffness can represent effects of specific drugs reducing or enhancing platelet activity. Therefore, predictive simulations can improve the search for new drug targets and help to make treatment of thrombosis patient-specific. PMID:24982253

  7. Long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats leads to severe damage of brain blood vessels and neurons via enhanced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongying; Fan, Shourui; Song, Dianping; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Shungao; Li, Shuqing; Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Mian; Xu, Min; Wang, Xianmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological alterations and oxidative stress in various stages of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (120) were randomized into DM and control groups. Body mass, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, as well as aldose reductase (AR) activities, in brain tissue and serum were determined. Electron microscopy was used to observe neuron and vessel changes in the brain. In STZ‑treated rats, blood glucose, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels increased 1.43‑3.0‑fold and high density lipoprotein, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity index increased 1.1‑1.23‑fold compared with control. At week 16 following treatment, DM rat serum H2O2 concentration was increased, indicating oxidative stress and mRNA levels of GPx and SOD were 2‑fold higher than the control. Protein GPx and SOD levels were reduced (P<0.01). DM rats were identified to exhibit early irregular glomerular capillary basement membrane thickening and vacuolization in the mitochondria and epithelial cells. Neuron cells and blood vessels in the DM rat brains became increasingly abnormal over time with altered Golgi bodies, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, concurrent with SOD inactivation and AR protein accumulation. Disease progression in rats with STZ‑induced DM included brain pathologies with vascular and neuron cell abnormalities, associated with the reduction of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and also AR accumulation.

  8. Evaluation of feline uterine and umbilical arteries blood flow in a pharmacologically induced abnormal gestation model.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P G; Vercellini, R; Rube, A; Rodríguez, R; Arias, D O; Gobello, C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days. In both groups, uterine and umbilical arteries were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, whereas fetal heart rate was assessed by M-mode ultrasound. Resistance index of uterine artery augmented in TG from Day 2 onward, conversely it decreased in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, RI values were 0.64 ± 0.05 vs 0.37 ± 0.01 for TG and CG, respectively. Additionally, S/D ratio of the same artery presented an increase in TG, whereas this ratio diminished in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, this parameter showed values of 2.98 ± 0.4 vs 1.62 ± 0.06 for TG and CG, respectively. Resistance index of umbilical artery remained almost unchanged in TG from Day 6 onward, whereas it progressively decreased in CG throughout the course of the study (P < 0.05). On Day 8, RI were 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.82 ± 0.01, for TG and CG, respectively. Furthermore, on Day 8, S/D ratio of umbilical artery progressively diminished in CG but not in TG (P < 0.01), being 14.7 ± 9.1 vs 5.9 ± 0.3 for TG and CG, respectively. Fetal heart rate was higher in TG than in CG (P < 0.05). Group differences in Doppler parameters appeared on Day 2, when the other clinical or ultrasonographic signs were still absent. It is concluded that blood flow of the uterine and umbilical arteries differed between these normal and abnormal gestations predicting an adverse obstetric

  9. Antibody-linked drug destroys tumor cells and tumor blood vessels in many types of cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A team led by Brad St. Croix, Ph.D., Senior Associate Scientist, Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, has developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that destroys both tumor cells and the blood vessels that nourish them. The drug significantly shrank breast tumors, colon tumors and several other types of cancer and prolonged survival. Learn more...  

  10. Does Physical Fitness Buffer the Relationship between Psychosocial Stress, Retinal Vessel Diameters, and Blood Pressure among Primary Schoolchildren?

    PubMed Central

    Endes, Katharina; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Pühse, Uwe; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Strong evidence exists showing that psychosocial stress plays an important part in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Because physical inactivity is associated with less favourable retinal vessel diameter and blood pressure profiles, this study explores whether physical fitness is able to buffer the negative effects of psychosocial stress on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in young children. Methods. 325 primary schoolchildren (51% girls, Mage = 7.28 years) took part in this cross-sectional research project. Retinal arteriolar diameters, retinal venular diameters, arteriolar to venular ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were assessed in all children. Interactions terms between physical fitness (performance in the 20 m shuttle run test) and four indicators of psychosocial stress (parental reports of critical life events, family, peer and school stress) were tested in a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results. Critical life events and family, peer, and school-related stress were only weakly associated with retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure. No support was found for a stress-buffering effect of physical fitness. Conclusion. More research is needed with different age groups to find out if and from what age physical fitness can protect against arteriolar vessel narrowing and the occurrence of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27795958

  11. Full dimensional computer simulations to study pulsatile blood flow in vessels, aortic arch and bifurcated veins: Investigation of blood viscosity and turbulent effects.

    PubMed

    Sultanov, Renat A; Guster, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, the wall shear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. Turbulent effects are found to be important, particularly in the case of bifurcation vessels.

  12. The relationship of systemic markers of renal function and vascular function with retinal blood vessel responses.

    PubMed

    Heitmar, R; Varma, C; De, P; Lau, Y C; Blann, A D

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis of a significant relationship between systemic markers of renal and vascular function (processes linked to cardiovascular disease and its development) and retinal microvascular function in diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Ocular microcirculatory function was measured in 116 patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease using static and continuous retinal vessel responses to three cycles of flickering light. Endothelial function was evaluated by von Willebrand factor (vWf), endothelial microparticles and soluble E selectin, renal function by serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). HbA1c was used as a control index. Central retinal vein equivalence and venous maximum dilation to flicker were linked to HbA1c (both p < 0.05). Arterial reaction time was linked to serum creatinine (p = 0.036) and eGFR (p = 0.039); venous reaction time was linked to creatinine clearance (p = 0.018). Creatinine clearance and eGFR were linked to arterial maximum dilatation (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and the dilatation amplitude (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048, respectively) responses in the third flicker cycle. Of venous responses to the first flicker cycle, HbA1c was linked to the maximum dilation response (p = 0.004) and dilatation amplitude (p = 0.017), vWf was linked to the maximum constriction response (p = 0.016), and creatinine clearance to the baseline diameter fluctuation (p = 0.029). In the second flicker cycle, dilatation amplitude was linked to serum creatinine (p = 0.022). Several retinal blood vessel responses to flickering light are linked to glycaemia and renal function, but only one index is linked to endothelial function. Renal function must be considered when interpreting retinal vessel responses.

  13. Improved black-blood imaging using DANTE-SPACE for simultaneous carotid and intracranial vessel wall evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yibin; Yang, Qi; Xie, Guoxi; Pang, Jianing; Fan, Zhaoyang; Li, Debiao

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional black blood imaging method for simultaneously evaluating the carotid and intracranial arterial vessel walls with high spatial resolution and excellent blood suppression with and without contrast enhancement. The delay alternating with nutation for tailored excitation (DANTE) preparation module was incorporated into three-dimensional variable flip angle turbo spin echo (SPACE) sequence to improve blood signal suppression. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to quantify image contrast variations induced by DANTE. DANTE-SPACE, SPACE, and two-dimensional turbo spin echo were compared for apparent signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and morphometric measurements in 14 healthy subjects. Preliminary clinical validation was performed in six symptomatic patients. Apparent residual luminal blood was observed in five (pre-contrast) and nine (post-contrast) subjects with SPACE and only two (post-contrast) subjects with DANTE-SPACE. DANTE-SPACE showed 31% (pre-contrast) and 100% (post-contrast) improvement in wall-to-blood contrast-to-noise ratio over SPACE. Vessel wall area measured from SPACE was significantly larger than that from DANTE-SPACE due to possible residual blood signal contamination. DANTE-SPACE showed the potential to detect vessel wall dissection and identify plaque components in patients. DANTE-SPACE significantly improved arterial and venous blood suppression compared with SPACE. Simultaneous high-resolution carotid and intracranial vessel wall imaging to potentially identify plaque components was feasible with a scan time under 6 min. Magn Reson Med 75:2286-2294, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Real-Time Color-Doppler Guidance of HIFU for the Selective Avoidance or Occlusion of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabkin, Brian A.; Zderic, Vesna; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to effectively occlude blood vessels deep within tissue. The objective of the current study was to synchronize HIFU and color-Doppler ultrasound (US) for the real-time visualization of flow within blood vessels during HIFU treatment. The excitation of the HIFU was synchronized with the color-Doppler imager by collecting the excitation pulses of one of the elements of either a curved array intracavitary (C 9-5) or an intraoperative (CL 10-5) imaging probe. The collected excitation pulse was converted into a TTL-high pulse, which was delayed and gated to time the excitation duration and location of the HIFU pulse with respect to each imaging frame. The single pulse was used to drive a 3.2 MHz concave HIFU transducer (focal length of 3.5 cm, f-number 1) while the US imager was not collecting RF signals from the treatment region of the US image. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated in vivo by the selective ablation of tissue adjacent to, or the occlusion of, large vessels (including the femoral artery) both transcutaneously and interoperatively in the rabbit and pig. For the occlusion of vessels, the HIFU focus was placed immediately distal (with respect to the transducer) to the vessel at a depth of 2-2.5 cm. HIFU was applied at in situ intensities of 1000-2000 W/cm2, at a duty cycle of 50-75%, and a HIFU pulse repetition frequency (set by the US image frame rate) of 6-18 Hz. During each HIFU exposure, the HIFU pulse resulted in color interference bands running vertically within the color-Doppler window. Through the synchronization of the US imager with the HIFU excitation, the location and duration of the interference bands were set outside the treatment region within each image frame. This provided the operator with a clear view of the HIFU treatment site during therapy. Gross assessment showed necrosis of the tissue surrounding the HIFU treated vessel and occlusion of vessels up to 4 mm in diameter

  15. Rapid sealing of porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high power, 1470-nm laser, and laparoscopic prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Larson, Eric R.; Gonzalez, David A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-05-01

    Energy-based, radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices currently provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternate energy modality for vessel sealing, capable of generating less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated feasibility of sealing vessels in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for testing in open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices currently in surgical use was developed, and performance tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo. The 5-mm outer-diameter laparoscopic prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration that enables tissue manipulation and blunt dissection. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core-diameter optical fiber with side-delivery from the lower jaw and beam dimensions of 18-mm length×1.2-mm width. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3-s activation time, consistent with vessel seal times associated with RF and US-based devices. A total of 69 fresh porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3±1.7 mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5-mm diameter were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038±474 mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174±221 mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7±0.8, 3.4±0.7, and 1.0±0.4 mm, respectively. Results demonstrated that the 5-mm optical laparoscopic prototype consistently sealed vessels less than 5-mm diameter with low thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test the performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

  16. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the ... Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action ...

  17. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  18. Abnormal Circadian Blood Pressure Profile as a Prognostic Marker in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Akinori; Okumura, Takahiro; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Kano, Naoaki; Mori, Hiroaki; Fukaya, Kenji; Morimoto, Ryota; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Bando, Yasuko Kureishi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    An abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) profile is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its significance in heart failure patients with nonischemic etiology is unknown. Herein, we investigated the prognostic value of a circadian BP profile in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). We enrolled 114 NIDCM patients (76 males, mean age 53.1 years). The percent nighttime BP fall (%NBPF) was defined using ambulatory BP monitoring as a percent decrease in mean systolic BP in nighttime from daytime. All patients were divided into three groups: dipper (%NBPF ≥10), non-dipper (0 ≤ %NBPF < 10), and riser (%NBPF <0). Riser patients had the highest serum creatinine levels (dipper, 0.78 ± 0.20 mg/dl; non-dipper, 0.85 ± 0.21 mg/dl; riser, 0.99 ± 0.23 mg/dl; p = 0.006). In survival analysis, riser patients had the highest cumulative cardiac-related deaths (log-rank, p = 0.001), which was an independent predictor of cardiac-related deaths (hazard ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-253; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the norepinephrine level at 24-hour collected urine (24 h U-NE) and the serum creatinine level were independent determinants of %NBPF (adjusted R2 = 0.20; 24 h U-NE, p = 0.0001; serum creatinine, p = 0.04). The riser profile was associated with poor prognosis of NIDCM, which may reflect impaired sympathetic nervous system activity. Evaluating the circadian BP profile may be useful for risk stratification in NIDCM patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro

    2005-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow and abnormal eating behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Etsuro

    2013-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder and is generally regarded as a genetic model of obesity. Individuals with PWS exhibit behavioral symptoms including temper tantrums, rigid thinking, and compulsive behavior. The most striking feature of PWS is abnormal eating behavior, including hyperphagia, intense preoccupation with food, and incessant food seeking. To explore brain regions associated with the behavioral symptoms of PWS, we investigated differences in resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between individuals with PWS and healthy controls. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationship between rCBF and altered eating behavior in PWS individuals. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched controls underwent resting-state single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). The rCBF data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using SPM5 software. The results demonstrated that compared with controls, individuals with PWS had significantly lower rCBF in the right thalamus, left insular cortex, bilateral lingual gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. They had significantly higher rCBF in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior frontal gyrus (anterior and posterior clusters), and bilateral angular gyrus. Additionally, rCBF in the left insula, which was significantly lower in PWS individuals, was negatively correlated with the eating behavior severity score. These results suggest that specific brain regions, particularly the left insula, may be partly responsible for the behavioral symptoms in PWS. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid sealing and cutting of porcine blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high-power, 1470-nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Nicholas C; Hutchens, Thomas C; Perkins, William C; Latimer, Cassandra; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-03-01

    Suture ligation with subsequent cutting of blood vessels to maintain hemostasis during surgery is time consuming and skill intensive. Energy-based electrosurgical and ultrasonic devices are often used to replace sutures and mechanical clips to provide rapid hemostasis and decrease surgery time. Some of these devices may create undesirably large collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis, or require separate mechanical blades for cutting. Infrared lasers are currently being explored as alternative energy sources for vessel sealing applications. In a previous study, a 1470-nm laser was used to seal vessels 1 to 6 mm in diameter in 5 s, yielding burst pressures of ∼500  mmHg. The purpose of this study was to provide vessel sealing times comparable with current energy-based devices, incorporate transection of sealed vessels, and demonstrate high vessel burst pressures to provide a safety margin for future clinical use. A 110-W, 1470-nm laser beam was transmitted through a fiber and beam shaping optics, producing a 90-W linear beam 3.0 by 9.5 mm for sealing (400  W/cm2), and 1.1 by 9.6 mm for cutting (1080  W/cm2). A two-step process sealed and then transected ex vivo porcine renal vessels (1.5 to 8.5 mm diameter) in a bench top setup. Seal and cut times were 1.0 s each. A burst pressure system measured seal strength, and histologic measurements of lateral thermal spread were also recorded. All blood vessels tested (n=55 seal samples) were sealed and cut, with total irradiation times of 2.0 s and mean burst pressures of 1305±783  mmHg. Additional unburst vessels were processed for histological analysis, showing a lateral thermal spread of 0.94±0.48  mm (n=14 seal samples). This study demonstrated that an optical-based system is capable of precisely sealing and cutting a wide range of porcine renal vessel sizes and, with further development, may provide an alternative to radiofrequency- and ultrasonic-based vessel sealing devices.

  2. Inter-method agreement in retinal blood vessels diameter analysis between Dynamic Vessel Analyzer and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Lucia; Corvi, Federico; Tomasso, Livia; Mercuri, Stefano; Querques, Lea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the inter-methods agreement in arteriovenous ratio (AVR) evaluation between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA). Healthy volunteers underwent DVA and SD-OCT examination. AVR was measured by SD-OCT using the four external lines of the optic nerve head-centered 7-line cube and by DVA using an automated AVR estimation. The mean AVR was calculated, twice, separately by two independent readers for each tool. Twenty-two eyes of 11 healthy subjects (five women and six men, mean age 35) were included. AVR analysis by DVA showed high inter-observer agreement between reader 1 and 2, and high intra-observer agreement for both reader 1 and reader 2. With regard to AVR analysis on SD-OCT, we found high inter-observer agreement between reader 1 and 2, and low intra-observer agreement for reader 2 but high intra-observer agreement for reader 1. Overall, the mean AVR measured on SD-OCT turned out to be significantly higher than mean AVR measured through DVA (reader 1, 0.9023 ± 0.06 vs 0.8036 ± 0.08; p < 0.001, and reader 2, 0.9067 ± 0.06 vs 0.8083 ± 0.05; p= 0.003). No inter-method agreement in AVR could be detected in the present study due to bias in measurements (shift between DVA and SD-OCT). We found significant difference in the two noninvasive methods for AVR measurement, with a tendency for SD-OCT to overestimate retinal vascular caliber in comparison to DVA. This may be useful for achieving greater accuracy in the evaluation of retinal vessel in ocular as well as systemic diseases.

  3. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  4. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  5. Delayed astrocytic contact with cerebral blood vessels in FGF-2 deficient mice does not compromise permeability properties at the developing blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Unsicker, Klaus; Ek, C Joakim

    2016-11-01

    The brain functions within a specialized environment tightly controlled by brain barrier mechanisms. Understanding the regulation of barrier formation is important for understanding brain development and may also lead to finding new ways to deliver pharmacotherapies to the brain; access of many potentially promising drugs is severely hindered by these barrier mechanisms. The cellular composition of the neurovascular unit of the blood-brain barrier proper and their effects on regulation of its function are beginning to be understood. One hallmark of the neurovascular unit in the adult is the astroglial foot processes that tightly surround cerebral blood vessels. However their role in barrier formation is still unclear. In this study we examined barrier function in newborn, juvenile and adult mice lacking fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which has been shown to result in altered astroglial differentiation during development. We show that during development of FGF-2 deficient mice the astroglial contacts with cerebral blood vessels are delayed compared with wild-type animals. However, this delay did not result in changes to the permeability properties of the blood brain barrier as assessed by exclusion of either small or larger sized molecules at this interface. In addition cerebral vessels were positive for tight-junction proteins and we observed no difference in the ultrastructure of the tight-junctions. The results indicate that the direct contact of astroglia processes to cerebral blood vessels is not necessary for either the formation of the tight-junctions or for basic permeability properties and function of the blood-brain barrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1201-1212, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Software-assisted live visualization system for subjacent blood vessels in endonasal endoscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, Ch.; Maschke, R.; Gruening, J.; Ernstberger, M.; Basan, F.; Baselt, T.; Grunert, R.; Hartmann, P.

    2013-02-01

    Minimal invasive surgery methods have received growing attention in recent years. In vital important areas, it is crucial for the surgeon to have a precise knowledge of the tissue structure. Especially the visualization of arteries is desirable, as the destruction of the same can be lethal to the patient. In order to meet this requirement, the study presents a novel assistance system for endoscopic surgery. While state-of-the art systems rely on pre-operational data like computer-tomographic maps and require the use of radiation, the goal of the presented approach is to provide the clarification of subjacent blood vessels on live images of the endoscope camera system. Based on the transmission and reflection spectra of various human tissues, a prototype system with a NIR illumination unit working at 808 nm was established. Several image filtering, processing and enhancement techniques have been investigated and evaluated on the raw pictures in order to obtain high quality results. The most important were increasing contrast and thresholding by difference of Gaussian method. Based on that, it is possible to rectify a fragmented artery pattern and extract geometrical information about the structure in terms of position and orientation. By superposing the original image and the extracted segment, the surgeon is assisted with valuable live pictures of the region of interest. The whole system has been tested on a laboratory scale. An outlook on the integration of such a system in a clinical environment and obvious benefits are discussed.

  7. Thermal Expansion of Vitrified Blood Vessels Permeated with DP6 and Synthetic Ice Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David P.; Taylor, Michael J.; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-01-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. PMID:24769313

  8. Thermal expansion of vitrified blood vessels permeated with DP6 and synthetic ice modulators.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-06-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CCL11-induced eosinophils inhibit the formation of blood vessels and cause tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yanjiang; Tian, Yijun; Kurosawa, Takamasa; Matsui, Sayaka; Touma, Maki; Yanai, Takanori; Wu, Qiong; Sugimoto, Kenkichi

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that IL-18 and CCL11 were highly expressed in an NFSA tumor cell line that showed limited angiogenesis and severe necrosis. However, IL-18 was not responsible for the immune cell accumulation and necrosis. Here, we attempted to clarify the relevance of CCL11 in angiogenesis and tumor formation. We established CCL11-overexpressing MS-K cell clones (MS-K-CCL11) to assess the role of CCL11 in immune cell accumulation and angiogenesis. The MS-K-CCL11 cells did not form tumors in mice. MS-K-CCL11-conditioned medium (CM) and recombinant CCL11 induced macrophage and eosinophil differentiation from bone marrow cells. The MS-K-CCL11-CM effectively recruited the differentiated eosinophils. Furthermore, the eosinophils damaged the MS-K, NFSA and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of an antagonist of CCR3, a CCL11 receptor, to NFSA tumor-bearing mice restored the blood vessel formation and blocked the eosinophil infiltration into the NFSA tumors. Furthermore, other CCL11-overexpressing LM8 clones were established, and their tumor formation ability was reduced compared to the parental LM8 cells, accompanied by increased eosinophil infiltration, blockade of angiogenesis and necrosis. These results indicate that CCL11 was responsible for the limited angiogenesis and necrosis by inducing and attracting eosinophils in the tumors. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Effects of angiopoietin-1 on inflammatory injury in endothelial progenitor cells and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qing; Song, Jing-Jin; Han, Xiao; Liu, Yi-Ye; Wang, Xi-Huang; Li, Zhi-Ming; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Thus, targeting both aspects of cardiovascular tissue regeneration may offer promising therapeutic options for cardiovascular disorders. To this end, we constructed a lentiviral vector (pNL) with the Ang-1 gene and transfected EPCs with it (Ang-1-EPCs) to investigate vasculogenesis in both cellular and animal models. Compared to controls, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) increased significantly in both untreated EPCs and in the pNL vector group. After Ang-1 transcription, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 decreased considerably in those treatment groups. Ang-1-modified EPCs alleviated inflammatory responses induced by tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. Moreover, Ang-1-EPC implantation inhibited neointimal hyperplasia after balloon catheter injury in rats, dramatically diminishing the intimal-media (I/M) ratio and decreasing the neointimal area. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the Ang-1-EPC group was lower than the EPC non-treatment group as well, suggesting that Ang-1-EPC improved cell survival during inflammation and promoted endothelialization in damaged blood vessels.

  11. Potential Approaches to Enhance the Effects of Estrogen on Senescent Blood Vessels and Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Vascular estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a transmembrane estrogen-binding protein GPR30 have been described. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix. However, randomized clinical trials have not supported vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), possibly due to the subjects' advanced age and age-related changes in estrogen synthesis and metabolic pathways, the vascular ERs number, distribution and integrity, and the post-ER vascular signaling pathways. Current MHT includes natural estrogens such as conjugated equine estrogen, as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic estrogens. New estrogenic formulations and hormone combinations have been developed. Phytoestrogens is being promoted as an alternative MHT. Specific ER modulators (SERMs), and selective agonists for ERα such as PPT, ERβ such as DPN, and GPR30 such as G1 are being evaluated. In order to enhance the vascular effectiveness of MHT, its type, dose, route of administration and timing may need to be customized depending on the subject's age and pre-existing CVD. Also, the potential interaction of estrogen with progesterone and testosterone on vascular function may need to be considered in order to maximize the vascular benefits of MHT on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal CVD. PMID:20210774

  12. Low-density lipoprotein transport in blood vessel walls of squirrel monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Yarmush, M.L.; Schnitzer, J.J.

    1989-08-01

    Transmural accumulations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were examined in the blood vessel walls of four squirrel monkeys. Vascular wall concentrations of LDL were measured using quantitative autoradiography after {sup 125}I-labeled LDL circulation for 30 min. Profiles of relative tissue concentration from different sections in the same region were similar to each other, and there was little animal-to-animal variation. Concentrations were highest near the luminal endothelium, lower near the medial-adventitial border, and lowest within the media. Profiles from different regions fell into three groups: (1) aortic samples had steep intimal concentration gradients and near-zero media concentrations; (2) the iliac, femoral, popliteal,more » and common carotid arteries had higher intimal concentrations than group 1 but had similar concentrations deep within the media; and (3) the cerebral and coronary arteries, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary artery had intimal concentrations that were similar to group 2, but the concentrations deep within the media were greater than either groups 1 or 2. Arterial bifurcation profiles from the inner wall and the outer walls were similar to each other and to profiles from the upstream and downstream areas. Out of 280 total sites examined, 15 examples of profiles with substantially increased concentrations near the luminal endothelium were found scattered throughout the cardiovascular system, demonstrating that there are focal regions throughout the cardiovascular system which have greatly increased {sup 125}I-LDL transendothelial permeability.« less

  13. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Stabilizes Nascent Blood Vessels*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo, Sarah Melissa P.; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that VEGF-A and IGF-1 differ in their ability to stabilize newly formed blood vessels and endothelial cell tubes. Although VEGF-A failed to support an enduring vascular response, IGF-1 stabilized neovessels generated from primary endothelial cells derived from various vascular beds and mouse retinal explants. In these experimental systems, destabilization/regression was driven by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Because previous studies have established that Erk antagonizes LPA-mediated regression, we considered whether Erk was an essential component of IGF-dependent stabilization. Indeed, IGF-1 lost its ability to stabilize neovessels when the Erk pathway was inhibited pharmacologically. Furthermore, stabilization was associated with prolonged Erk activity. In the presence of IGF-1, Erk activity persisted longer than in the presence of VEGF or LPA alone. These studies reveal that VEGF and IGF-1 can have distinct inputs in the angiogenic process. In contrast to VEGF, IGF-1 stabilizes neovessels, which is dependent on Erk activity and associated with prolonged activation. PMID:25564613

  14. Inhibiting connexin channels protects against cryopreservation-induced cell death in human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bol, M; Van Geyt, C; Baert, S; Decrock, E; Wang, N; De Bock, M; Gadicherla, A K; Randon, C; Evans, W H; Beele, H; Cornelissen, R; Leybaert, L

    2013-04-01

    Cryopreserved blood vessels are being increasingly employed in vascular reconstruction procedures but freezing/thawing is associated with significant cell death that may lead to graft failure. Vascular cells express connexin proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels. Gap junction channels directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and may facilitate the passage of cell death messengers leading to bystander cell death. Two hemichannels form a gap junction channel but these channels are also present as free non-connected hemichannels. Hemichannels are normally closed but may open under stressful conditions and thereby promote cell death. We here investigated whether blocking gap junctions and hemichannels could prevent cell death after cryopreservation. Inclusion of Gap27, a connexin channel inhibitory peptide, during cryopreservation and thawing of human saphenous veins and femoral arteries was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and histological examination. We report that Gap27 significantly reduces cell death in human femoral arteries and saphenous veins when present during cryopreservation/thawing. In particular, smooth muscle cell death was reduced by 73% in arteries and 71% in veins, while endothelial cell death was reduced by 32% in arteries and 51% in veins. We conclude that inhibiting connexin channels during cryopreservation strongly promotes vascular cell viability. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nociception from blood vessels is independent of the sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions in humans.

    PubMed

    Kindgen-Milles, D; Holthusen, H

    1997-06-05

    To test the hypothesis that vascular pain depends on sympathetic drive under physiological conditions we studied the effects of both alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation by noradrenaline and alpha-adrenoceptor blockade by phentolamine on the intensity of physicochemically evoked pain from veins in humans. In seven healthy volunteers, a vascularly isolated hand vein segment was perfused continuously with noradrenaline (6 x 10(-9)-6 x 10(-6) M), or phentolamine (1.24 x 10(-4) M). Pain was evoked by intraluminal electrostimulation or by injection of hyperosmolar saline during control perfusion of isoosmolar saline and after each noradrenaline concentration, as well as after perfusion of phentolamine. Subjects rated pain intensity continuously on an electronically controlled visual analogue scale (VAS) between 0% VAS (no pain) and 100% VAS (tolerance maximum). Intravenous electrostimulation as well as hyperosmolar solutions evoked pain in each subject. The intensity of pain was neither influenced by noradrenaline, nor by phentolamine, so that nociception from blood vessels is unlikely to be modulated by the sympathetic nervous system under physiological conditions in humans.

  16. Rapid dark-blood carotid vessel-wall imaging with random bipolar gradients in a radial SSFP acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Flask, Chris A; Dale, Brian M; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2007-06-01

    To investigate and evaluate a new rapid dark-blood vessel-wall imaging method using random bipolar gradients with a radial steady-state free precession (SSFP) acquisition in carotid applications. The carotid artery bifurcations of four asymptomatic volunteers (28-37 years old, mean age = 31 years) were included in this study. Dark-blood contrast was achieved through the use of random bipolar gradients applied prior to the signal acquisition of each radial projection in a balanced SSFP acquisition. The resulting phase variation for moving spins established significant destructive interference in the low-frequency region of k-space. This phase variation resulted in a net nulling of the signal from flowing spins, while the bipolar gradients had a minimal effect on the static spins. The net effect was that the regular SSFP signal amplitude (SA) in stationary tissues was preserved while dark-blood contrast was achieved for moving spins. In this implementation, application of the random bipolar gradient pulses along all three spatial directions nulled the signal from both in-plane and through-plane flow in phantom and in vivo studies. In vivo imaging trials confirmed that dark-blood contrast can be achieved with the radial random bipolar SSFP method, thereby substantially reversing the vessel-to-lumen contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of a conventional rectilinear SSFP "bright-blood" acquisition from bright blood to dark blood with only a modest increase in TR (approximately 4 msec) to accommodate the additional bipolar gradients. Overall, this sequence offers a simple and effective dark-blood contrast mechanism for high-SNR SSFP acquisitions in vessel wall imaging within a short acquisition time.

  17. Transient repetitive exposure to low level light therapy enhances collateral blood vessel growth in the ischemic hindlimb of the tight skin mouse.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Maria; Krolikowki, John G; Jones, Deron W; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Struve, Janine; Nandedkar, Sandhya D; Lohr, Nicole L; Pagel, Paul S; Weihrauch, Dorothée

    2013-01-01

    The tight skin mouse (Tsk(-/+)) is a model of scleroderma characterized by impaired vasoreactivity, increased oxidative stress, attenuated angiogenic response to VEGF and production of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) stimulates angiogenesis in myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize that repetitive LLLT restores vessel growth in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice by attenuating angiostatin and enhancing angiomotin effects in vivo. C57Bl/6J and Tsk(-/+) mice underwent ligation of the femoral artery. Relative blood flow to the foot was measured using a laser Doppler imager. Tsk(-/+) mice received LLLT (670 nm, 50 mW cm(-2), 30 J cm(-2)) for 10 min per day for 14 days. Vascular density was determined using lycopersicom lectin staining. Immunofluorescent labeling, Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation were used to determine angiostatin and angiomotin expression. Recovery of blood flow to the ischemic limb was reduced in Tsk(-/+) compared with C57Bl/6 mice 2 weeks after surgery. LLLT treatment of Tsk(-/+) mice restored blood flow to levels observed in C57Bl/6 mice. Vascular density was decreased, angiostatin expression was enhanced and angiomotin depressed in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice. LLLT treatment reversed these abnormalities. LLLT stimulates angiogenesis by increasing angiomotin and decreasing angiostatin expression in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Diameters and Fractal Dimensions with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaowei; Yuan, Yin; Gao, Zhonghai; Chen, Falin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the correlation between quantitative retinal vascular parameters such as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and retinal vascular fractal dimension (D(f)), and cardiovascular risk factors in the Chinese Han population residing in the in islands of southeast China. Methodology/Principle Findings In this cross-sectional study, fundus photographs were collected and semi-automated analysis software was used to analyze retinal vessel diameters and fractal dimensions. Cardiovascular risk factors such as relevant medical history, blood pressure (BP), lipids, and blood glucose data were collected. Subjects had a mean age of 51.9±12.0 years and included 812 (37.4%) males and 1,357 (62.6%) females. Of the subjects, 726 (33.5%) were overweight, 226 (10.4%) were obese, 272 (12.5%) had diabetes, 738 (34.0%) had hypertension, and 1,156 (53.3%) had metabolic syndrome. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, multivariate analyses found that age (β = 0.06, P = 0.008), sex (β = 1.33, P = 0.015), mean arterial blood pressure (β = −0.12, P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = −0.22, P = 0.008), and CRVE (β = 0.23, P<0.001) were significantly associated with CRAE. Age (β = −0.0012, P<0.001), BP classification (prehypertension: β = −0.0075, P = 0.014; hypertension: β = −0.0131, P = 0.002), and hypertension history (β = −0.0007, P = 0.009) were significantly associated with D(f). Conclusions/Significance D(f) exhibits a stronger association with BP than CRAE. Thus, D(f) may become a useful indicator of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25188273

  19. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels Before and After 70-Day Bed Rest: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Impairments include decreased near visual acuity, posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal blood vessels that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated by NASAs innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software for two studies: (1) head-down tilt in human subjects before and after 70 days of bed rest, and (2) U.S. crew members before and after ISS missions. VESGEN analysis in previous research supported by the US National Institutes of Health identified surprising new opportunities to regenerate retinal vessels during early-stage, potentially reversible progression of the visually impairing and blinding disease, diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Transcatheter arterial embolization of abnormal vessels as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis refractory to conservative treatment: a pilot study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Wataru; Okuno, Yuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Kaneko, Takao; Ikegami, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal vessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain with lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted in 24 patients with lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatments for more than 3 months, with a symptom duration longer than 6 months, and with moderate to severe pain who were treated with TAE between March 2013 and October 2014. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 22 patients were followed up for 2 years after TAE. Abnormal vessels were identified in all of the patients. No major adverse events were observed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at baseline significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months after treatment (50.8 vs 23.4, 8.3, 5.3, and 2.7, respectively; all P < .001). There was a statistically significant (P < .001) change from baseline to the last observed value in all of the clinical parameters, including visual analog scale pain score, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score, and pain-free grip strength. Magnetic resonance images obtained 2 years after TAE showed an improvement in tendinosis and tear scores compared with baseline, and no patients showed bone marrow necrosis, obvious cartilage loss, or muscle atrophy. TAE could be one possible treatment option for patients with lateral epicondylitis that fails to improve with conservative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in peripapillary blood vessel density in Graves' orbitopathy after orbital decompression surgery as measured by optical coherence tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle T; Bullock, John R; Drumright, Ryan T; Olsen, Matthew J; Penman, Alan D

    2018-03-08

    The purpose is to evaluate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the evaluation of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and response to orbital decompression in patients with and without dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). This was a single-center, prospective case series in a cohort of 12 patients (24 orbits) with GO and ±DON, (6 orbits) who underwent bilateral orbital decompression. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative OCT angiography of the peripapillary area. Vessel density indices were calculated in a 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm ellipsoid centered on the optic disk using split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm, producing the vessel density measurements. Mean change in vessel density indices was compared between pre- and postoperative sessions and between patients with and without DON. Patient 1, a 34-year-old male with GO and unilateral DON OD, showed a significant reduction in blood vessel density indices oculus dexter (OD) (DON eye) after decompression while a more modest reduction was found oculus sinister (OS) with the greatest change noted intrapapillary. Patient 2, a 50-year-old male with DON OU, showed worsening neuropathy following decompression OD that was confirmed by angiographic density indices. Patient 3, a 55-year-female with DON, showed a reduction in blood vessel density OD and increased density OS. Patients without DON showed overall less impressive changes in indices as compared to those with DON. Using OCT angiography, response to surgical treatment in GO orbits, more so in orbits with DON, can be demonstrated and quantified using vessel density indices with reproducibility.

  2. Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y

    1997-11-01

    The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small

  3. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in themore » hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.« less

  4. Characterization of vascular permeability using a biomimetic microfluidic blood vessel model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Antony; Wang, Shunqiang; Sohrabi, Salman; Orr, Colin; He, Ran; Shi, Wentao; Liu, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    The inflammatory response in endothelial cells (ECs) leads to an increase in vascular permeability through the formation of gaps. However, the dynamic nature of vascular permeability and external factors involved is still elusive. In this work, we use a biomimetic blood vessel (BBV) microfluidic model to measure in real-time the change in permeability of the EC layer under culture in physiologically relevant flow conditions. This platform studies the dynamics and characterizes vascular permeability when the EC layer is triggered with an inflammatory agent using tracer molecules of three different sizes, and the results are compared to a transwell insert study. We also apply an analytical model to compare the permeability data from the different tracer molecules to understand the physiological and bio-transport significance of endothelial permeability based on the molecule of interest. A computational model of the BBV model is also built to understand the factors influencing transport of molecules of different sizes under flow. The endothelial monolayer cultured under flow in the BBV model was treated with thrombin, a serine protease that induces a rapid and reversible increase in endothelium permeability. On analysis of permeability data, it is found that the transport characteristics for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dye and FITC Dextran 4k Da molecules are similar in both BBV and transwell models, but FITC Dextran 70k Da molecules show increased permeability in the BBV model as convection flow (Peclet number > 1) influences the molecule transport in the BBV model. We also calculated from permeability data the relative increase in intercellular gap area during thrombin treatment for ECs in the BBV and transwell insert models to be between 12% and 15%. This relative increase was found to be within range of what we quantified from F-actin stained EC layer images. The work highlights the importance of incorporating flow in in vitro vascular models, especially

  5. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    estrogen in the aging blood vessels and thereby enhancing the efficacy and safety of MHT in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:19442151

  6. Abnormal blood pressure circadian rhythm in acute ischaemic stroke: are lacunar strokes really different?

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Espino-Montoro, A; Fernández-Moreno, M C; López-Chozas, J M

    2009-08-01

    A pathologically reduced or abolished circadian blood pressure variation has been described in acute stroke. However, studies on alterations of circadian blood pressure patterns after stroke and stroke subtypes are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in circadian blood pressure patterns in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and their relation to the stroke subtype. We studied 98 consecutive patients who were admitted within 24 h after ischaemic stroke onset. All patients had a detailed clinical examination, laboratory studies and a CT scan study of the brain on admission. To study the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, a continuous blood pressure monitor (Spacelab 90217) was used. Patients were classified according to the percentage fall in the mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure at night compared with during the day as: dippers (fall> or =10-20%); extreme dippers (> or =20%); nondipper (<10%); and reverse dippers (<0%, that is, an increase in the mean nocturnal blood pressure compared with the mean daytime blood pressure). Data were separated and analysed in two groups: lacunar and nonlacunar infarctions. Statistical testing was conducted using the SSPS 12.0. Methods We studied 60 males and 38 females, mean age: 70.5+/-11 years. The patient population consisted of 62 (63.2%) lacunar strokes and 36 (36.8%) nonlacunar strokes. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (67 patients, 68.3%). Other risk factors included hypercholesterolaemia (44 patients, 44.8%), diabetes mellitus (38 patients, 38.7%), smoking (24 patients, 24.8%) and atrial fibrillation (19 patients, 19.3%). The patients with lacunar strokes were predominantly men (P=0.037) and had a lower frequency of atrial fibrillation (P=0.016) as compared with nonlacunar stroke patients. In the acute phase, the mean systolic blood pressure was 136+/-20 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was 78.7+/-11.8. Comparing stroke subtypes, there were no differences in

  7. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  8. Texture Analysis of T1-Weighted and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images Detects Abnormalities That Correlate With Cognitive Decline in Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Daniel J; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2018-06-04

    Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful to assess disease severity in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), identify those individuals who are most likely to progress to dementia, monitor disease progression, and act as surrogate markers to test new therapies. Texture analysis extracts information on the relationship between signal intensities of neighboring voxels. A potential advantage over techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, is that it can be used on clinically obtained magnetic resonance sequences. We determined whether texture parameters (TP) were abnormal in SVD, correlated with cognitive impairment, predicted cognitive decline, or conversion to dementia. In the prospective SCANS study (St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke), we assessed TP in 121 individuals with symptomatic SVD at baseline, 99 of whom attended annual cognitive testing for 5 years. Conversion to dementia was recorded for all subjects during the 5-year period. Texture analysis was performed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted images. The TP obtained from the SVD cohort were cross-sectionally compared with 54 age-matched controls scanned on the same magnetic resonance imaging system. There were highly significant differences in several TP between SVD cases and controls. Within the SVD population, TP were highly correlated to other magnetic resonance imaging parameters (brain volume, white matter lesion volume, lacune count). TP correlated with executive function and global function at baseline and predicted conversion to dementia, after controlling for age, sex, premorbid intelligence quotient, and magnetic resonance parameters. TP, which can be obtained from routine clinical images, are abnormal in SVD, and the degree of abnormality correlates with executive dysfunction and global cognition at baseline and decline during 5 years. TP may be useful to assess disease severity in clinically collected data. This needs testing in data clinically acquired

  9. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of blood viscosity on dissipation as well as dispersion of small waves in arteries and veins by means of a parametric study. A linearized analysis of axisymmetric waves in a cylindrical membrane that contains a viscous fluid indicates that there are two families of waves: a family of slow waves and one of fast waves. The faster waves are shown to be more sensitive to variations in the elastic properties of the medium surrounding the blood vessels and at high values of the frequency parameter alpha. At low values of alpha the effects of viscosity on attenuation are reversed.

  10. Assessing advantages of sequential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model with normalized blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Ana J; Thorp, Silvia I; Portu, Agustina M; Saint Martin, Gisela; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Heber, Elisa M; Bortolussi, Silva; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Garabalino, Marcela A; Altieri, Saverio; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic success of sequential boron neutron capture therapy (Seq-BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. It consists of BPA-BNCT followed by GB-10-BNCT 24 or 48 hours later. Additionally, we proved that tumor blood vessel normalization with thalidomide prior to BPA-BNCT improves tumor control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and explore potential boron microdistribution changes in Seq-BNCT preceded by tumor blood vessel normalization. Tumor bearing animals were treated with thalidomide for tumor blood vessel normalization, followed by Seq-BNCT (Th+ Seq-BNCT) or Seq-Beam Only (Th+ Seq-BO) in the window of normalization. Boron microdistribution was assessed by neutron autoradiography. Th+ Seq-BNCT induced overall tumor response of 100%, with 87 (4)% complete tumor response. No cases of severe mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue were observed. Differences in boron homogeneity between tumors pre-treated and not pre-treated with thalidomide were observed. Th+ Seq-BNCT achieved, for the first time, response in all treated tumors. Increased homogeneity in tumor boron microdistribution is associated to an improvement in tumor control.

  11. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging Applied to the Noninvasive and Quantitative Imaging of Blood Vessels in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, J.; Papadacci, C.; Demene, C.; Gennisson, J-L.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast Doppler Imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on three-dimensional plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that non-invasive 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler, Pulsed Doppler, and Color Doppler Imaging can be used to perform quantitative imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of three-dimensional tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D Ultrafast Imaging. Using a 32X32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler Imaging was first validated by imaging Tygon tubes of varying diameter and its in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D Color and Pulsed Doppler Imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956

  12. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain. PMID:26448331

  13. BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON

    PubMed Central

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon. PMID:25351549

  14. Performance evaluation of a dynamic telepathology system (Panoptiq™) in the morphologic assessment of peripheral blood film abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Goswami, R; Pi, D; Pal, J; Cheng, K; Hudoba De Badyn, M

    2015-06-01

    The study evaluated the performance of a dynamic imaging telepathology system (Panoptiq(™) ) as a diagnostic aid to the identification of peripheral blood film (PBF) abnormalities. The study assumed a laboratory personnel working in a clinical laboratory were operating the telepathology system to seek diagnostic opinion from an external consulting hematopathologist. The study examined 100 blood films, encompassing 23 different hematological diseases, reactive or normal cases. The study revealed that with real-time image transmission in live scanning mode of operation, the telepathology system was able to aid reviewers in achieving excellent accuracy, that is correct interpretation of morphologic abnormalities obtained in 83/84 of the hematologic diseases and 12/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.99; Specificity: 1.00). In contrast, when only saved static images in digital capture mode of operation were reviewed remotely, interpretative omissions occurred in 8/84 of the hematologic diseases and 0/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.91; Specificity: 1.00). It is hypothesized that real-time operator-reviewer communication during live scanning played an important role in the identification of key morphologic abnormalities for review. Our study showed the Panoptiq system can be adopted reliably as a dynamic telepathology tool in aiding community laboratories in the triage of PBF cases for external diagnostic consultation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and tissue heating during high intensity focused ultrasound through blood vessel with an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, Salma; Sultana, Aysha

    2017-06-01

    The influence of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) on the obstacle through blood vessel is studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field around the obstacle through blood vessel. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and conjugate heat transfer equations for the obstacle through blood vessel. The system of equations is solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that the rate of heat transfer is increasing from the obstacle and both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field.

  16. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  17. Relationship of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood pressure control with white matter abnormalities in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI trial.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H; Margolis, Karen L; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Bryan, Nick R; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G

    2010-03-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women's Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia.

  18. Relationship of Hypertension, Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Control With White Matter Abnormalities in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)—MRI Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia. PMID:20433539

  19. Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status?123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798

  20. Does the disruption of horizontal anterior ciliary vessels affect the blood-aqueous barrier function?

    PubMed

    Pan, Meihua; Yang, Mei; Xie, Renyi; Zhao, Zhimin; Huang, Xingxing

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the significance of the anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) preservation during the conventional horizontal strabismus surgery. Patients (≥ 8 years) with horizontal strabismus were randomly allocated into group 1 (with ACV preservation) and group 2 (without ACV preservation). The surgical eyes in group 1 were further divided into group A (one rectus muscle operated) and group B (two rectus muscles operated). Similarly, eyes in group 2 were divided into group C (one rectus muscle operated) and group D (two rectus muscles operated). The success rate of ACV preservation was calculated. The anterior chamber flare measurements of each eye by laser flare photometry were recorded on the day prior to and after operation. The flare values between groups and between pre- and post-operation in each group were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test respectively. In groups A and B, the success rate of ACV preservation was 82% (27/33) and 70% (28/40)respectively, and the flare values between pre- and post-operation showed no significant differences(4.378 ± 1.527, 4.544 ± 1.452, P = 0.526; 4.625 ± 1.090, 4.989 ± 1.468, P = 0.101 respectively). However, the postoperative values were significantly increased in group C and group D(4.661 ± 1.031, 5.039 ± 1.310, P = 0.025; 4.933 ± 1.691, 5.502 ± 1.430, P = 0.000 respectively). The postoperative flare readings of group D were significantly higher than group B, while group A and group C had no significant variation. ACV preservation probably has clinical significance in reducing the undesirable influence on the blood-aqueous barrier.

  1. Blood pressure levels post mechanical thrombectomy and outcomes in non-recanalized large vessel occlusion patients.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Nitin; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Pandhi, Abhi; Dillard, Kira; Alsbrook, Diana; Chang, Jason J; Krishnaiah, Balaji; Nickele, Christopher; Hoit, Daniel; Alsherbini, Khalid; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Arthur, Adam S; Elijovich, Lucas

    2018-01-11

    Permissive hypertension may benefit patients with non-recanalized large vessel occlusion (nrLVO) post mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by maintaining brain perfusion. Data evaluating the impact of post-MT blood pressure (BP) levels on outcomes in nrLVO patients are scarce. We investigated the association of the post-MT BP course with safety and efficacy outcomes in nrLVO. Hourly systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values were prospectively recorded for 24 hours following MT in consecutive nrLVO patients. Maximum, minimum, and mean BP levels were documented. Three-month functional independence (FI) was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0-2. A total of 88 nrLVO patients were evaluated post MT. Patients with FI had lower maximum SBP (160±19 mmHg vs 179±23 mmHg; P=0.001) and higher minimum SBP levels (119±12 mmHg vs 108±25 mmHg; P=0.008). Maximum SBP (183±20 mmHg vs 169±23 mmHg; P=0.008) and DBP levels (105±20 mmHg vs 89±18 mmHg; P=0.001) were higher in patients who died at 3 months while minimum SBP values were lower (102±28 mmHg vs 115±16 mmHg; P=0.007). On multivariable analyses, both maximum SBP (OR per 10 mmHg increase: 0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.79; P=0.001) and minimum SBP (OR per 10 mmHg increase: 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.60; P=0.033) levels were independently associated with the odds of FI. Maximum DBP (OR per 10 mmHg increase: 1.61; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.36; P=0.014) and minimum SBP (OR per 10 mmHg increase: 0.65, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.90; P=0.009) values were independent predictors of 3-month mortality. Our study demonstrates that wide BP excursions from the mean during the first 24 hours post MT are associated with worse outcomes in patients with nrLVO. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Differential Mechanisms Associated with Vascular Disrupting Action of Electrochemotherapy: Intravital Microscopy on the Level of Single Normal and Tumor Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Markelc, Bostjan; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Electropermeabilization/electroporation (EP) provides a tool for the introduction of molecules into cells and tissues. In electrochemotherapy (ECT), cytotoxic drugs are introduced into cells in tumors, and nucleic acids are introduced into cells in gene electrotransfer. The normal and tumor tissue blood flow modifying effects of EP and the vascular disrupting effect of ECT in tumors have already been determined. However, differential effects between normal vs. tumor vessels, to ensure safety in the clinical application of ECT, have not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of EP and ECT with bleomycin on the HT-29 human colon carcinoma tumor model and its surrounding blood vessels. The response of blood vessels to EP and ECT was monitored in real time, directly at the single blood vessel level, by in vivo optical imaging in a dorsal window chamber in SCID mice with 70 kDa fluorescently labeled dextrans. The response of tumor blood vessels to EP and ECT started to differ within the first hour. Both therapies induced a vascular lock, decreased functional vascular density (FVD) and increased the diameter of functional blood vessels within the tumor. The effects were more pronounced for ECT, which destroyed the tumor blood vessels within 24 h. Although the vasculature surrounding the tumor was affected by EP and ECT, it remained functional. The study confirms the current model of tumor blood flow modifying effects of EP and provides conclusive evidence that ECT is a vascular disrupting therapy with a specific effect on the tumor blood vessels. PMID:23555705

  3. Study on the relationship between the expression of IGF-1 in umbilical cord blood and abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Wu, H-Y; Xu, Y-H

    2017-02-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in neonatal umbilical cord blood and abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. We have selected 63 cases of delivery randomly, term birth and maternal from January 2015 to January 2016 in our hospital, gestational diabetes mellitus for Group A, abnormal gestational glucose tolerance for Group B and normal for Group C with 21 cases in each group. The venous blood samples were collected from all the pregnant females 2 weeks before delivery, and the levels of HbA1c in serum were detected by Elisa method. During the delivery, the umbilical cord blood was collected and the levels of IGF-1 were measured by double site immune enzyme analysis. The neonatal weight was recorded and the correlation analysis was made in respect of the measurement results. The level of HbA1c in Group A was significantly higher than that in Group C (p < 0.05); IGF-1 level and neonatal weight of Group B were significantly higher than that of Group C (p < 0.05), IGF-1 has a significant correlation with neonatal weight in Group C, and HbA1c and IGF-1 were positively correlated (p < 0.05); IGF-1 was positively correlated with neonatal weight in Group A and Group B (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the IGF-1 level of neonatal umbilical cord blood and the neonatal weight (p < 0.05). Also, the level of HbA1c was positively correlated with the level of IGF-1 in neonatal umbilical cord blood at the end of pregnancy (p < 0.05). The expression level of IGF-1 in the final stage of pregnant females can be detected to predict the expression level of IGF-1 in newborn infants and then the growth status of the fetus can be obtained.

  4. Deep in vivo two-photon imaging of blood vessels with a new dye encapsulated in pluronic nanomicelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, Mathieu; Stéphan, Olivier; Vial, Jean-Claude; Marder, Seth R.; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2011-03-01

    Our purpose is to test if Pluronic® fluorescent nanomicelles can be used for in vivo two-photon imaging of both the normal and the tumor vasculature. The nanomicelles were obtained after encapsulating a hydrophobic two-photon dye: di-stryl benzene derivative, in Pluronic block copolymers. Their performance with respect to imaging depth, blood plasma staining, and diffusion across the tumor vascular endothelium is compared to a classic blood pool dye Rhodamin B dextran (70 kDa) using two-photon microscopy. Pluronic nanomicelles show, like Rhodamin B dextran, a homogeneous blood plasma staining for at least 1 h after intravenous injection. Their two-photon imaging depth is similar in normal mouse brain, using 10 times less injected mass. In contrast with Rhodamin B dextran, no extravasation is observed in leaky tumor vessels due to their large size: 20-100 nm. In conclusion, Pluronic nanomicelles can be used as a blood pool dye, even in leaky tumor vessels. The use of Pluronic block copolymers is a valuable approach for encapsulating two-photon fluorescent dyes that are hydrophobic and not suitable for intravenous injection.

  5. Contribution of autonomic dysfunction to abnormal exercise blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Weston, Kassia S; Sacre, Julian W; Jellis, Christine L; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the presence and severity of autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with and without exaggerated blood pressure responses to exercise. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 98 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 59±9). Both time (standard deviation of RR intervals, root-mean-square of successive RR interval differences) and frequency (total spectral power, high frequency, low frequency, very low frequency) domains of heart rate variability were analysed in a 5 min recording at rest and 20 min after a maximal treadmill test. An exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was identified by peak blood pressure ≥190/105 mmHg (women) or ≥210/105 mmHg (men). Each group of either exaggerated exercise blood pressure response or normal blood pressure response consisted of 49 patients. At rest there were no significant differences between groups for all time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability. Post-exercise, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the SDNN, RMSSD and TP in the exaggerated exercise blood pressure group. Independent correlates (p<0.01) of exercise systolic blood pressure included post-exercise TP, resting systolic blood pressure, cardiac autonomic neuropathy and beta-blockers (beta=-0.28, adj. R² = 0.32, p<0.001). Reduced post-exercise heart rate variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an exaggerated exercise blood pressure response suggests preclinical autonomic dysfunction characterized by impaired vagal modulation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental evaluation of possible side effects of intra-operative photodynamic therapy on rabbit blood vessels and nerves.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Alexander C; Stenzel, W; Rühling, M; Meul, B; Fischer, J-H

    2003-01-01

    Tumours of the head and neck show a high local tumour recurrence rate ranging between 7 and 30% despite combined treatment modalities. To improve these data, photodynamic therapy (PDT) might be used as an additional treatment besides surgery and radio-chemotherapy. Intra-operative PDT has been proposed to "sterilise" the tumour bed after surgical tumour resection in order to kill any remaining tumour cells which are responsible for local tumour recurrences. Often, during head and neck surgery, large blood vessels and important nerve structures are exposed and could potentially be harmed by intra-operative PDT. Despite the fact that mTHPC is the most commonly used photosensitiser for head and neck tumours, there are no data on potential detrimental side effects of intra-operative PDT onto these vital structures. The purpose of this study was to use a maximal treatment protocol in rabbit observing possible damage to the blood vessels and nerve structures and thus judge the most severe event that could happen in patients. In rabbits the large blood vessels and nerve structures at the neck and at the groin area were surgically exposed and treated by mTHPC-mediated intra-operative PDT. Various treatment parameters (drug-light interval, light dosage, follow up interval) were modified in order to find the critical treatment parameters which might cause maximum tissue effects. The intention was to define the most severe clinical complications which could be expected from mTHPC mediated intra-operative PDT. The most severe tissue reactions were found at a drug dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, a drug-light interval of 24 hours and a light dosage of 20 J/cm(2). Complete necrosis was found for the muscles, fat and connective tissue within the entire treatment field. Blood vessels demonstrated severe oedema, media-hyperplasia or loosening of the endothelial layer leading to various degrees of local thrombosis but no break down of the vessel wall or any rupture was noted. Most nerves were

  8. Subsurface thermal behaviour of tissue mimics embedded with large blood vessels during plasmonic photo-thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Das, Sarit K; Sengupta, Soujit; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the subsurface thermal behaviour of a tissue phantom embedded with large blood vessels (LBVs) when exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The effect of the addition of nanoparticles to irradiated tissue on the thermal sink behaviour of LBVs was also studied. Experiments were performed on a tissue phantom embedded with a simulated blood vessel of 2.2 mm outer diameter (OD)/1.6 mm inner diameter (ID) with a blood flow rate of 10 mL/min. Type I collagen from bovine tendon and agar gel were used as tissue. Two different nanoparticles, gold mesoflowers (AuMS) and graphene nanostructures, were synthesised and characterised. Energy equations incorporating a laser source term based on multiple scattering theories were solved using finite element-based commercial software. The rise in temperature upon NIR irradiation was seen to vary according to the position of the blood vessel and presence of nanoparticles. While the maximum rise in temperature was about 10 °C for bare tissue, it was 19 °C for tissue embedded with gold nanostructures and 38 °C for graphene-embedded tissues. The axial temperature distribution predicted by computational simulation matched the experimental observations. A different subsurface temperature distribution has been obtained for different tissue vascular network models. The position of LBVs must be known in order to achieve optimal tissue necrosis. The simulation described here helps in predicting subsurface temperature distributions within tissues during plasmonic photo-thermal therapy so that the risks of damage and complications associated with in vivo experiments and therapy may be avoided.

  9. Analysis of the effects of gravity and wall thickness in a model of blood flow through axisymmetric vessels.

    PubMed

    Payne, S J

    2004-11-01

    The effects of gravitational forces and wall thickness on the behaviour of a model of blood flow through axisymmetric vessels were studied. The governing fluid dynamic equations were derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid and linked to a simple model of the vessel wall. A closed form of the hyperbolic partial differential equations was found, including a significant source term from the gravitational forces. The inclination of the vessel is modelled using a slope parameter that varied between -1 and 1. The wave speed was shown to be related to the wall thickness, and the time to first shock formation was shown to be directly proportional to this thickness. Two non-dimensional parameters were derived for the ratio of gravitational forces to viscous and momentum forces, respectively, and their values were calculated for the different types of vessel found in the human vasculature, showing that gravitational forces were significant in comparison with either viscous or momentum forces for every type of vessel. The steady-state solution of the governing equations showed that gravitational forces cause an increase in area of approximately 5% per metre per unit slope. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the aorta showed that a positive slope causes a velocity pulse to change in amplitude approximately linearly with distance: -4% per metre and +5% per metre for vessels inclined vertically upwards and downwards, respectively, in comparison with only +0.5% for a horizontal vessel. These simulations also showed that the change relative to the zero slope condition in the maximum rate of change of area with distance, which was taken to be a measure of the rate of shock formation, is proportional to both the slope and the wall thickness-to-inner radius ratio, with a constant of proportionality of 1.2. At a ratio of 0.25, typical of that found in human arteries, the distance to shock formation is thus decreased and increased by 30% for vessels

  10. Abnormal Whole Blood Thrombi in Humans with Inherited Platelet Receptor Defects

    PubMed Central

    Castellino, Francis J.; Liang, Zhong; Davis, Patrick K.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Musunuru, Harsha; Donahue, Deborah L.; Smith, Denise L.; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the critical features of platelets required for formation and stability of thrombi, thromboelastography and platelet aggregation measurements were employed on whole blood of normal patients and of those with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) and Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia (GT). We found that separation of platelet activation, as assessed by platelet aggregation, from that needed to form viscoelastic stable whole blood thrombi, occurred. In normal human blood, ristocetin and collagen aggregated platelets, but did not induce strong viscoelastic thrombi. However, ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and protease-activated-receptor-1 and -4 agonists, stimulated both processes. During this study, we identified the genetic basis of a very rare double heterozygous GP1b deficiency in a BSS patient, along with a new homozygous GP1b inactivating mutation in another BSS patient. In BSS whole blood, ADP responsiveness, as measured by thrombus strength, was diminished, while ADP-induced platelet aggregation was normal. Further, the platelets of 3 additional GT patients showed very weak whole blood platelet aggregation toward the above agonists and provided whole blood thrombi of very low viscoelastic strength. These results indicate that measurements of platelet counts and platelet aggregability do not necessarily correlate with generation of stable thrombi, a potentially significant feature in patient clinical outcomes. PMID:23300803

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of carotid vessel wall and plaque thickness and their relationship with pulmonary abnormalities in ex-smokers without airflow limitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jieyu; Pike, Damien; Chow, Tommy W S; Kirby, Miranda; Parraga, Grace; Chiu, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between carotid disease and modestly abnormal airflow in ex-smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well-understood. We generated 3D ultrasound measurements of carotid vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) and vessel wall volume (VWV) to quantify and evaluate such carotid ultrasound measurements in ex- and never-smokers without airflow limitation. These patients did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for COPD. We also investigated the relationship of carotid atherosclerosis with pulmonary phenotypes of COPD. We evaluated 61 subjects without a clinical diagnosis of pulmonary or vascular diseases including 34 never-smokers (72 ± 6 year) and 27 ex-smokers (73 ± 9 year). We measured mean VWT ([Formula: see text]) and mean VWT specific to carotid regions-of-interest ([Formula: see text]) and evaluated potential differences between ex- and never-smokers. Carotid ultrasound and pulmonary disease measurement relationships were also evaluated using correlation coefficients (r) and multivariate regression analyses. Ex-smokers had a significantly greater [Formula: see text] (p = 0.003) and [Formula: see text] (p < 0.00001) than never-smokers, whereas a significant difference between the two groups was not detected by VWV (p = 1.0). There were significant correlations between the ventilation defect percent (VDP) measured by MRI with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.42, p = 0.001) and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.56, p = 0.00001). Multivariate regression models showed that VDP significantly predicted [Formula: see text] (β = 0.38, p = 0.004) and [Formula: see text] (β = 0.50, p = 0.00001). VWT-based measurements detected differences in vessel-wall-plus-plaque burden in ex- and never-smokers, which were not revealed using VWV. There were significant correlations between cardiovascular and pulmonary disease biomarkers in these ex-smokers who did not have a clinical diagnosis of

  12. Well-balanced high-order solver for blood flow in networks of vessels with variable properties.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lucas O; Toro, Eleuterio F

    2013-12-01

    We present a well-balanced, high-order non-linear numerical scheme for solving a hyperbolic system that models one-dimensional flow in blood vessels with variable mechanical and geometrical properties along their length. Using a suitable set of test problems with exact solution, we rigorously assess the performance of the scheme. In particular, we assess the well-balanced property and the effective order of accuracy through an empirical convergence rate study. Schemes of up to fifth order of accuracy in both space and time are implemented and assessed. The numerical methodology is then extended to realistic networks of elastic vessels and is validated against published state-of-the-art numerical solutions and experimental measurements. It is envisaged that the present scheme will constitute the building block for a closed, global model for the human circulation system involving arteries, veins, capillaries and cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Study of blood flow inside the stenosis vessel under the effect of solenoid magnetic field using ferrohydrodynamics principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badfar, Homayoun; Motlagh, Saber Yekani; Sharifi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, biomagnetic blood flow in the stenosis vessel under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field is studied using the ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) model. The parabolic profile is considered at an inlet of the axisymmetric stenosis vessel. Blood is modeled as electrically non-conducting, Newtonian and homogeneous fluid. Finite volume and the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm are utilized to discretize governing equations. The investigation is studied at different magnetic numbers ( MnF=164, 328, 1640 and 3280) and the number of the coil loops (three, five and nine loops). Results indicate an increase in heat transfer, wall shear stress and energy loss (pressure drop) with an increment in the magnetic number (ratio of Kelvin force to dynamic pressure force), arising from the FHD, and the number of solenoid loops. Furthermore, the flow pattern is affected by the magnetic field, and the temperature of blood can be decreased up to 1.48 {}°C under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field with nine loops and reference magnetic field ( B0) of 2 tesla.

  14. Direct evidence for the role of caveolin-1 and caveolae in mechanotransduction and remodeling of blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Bergaya, Sonia; Murata, Takahisa; Alp, Ilkay F.; Bauer, Michael P.; Lin, Michelle I.; Drab, Marek; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.; Stan, Radu V.; Sessa, William C.

    2006-01-01

    Caveolae in endothelial cells have been implicated as plasma membrane microdomains that sense or transduce hemodynamic changes into biochemical signals that regulate vascular function. Therefore we compared long- and short-term flow-mediated mechanotransduction in vessels from WT mice, caveolin-1 knockout (Cav-1 KO) mice, and Cav-1 KO mice reconstituted with a transgene expressing Cav-1 specifically in endothelial cells (Cav-1 RC mice). Arterial remodeling during chronic changes in flow and shear stress were initially examined in these mice. Ligation of the left external carotid for 14 days to lower blood flow in the common carotid artery reduced the lumen diameter of carotid arteries from WT and Cav-1 RC mice. In Cav-1 KO mice, the decrease in blood flow did not reduce the lumen diameter but paradoxically increased wall thickness and cellular proliferation. In addition, in isolated pressurized carotid arteries, flow-mediated dilation was markedly reduced in Cav-1 KO arteries compared with those of WT mice. This impairment in response to flow was rescued by reconstituting Cav-1 into the endothelium. In conclusion, these results showed that endothelial Cav-1 and caveolae are necessary for both rapid and long-term mechanotransduction in intact blood vessels. PMID:16670769

  15. Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusion with smooth muscle stroma and abnormal vessels.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Tamura, Masato; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Inoue, Kaori; Ohara, Masahiko; Mizuno, Keiko; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2009-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion has been recently identified. Herein is presented a case of RCC with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with unusual histological findings. A 68-year-old Japanese woman was incidentally found to have a renal mass on CT. Histological examination showed clear cell neoplasm with alveolar and papillary growth patterns. The nuclear atypia corresponded to Fuhrman grade 3. Additionally, smooth muscle stroma was observed and abnormal vessels showing a heterogeniety in thickness were also identified. On immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and Melan A, and focally positive for CD10 and RCC marker. The smooth muscle stroma was positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon, but reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the tumor using frozen material could not detect any previously reported chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTC-TFE3, PSF-TFE3 or NoNo-TFE3. G-band karyotype was unsuccessful. Pathologists should pay attention to the afore-described unusual stromal reaction of adult-onset RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

  16. Blood vessel endothelium-directed tumor cell streaming in breast tumors requires the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leung, E; Xue, A; Wang, Y; Rougerie, P; Sharma, V P; Eddy, R; Cox, D; Condeelis, J

    2017-01-01

    During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates. We found that tumor cells and macrophages, when plated together on the micro-patterned substrates, do not demonstrate sustained directional migration in only one direction (sustained directionality) but show random bi-directional walking. Sustained directionality of tumor cells as seen in vivo was established in vitro when beads coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were placed at one end of the micro-patterned ‘ECM fibers' within the assay. We demonstrated that these endothelial cells supply the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) required for the chemotactic gradient responsible for sustained directionality. Using this in vitro reconstituted streaming system, we found that directional streaming is dependent on, and most effectively blocked, by inhibiting the HGF/C-Met signaling pathway between endothelial cells and tumor cells. Key observations made with the in vitro reconstituted system implicating C-Met signaling were confirmed in vivo in mammary tumors using the in vivo invasion assay and intravital multiphoton imaging of tumor cell streaming. These results establish HGF/C-Met as a central organizing signal in blood vessel-directed tumor cell migration in vivo and highlight a promising role for C-Met inhibitors in blocking tumor cell streaming and metastasis in vivo, and for use in human trials. PMID:27893712

  17. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of Antiprogesterone RU486 on VEGF Expression and Blood Vessel Remodeling on Ovarian Follicles before Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Paolo; Russo, Valentina; Bernabò, Nicola; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation is strictly related to the development of an adequate blood vessel network required to sustain the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Even if the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) drives angiogenesis before ovulation, the local role exerted by Progesterone (P4) remains to be clarified, in particular when its concentration rapidly increases before ovulation. Aim This in vivo study was designed to clarify the effect promoted by a P4 receptor antagonist, RU486, on VEGF expression and follicular angiogenesis before ovulation, in particular, during the transition from pre to periovulatory follicles induced by human Chorionic Gonadotropins (hCG) administration. Material and Methods Preovulatory follicle growth and ovulation were pharmacologically induced in prepubertal gilts by combining equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG) and hCG used in the presence or absence of RU486. The effects on VEGF expression were analyzed using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies, either on granulosa or on theca layers of follicles isolated few hours before ovulation. This angiogenic factor was also correlated to follicular morphology and to blood vessels architecture. Results and Conclusions VEGF production, blood vessel network and follicle remodeling were impaired by RU486 treatment, even if the cause-effect correlation remains to be clarified. The P4 antagonist strongly down-regulated theca VEGF expression, thus, preventing most of the angiogenic follicle response induced by hCG. RU486-treated follicles displayed a reduced vascular area, a lower rate of endothelial cell proliferation and a reduced recruitment of perivascular mural cells. These data provide important insights on the biological role of RU486 and, indirectly, on steroid hormones during periovulatory follicular phase. In addition, an in vivo model is proposed to evaluate how periovulatory follicular angiogenesis may

  19. Time-Dependent Impact of Irreversible Electroporation on Pancreas, Liver, Blood Vessels and Nerves: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Vogel, J A; van Veldhuisen, E; Agnass, P; Crezee, J; Dijk, F; Verheij, J; van Gulik, T M; Meijerink, M R; Vroomen, L G; van Lienden, K P; Besselink, M G

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation technique in the treatment of unresectable cancer. The non-thermal mechanism is thought to cause mostly apoptosis compared to necrosis in thermal techniques. Both in experimental and clinical studies, a waiting time between ablation and tissue or imaging analysis to allow for cell death through apoptosis, is often reported. However, the dynamics of the IRE effect over time remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to summarize these effects in relation to the time between treatment and evaluation. A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for original articles using IRE on pancreas, liver or surrounding structures in animal or human studies. Data on pathology and time between IRE and evaluation were extracted. Of 2602 screened studies, 36 could be included, regarding IRE in liver (n = 24), pancreas (n = 4), blood vessels (n = 4) and nerves (n = 4) in over 440 animals (pig, rat, goat and rabbit). No eligible human studies were found. In liver and pancreas, the first signs of apoptosis and haemorrhage were observed 1-2 hours after treatment, and remained visible until 24 hours in liver and 7 days in pancreas after which the damaged tissue was replaced by fibrosis. In solitary blood vessels, the tunica media, intima and lumen remained unchanged for 24 hours. After 7 days, inflammation, fibrosis and loss of smooth muscle cells were demonstrated, which persisted until 35 days. In nerves, the median time until demonstrable histological changes was 7 days. Tissue damage after IRE is a dynamic process with remarkable time differences between tissues in animals. Whereas pancreas and liver showed the first damages after 1-2 hours, this took 24 hours in blood vessels and 7 days in nerves.

  20. Time-Dependent Impact of Irreversible Electroporation on Pancreas, Liver, Blood Vessels and Nerves: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agnass, P.; Crezee, J.; Dijk, F.; Verheij, J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Meijerink, M. R.; Vroomen, L. G.; van Lienden, K. P.; Besselink, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation technique in the treatment of unresectable cancer. The non-thermal mechanism is thought to cause mostly apoptosis compared to necrosis in thermal techniques. Both in experimental and clinical studies, a waiting time between ablation and tissue or imaging analysis to allow for cell death through apoptosis, is often reported. However, the dynamics of the IRE effect over time remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to summarize these effects in relation to the time between treatment and evaluation. Methods A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for original articles using IRE on pancreas, liver or surrounding structures in animal or human studies. Data on pathology and time between IRE and evaluation were extracted. Results Of 2602 screened studies, 36 could be included, regarding IRE in liver (n = 24), pancreas (n = 4), blood vessels (n = 4) and nerves (n = 4) in over 440 animals (pig, rat, goat and rabbit). No eligible human studies were found. In liver and pancreas, the first signs of apoptosis and haemorrhage were observed 1–2 hours after treatment, and remained visible until 24 hours in liver and 7 days in pancreas after which the damaged tissue was replaced by fibrosis. In solitary blood vessels, the tunica media, intima and lumen remained unchanged for 24 hours. After 7 days, inflammation, fibrosis and loss of smooth muscle cells were demonstrated, which persisted until 35 days. In nerves, the median time until demonstrable histological changes was 7 days. Conclusions Tissue damage after IRE is a dynamic process with remarkable time differences between tissues in animals. Whereas pancreas and liver showed the first damages after 1–2 hours, this took 24 hours in blood vessels and 7 days in nerves. PMID:27870918

  1. Expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its splice variants in human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deepesh; Patel, Anand; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Feng; Qian, Jin; Wang, Yusi; Barman, Scott A.; Venema, Richard C.; Stepp, David W.; Daniel Rudic, R.

    2012-01-01

    The expression and functional significance of NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) and its five isoforms in vascular cells is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine whether Nox5-α, -β, -δ, -γ, and -ε (short) are expressed in human blood vessels and evaluate their respective functions. Nox5 mRNA and protein were detected in human blood vessels, cultured human vascular smooth muscle (HVSMC) and endothelium, but not fibroblasts. The most abundant isoforms were α and β, whereas δ and γ were not detected. Nox5-α and -β produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but -δ, -γ, and -ε were not catalytically active. Coexpression of the active Nox5 isoforms with inactive Nox5 variants suppressed ROS production, and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that Nox5-β binds the inactive ε variant, which may account for reduced ROS production. In HVSMC, angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and TNF-α increased endogenous Nox5 mRNA levels, while adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nox5 promoted p38 MAPK, JAK2, JNK, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells (EC), but only increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HVSMC. At higher levels of Nox5, there was evidence of increased apoptosis in EC, but not in HVSMC, as detected by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. Although catalytically inactive, Nox5-ε potently activated ERK in HVSMC, and increased expression of Nox5-ε promoted HVSMC proliferation. Nox5 is expressed in human blood vessels. The Nox5-α and -β splice variants are the major isoforms that are expressed and the only variants capable of ROS production. Nox5-ε can inhibit Nox5 activity and activate ERK and HVSMC proliferation. PMID:22427510

  2. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  3. Multiscale smeared finite element model for mass transport in biological tissue: From blood vessels to cells and cellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Kojic, M; Milosevic, M; Simic, V; Koay, E J; Kojic, N; Ziemys, A; Ferrari, M

    2018-05-21

    One of the basic and vital processes in living organisms is mass exchange, which occurs on several levels: it goes from blood vessels to cells and organelles within cells. On that path, molecules, as oxygen, metabolic products, drugs, etc. Traverse different macro and micro environments - blood, extracellular/intracellular space, and interior of organelles; and also biological barriers such as walls of blood vessels and membranes of cells and organelles. Many aspects of this mass transport remain unknown, particularly the biophysical mechanisms governing drug delivery. The main research approach relies on laboratory and clinical investigations. In parallel, considerable efforts have been directed to develop computational tools for additional insight into the intricate process of mass exchange and transport. Along these lines, we have recently formulated a composite smeared finite element (CSFE) which is composed of the smeared continuum pressure and concentration fields of the capillary and lymphatic system, and of these fields within tissue. The element offers an elegant and simple procedure which opens up new lines of inquiry and can be applied to large systems such as organs and tumors models. Here, we extend this concept to a multiscale scheme which concurrently couples domains that span from large blood vessels, capillaries and lymph, to cell cytosol and further to organelles of nanometer size. These spatial physical domains are coupled by the appropriate connectivity elements representing biological barriers. The composite finite element has "degrees of freedom" which include pressures and concentrations of all compartments of the vessels-tissue assemblage. The overall model uses the standard, measurable material properties of the continuum biological environments and biological barriers. It can be considered as a framework into which we can incorporate various additional effects (such as electrical or biochemical) for transport through membranes or within

  4. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012

  5. Robust MR assessment of cerebral blood volume and mean vessel size using SPION-enhanced ultrashort echo acquisition.

    PubMed

    Han, S H; Cho, J H; Jung, H S; Suh, J Y; Kim, J K; Kim, Y R; Cho, G; Cho, H

    2015-05-15

    Intravascular superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)-enhanced MR transverse relaxation rates (∆R2(⁎) and ∆R2) are widely used to investigate in vivo vascular parameters, such as the cerebral blood volume (CBV), microvascular volume (MVV), and mean vessel size index (mVSI, ∆R2(⁎)/∆R2). Although highly efficient, regional comparison of vascular parameters acquired using gradient-echo based ∆R2(⁎) is hampered by its high sensitivity to magnetic field perturbations arising from air-tissue interfaces and large vessels. To minimize such demerits, we took advantage of the dual contrast property of SPION and both theoretically and experimentally verified the direct benefit of replacing gradient-echo based ∆R2(⁎) measurement with ultra-short echo time (UTE)-based ∆R1 contrast to generate the robust CBV and mVSI maps. The UTE acquisition minimized the local measurement errors from susceptibility perturbations and enabled dose-independent CBV measurement using the vessel/tissue ∆R1 ratio, while independent spin-echo acquisition enabled simultaneous ∆R2 measurement and mVSI calculation of the cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb, which are animal brain regions typified by significant susceptibility-associated measurement errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Angiogenesis in the Developing Spinal Cord: Blood Vessel Exclusion from Neural Progenitor Region Is Mediated by VEGF and Its Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruaki; Takase, Yuta; Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular plexus (PNVP) that envelops the neural tube. At the ventral region of the PNVP, the INVP grows dorsally in the neural tube, and we observed that these vessels followed the defined path at the interface between the medially positioned and undifferentiated neural progenitor zone and the laterally positioned differentiated zone. When the interface between these two zones was experimentally displaced, INVP faithfully followed a newly formed interface, suggesting that the growth path of the INVP is determined by surrounding neural cells. The progenitor zone expressed mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor-A whereas its receptor VEGFR2 and FLT-1 (VEGFR1), a decoy for VEGF, were expressed in INVP. By manipulating the neural tube with either VEGF or the soluble form of FLT-1, we found that INVP grew in a VEGF-dependent manner, where VEGF signals appear to be fine-tuned by counteractions with anti-angiogenic activities including FLT-1 and possibly semaphorins. These results suggest that the stereotypic patterning of early INVP is achieved by interactions between these vessels and their surrounding neural cells, where VEGF and its antagonists play important roles. PMID:25585380

  7. H2O2 sensors of lungs and blood vessels and their role in the antioxidant defense of the body.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-10-01

    This paper considers the composition and function of sensory systems monitoring H2O2 level by the lung neuroepithelial cells and carotid bodies. These systems are localized in the plasma membrane of the corresponding cells and are composed of (O2*-)-generating NADPH-oxidase and an H2O2-activated K+ channel. This complex structure of the H2O2 sensors is probably due to their function in antioxidant defense. By means of these sensors, an increase in the H2O2 level in lung or blood results in a decrease in lung ventilation and constriction of blood vessels. This action lowers the O2 flux to the tissues and, hence, intracellular [O2]. The [O2] decrease, in turn, inhibits intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. The possible roles of such systems under normal conditions (e.g., the effect of O2*- in air) and in some pathologies (e.g., pneumonia) is discussed.

  8. Influence of large intrahepatic blood vessels on the gross and histological characteristics of lesions produced by radiofrequency ablation in a pig liver model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Shimizu, Ichiro; Oshio, Atsuo; Fukuno, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Akemi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Sano, Nobuya; Ito, Susumu

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether the presence of large intrahepatic blood vessels (>/=3 mm) affect radiofrequency (RF)-induced coagulation necrosis, the gross and histological characteristics of RF-ablated areas proximal to or around vessels were examined in normal pig livers. An RF ablation treatment using a two-stepwise extension technique produced 12 lesions: six contained vessels (Group A), and the other six were localized around vessels (Group B). Gross examination revealed that the longest and shortest diameters of the ablated lesions were significantly larger in Group B than in Group A. In Group A, patent vessels contiguous to the lesion were present in a tongue-shaped area, whereas the lesions in Group B were spherical. Staining with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase was negative within the ablated area; but, if vessels were present in the ablated area, the cells around the vessels in an opposite direction to the ablation were stained blue. Roll-off can be achieved with 100% cellular destruction within a lesion that does not contain large vessels. The ablated area was decreased in lesions that contained large vessels, suggesting that the presence of large vessels in the ablated area further increases the cooling effect and may require repeated RF ablation treatment to achieve complete coagulation necrosis.

  9. Platelets are responsible for the accumulation of β-amyloid in blood clots inside and around blood vessels in mouse brain after thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y; Dávila-Rodríguez, Josué; Rivera-Aponte, David E; Zueva, Lidia V; Washington, A Valance; Sanabria, Priscilla; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2017-01-01

    Platelets contain beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ peptide (Aβ) that can be released upon activation. During thrombosis, platelets are concentrated in clots and activated. We used in vivo fluorescent analysis and electron microscopy in mice to determine to what degree platelets are concentrated in clots. We used immunostaining to visualize Aβ after photothrombosis in mouse brains. Both in vivo results and electron microscopy revealed that platelets were 300-500 times more concentrated in clots than in non-clotted blood. After thrombosis in control mice, but not in thrombocytopenic animals, Aβ immunofluorescence was present inside blood vessels in the visual cortex and around capillaries in the entorhinal cortex. The increased concentration of platelets allows enhanced release of Aβ during thrombosis, suggesting an additional source of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer's patients that may arise if frequent micro-thrombosis events occur in their brains. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of aggregated nanoparticles steering during magnetic-guided drug delivery in the blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiar, Ali Kafash; Le, Tuan-Anh; Amin, Faiz Ul; Kim, Myeong Ok; Yoon, Jungwon

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic-guided targeted drug delivery (TDD) systems can enhance the treatment of diverse diseases. Despite the potential and promising results of nanoparticles, aggregation prevents precise particle guidance in the vasculature. In this study, we developed a simulation platform to investigate aggregation during steering of nanoparticles using a magnetic field function. The magnetic field function (MFF) comprises a positive and negative pulsed magnetic field generated by electromagnetic coils, which prevents adherence of particles to the vessel wall during magnetic guidance. A commonly used Y-shaped vessel was simulated and the performance of the MFF analyzed; the experimental data were in agreement with the simulation results. Moreover, the effects of various parameters on magnetic guidance were evaluated and the most influential identified. The simulation results presented herein will facilitate more precise guidance of nanoparticles in vivo.

  11. Targeting the tumor blood vessel network to enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Shi, Wenyin

    2003-01-01

    It has been well established that the vascularization of solid tumors is a prerequisite if a clinically relevant size is to be reached. For progressive tumor growth, the vessel network must continuously expand to satisfy the neoplastic cells' nutritional needs and waste product removal requirements. This utter reliance of the tumor on its vasculature provides a logical target for new approaches to cancer therapy. Indeed, there currently exists a great deal of enthusiasm for the development of interventions that compromise the growth and/or function of the tumor neovasculature. Two primary directions are being pursued. Inhibitors of angiogenesis seek to interrupt the angiogenic process to prevent new vessel formation. Antivascular approaches aim to cause direct damage to the tumor endothelium and thus lead to extensive secondary neoplastic cell death. The application of such strategies as adjuvants to conventional radiation treatments offers unique opportunities to develop more effective cancer therapies. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gravitation stress and hypokinesia on blood vessels of the testicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazhchenko, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were exposed to single maximum endurable stresses of cranio-caudal direction, hypokinesia for periods of one to eight weeks, and hypokinesia followed by gravitation stresses. The stresses caused dilatation of vessels, greater sinuosity, and occasional ruptures of the walls and extravasation. The greater part of the capillaries were dilated; the greatest part constricted. In hypokinesia there was an increasing atrophy of the testes. Significant results are reported.

  13. Smad4 deletion in blood vessel endothelial cells promotes ovarian cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Ya; Zeng, Zhen; Qiao, Long; Zhuang, Liang; Gao, Qinglei; Ma, Ding; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-05-01

    SMAD4 is a critical co-smad in signal transduction pathways activated in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-related ligands, regulating cell growth and differentiation. The roles played by SMAD4 inactivation in tumors highlighted it as a tumor-suppressor gene. Herein, we report that loss of SMAD4 expression in vascular endothelial cells promotes ovarian cancer invasion. SiRNA transfer of this gene in the HUVEC reduced SMAD4 protein expression and function. Although it reduced the vessel endothelial cell tubule formation in vitro and in vivo, it did not affect the tumor growth significantly in vivo. However, it weakened the barrier integrity in endothelial cells and increased vessel permeability and the ovarian cancer liver metastasis. We documented reduced angiogenesis and increased invasion histologically and by intravital microscopy, and gained mechanistic insight at the messenger and gene level. Finally, we found a negative reciprocal regulation between SMAD4 and FYN. FYN is one of the Src family kinases (SFK), activation of which can cause dissociation of cell-cell junctions and adhesion, resulting in paracellular hypermeability. Upon SMAD4 deletion, we detected high expression levels of FYN in vessel endothelial cells, suggesting the mechanism of the ovarian tumor cells cross the endothelial barrier and transform to an invasive phenotype.

  14. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  15. Effect of gravitational overloads, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the vessels of the pulmonary blood circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasimtsev, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Vessels of the pulmonary circuit are studied under normal conditions, in exposure to single stress or continuous threshold endurable chestspine gravitational stresses, and one to eight weak hypokinesia and hypodynamic effects followed by stress. Examination methods include rentgenography and microrentgenography, clearing, and histology. In exposure to gravitational stress the distal portions of the arterial vessels of the 3 and 4 orders constrict, while all veins dilate. Sinuosity of all vessels is noted. The volume of the capillary bed increases and signs of perivascular edema occur. Due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia the arteries constricted and the arterial bed becomes poor. The veins of all orders dilate and the volume of the capillary bed increases. The changes grew greater the longer the terms of hypodyamic effects. Successive combination of hypokinesia and hypodynamia and gravitational stresses cause more pronounced changes than separate effects of these two factors and result in great deformity of the vascular walls, including their rupture and penetration of formed elements beyond the limits of the vascular bed.

  16. Endothelial Cell Hyperproliferation and Stratification in Uteroplacental Blood Vessels of the Black Mastiff Bat, Molossus rufus

    PubMed Central

    Rasweiler IV, J.J.; Badwaik, N.K.; Salame, G.; Abulafia, O.

    2011-01-01

    Placentation was studied histologically and immunocytochemically in black mastiff bats obtained at frequent intervals throughout pregnancy. These were bred in a captive colony or collected from a reproductively-synchronized wild population. During late pregnancy, the single fetus was largely sustained by a discoidal, hemochorial placenta located at the cranial end of the right uterine horn. This invariant positioning was determined by a vascular tuft that developed there both during early pregnancy and non-pregnant cycles. This provided a scaffold for early placental morphogenesis. As development proceeded, small arterioles and venules serving the tuft were converted to large uteroplacental vessels. Within the base of the placenta, these became lined by an unusual vascular epithelium composed of intermingled patches of multilayered endothelial cells and cytotrophoblast. Initially, the endothelium became multilayered by hypertrophy, proliferation, and infolding of its basal lamina. These created endothelial bilayers usually insinuated between basal laminae. The development of temporary gaps in the laminae then permitted further enlargement of the vessels and proliferation of the endothelial cells as monolayer sheets or chains. The latter were interconnected, forming a complex, stratified, cellular network associated with a prominent meshwork of basal laminae. Throughout much of pregnancy, these endothelial cells were cuboidal to columnar and possessed an abundance of basal glycoprotein granules presumably containing basal lamina precursors. The cells also expressed vimentin and frequently von Willebrand factor, but not cytokeratins or desmin. Pronounced thickening of the endothelia and amplification of their basal laminae likely evolved to greatly strengthen the walls of the uteroplacental vessels. PMID:21764447

  17. Vasoactive receptors in abdominal blood