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Sample records for abnormal body composition

  1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and body composition abnormalities are common in advanced intensively-treated (transplanted) multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, D M; Boland, E; Ezaydi, Y; Ross, R J M; Ahmedzai, S H; Snowden, J A

    2014-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have increased life expectancy in multiple myeloma, but little is known about the endocrine, metabolic and nutritional status of long-term survivors. We performed endocrine, metabolic, bone, body composition and nutritional evaluations in 32 patients with intensively-treated, advanced but stable, myeloma a median duration of 6 years from diagnosis and three lines of intensive treatment, including at least one haematopoietic SCT procedure. All patients were off active treatment. There was a high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction: hypothyroidism (9%), hypogonadism (65% males) and elevated prolactin (19%). Adrenocortical function was preserved despite large cumulative corticosteroid pretreatment. Biochemical markers were consistent with postmenopausal status in all females and infertility in males. Nutritionally, 59% were vitamin D insufficient/deficient, reduced serum folate in 25% and vitamin B12 in 6%. Total body DEXA scanning confirmed 'sarcopenic-obesity' in 65%, but reduced bone density was seen in a minority. We conclude that potentially correctable endocrine, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities are prevalent in heavily-treated patients with stable multiple myeloma. Preservation of bone supports the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment from diagnosis, but sarcopenic-obesity may contribute to frailty. Ultimately, multi-system screening and appropriate interventions may optimise quality of long-term survival and further studies are warranted. PMID:24710566

  2. Sexual dimorphism of body composition.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2007-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human body composition is evident from fetal life, but emerges primarily during puberty. At birth, males have a similar fat mass to females but are longer and have greater lean mass. Such differences remain detectable during childhood; however, females enter puberty earlier and undergo a more rapid pubertal transition, whereas boys have a substantially longer growth period. After adjusting for dimorphism in size (height), adult males have greater total lean mass and mineral mass, and a lower fat mass than females. These whole-body differences are complemented by major differences in tissue distribution. Adult males have greater arm muscle mass, larger and stronger bones, and reduced limb fat, but a similar degree of central abdominal fat. Females have a more peripheral distribution of fat in early adulthood; however, greater parity and the menopause both induce a more android fat distribution with increasing age. Sex differences in body composition are primarily attributable to the action of sex steroid hormones, which drive the dimorphisms during pubertal development. Oestrogen is important not only in body fat distribution but also in the female pattern of bone development that predisposes to a greater female risk of osteoporosis in old age. Disorders of sex development are associated with significant abnormalities of body composition, attributable largely to their impact on mechanisms of hormonal regulation. PMID:17875489

  3. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  4. Body Composition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... more bone and muscle will weigh more in water than a person with less bone and muscle. The volume of the body is calculated and body density and body fat percentage are calculated. This technique ...

  5. Body composition in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  6. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    PubMed Central

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  7. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Francesca L; Atkins, Kelly J; Duncum, Anna J F; Mundy, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  8. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    PubMed Central

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance. PMID:25157299

  9. Body composition: Where and when.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. PMID:26564096

  10. Body Composition. A Round Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Four experts discuss body composition, what it is, why it is assessed, how it is measured, and how to measure it in children and the aged. Standards of fatness, both overfat and underfat, and bone and muscle assessment are covered in the discussion. (MT)

  11. Mechanisms of abnormal lamellar body secretion and the dysfunctional skin barrier in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Wakefield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    We review here how diverse inherited and acquired abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins converge to produce defective permeability barrier function and antimicrobial defense in AD. Although best known are mutations in filaggrin (FLG), mutations in other member of the fused S-100 family of proteins (i.e., hornerin [hrn] and filaggrin 2 [flg-2]); the cornified envelope precursor (e.g., SPRR3); mattrin, encoded by Tmem79, which regulates the assembly of lamellar bodies; SPINK5, which encodes the serine protease inhibitor, LEKTI1; and the fatty acid transporter, FATP4, have all been linked to AD. Yet, these abnormalities often only predispose to AD; additional acquired stressors that further compromise barrier function; e.g., psychological stress, a low ambient humidity, or high pH surfactants, often are required to trigger disease. Th2 cytokines can also compromise barrier function by downregulating expression of multiple epidermal structural proteins, lipid synthetic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides. All of these inherited and acquired abnormalities converge on the lamellar body secretory system, producing abnormalities in lipid composition, secretion and/or extracellular lamellar membrane organization, as well as in antimicrobial defense. Finally, we briefly review therapeutic options that address this new pathogenic paradigm. PMID:25131691

  12. Investigation of defect-induced abnormal body current in fin field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuan-Ju; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Yang, Ren-Ya; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2015-08-24

    This letter investigates the mechanism of abnormal body current at the linear region in n-channel high-k/metal gate stack fin field effect transistors. Unlike body current, which is generated by impact ionization at high drain voltages, abnormal body current was found to increase with decreasing drain voltages. Notably, the unusual body leakage only occurs in three-dimensional structure devices. Based on measurements under different operation conditions, the abnormal body current can be attributed to fin surface defect-induced leakage current, and the mechanism is electron tunneling to the fin via the defects, resulting in holes left at the body terminal.

  13. Body composition measurements during infancy.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W

    2000-05-01

    Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform changes in body parts, that is, the components of BC during infancy, can strain the technical limits of all methods. Many techniques for in vivo BC measurement used in older people have been applied to infants. However, the vast majority of them either are difficult to adapt for widespread use in infants, or the roles and limitations for using them during infancy are ill-defined because of limited or no critical validation and cross-calibration studies. Based on validation data from animals, well-defined methodological issues in data acquisition and analyses, availability of normative data, and pertinent accuracy and precision of the technique to allow us to determinate clinically relevant changes in BC within a reasonable time interval, three techniques appear to be most suitable for in vivo BC measurement in infants. Anthropometric measurements can be used in field studies or for group comparisons, and total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and selected dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements can be used to compare BC in individual infants. DXA has the advantages of being able to measure bone mass and the potential to be adaptable to the widely available existing instruments. However, regardless of the techniques used in measuring BC in infants, meticulous attention to details in data acquisition and data analysis, and a knowledge of the limitations of the particular technique are the prerequisites for generating valid data. PMID:10865776

  14. Hierarchical structure analysis describing abnormal base composition of genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Liu, Jian-Kun; She, Zhen-Su

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal base compositional patterns of genomic DNA sequences are studied in the framework of a hierarchical structure (HS) model originally proposed for the study of fully developed turbulence [She and Lévêque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 336 (1994)]. The HS similarity law is verified over scales between 103bp and 105bp , and the HS parameter β is proposed to describe the degree of heterogeneity in the base composition patterns. More than one hundred bacteria, archaea, virus, yeast, and human genome sequences have been analyzed and the results show that the HS analysis efficiently captures abnormal base composition patterns, and the parameter β is a characteristic measure of the genome. Detailed examination of the values of β reveals an intriguing link to the evolutionary events of genetic material transfer. Finally, a sequence complexity (S) measure is proposed to characterize gradual increase of organizational complexity of the genome during the evolution. The present study raises several interesting issues in the evolutionary history of genomes.

  15. Gravitational effects on body composition in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Sanchez P., O.; Burton, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Gallinaceous birds, presenting a wide range of body size, were adapted physiologically to hyperdynamic environments, provided by chronic centrifugation. Chemical composition was measured directly on prepared carcasses, which were anatomically comparable, and more amenable to analysis than the intact body. Body mass and body fat decreased arithmetically with increasing field strength and also with increasing body mass. Water content of lean tissue increased in hyperdynamic environments, but irrespectively of body size.

  16. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  17. Evaluation of Body Composition: Why and How?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of human body composition in vivo remains a critical component in the assessment of nutritional status of an individual.Whereas traditional measurements of standing height and body weight provide information on body mass index and, hence, the risk of some chronic diseases, advanced techno...

  18. Measurement of Body Composition in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Identification and treatment of obesity in children is believed to be an important factor in its control during the adult years. Laboratory and field methods for body composition measurement are described along with estimates of body fat content from anthropometric dimensions. (CJ)

  19. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  20. [Body composition and comorbidity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Marc; Gilbert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and excess in fat versus lean mass is well known to enhance the risk of mortality and morbidity. Several recent works have pointed the importance of analysing more precisely body composition for the assessment of prognosis of patients in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The body mass index (BMI), commonly used for defining obese patients, does not give sufficient indication on the body composition and distribution of fat mass. In the elderly population, relative excess in fat mass associated with a decrease in lean mass is frequently observed. In such situations of sarcopenic obesity, the relative weight stability can be misleading. Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging public health problem in the geriatric population. It appears to be the situation with the worst prognosis for cardiovascular risk. In addition, recent works have highlighted the major impact of visceral fat, clearly linked with cardiovascular events. Body composition has also an impact on other pathologic conditions such as dementia, sleep apnoea or cancer. The links between body composition and morbidity in the elderly population are presented in this review, with emphasis on adipokines and their interactions with other organs such as the heart, liver, skeletal muscle or bones. More precise measurements of body composition, rather than BMI alone, should be developed in the elderly population. PMID:26345585

  1. Body composition analysis in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Weber, David R; Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S

    2012-11-01

    Body composition analysis has become a useful tool in both clinical and research settings. Its use in the pediatric population is complicated by the rapid periods of growth and physical development that are characteristic of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A thorough understanding of the changing nature of body composition during this time is essential for choosing the most appropriate measurement technique for a given individual, population, or clinical question. Growing evidence suggests that tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone are intimately involved in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism. This knowledge, when coupled with advancements in imaging techniques such as MRI and PET-CT, offers the possibility of developing new models of "functional" body composition. These models may prove to be especially important when assessing malnutrition and metabolic risk in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23469390

  2. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal E.; Chiu, Simon; Cernovsky, Zack Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate) related to this increase. Patients and Methods: Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women). Results: Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05) increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI), % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions: Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health. PMID:27162765

  3. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  4. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern

    PubMed Central

    Duncum, A. J. F.; Atkins, K. J.; Beilharz, F. L.; Mundy, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder. PMID:27152128

  5. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern.

    PubMed

    Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder. PMID:27152128

  6. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332

  7. Evaluation of body composition. Current issues.

    PubMed

    Heyward, V H

    1996-09-01

    In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations

  8. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  9. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  11. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  12. Comparison of Some Secondary Body Composition Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Robert A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Body composition measurements vary greatly in degree of measurement difficulty and accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing, chemical dilution or their equivalents were the accepted "gold" standards for assessing fat mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is fast replacing these techniques as the preferred standard. However, these direct measurement…

  13. Out-Of Out-Of Abnormal Unity of Body and Self in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzy, Shahar; Landis, Theodor; Blanke, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Under normal conditions, human subjects experience the self within the limits of the physical body and the limits of the present time. This unified experience of the self in space and time has been challenged by philosophers and physicists. The spatial unity between self and body has also been challenged by a well defined group of experiences called "autoscopic phenomena" (AP), during which subjects have the impression of seeing a second own body in extrapersonal space. Yet, with respect to the three main forms of AP -- autoscopic hallucination, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experience -- previous studies have concentrated on describing the spatial unity between self and body while neglecting to analyze the temporal unity of self and body. Here we describe several AP-cases with an altered experience of age or time for one's own body or self. In some AP-cases the second own body was seen as being younger or older than the subject's actual body. We show that the second own body is experienced as if "coming from another time" although the observing self is experienced in the present time. Other AP-subjects reported a feeling of timelessness of the observing self without any age difference between the subjects' actual and illusory body. We argue that these differences in age or time suggest that the temporal experience of one's own body and self is altered in these subjects. Collectively, these data suggest that AP may be associated not only with abnormal sensations with respect to spatial unity, but also with respect to temporal unity. Moreover, we found that out-of-body experiences were associated with feelings of timelessness and no age differences between self and body and that autoscopic hallucinations and heautoscopy were associated with age differences between self and body but not with feelings of timelessness. We conjecture that out-of-body experiences are characterized by disembodiment not only in space but also in time. For autoscopic hallucinations and

  14. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  15. Effects of spinal cord injury on body composition and metabolic profile – Part I

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Dolbow, James D.; Khalil, Refka K.; Castillo, Camilo; Gater, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Several body composition and metabolic-associated disorders such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities occur prematurely after spinal cord injury (SCI) and at a higher prevalence compared to able-bodied populations. Within a few weeks to months of the injury, there is a significant decrease in total lean mass, particularly lower extremity muscle mass and an accompanying increase in fat mass. The infiltration of fat in intramuscular and visceral sites is associated with abnormal metabolic profiles. The current review will summarize the major changes in body composition and metabolic profiles that can lead to comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases after SCI. It is crucial for healthcare specialists to be aware of the magnitude of these changes. Such awareness may lead to earlier recognition and treatment of metabolic abnormalities that may reduce the co-morbidities seen over the lifetime of persons living with SCI. PMID:25001559

  16. Sarcopenia and the analysis of body composition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra M L; Kehayias, Joseph J

    2014-05-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as "age-related sarcopenia," "dynapenia," "myopenia," "sarcopenic obesity," or simply "sarcopenia." There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the "quality of lean" criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  17. Methods for nurses to measure body composition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jose Maria; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus Maria; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2011-01-01

    Among the methods available for assessing body composition, traditional methods like hydrodensitometry and skin-fold measurements are well known. In this review, we focus on the impedance and interactance methods, which use systems that are usually inexpensive, easily transportable and simple to operate. We also discuss the usefulness of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, particularly for the measurement of fat distribution. Nurses need to be skilled in the use of the equipment and familiar with the techniques. PMID:21876958

  18. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391

  19. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  20. Impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in children: A Glaser Pediatric Research Network study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the relationship between doxorubicin pharmacokinetics and body composition in children with cancer. Children between 1 and 21 years of age, receiving doxorubicin as an infusion of any duration <24 h on either a 1-day or 2-day schedule, were eligible if they had no significant abnormality ...

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder are Associated with Abnormalities in Processing Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lai, Tsz Man; Bohon, Cara; Loo, Sandra K; McCurdy, Danyale; Strober, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan; Feusner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted body image and are frequently comorbid with each other, although their relationship remains little studied. While there is evidence of abnormalities in visual and visuospatial processing in both disorders, no study has directly compared the two. We used two complementary modalities – event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI – to test for abnormal activity associated with early visual signaling. Methods We acquired fMRI and ERP data in separate sessions from 15 unmedicated individuals in each of three groups (weight-restored AN, BDD, and healthy controls) while they viewed images of faces and houses of different spatial frequencies. We used joint independent component analyses to compare activity in visual systems. Results AN and BDD groups demonstrated similar hypoactivity in early secondary visual processing regions and the dorsal visual stream when viewing low spatial frequency faces, linked to the N170 component, as well as in early secondary visual processing regions when viewing low spatial frequency houses, linked to the P100 component. Additionally, the BDD group exhibited hyperactivity in fusiform cortex when viewing high spatial frequency houses, linked to the N170 component. Greater activity in this component was associated with lower attractiveness ratings of faces. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence of similar abnormal spatio-temporal activation in AN and BDD for configural/holistic information for appearance- and nonappearance-related stimuli. This suggests a common phenotype of abnormal early visual system functioning, which may contribute to perceptual distortions. PMID:25652023

  2. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  3. Using theories of delusion formation to explain abnormal beliefs in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD).

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L; Labuschagne, Izelle; Dunai, Judy; Kyrios, Michael; Castle, David J

    2014-03-30

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterised by overvalued or delusional beliefs of 'imagined ugliness'. Delusional beliefs have been explained by a number of cognitive theories, including faulty perceptions, biases in attention, and corruption of semantic memory. Atypical aesthetics may also influence beliefs in BDD. In fourteen BDD patients, compared to controls (n=14), we examined these theories of beliefs in a cognitive test battery consisting of perceptual organisation and visual affect perception tasks, a Stroop task using body words, a sentence verification task, a fluency task, and an attractiveness task. BDD patients performed similar to controls on tasks measuring information (bias) processing and aesthetics. However, BDD showed abnormal abilities on semantic processing involving sentence verification and category fluency. There was only a trend finding of impaired performance on perceptual processing tasks in BDD. The findings suggest that the delusional beliefs in BDD may be explained by impaired semantic processing. PMID:24412353

  4. Ultrasound: Which role in body composition?

    PubMed

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Filonzi, Giacomo; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Battista, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, fast, relatively inexpensive and available tool for estimating adiposity in clinical practice, and in several research settings. It does not expose patients to ionizing radiation risks, making the method ideal for the evaluation, and for follow-up studies. Several parameters and indexes based on adipose tissue thickness have been introduced and tested, and these have been correlated with clinical and laboratoristic parameters. Moreover, ultrasound can also be directed to the estimation of adipose tissue and intracellular fat indirectly, at cellular-molecular level: an opportunity for many radiologists who already and sometimes unconsciously perform "body composition" assessment when looking at the liver, at muscle as well as at other organs. However, standardized procedure and parameters are needing to improve accuracy and reproducibility. The purposes of this review are: 1) to provide a complete overview of the most used and shared measurements of adiposity; 2) to analyze technical conditions, accuracy, and clinical meaning of ultrasound in the study of body composition; 3) to provide some elements for the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of intra-cellular lipids accumulation, in two hot spots: liver and skeletal muscle. PMID:27235340

  5. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  6. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  7. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  8. Maternal body composition is related to infant body composition, but only in males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity of offspring in a rodent model. To begin to translate these findings to humans, we assessed the relationship between maternal obesity and offspring body composition (%Fat) in human infants. %Fat was measured with air displa...

  9. Composite body for gas discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Driessen, A. J. G. C.; Geertsema, E. B.; Oomen, J. J. C.; Rouwendal, J. W.

    1985-02-26

    Composite body, a gas discharge lamp having a sodium pressure from 300-600 torr in particular, having an envelope of densely sintered aluminium oxide or of other sodium vapor-resistant materials and a feed-through member of tantalum, niobium or other metals equivalent thereto, The bonding material consisting of a finely dispersed polycrystalline product having a composition in mole % between the following limits: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-5-70 at least one oxide chosen from Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ti/sub 2/O /SUB x/ , wherein 2

  10. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Lizio, Roberta; Valenzano, Anna; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Soricelli, Andrea; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio

    2011-09-15

    It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz), and gamma (30-40Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight>normal-weight>overweight/obese (p<0.004), whereas occipital alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern normal-weight>underweight>overweight/obese (p<0.00003). Furthermore, amplitude of the parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 sources was stronger in the normal-weight subjects than in the underweight and overweight/obese subjects (p<0.0007). These results suggest that abnormal weight in healthy overweight/obese subjects is related to abnormal cortical neural synchronization at the basis of resting state alpha rhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal. PMID:21704716

  11. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  12. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  13. The computation of body composition data using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T

    1986-01-01

    A body composition programme has been developed for the Texas Instruments TI 59 programmable calculator and printer. The methodology involves the determination of body density by underwater weighing with the ventilated residual volume being measured by helium dilution. Some of the labelled output variables included on the printout are: body density, percent body fat, fat mass and fat free mass. PMID:3755094

  14. Rat body size, composition and growth at hypo- and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypergravity (centrifugation) on body composition were investigated. Hypogravitational and hypergravitational aspects were reflected in the research effort. A list of publications is provided.

  15. Body composition in MesoAmerica.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Mazariegos, M

    1995-03-01

    The fundamental paradigm for the region is short stature. Adult height is on the order of 160 cm for men and 140 cm for women. The timing of this delayed growth has been fixed to the first two years of life, when as much as 2 Z-scores of stature may be loss to the median of the NCHS reference. In the elderly of the region, we have the issue of being initially short and then suffering further loss of stature with age. The height/armspan ratio has proven instructive for exploring that change in height with age. It appears to be less than in Europeans. Demands of a rigorous agricultural lifestyle, the energy content and density of the diet, and the ravages of recurrent infection and parasitism comprise the environmental determinants of body composition in poor MesoAmerican population. They are conducive to a low storage of fat, with lean body mass being subject to response to infections. Because of the basic short stature but muscular maturity of children and adults, one questions whether the assumptions of proportionality of weight for height from the NCHS reference data apply, or whether MesoAmericans should be normally greater in weight for height than a comparably short North American. For some at the lower end of the stature scale, no international reference standards actually exist for adults. All than can be measured with microtoise, calliper, flexible tape and balance has long been recorded in MesoAmerican populations. Certain high-cost and facility- dependent technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body neutron activation analysis, are beyond the scientific economies of any part of the region. Dual energy x-ray absorbitometry instruments are available for clinical diagnosis in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, and could be turned to research ends. Underwater weighing has been practiced variously in MesoAmerica. Researchers in Guatemala have pioneered in the investigative use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to all ages from low

  16. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  17. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  18. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  19. Validation of QMR body composition analysis for infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to validate the use of a quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) device for measuring the body composition of infants and neonates weighing less than 12 kg using the pig as a model. A total of 25 piglets weighing between 2 and 12 kg were studied. Body composition was assessed by ...

  20. Body Composition and Skeletal Health: Too Heavy? Too Thin?

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between body composition and skeletal metabolism has received growing recognition. Low body weight is an established risk factor for fracture. The effect of obesity on skeletal health is less well defined. Extensive studies in patients with anorexia nervosa and obesity have illuminated many of the underlying biologic mechanisms by which body composition modulates bone mass. This review examines the relationship between body composition and bone mass through data from recent research studies throughout the weight spectrum ranging from anorexia nervosa to obesity. PMID:22644889

  1. Changes in body composition of neonatal piglets during growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of neonatal piglet growth it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) provides precise and accurate measurements of total body fat mass, lean mass and total body water in non...

  2. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  3. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  4. Body composition of piglets exhibiting different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and composition of the neonatal pig is of interest because of potential impact on subsequent growth and finally, composition at market weight. The purpose of this study was to compare at weaning the growth and body composition of the largest and smallest pigs (excluding runts) from each o...

  5. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  6. USE OF A NOVEL PEDIATRIC BODY COMPOSITION TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESING BODY FATNESS IN INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The assessment of body composition provides key information for assessing infant growth and for the administration of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of body composition methods in infants is limited due to practical considerations, accuracy, and safety. This study ev...

  7. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  8. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ∼1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (∼0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  9. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  10. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  11. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  12. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  13. Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411

  14. Lipidomic profiling in Crohn's disease: Abnormalities in phosphatidylinositols, with preservation of ceramide, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine composition

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Gavin W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Han, Xianlin; Koster, Grielof; Bielawski, Jacek; Goss, Victoria; Smith, Philip J.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Vega, Roser; Bloom, Stuart L.; Walker, Ann P.; Postle, Anthony D.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition. PMID:22728312

  15. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  16. UREA SPACE AND BODY CONDITION SCORE TO PREDICT BODY COMPOSITION OF MEAT GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (n=40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1-5, with 1 being extreme...

  17. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  18. Predicting mortality based on body composition analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, J M; Garcia-Sabrido, J L; Hanley, J A; Shizgal, H M; Christou, N V

    1989-01-01

    The role of the Nae/Ke ratio (the ratio of exchangeable sodium to exchangeable potassium) was examined as a nutritional marker in surgical patients in relation to anthropometrical and biochemical indexes by its ability to identify patients at risk for mortality after hospitalization. In 73 patients with sepsis and malnutrition (Training Group, Madrid) the following were determined: percentage of recent weight loss, triceps skin fold, midarm muscle circumference, serum albumin, serum transferrin, delayed hypersensitivity skin test response, total lymphocytes, and Nae/Ke ratio by multiple isotope dilution. The predictive power of Nae/Ke ratio was so strong (F = 105.1; p less than 0.00001) that it displaced anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic variables from the linear equation derived from stepwise discriminant analysis using hospital mortality as the dependent variable. A theoretical curve of expected deaths was developed, based on an equation obtained by logistic regression analysis: Pr/death/ = 1/(1 + e[11.8-5.2 Nae/Ke]). Pre- and post-test probabilities on that curve allowed us to determine two cut-off values, Nae/Ke ratios of 1.5 and 2.5, which were markers for nonrisk and mortality, respectively. The model was tested in a heterogeneous data base of surgical patients (n = 417) in another hospital (Validation Group, Montreal). For patients exhibiting an abnormal Nae/Ke ratio (greater than 1.2) and a greater than 10% of probability of death, 54 deaths were expected and 53 observed (X2 = 1.8 NS). Two tests confirmed the basic agreement between the model and its performance, a G statistic of -0.704 and the area beneath the "receiver-operating-characteristic" (ROC) curve (Az = 0.904 + 0.0516 for the Madrid group vs. Az = 0.915 + 0.0349 for the Montreal group, NS). It was concluded from this analysis that, compared with the usual anthropometric measurements, the Nae/Ke ratio, if available, is the best method for identifying malnourished patients at risk of

  19. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  20. Top 10 research questions related to body composition.

    PubMed

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-03-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges ranging from illness to planned interventions. Each focus is significant, and in a sense, they are interdependent, because technological advances allow more sophisticated questions to be addressed, which in turn drives the development of better methods. Significant advances have been made in each area, although perhaps surprisingly basic questions remain. For example, growth trajectories are often estimated from cross-sectional data, given the resources needed for long-term observational studies, and thus, longitudinal descriptive data are still needed. Along with advances in laboratory methods, development of field methods remains relevant for screening and clinical practice. Despite recognition of wide interindividual differences in intervention response, average outcomes continue to be emphasized. With technological advances, it is now possible to examine genetic along with nongenetic factors that underlie changes in body composition, and these techniques need to be applied in long-term, well-controlled trials. In this article, we review 10 key questions in related areas in which research is needed to continue to advance the field. PMID:24749235

  1. History of the U.S. Navy Body Composition program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, David D

    2015-01-01

    The Navy currently employs maximum weight-for-height tables and body fat prediction equations based on circumference measurements to assess body composition. However, many Sailors believe the current method fails to accurately predict body fat percentage. As a result, the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) conducted numerous studies in an attempt to improve the accuracy and reliability of the Navy's Body Composition Analysis program. In 2012, NHRC conducted a study that researched the feasibility of using a single abdominal circumference (AC) measurement in lieu of circumference measurements. The Air Force and National Institutes of Health (NIH) employ a single AC measurement taken at the superior border of the iliac crest to assess body composition and all-cause mortality risk. Although the Air Force and NIH use the iliac crest, NHRC is proposing the Navy use the umbilicus as the AC site since it is less invasive and easier to identify. If implemented, the Navy would use cutoff values of 40 in. and 36 in. for males and females, respectively. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of the Navy's Body Composition Analysis program as well as propose the transition from circumference measurements to a single AC measurement. PMID:25562863

  2. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  3. Development of a sintering methodology through abnormal glow discharge for manufacturing metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, S.; Pineda, Y.; Sarmiento, A.; López, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a sintering methodology is presented by using abnormal glow discharge to metal matrix composites (MMC), consisting of 316 steel, reinforced with titanium carbide (TiC). The wear behaviour of these compounds was evaluated according to the standard ASTM G 99 in a tribometer pin-on-disk. The effect of the percentage of reinforcement (3, 6, and 9%), with 40 minutes of mixing in the planetary mill is analysed, using compaction pressure of 700MPa and sintering temperature of 1,100°C±5°C, gaseous atmosphere of H2 - N2, and sintering time of 30 minutes. As a result of the research, it shows that the best behaviour against wear is obtained when the MMC contains 6% TiC. Under this parameter the lowest percentage of pores and the lowest coefficient of friction are achieved, ensuring that the incorporation of ceramic particles (TiC) in 316 austenitic steel matrix significantly improves the wear resistance. Also, it is shown that it is possible to sinter such materials using the abnormal glow discharge, being a novel and effective method in which the working temperature is reached in a short time.

  4. Two-body wear resistance of some indirect composite resins.

    PubMed

    Savabi, Omid; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Shabanian, Mitra; Anbari, Zahra

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two-body wear of five indirect composites and compare them with enamel. Signum, belleGlass HP, SR Adoro, Dialog, GC Gradia and enamel were formed into cylinders (n = 10). Two-body abrasive wear rates were determined using a porcelain disk and a pin on disk apparatus. The height and weight loss of the specimens were measured by stereomicroscope and digital scale. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests to determine significant differences (alpha = 0.05). GC Gradia showed significantly less wear resistance than the other materials. Enamel was more resistant than any of the tested composites. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that the type of resin, filler size and method of polymerization could have affect the two-body abrasion resistance of indirect composites. PMID:21780731

  5. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  6. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  7. Asymmetry in body composition in female hockey players.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Leszczyński, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. PMID:26077573

  8. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ryan A; Enticott, Peter G; Hohwy, Jakob; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each) were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD. PMID:24925079

  9. Relationships among Fitness, Body Composition, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    LOHMAN, TIMOTHY G.; RING, KIMBERLY; PFEIFFER, KARIN; CAMHI, SARAH; ARREDONDO, ELVA; PRATT, CHARLOTTE; PATE, RUSS; WEBBER, LARRY S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the associations of physical activity and body composition with cardiorespiratory fitness in eighth grade girls. Methods A random sample of 1440 eighth grade girls at 36 schools participated in this cross-sectional investigation, which represented an ethnically and geographically diverse group. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a modified physical work capacity test on a cycle ergometer that predicted workload at a heart rate of 170 beats·min−1. Physical activity was assessed over 6 d in each girl using an accelerometer and body composition was estimated from body mass index and triceps skinfolds using a previously validated equation. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relationships among fitness, physical activity, and body composition. Results Significant linear relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and physical activity were found. The combination of fat and fat-free mass along with racial group and a race by fat-free-mass interaction accounted for 18% (R2) of the variation in physical fitness. Adding moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to the regression model increased the R2 to 22%. Black girls had somewhat lower fitness levels (P < 0.05) especially at higher levels of fat and fat-free mass than other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Physical activity, fat-free mass, and the interaction between fat-free mass and racial group are significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescent girls. PMID:18460987

  10. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  11. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  12. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental

  13. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  14. Bayesian Analyses of Multiple Epistatic QTL Models for Body Weight and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTL. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity. PMID:16545150

  15. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  16. Body Composition After Bone Marrow Transplantation in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Kathy; Hayat, Matthew; Stewart, Kerry J.; Chen, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the body composition and fat distribution of childhood bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors at least one year post-transplantation and examine the ability of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to identify survivors with elevated body fat percentage. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive. Setting Pediatric oncology program at a National Cancer Institute–designated comprehensive cancer center. Sample 48 childhood BMT survivors (27 males and 21 females). Methods Measurements included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, height, weight, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics were reported and mixed-model linear regression models were used to describe findings and associations. Main Research Variables Total body fat percentage and central obesity (defined as a ratio of central to peripheral fat of 1 or greater). Findings Fifty-four percent of survivors had body fat percentages that exceeded recommendations for healthy body composition and 31% qualified as having central obesity. Previous treatment with total body irradiation was associated with higher body fat percentage and central obesity, and graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower body fat percentage. The body mass index (BMI) criteria did not correctly identify the BMT survivors who had elevated body fat percentage. Conclusions Survivors of childhood BMT are at risk for obesity and central obesity that is not readily identified with standard BMI criteria. Implications for Nursing Nurses caring for BMT survivors should include evaluation of general and central obesity in their assessments. Patient education materials and resources for healthy weight and muscle building should be made available to survivors. Research is needed to develop appropriate interventions. PMID:22374492

  17. Physique and Body Composition in Soccer Players across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Vassilios Karydis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence. Methods Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01–20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34–11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01–31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated. Results Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, P<0.001) and FFM (r=0.68, P<0.001), and a negative association with BF (r=−0.12, P=0.047). Somatotype components changed across adolescence as well; age was linked to endomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.005), mesomorphy (r=0.14, P=0.019) and ectomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.004). Compared with age-matched general population, participants exhibited equal body mass, higher stature, lower body mass index and lower BF. Conclusion During adolescence, soccer players presented significant differences in terms of body composition and physique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification. PMID:22375222

  18. Body Composition Reference Data for Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited data are available on the body composition (BC) of infants. BC reference data are needed to estimate energy and nutrient requirements; to evaluate normal growth and nutritional status of pediatric populations; for clinical research studies of the relationship between early diet and risk of c...

  19. Assessment and Interpretation of Body Composition in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat; Hager, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The physical educator's role is evolving into that of a teacher who is well educated in the areas of teaching, skill acquisition and development, motor learning, exercise physiology, physical conditioning, weight management, health, and lifestyle management. In an era when childhood obesity is at an all-time high, body composition can be one…

  20. Second quantization techniques in the scattering of nonidentical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Second quantization techniques for describing elastic and inelastic interactions between nonidentical composite bodies are presented and are applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions involving ground-state and one-particle-one-hole excitations. Evaluations of the resultant collision matrix elements are made through use of Wick's theorem.

  1. Design for manufacturability evaluation: Composite NIF Pockel Cell body

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, W.A.; Spellman, G.P.

    1994-04-01

    A survey of composite materials and processes for the NIF Optical Switch Body is described. Mechanical and physical criterion set upon the part are used as guidelines for the selection of materials and processes for manufacturing. Benefits, costs, and risks associated with selected processes, as well as a recommendation for prototype fabrication is presented.

  2. Developmental abnormalities in Glomeris marginata (Villers 1789) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda): implications for body axis determination in a myriapod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Abnormally developing embryos (ADEs) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata have been investigated by means of nuclear staining and mRNA in situ hybridization. It showed that all ADEs represent cases of Duplicitas posterior, which means that the posterior body pole is duplicated. The severity of the duplication ranges from duplicated posterior trunk segments in one specimen to an almost completely duplicated specimen that only shares the very anterior head region. Remarkably, none of the encountered ADEs represents a case of Duplicitas anterior (duplicated anterior pole) or a case of Duplicitas cruciata (cruciate duplication with two anterior and two posterior poles). This observation is discussed in the light of earlier reports on G. marginata ADEs that claim to have found these abnormalities. The lack of any other axial abnormality aside from D. posterior implies that early axis determination in G. marginata, and possibly myriapods in general, underlies the developmental mechanisms that prevent the formation of any other type of axial duplication. It is proposed that the formation of D. posterior-type embryos could be caused by the formation of two instead of only one posterior cumulus early during development.

  3. Effect of chronic centrifugation on body composition in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.

  4. Carotid body chemoreflex: a driver of autonomic abnormalities in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-08-01

    What is the topic of this review? This article presents emerging evidence for heightened carotid body chemoreflex activity as a major driver of sympathetic activation and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. What advances does it heighlight? This article discusses the recent advances on cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex in experimental models of sleep apnoea. The carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen concentration, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of the sympathetic tone, blood pressure and breathing. Sleep apnoea is a disease of the respiratory system that affects several million adult humans. Apnoeas occur during sleep, often as a result of obstruction of the upper airway (obstructive sleep apnoea) or because of defective respiratory rhythm generation by the CNS (central sleep apnoea). Patients with sleep apnoea exhibit several co-morbidities, with the most notable among them being heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia resulting from periodic apnoea stimulates the carotid body, and the ensuing chemoreflex mediates the increased sympathetic tone and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. Rodent models of intermittent hypoxia that simulate the O2 saturation profiles encountered during sleep apnoea have provided important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the heightened carotid body chemoreflex. This article describes how intermittent hypoxia affects the carotid body function and discusses the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex. PMID:27474260

  5. Process for preparing ceramic-metal composite bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, M.C.

    1993-05-25

    A process for forming an aluminum/ceramic composite is described comprising the non-vapor phase oxidation of molten aluminum achieved by contacting the molten aluminum to a sacrificial ceramic body, wherein the molten aluminum is at a temperature at least 300 degrees above the melting point of aluminum but below the softening point of the ceramic body, wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is a material selected from the group consisting of silica, quartz, sand, wollastonite, mullite, silicate glass, fluorosilicate glass, fluoroborosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, calcium silicate glass, calcium aluminum silicate glass, calcium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, metal sulfides, and mixtures thereof, whereby the sacrificial ceramic body at least partially oxidizes the aluminum to form an aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein molten aluminum flows into the aluminum oxide ceramic component, and wherein the sacrificial ceramic body is at least partially reduced, whereby an aluminum/ceramic composite is produced possessing a near net shape relative to the shape of the sacrificial ceramic body.

  6. Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

  7. Cortical shell unwrapping for vertebral body abnormality detection on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E; Muñoz, Hector; Summers, Ronald M

    2014-10-01

    The vertebral body is the main axial load-bearing structure of the spinal vertebra. Assessment of acute injury and chronic deformity of the vertebral body is difficult to assess accurately and quantitatively by simple visual inspection. We propose a cortical shell unwrapping method to examine the vertebral body for injury such as fractures and degenerative osteophytes. The spine is first segmented and partitioned into vertebrae. Then the cortical shell of the vertebral body is extracted using deformable dual-surface models. The cortical shell is then unwrapped onto a 2D map and the complex 3D detection problem is effectively converted to a pattern recognition problem on a 2D plane. Characteristic features adapted for different applications are computed and sent to a committee of support vector machines for classification. The system was evaluated on two applications, one for fracture detection on trauma CT datasets and the other on degenerative osteophyte assessment on sodium fluoride PET/CT. The fracture CAD achieved 93.6% sensitivity at 3.2 false positive per patient and the degenerative osteophyte CAD achieved 82% sensitivity at 4.7 false positive per patient. PMID:24815367

  8. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  9. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  10. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Nicholas, J Skye; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D; Cauley, Jane A; Lewis, Cora E; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50-59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4-69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70-79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  11. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC. PMID:25929363

  12. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition.

    PubMed

    Laskey, M A

    1996-01-01

    This review describes the advantages and limitations of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), a technique that is widely used clinically to assess a patient's risk of osteoporosis and to monitor the effects of therapy. DXA is also increasingly used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. There are three commercial manufacturers of DXA instruments: Lunar, Hologic, and Norland. All systems generate X-rays at two different energies and make use of the differential attenuation of the X-ray beam at these two energies to calculate the bone mineral content and soft tissue composition in the scanned region. Most DXA instruments measure bone mineral in the clinically important sites of the spine, hip, and forearm. More specialized systems also perform whole-body scans and can be used to determine the bone and soft tissue composition of the whole body and subregions such as arms, legs, and trunk. The effective dose incurred during DXA scanning is very small, and, consequently, DXA is a simple and safe technique that can be used for children and the old and frail. Precision of all DXA measurements is excellent but varies with the region under investigation. Precision is best for young healthy subjects (coefficient of variation is about 1% for the spine and whole body bone measurements) but is less good for osteoporotic and obese subjects. The accuracy of DXA measurements, however, can be problematic. Marked systematic differences in bone and soft tissue values are found between the three commercial systems due to differences in calibration, bone edge detection, and other factors. In addition, differences in reference data provided by each manufacturer can lead to an individual appearing normal on one machine but at risk of osteoporosis on another. At present, DXA cannot be regarded as a "gold standard" for body composition. However, the continuing development of DXA and the introduction of new software is greatly improving the performance of this

  13. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Young Bae; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Won; Kim, Se-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Chung, Jae Hoon; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03). Conclusion Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:21949520

  14. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  15. Body composition and performance in cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between body composition and performance in cross-country skiing. Ten male college-aged elite cross-country skiers (17.9 yrs; S 1.0 yrs) participated in a 5.6-km cross-country skiing time trial and in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar DPX-L, Madison, WI, USA) body composition measurements. A differential global positioning system (dGPS, GPS 12 CX, Garmin Int. Inc., Olathe, KS, USA; RXMAR 2, Aztec SA, Strasbourg, France) was used to compute speed in different sections of the course. Spearman correlation analyses were applied. Total body weight and absolute lean body mass were significantly related to final time (r = - 0.721; p < 0.05 and - 0.830; p < 0.01, respectively). Absolute lean arm mass (kg) was negatively correlated to final time (r = - 0.648; p < 0.05) and the relative lean arm mass was significantly related to speed mainly in uphill sections (r = 0.636 to 0.867; p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). We suggest that large amounts of lean body mass, especially in the arms, seem to be of great importance for cross-country skiing performance. PMID:18600606

  16. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  17. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  18. Inferences from other bodies for the earth's composition and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of the earth are considered in the light of the earth's presumed status as an end member of the class of predominantly silicate solar system bodies. Bulk composition data for the inner planets are presented and processes which may account for compositional variations are discussed. Problems posed by Viking findings on Mars and Pioneer findings on Venus are mentioned. Prominent evolutionary patterns of the inner planets are discussed, including the inverse correlation of lithospheric and crustal thickness with planetary size, and the thermotectonics of Venus, Mars, and earth are compared.

  19. Chemical compositions of the moon, earth, and eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Model compositions of the moon and earth were calculated on the assumption that these planets had experienced chondrite-like nebular fractionation processes. The model correctly predicts the abundance ratios of certain volatile/refractory element pairs (e.g., Cd/Ba, Ga/La, Sn/Th, and Pb/U), the density of the moon, and the major rock types. The model is also used to reconstruct the composition of the parent eucrite body, which resembles the moon except for a lower content of refractory elements.

  20. Assessment of body composition in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Munday, H S

    1994-06-01

    The assessment of body composition in any species is important to the understanding of subjects such as the control of obesity, the realimentation of sick animals and the evaluation of energy requirements. In most cases our requirement is to assess the chemical constituents of the body by the measurement of the fat and fat-free mass (FFM) of the subject. There may also be a requirement to break down the FFM mass into its component parts and measure the tissue distribution within the body. Clearly in the understanding of the causes and effects of obesity in companion animals, the evaluation of the actual level of obesity is fundamental. Similarly, whilst classifying the effectiveness of a weight loss programme it is vital that the reduction in weight loss and the distribution of tissue types can be accurately recorded by the veterinary surgeon or clinician. This review covers the theory of body composition measurement and the techniques which have been developed, together with their relevance to studies with companion animals. Most techniques are based on indirect methods which use the model of the body being at least two chemically distinct compartments, the fat and the FFM. In more complex analyses four and even six compartment models are considered which include concepts such as protein content, cell and osseous mineral content. The techniques to be covered include the measurement of total body water (for example by the use of isotope dilution), anthropometric techniques (skinfold thickness and dimensional evaluation), densitometry, total body potassium, muscle metabolite markers, absorptiometry, neutron activation analysis, electrical conductance, ultrasound, near infrared interactance, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8087160

  1. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be

  2. Techniques for the measurement of body composition: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Jebb, S A; Elia, M

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of both reference body composition methods (densitometry, isotope dilution methods, in vivo neutron activation analysis, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging) and bedsides or field techniques (weight and height indices, skinfold thicknesses impedance/resistance, near infra-red interactance and 24 hour creatinine excretion). Some techniques measure gross composition, in terms of fat and fat-free mass, or the components of fat-free tissue, such as water, mineral and protein, while other methods measure the mass of individual tissues, organs or body segments. The choice of a specific method for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost, radiation exposure, and the need for observer training. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:8281219

  3. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  4. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  5. Cases of limb-body wall complex: Early amnion rupture, vascular disruption, or abnormal splitting of the embryo?

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Frank; Pinar, Halit; Kostadinov, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of limb-body wall complex (LBWC), also known as body stalk anomaly, a rare form of body wall defect incompatible with life. The first case was identified during a level II ultrasound examination performed at 7 wk gestational age. The delivery was by breech extraction at 39 wk and 4 days. The second case was delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery at 35 wk and 5 days. Karyotype analysis was normal in both fetuses. The phenotype of LBWC is variable, but commonly identified features include: exencephaly, limb defects, and either facial clefts or thoraco-abdominoschisis. The exact etiology remains uncertain, as the disorder has been regarded as sporadic with low recurrence. Vascular disruption during early embryogenesis, early amnion rupture, abnormal splitting of the embryo, and failure of amnion fusion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of LBWC. A role for possible gene mutation and maternal use of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs has also been suggested. Detailed ultrasonography along with biochemical screening may allow for early detection.

  6. Abnormal Weight and Body Mass Index in Children with Juvenile Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica K.; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Crane, Kaitlin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Nopoulos, Peg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate anthropometric measures of growth and development (height, weight, body mass index (BMI)) in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with Juvenile Onset Huntington’s Disease (JHD). Methods Growth measures for 18 JHD patients, documented prior to or shortly after diagnosis, were obtained through medical records. JHD growth measures were compared to a large sample (n=274) of healthy children, as well as the Center for Disease Control (CDC) growth norms. Results After controlling for sex and age, the JHD subjects had no significant differences in height. However, they were an average of 10% lower than controls in weight and BMI. Using CDC norms, the JHD subjects had the same pattern of normal height but decrement in weight. Length of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat in the huntingtin gene was significantly correlated to measures of weight with longer CAG repeats being associated with more severe weight reduction. A subset of 4 subjects had measures that pre-dated onset of any symptom and were therefore prodromal JHD (preJHD). These subjects also had a significant decrement in BMI compared to CDC norms. Conclusions Children with JHD have normal height, but significantly reduced weight and BMI, indicative of a specific deficit in body weight. As the preJHD subjects were also low in BMI, this suggests that these changes are directly due to the effect of the mutated gene on development, rather than symptom manifestation of the disease itself. Potential mechanisms of the weight decrement include energy deficiency due to mitochondrial dysfunction during development. PMID:26443925

  7. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Andrew J.

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  8. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  9. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  10. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M.-V.; Chaset, L.; Bittner, P. A.; Barthod, C.; Passard, M.

    2013-04-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  12. Nutritional Markers and Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Rodolfo; Casos, Maria Elisa; Fernandez, Elmer Andres; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse body composition, to detect the presence of undernutrition, and to establish a relationship between undernutrition and the biological markers routinely used as indicators of nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients (pts). We used a body composition monitor (BCM) that expresses body weight in terms of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM) independent of hydration status. From nine HD units, 934 pts were included. Undernutrition was defined as having a lean tissue index (LTI = LTM/height2) below the 10th percentile of a reference population. Biochemical markers and parameters delivered by BCM were used to compare low LTI and normal LTI groups. Undernutrition prevalence was 58.8% of the population studied. Low LTI pts were older, were significantly more frequently overhydrated, and had been on HD for a longer period of time than the normal LTI group. FTI (FTI = FTM/ height2) was significantly higher in low LTI pts and increased according to BMI. LTI was not influenced by different BMI levels. Albumin and C-reactive protein correlated inversely (r = −0.28). However neither of them was statistically different when considering undernourished and normal LTI pts. Our BCM study was able to show a high prevalence of undernutrition, as expressed by low LTI. In our study, BMI and other common markers, such as albumin, failed to predict malnutrition as determined by BCM. PMID:27347538

  13. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-01-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests. PMID:3435817

  14. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of long term betaine supplementation on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men. Methods Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated via girth and skin fold measurements. Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS). Results Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences existed between group and time for changes in thigh CSA. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05) for both groups throughout training. Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL at microcycles one and three. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences were found in performance variables (BP, BS, VJ) between groups, except there was a trend (p = .07) for increased VJ power in BET versus PL. A significant interaction (p < .05) existed for HCTL, with increases from BL to week 2 in PL, but not BET. Additionally, HCTL remained elevated at week 4 in PL, but not BET. Conclusion Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press

  15. Efficiency of energy utilization: effects of diet composition on body composition and mammary neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Boissonneault, G.A.; Elson, C.E.; Pariza, M.W.

    1986-03-05

    Multiple interactions between the efficiency of utilization of dietary fat and carbohydrate energy, energy intake changes in body composition and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis were examined using female F-344 rats. The rats were fed ad libitum a semipurified diet containing 5% corn oil (LF) from weaning to 50 d of age at which each was given, by gavage, 65 mg DMBA/kg body weight. The rats were randomly assigned to diets containing 5% 17.5% (MF) and 30% (HF) corn oil. All diets were balanced with respect per unit of energy in terms of protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. For 28 d post-DMBA, the rats were fed 40 or 42 kcal daily and thereafter, diet was provided ad libitium. Daily energy intakes were recorded throughout the study. The mean energy intakes during the first 35 wk were: LF, 240 +/- 12.3 kcal/wk; MF, 237 +/- 11.7 kcal/wk; and HF, 237 +/- 11.1 kcal/wk. Body weight at 35 wk were: LF, 196 +/- 9.5 g; MF, 206 +/- 13.9 g; and HF, 210 +/- 20.6 g. No differences in tumor incidence (LF, 55%; MF, 46%; HF, 51%), tumors/group (LF, 24; MF, 28; HF, 25) and tumors/tumor-bearing rat (LF, 1.3 +/- 0.7; MF 1.6 +/- 1.0;p HF, 1.2 +/- 0.4) were noted. Within dietary groups tumor incidence was positively correlated with energy intake. However, there were no differences among the various parameters between dietary groups at any energy intake level. Body compositions were monitored during this study. The body fat mass and % carcass weight increased in parallel with the % dietary fat. Concomitantly, % lean body and, to a lesser extent lean body mass decreased. Both body size and body composition, influenced by energy intake and retention, affected the response to DMBA.

  16. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  17. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  18. Iron status and body composition of competitive female ice skaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, P.J.; Caldwell, M.J.; Gerber, L.E.; Rand, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of training and competition on iron status and body composition of ice skaters were evaluated pre-season (PS), during competitive season (CS), and out of season (OS). Eighteen females, aged 14 to 16, with mean heights and weights of 158.2 +/- 4.1cm, and 50.9 +/- 5.2 kg, respectively, participated. During each season, fasted, cenous blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Mg), serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin (F). Percent body fat was estimated from skinfolds (SF) and from underwater weighting (UW). Mean percent PS body fat was 20% by both UW and SF. UW values did not change significantly with seasons. In contrast, percent SF body fat were significantly higher OS than PS and CS. Heights and weights did not differ significantly during the year. Mean Hcts were normal throughout the seasons, however mean Hbs were significantly lower during CS than OS (14.5 vs. 15.5gm/dl, respectively). Mean F did not vary significantly PS and OS. Mean SI and TIBC were in normal ranges although OS means were significantly higher than PS and CS. The results indicate that the iron status of the ice skaters in the study varied with the training seasons and was lower during CS.

  19. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  20. Foreign body impact event damage formation in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses a methodology that can be used to assess the effect of foreign body impacts on composite structural integrity. The described effort focuses on modeling the effect of a central impact on a 5 3/4 inch filament wound test article. The discussion will commence with details of the material modeling that was used to establish the input properties for the analytical model. This discussion is followed by an overview of the impact assessment methodology. The progress on this effort to date is reviewed along with a discussion of tasks that have yet to be completed.

  1. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  2. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322

  3. A modeling approach for compounds affecting body composition.

    PubMed

    Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically <20 % and not greater than 40 % in our analyses). Model simulations were done to predict the EE and FM change at different drug provocations in mice. In addition, we simulated body mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species. PMID:24158456

  4. New techniques in nutritional assessment: body composition methods.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Ward, L C

    1999-02-01

    New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past. PMID:10343337

  5. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H/sub 2/O and /sup 82/Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support.

  6. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  7. EFFECT OF INITIAL BODY CONDITION OF BOER X SPANISH YEARLING WETHERS AND LEVEL OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON BODY COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...

  8. Body composition and somatotype of the elite of Polish fencers.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p < 0.01) with a relative percentage with a 72.4 and a canonical correlation coefficient 0.692, and Wilks' lambda = 0.385. Amongst the 30 observations used to fit the model, 22 (73.3%) were correctly classified. Against the background of non-training men, fencers were distinguished by a higher body weight (79.0 vs. 72.1 kg, t = 3.97, p < 0.001) and a higher height-weight ratio (43.21 vs. 42.46, t = 2.24, p < 0.05). Fencers' somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0

  9. How Effective Is Sun Salutation in Improving Muscle Strength, General Body Endurance and Body Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Bhutkar, Milind V.; Bhutkar, Pratima M.; Taware, Govind B.; Surdi, Anil D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of regular practice of sun salutation on muscle strength, general body endurance and body composition. Methods Subjects (49 male and 30 female) performed 24 cycles of sun salutation, 6 days a week for 24 weeks. Upper body muscle strength was determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and shoulder press technique. Back and leg dynamometry was used to assess strength of back and leg muscles. General body endurance was evaluated by push-up and sit-up tests. Body composition was assessed by noting% body fat by using bioelectric impedance analysis. Perceived intensity of exercise by subjects was noted by Borg scale. Results Muscle strength by bench press showed significant increase in male (29.49±9.70 to 36.12±9.09 Kg, P<0.001) and female (10.5±4.42 to 13.16±4.44 Kg, P<0.001) subjects. Strength by shoulder press also increased (males; 22.96±9.57 Kg to 26.53±11.05 Kg, P<0.001, females; 6.83±2.78 to 8.83±3.87, P<0.001). Endurance by push-ups & sit-ups showed similar findings in male (19.0±9.58 to 21.98±8.98, P<0.001 and 24.92±10.41 to 29.84±12.64, P<0.001 respectively) and female (14.66±6.80 to 18.56±6.97 and 13.16±7.75 to 19.23±8.25, P<0.001 respectively) subjects. A significant decrease in body fat percent was observed only in female (27.68±5.46 to 25.76±4.72, P<0.001) but not in male subjects. BMI significantly decreased in both the groups (z=4.37, P<001 and t=5.41, P<0.001 respectively). Conclusion From our observations we conclude that sun salutation can be an ideal exercise to keep oneself in optimum level of fitness. PMID:22375247

  10. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. Results The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Conclusions Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI. PMID:26098769

  11. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636

  12. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  13. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  14. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  15. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    Prokop, NW, Reid, RER, and Andersen, RE. Seasonal changes in whole body and regional body composition profiles of elite collegiate ice-hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 684-692, 2016-The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes. PMID:26907839

  16. Autonomic modulation and its relation with body composition in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Ricci-Vitor, Ana L; Sabino, João P J; Vanderlei, Luiz C M; Freitas, Ismael F

    2014-07-01

    This study compared autonomic modulation in swimmers and non-athletes in relation to body composition. A total of 28 athletes with a mean age of 19.7 ± 2.9 years were evaluated who had at least 2 years of swimming training, trained approximately 7,000 m per day, with a frequency of 5 days per week, and who competed at national level. The control group was made up of 21 volunteers (23.0 ± 2.5 years), who did not practice regular physical activity (<2 hours per week). Body composition was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and autonomic modulation was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). The results show that there were significant differences in autonomic modulation and body composition between the groups, and that the athletes had a higher overall variability (standard deviation of all normal intervals between consecutive heart beats [SDNN]: 78.1 [72.5-93.5] × 61.1 [56.4-75.7], p = 0.022) and greater autonomic balance (LF/HF: 0.96 [0.88-1.35] × 0.71 [0.56-0.93], p = 0.023), compared with the non-athletes, respectively. In addition, a moderate and positive relation was obtained between fat-free mass and the square root of the squared differences between consecutive heartbeat intervals (RMSSD: r = 0.526, p = 0.004 × r = 0.456, p = 0.038), (SDNN: r = 0.617, p = 0.001 × r = 0.571, p = 0.007) and low frequency (LFms: r = 0.517, p = 0.005 × r = 0.600, p = 0.004) in the athletes and non-athletes, respectively, without a correlation between fat mass (FM). The conclusion is that young highly trained swimmers had lower FM, increased fat-free mass, and better HRV than young adult non-athletes and suggests that a lower quantity of FM and, especially, a greater fat-free mass (FFM) are linked to better autonomic modulation. Thus, this study could contribute to coaches and trainers establishing greater performance by better autonomic modulation and greater quantity of FFM. PMID:24345973

  17. Body composition, inflammation and thermogenesis in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, A G; Montani, J-P

    2012-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization, overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. What constitutes 'abnormal' fat accumulation in this definition is not specified, but this most likely represents a consensus term that encapsulates the importance of adipose tissue dysfunctions, rather than solely excess fat per se, in the pathogenesis of disease entities of the metabolic syndrome, particularly type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Over the past decades, such abnormalities in fat accumulation have been linked to a pattern of fat distribution characterized by disproportionate fat deposition in the abdomen; to limits in the capacity of adipose tissue to expand resulting in the burden of fat storage being shifted to 'lean' tissues/organs as ectopic fat; and to the secretion (by both intrinsic and infiltrated cells within the adipose tissue mass) of a plethora of cytokines and other factors which via their autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine actions underscore a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. These links have formed the basis of a multitude of adipocentric concepts that have stimulated basic and clinical research aimed at explaining differential susceptibilities to cardiometabolic diseases according to diet and lifestyle, birth weight and post-natal growth patterns, menopausal transition and the ageing process, race and ethnicity--often within the framework of hypotheses constructed around thrifty genotypes or thrifty phenotypes, and around overlapping molecular pathways implicated in metabolic inflammation, thermogenesis and body composition regulation. It is against this background of rapidly advancing research in metabolic health--fuelled as much by the search for early markers of cardiometabolic risks as by the search for 'druggable' molecular targets for treating obesity and its comorbidities--that fundamental concepts, controversies and novel research avenues relevant to the

  18. Measurement of Body Composition: is there a Gold Standard?

    PubMed Central

    Branski, Ludwik K; Norbury, William B; Herndon, David N; Chinkes, David L; Cochran, Amalia; Suman, Oscar; Benjamin, Deb; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintaining lean body mass (LBM) after a severe burn is an essential goal of modern burn treatment. An accurate determination of LBM is necessary for short- and longterm therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to compare 2 measurement methods for body composition, wholebody potassium counting (K count) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), in a large prospective clinical trial in severely burned pediatric patients. Methods Two-hundred seventy-nine patients admitted with burns covering 40% of total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in the study. Patients enrolled were controls or received long-term treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Near-simultaneous measurements of LBM with DEXA and fat-free mass (FFM) with K count were performed at hospital discharge and at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months post injury. Results were correlated using Pearson’s regression analysis. Agreement between the 2 methods was analyzed with the Bland-Altman method. Results Age, gender distribution, weight, burn size, and admission time from injury were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. rhGH and control patients at all time points postburn showed a good correlation between LBM and FFM measurements (R2 between 0.9 and 0.95). Bland-Altman revealed that the mean bias and 95% limits of agreement depended only on patient weight and not on treatment or time postburn. The 95% limits ranged from 0.1 ± 2.9 kg for LBM or FFM in 7- to 18-kg patients to 16.3 ± 17.8 kg for LBM or FFM in patients >60 kg. Conclusions DEXA can provide a sufficiently accurate determination of LBM and changes in body composition, but a correction factor must be included for older children and adolescents with more LBM. DEXA scans are easier, cheaper, and less stressful for the patient, and this method should be used rather than the K count. PMID:19884353

  19. Gamma-ray backscatter for body composition measurement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541

  20. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  1. Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

  2. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  3. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  4. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging and myelin composition analysis reveal abnormal myelination in corpus callosum of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Provenzale, James M; Nestrasil, Igor; Chen, Steven; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Le, Steven Q; Jens, Jacqueline K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Vondrak, Kristen N; Yee, Jennifer K; Vite, Charles H; Elashoff, David; Duan, Lewei; Wang, Raymond Y; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Guzman, Miguel A; Shapiro, Elsa G; Dickson, Patricia I

    2015-11-01

    Children with mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) develop hyperintense white matter foci on T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that are associated clinically with cognitive impairment. We report here a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tissue evaluation of white matter in a canine model of MPS I. We found that two DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity) and radial diffusivity (which reflects degree of myelination) were abnormal in the corpus callosum of MPS I dogs compared to carrier controls. Tissue studies of the corpus callosum showed reduced expression of myelin-related genes and an abnormal composition of myelin in MPS I dogs. We treated MPS I dogs with recombinant alpha-L-iduronidase, which is the enzyme that is deficient in MPS I disease. The recombinant alpha-L-iduronidase was administered by intrathecal injection into the cisterna magna. Treated dogs showed partial correction of corpus callosum myelination. Our findings suggest that abnormal myelination occurs in the canine MPS I brain, that it may underlie clinically-relevant brain imaging findings in human MPS I patients, and that it may respond to treatment. PMID:26222335

  6. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  7. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  8. Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M; Stanford, Kevin E

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have observed significant abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of peripheral tissues from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic (SZ) patients relative to normal controls, including deficits in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are partially normalized following chronic antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that postmortem cortical tissue from patients with SZ would also exhibit deficits in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) relative to normal controls, and that these deficits would be greater in drug-free SZ patients. We determined the total fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (Brodmann area 10) from drug-free and antipsychotic-treated SZ patients (n=21) and age-matched normal controls (n=26) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, significantly lower DHA (-20%) concentrations, and significantly greater vaccenic acid (VA) (+12.5) concentrations, were found in the OFC of SZ patients relative to normal controls. Relative to age-matched same-gender controls, OFC DHA deficits, and elevated AA:DHA, oleic acid:DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6):DHA ratios, were found in male but not female SZ patients. SZ patients that died of cardiovascular-related disease exhibited lower DHA (-31%) and AA (-19%) concentrations, and greater OA (+20%) and VA (+17%) concentrations, relative to normal controls that also died of cardiovascular-related disease. OFC DHA and AA deficits, and elevations in oleic acid and vaccenic acid, were numerically greater in drug-free SZ patients and were partially normalized in SZ patients treated with antipsychotic medications (atypical>typical). Fatty acid abnormalities could not be wholly attributed to lifestyle or postmortem tissue variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of SZ, and suggest that

  9. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  10. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    PubMed Central

    Falsarella, Gláucia Regina; Gasparotto, Lívia Pimenta Renó; Barcelos, Caroline Coutinho; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Moretto, Maria Clara; Pascoa, Mauro Alexandre; Ferreira, Talita C B Rezende; Coimbra, Arlete Maria Valente

    2015-01-01

    Background Body composition (BC) in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly. Objective To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people. Methods A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males) aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (%) data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05. Results The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001), and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001). Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038) and fat % (P=0.002). The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022). The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001), bone mass (P=0.009), fat mass (P=0.018), and BMI (P=0.003). There was a negative association between fatigue and bone mass (P=0.008). Discussion: Frailty in the elderly was characterized by a BC profile/phenotype with lower muscle mass and lower bone mass and with a higher fat %. The BMI was not effective in evaluating the relationship between BC and frailty. The importance of evaluating the fat % was verified when considering the tissue distribution in the elderly BC. PMID:26527868

  11. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  12. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  13. Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected. Results The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013). Conclusions Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones. PMID:22025958

  14. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  15. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  16. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  17. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  18. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition123

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. Objective: This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Design: Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. Results: DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. Conclusions: A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure. PMID:22134952

  19. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting. (JMT)

  20. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1) collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2) collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3) compare the results with the international norms, 4) and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI). Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat) were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance. PMID:21992447

  1. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  2. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  3. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  4. Body Composition Changes Resulting from Fluid Ingestion and Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girandola, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    It is recommended that when obtaining measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, the subjects normal level of hydration be ascertained, since variance in body fat calculation from the hyperhydrated to the hydrated state can amount to twenty percent (two percent in actual body fat). (MB)

  5. PREDICTORS OF BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY ENERGY CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO CHRONIC OVERFEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Claude; Tchernof, Andre; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown that 24 young lean men (12 pairs of identical twins) subjected to a standardized 353 MJ (84 000 kcal) overfeeding protocol over 100 days exhibited individual differences in body weight and composition gains. The mean (+SD) gains in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were 5.4+1.9 kg and 2.7+1.5 kg for a total body energy (BE) gain of 221+75 MJ representing 63% of the energy surplus consumed. We report here on the most important baseline correlates of these overfeeding-induced changes with the aim of identifying biomarkers of the response. Results Baseline maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass was negatively correlated with gains in weight, FM, and BE (all p<0.05). Enzyme activities indicative of skeletal muscle oxidative potential correlated with gains in FM and BE (all p<0.05). Baseline TSH levels in response to a TRH stimulation correlated positively with changes in FM-to-FFM ratio (p<0.05). Plasma concentrations of androstenediol-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 17-hydroxy pregnenolone were negatively correlated with gains in FM and BE (0.01

  6. Does Upper Extremity Training Influence Body Composition after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Justin A.; McNelis, Meredith A.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Goetz, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious body composition adaptations characterized by increasing whole body fat mass and decreased soft tissue lean mass (LM). These adaptations in body composition may lead to several cardio-metabolic disorders that reduce the quality of life, increase patients’ and caregivers’ burden and eventually leads to mortality. Exercise, an appropriate dietary regimen, and an active lifestyle may alleviate several of the negative effects on body composition after a SCI. Today however, there is no established consensus on the recommended dose, frequency or type of exercise to ameliorate several of the body composition sequelae after an acute SCI. Resistance training has been previously recommended as an effective strategy to restore soft tissue LM and decrease fat mass (FM). The strategy can be simply implemented as a routine home-based training program using free weights or resistance bands after a SCI. Additionally, upper extremity (UE) circuit resistance training has been previously used to improve cardiovascular and metabolic parameters after a SCI; however compared to the vast knowledge regarding the able-bodied (AB) population, the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition after a SCI is not well established. In summary, the available evidence does not support the rationale that UE circuit resistance training can lead to positive adaptations in body composition after a SCI. Further studies are suggested to examine the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition. PMID:26236549

  7. Effect or ractopamine on growth and body composition of pigs during compensatory growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to measure the growth and body composition of pigs during normal or compensatory growth from 60 to 100 kg, without (cont) or with ractopamine (rac) supplementation (20 mg/kg of diet). Thirty-four pigs were scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for body composition...

  8. Yearly Changes in the Body Composition and Muscular Strength of High School Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Changes in body composition as well as absolute and relative isokinetic forearm flexion and extension strength of high school wrestlers were studied. Increase in weight and improved wrestling performance were found to be, in part, a function of yearly changes in body composition and muscular strength. (JD)

  9. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  10. QMR: Validation of an infant and children body composition instrument using piglets against chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet's body composition was ass...

  11. Validation of a new body composition method for infant and children using piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was undertaken to validate the first quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance instrument designed and built to assess body composition from birth through adulthood (up to 50 kg). A total of 50 pigs weighing between 3.0 and 49.1 kg were studied. Each piglet’s body composition was ass...

  12. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  13. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  14. A new QMR-based technique for body composition analysis in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate assessment and tracking of infant body composition is useful in evaluation of the amount and quality of weight gain, which can provide key information in both clinical and research settings. Thus, body composition analysis (BCA) results can be used to monitor and evaluate infant growth patt...

  15. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  16. Youth substance use and body composition: does risk in one area predict risk in the other?

    PubMed

    Pasch, Keryn E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G; Lytle, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed. PMID:21853355

  17. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed. PMID:21853355

  18. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  19. Symmetry considerations in the scattering of identical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies of the interactions between composite particles were extended to the case in which the composites are identical. The form of the total interaction potential matrix elements was obtained, and guidelines for their explicit evaluation were given. For the case of elastic scattering of identical composites, the matrix element approach was shown to be equivalent to the scattering amplitude method.

  20. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  1. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase. PMID:25958462

  2. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition.

    PubMed

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  3. Body composition throughout the lifecycle: The role of dairy foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an ongoing concern about the degree of obesity world-wide and the implications for health outcomes. Body mass index (BMI) is used as the measure for the classification of overweight and obesity. However, this index does not represent actual body fat levels or the amount of active lean bod...

  4. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  5. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  6. Protein composition of oil bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype WS.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Roux, Emeline; D'Andrea, Sabine; Davanture, Marlène; Negroni, Luc; Zivy, Michel; Chardot, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    Till now, only scattered data are available in the literature, which describes the protein content of plant oil bodies. Especially, the proteins closely associated with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana oil bodies have never been previously purified and characterized. Oil bodies have been purified using flotation techniques, combined with incubations under high salt concentration, in the presence of detergents and urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The identity and integrity of the oil bodies have been characterized. Oil bodies exhibited hydrodynamic diameters close to 2.6 microm, and a ratio fatty acid-protein content near 20. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested by trypsin, and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by nano-chromatography-mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS). This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: four different oleosins, ATS1, a protein homologous to calcium binding protein, a 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein, a probable aquaporin and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein with no known function. The two last proteins were till now never identified in plant oil bodies. Structural proteins (oleosins) represented up to 79% of oil body proteins and the 18.5 kDa oleosin was the most abundant among them. PMID:15246063

  7. Menarche and Fatness: Reexamination of the Critical Body Composition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines the credibility of the theory that, menarche and fecundity require a certain level of fat in the body. Concludes that the evidence does not totally support this hypothesis and that further investigation is warranted. (GA)

  8. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  9. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-04-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover.

  10. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  11. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  12. Toward Body Composition Reference Data for Infants, Children, and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children’s nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children’s body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. PMID:24829484

  13. Changes in body composition during refeeding of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, N; Corey, M; Rossi, M F; Goldberg, E; Pencharz, P

    1988-11-01

    Changes in body composition were studied in 13 girls with anorexia nervosa before and during 2 months of refeeding. Fat body mass and fat-free body mass were derived from skin-fold measurements. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counter, and intracellular water was calculated from it. Extracellular water was measured as the bromide space after oral bromide administration. A gradual increase was noted in weight, fat body mass, fat-free body mass, and total body potassium during refeeding. Extracellular water was expanded on admission and increased in all patients in the first weeks of treatment; later it fell to normal. Most of the changes in fat-free body mass over the first weeks of refeeding could be accounted for by an expansion in extracellular water. Particular care must therefore be taken with fluid balance during the first few weeks of refeeding. PMID:3183854

  14. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  15. The Relationship Between Body Composition, Anaerobic Performance and Sprint Ability of Amputee Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Ali; Kayıhan, Gürhan; Köklü, Yusuf; Ergun, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects’ height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ) tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobic performance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance in amputee soccer players. PMID:23486067

  16. Prediction of body composition by total body electrical conductivity technique is affected by fat reserves of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Szebestová, Z

    2010-11-01

    The effect of fat accumulation on the prediction of in vivo body composition by a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technique was evaluated using Japanese quail at 2 life periods (0 to 21 d and 28 to 70 d of age) that differ significantly in the fatness of birds. In total, 119 quail of 14 age categories were weighed and scanned by the TOBEC analyzer, and their carcasses were subjected to chemical analysis. The prediction equations for chemical composition (percentage of water, lipids, and lean tissue) and body masses (weight of body, water, lipids, and lean tissue) were obtained by linear regression analysis. The equations involved the E-value as the independent variable. In both growth phases, a high accuracy of estimation was found for the total body, lean, and water masses (0.85 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.98), whereas a low accuracy of estimation was observed for percentages of lipids, lean tissue, and water (0.27 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.64). Most of the variables showed a worse estimation in the late than in the early growth phase; the maximum difference was observed for the lipid mass (R(2) = 0.35 vs. 0.90, respectively). The correlations between analyzed variables and the residual error distributions of regression models demonstrated that the lower power of the models in the late versus early growth phase may be attributed to an enhanced fat accumulation in sexually mature birds. Their high fat reserves considerably decrease body hydration, which negatively influences the estimation of body composition based upon the TOBEC procedure. PMID:20952716

  17. The Evaluation of a Circumference-based Prediction Equation to Assess Body Composition Changes in Men

    PubMed Central

    SCHUNA, JOHN M.; HILGERS, SARAH J.; MANIKOWSKE, TRISTA L.; TUCKER, JARED M.; LIGUORI, GARY

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the current U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) circumference-based prediction equation for males to detect body composition changes in comparison to air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Body composition was assessed using ADP and the DOD equation at the beginning and end of an academic school year among 21 male (18–29 years-old) Army ROTC cadets. Body mass significantly increased (+1.8 Kg) after 9 months. Significant method by time interactions for percent body fat (percent body fat), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass were found (p = 0.022, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, respectively) as body composition changes were not tracked equally by the two methods. Regression and Bland-Altman analyses indicated a lack of agreement between methods as the DOD equation underestimated percent body fat and FM changes in comparison to ADP. Results suggest the DOD equation for males cannot adequately detect body composition changes following a small body mass gain. PMID:27182395

  18. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    SciTech Connect

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.

  19. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  20. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  1. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  2. Estimation of sheep and pig body composition by x-ray CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasbey, Chris A.

    1993-07-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques have revolutionized diagnostic medicine, and promise to do likewise in animal experimentation and breeding. In this paper, three applications are described in which the objective is to predict body composition.

  3. Alterations in lipid raft composition and dynamics contribute to abnormal T cell responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sandeep; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Warke, Vishal G; Fisher, Carolyn U; Mitchell, Jeanne; Delaney, Nancy; Tsokos, George C

    2004-06-15

    In response to appropriate stimulation, T lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased and faster intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and free calcium responses. We have explored whether the composition and dynamics of lipid rafts are responsible for the abnormal T cell responses in SLE. SLE T cells generate and possess higher amounts of ganglioside-containing lipid rafts and, unlike normal T cells, SLE T cell lipid rafts include FcRgamma and activated Syk kinase. IgM anti-CD3 Ab-mediated capping of TCR complexes occurs more rapidly in SLE T cells and concomitant with dramatic acceleration of actin polymerization kinetics. The significance of these findings is evident from the observation that cross-linking of lipid rafts evokes earlier and higher calcium responses in SLE T cells. Thus, we propose that alterations in the lipid raft signaling machinery represent an important mechanism that is responsible for the heightened and accelerated T cell responses in SLE. PMID:15187166

  4. Body composition and arsenic metabolism: a cross-sectional analysis in the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between measures of body composition and patterns of urine arsenic metabolites in the 1989–1991 baseline visit of the Strong Heart Study, a cardiovascular disease cohort of adults recruited from rural communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota. Methods We evaluated 3,663 Strong Heart Study participants with urine arsenic species above the limit of detection and no missing data on body mass index, % body fat and fat free mass measured by bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference and other variables. We summarized urine arsenic species patterns as the relative contribution of inorganic (iAs), methylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) species to their sum. We modeled the associations of % arsenic species biomarkers with body mass index, % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference categories in unadjusted regression models and in models including all measures of body composition. We also considered adjustment for arsenic exposure and demographics. Results Increasing body mass index was associated with higher mean % DMA and lower mean % MMA before and after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, arsenic exposure, and for other measures of body composition. In unadjusted linear regression models, % DMA was 2.4 (2.1, 2.6) % higher per increase in body mass index category (< 25, ≥25 & <30, ≥30 & <35, ≥35 kg/m2), and % MMA was 1.6 (1.4, 1.7) % lower. Similar patterns were observed for % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference measures in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for potential confounders, but the associations were largely attenuated or disappeared when adjusted for body mass index. Conclusion Measures of body size, especially body mass index, are associated with arsenic metabolism biomarkers. The association may be related to adiposity, fat free mass or body size. Future epidemiologic studies of arsenic should consider body mass

  5. [Anorexia nervosa: bioelectrical impedance analysis in body composition measurement during hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Van Leer, M; Leistedt, S J; Linkowski, P; Simon, Y

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring parameters for anorexia nervosa include clinical, biological and psychological factors. Many research groups are currently trying to identify parameters more likely to predict the severity or the evolution of the illness. Body composition has been proposed as one of those parameters. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that measures of body composition are more accurate and efficient than the use of body composition index (BMI). We also aim to show that body composition could be used as a prognostic factor in the long-term evolution of patients with anorexia nervosa. It's a retrospective study investigating body composition and BMI in 44 patients treated in a specialized unit for eating disorder. Measures of body composition and BMI were gathered at the time of admission and again 3 months after refeeding onset. Data was correlated to the EDI-2 questionnaire scores. BMI and %FM where found to be increased (P < 0.05) between admission and after 3 months refeeding. The double objective of reaching a BMI value > or = 20 kg/m2 and a %FM value > or = 2% was achieved by 22% of patients. No significant correlation was found between EDI-2 scores and measures of BMI and %FM either on admission or after the 3 months refeeding period. In conclusion, results of our study don't allow concluding for a prognostic superiority of %FM. Nonetheless, BMI currently used as a reference for the monitoring of eating disorders patients seems to lack sensitivity where measures of body composition seem more informative regarding nutritional status. Furthermore, fat mass plays an important role in other clinical manifestations. In addition, measures of body composition should allow more individualised therapeutic support. PMID:24505865

  6. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. PMID:27048946

  7. Body Composition in Individuals with Asymptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-02-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with a greater risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study sought to investigate whether the association is mediated by fat mass or lean mass. The study involved 170 men and 488 women aged between 20 and 90 (average age: 55) who were randomly recruited from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The presence of knee OA was radiographically diagnosed based on the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were obtained from the DXA whole body scan (Hologic QDR-4500). The relationship between OA, LM, and FM was analyzed by a series of multiple linear regression models which take into account the effects of gender and age. As expected, men and women with knee OA were older than those without OA (65 vs 51 year in men, and 64 vs 52 year in women). After adjusting for age, OA was associated with greater FM and percent body fat (PBF), but the association was only observed in women, not in men. There was no statistically significant difference in LM between OA and non-OA individuals. Moreover, after adjusting for age and BMI or PBF, bone density in OA patients was not significantly different from non-OA individuals. Women with OA of the knee have greater fat mass than non-OA individuals, and that there is no significant difference in bone density between OA and non-OA individuals. Thus, the association between body mass index and OA is mainly mediated by fat mass. PMID:26590808

  8. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. PMID:17697797

  9. Imaging body composition in obesity and weight loss: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Heidi J; Welch, E Brian; Avison, Malcolm J; Niswender, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a threat to public health worldwide primarily due to the comorbidities related to visceral adiposity, inflammation, and insulin resistance that increase risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The translational research portfolio that originally described these risk factors was significantly enhanced by imaging techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this article, we briefly review the important contributions of these techniques to understand the role of body composition in the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. Notably, these imaging techniques have contributed greatly to recent findings identifying gender and racial differences in body composition and patterns of body composition change during weight loss. Although these techniques have the ability to generate good-quality body composition data, each possesses limitations. For example, DEXA is unable to differentiate type of fat, CT has better resolution but provides greater ionizing radiation exposure, and MRI tends to require longer imaging times and specialized equipment for acquisition and analysis. With the serious need for efficacious and cost-effective therapies to appropriately identify and treat at-risk obese individuals, there is greater need for translational tools that can further elucidate the interplay between body composition and the metabolic aberrations associated with obesity. In conclusion, we will offer our perspective on the evolution toward an ideal imaging method for body composition assessment in obesity and weight loss, and the challenges remaining to achieve this goal. PMID:21437103

  10. Influence of sometribove, USAN (recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin) on the body composition of lactating cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.; De Peters, E.J.; Baldwin, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    Ten cattle were injected with 40 mg/d sometribove (United States adopted name for recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin) in bicarbonate buffer, and nine with the bicarbonate buffer only. These treatments continued from the first day of wk 11 of lactation through the end of wk 18 of lactation. Deuterium oxide (D/sub 2/O) dilution was used to estimate D/sub 2/O space at wk 10 and 18. All cattle were fed a dry, complete diet containing 2.9% nitrogen, and an estimated 1.7 Mcal/kg net energy for lactation (NE1). After 18 wk of lactation, carcass composition was determined from carcass density and the composition of the rest of the body was determined by direct chemical analyses. Regression equations were constructed relating chemical composition at 18 wk to D/sub 2/O space and live body mass. These equations were used to estimate body composition at wk 10. The estimated wk 10 composition was used to adjust wk 18 body composition for pretreatment inter-animal variation. Treatment with sometribove resulted in increased milk production (34.3 kg/d vs. 30.2 kg/d), foregut tissue (25.2 kg vs. 23.2 kg), foregut contents (72.0 vs. 62.1 kg), and reduced total body fat (28.3 vs. 45.7 kg), body energy (760 vs. 916 Mcal) and visceral fat mass.

  11. Explaining body composition by some covariate factors among the elderly Bengalee Hindu women of Calcutta, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Das Chaudhuri, A B

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the changes in body composition with passage of time and factors associated with them will help to improve our knowledge and understanding about these processes and could guide in the prevention of functional limitations and formulation of better health care among the elderly. The present cross-sectional work was under taken to study the effect of age, menopause, age at first conception, educational level and physical activity in explaining body composition among 200 elderly (55 years and above) Bengalee Hindu women of Calcutta, India. Body composition measures namely percentage of body fat (PBF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) were calculated from skinfolds thickness using standard equations. Multiple regression analyses of body composition variables by covariate factors revealed that Age, age of onset of menopause, age at first conception, educational level and frequency of walking cumulative explains 35%, 28% and 21% of PBF, FMI and FFMI respectively. Present study revealed that beside age, both biosocial (age of onset of menopause, age at first conception, education level) and physical activity as measured by brisk walking have significant contribution in explaining body composition among elderly females. Significant negative impact of physical activity on PBF, FMI and positive impact on FFMI in the present study were also evident. Therefore, brisk walking could be useful to increase body's fat free mass. PMID:16395512

  12. Comparison of five body-composition methods in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Stall, S H; Ginsberg, N S; DeVita, M V; Zabetakis, P M; Lynn, R I; Gleim, G W; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Michelis, M F

    1996-08-01

    Body-composition assessment is an important method of evaluating nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Because body-composition measurement estimates have not been fully validated in this population, we assessed five body-composition methods in 30 well-dialyzed peritoneal dialysis patients. The techniques studied included bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, total-body potassium counting, and anthropometry by two techniques. The dialysis patients were matched for age, race, sex, height, weight, and body mass index with 29 healthy control subjects in our laboratory database. By 5 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance, significant differences were found between results by modality (P < 0.0001) as well as by sex, with women having an increased percentage of fat (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant intermethod difference by condition (peritoneal dialysis or control). That is, although significantly different percentage fat values were found between the body-composition techniques, this variability was independent of whether the measurement was made on control or peritoneal dialysis patients. Despite the differences between modalities, all techniques were found to correlate significantly with each other (P < 0.01 or better for men and P < 0.001 or better for women). Our experience shows that these routine techniques for measuring body composition can be readily applied to stable peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:8694010

  13. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  14. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  15. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  16. Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CONTEXT: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle perfor...

  17. Accuracy and Precision for EchoMRI-Infants™ Body Composition Analysis in Piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body Composition Analysis is used to evaluate infant growth patterns, efficacy of nutritional and medical interventions, progression of chronic disease, and recovery from malnutrition. EchoMRI-Infants is a new Quantitative Magnetic Resonance (QMR) method to measure Total Body Fat, Lean Tissue Mass, ...

  18. In vivo measurement of body composition of chickens using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QMR is a nuclear magnetic resonance based method for measuring the fat, lean and water content of the total body of the live animal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of QMR for measuring the body composition of chickens while comparing QMR results to those obtained by dual X-ray ab...

  19. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  20. Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance to measure body composition in infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (QMR) is being used in human adults to obtain measures of total body fat (FM) with high precision. The current study assessed a device specially designed to accommodate infants and children between 3 and 50 kg (EchoMRI-AH™). Body composition of 113 infants and...

  1. Effects of Dietary Protein Source on Neonatal Metabolism and Body Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it is well established that breast-fed infants in general have lower body weight gain during the first year of life than infants fed formulas, little research has examined effects of different types of infant formula on metabolism and body composition in neonates. Preliminary data from a lo...

  2. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  3. Body Composition and Aerobic Requirements of Male and Female Marathon Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christine L.; And Others

    This study investigates the physical characteristics, body composition, cardiovascular and pulmonary functions, and aerobic capabilities of male and female long distance runners. Eleven runners volunteered to take tests to determine background information, body fat, oxygen uptake, and running time and pace. Conclusions made from this study…

  4. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  5. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  6. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR COATING A CERAMIC BODY

    DOEpatents

    Blanchard, M.K.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for protecting a beryllium carbide-graphite body. The method consists in providing a ceramic coating which must contain at least one basic oxide component, such as CaO, at least one amphoteric oxide component, such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and at least one acidic oxide component, such as SiO/ sub 2/. Various specific formulations for this ceramic coating are given and the coating is applied by conventional ceramic techniques.

  7. Comparison of body composition in persons with epilepsy on conventional & new antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Sudhir Chandra; Tripathi, Manjari; Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid (VPA) are known to affect body weight, and lipid profile. However, evidences regarding effects of AEDs on the body composition are deficient. This cross-sectional study compared the body composition and lipid profile among patients with epilepsy on newer and conventional AEDs. Methods: The patients with epilepsy (n=109) on treatment with conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled. Of these, 70 were on monotherapy: levetiracetam (n=12), VPA (n=16), carbamazepine (n=20) and phenytoin (n=22) and the remaining on polytherapy. Their body composition [body fat mass, lean dry mass (LDM), total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Levetiracetam group had no significant difference with VPA, carbamazepine, phenytoin and control groups, except low LDM (17.8±2.4) than VPA groups (20.2±2.7, P<0.05). In comparison with control, AEDs monotherapy groups had no significant difference, except higher LDM and ECW in VPA group. Among groups based on conventional and newer AEDs, there was no significant difference in body composition parameters except for higher LDM (as % of BW) in conventional AEDs only treated group than control (P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: The alterations observed in body composition with valproic acid in contrast to other AEDs like levetiracetam, carbamazepine and phenytoin could affect treatment response in epilepsy especially in subjects with already altered body composition status like obese and thin frail patients, which needs to be established by prospective studies (CTRI/2013/05/003701). PMID:27241646

  8. Methodology for estimation of total body composition in laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A standardized dissection and chemical analysis procedure was developed for individual animals of several species in the size range mouse to monkey (15 g to 15 kg). The standardized procedure permits rigorous comparisons to be made both interspecifically and intraspecifically of organ weights and gross chemical composition in mammalian species series, and was applied successfully to laboratory mice, hamsters, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as well as to macaque monkeys. The procedure is described in detail.

  9. How Accurate Are the Anthropometry Equations in in Iranian Military Men in Predicting Body Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Zeynab; Faradjzadeh, Shahram; Sobhani, Vahid; Asgari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body composition varies according to different life styles (i.e. intake calories and caloric expenditure). Therefore, it is wise to record military personnel’s body composition periodically and encourage those who abide to the regulations. Different methods have been introduced for body composition assessment: invasive and non-invasive. Amongst them, the Jackson and Pollock equation is most popular. Objectives: The recommended anthropometric prediction equations for assessing men’s body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) gold standard to develop a modified equation to assess body composition and obesity quantitatively among Iranian military men. Patients and Methods: A total of 101 military men aged 23 - 52 years old with a mean age of 35.5 years were recruited and evaluated in the present study (average height, 173.9 cm and weight, 81.5 kg). The body-fat percentages of subjects were assessed both with anthropometric assessment and DEXA scan. The data obtained from these two methods were then compared using multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean and standard deviation of body fat percentage of the DEXA assessment was 21.2 ± 4.3 and body fat percentage obtained from three Jackson and Pollock 3-, 4- and 7-site equations were 21.1 ± 5.8, 22.2 ± 6.0 and 20.9 ± 5.7, respectively. There was a strong correlation between these three equations and DEXA (R² = 0.98). Conclusions: The mean percentage of body fat obtained from the three equations of Jackson and Pollock was very close to that of body fat obtained from DEXA; however, we suggest using a modified Jackson-Pollock 3-site equation for volunteer military men because the 3-site equation analysis method is simpler and faster than other methods. PMID:26715964

  10. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  11. Anthropometry and body composition in the perspective of nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chumlea, W C; Baumgartner, R N; Vellas, B P

    1991-01-01

    Understanding normal changes in the body's composition with old age and their health and nutritional implications is important in determining the nutritional status of the elderly. Suitable reference data for anthropometry and body composition obtained from large representative samples of black, white, Hispanic, and Asian elderly persons are needed to improve their nutritional health and care. Distribution statistics for body measurements of persons 65 to 80 years of age are available from national health and nutrition surveys, but for persons older than 80 years, there is little information. Recumbent anthropometric techniques have been developed that are applicable. Underwater weighing continues to be a gold standard for determining body composition in the elderly, but a four-compartment model would improve estimates of body composition in the elderly because of changes in the density of the fat-free mass with old age. Noninvasive methods such as anthropometry and bioelectric impedance could be used to predict body composition if they were validated against direct methods and if appropriate equations become available. PMID:1802188

  12. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  13. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition.

  14. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  15. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  16. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07–8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  17. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  18. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  19. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents. PMID:22741211

  20. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS). This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. Participants underwent a neurological examination for generating Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, followed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis neuropsychological battery for measurement of cognitive processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory. Whole-body fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole-body fat mass and percent body fat were not associated with any cognitive outcome (all p > 0.41). However, lean body mass was associated with cognitive processing speed (p < 0.03), and bone mineral density was associated with cognitive processing speed and verbal learning and memory. Those associations were attenuated and nonsignificant after controlling for age and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores (p > 0.13). Body composition might not represent a target of interventions for improving cognitive processing speed or learning and memory in MS. PMID:26230584

  1. Bioimpedance as a tool for evaluating the body composition of suruvi (Steindachneridion scriptum).

    PubMed

    Zaniboni-Filho, E; Hermes-Silva, S; Weingartner, M; Jimenez, J E; Borba, M R; Fracalossi, D M

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is regarded as an important tool for evaluating the body composition of different animals in a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost manner. A South American fish species, Steindachneridion scriptum, known as suruvi, was selected for study in this investigation. A protocol to produce fish with different body composition was used to allow BIA to adequately predict the body composition of suruvi. The fish were fed twice each day with two different diets; a low lipid diet (8.90%), and a high lipid diet (18.68%). These dietary differences allowed suruvi specimens with different body compositions to be produced. The BIA readings were determined using a Quantum X Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer. Two readings (dorsal and ventral) were obtained for each fish. After BIA readings were obtained, the proximate composition of the fish bodies for each individual was determined. All of the study data were used to establish correlation equations between proximate analyses and BIA values. Strong correlations were found for S. scriptum. The highest correlations were obtained for the following pairs of quantities, using BIA data from dorsal readings: moisture and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); protein and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); and ash and reactance in parallel (R2 = 0.82). We conclude that BIA is an effective method in determining the body composition of S. scriptum without sacrificing the fish. However, to expand the use of this new technology it is important to define strict BIA protocols to guarantee accurate estimates. PMID:26602350

  2. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  3. Determination of maternal body composition in pregnancy and its relevance to perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Strauss, Boyd J G; Walker, Susan P; Permezel, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Three models and 10 specific methods for determining maternal body composition are discussed and their perinatal relevance reviewed. English language publications (1950 to January 2004) were searched electronically and by hand. Search terms included "body composition," "human," " pregnancy," "obesity," "adiposity," "regional," "2-, 3-, 4-component," "truncal," "peripheral," "central," "visceral" along with specific techniques and outcomes listed subsequently. Three models of body composition are described: 2-component being fat and fat-free mass; 3-component being fat, water, and protein; and 4-component being fat, water, protein, and osseous mineral. Ten techniques of body composition assessment are described: 1) anthropometric techniques including skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio; 2) total body water (isotopically labeled); 3) hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing); 4) air-displacement plethysmography; 5) bio-impedance analysis (BIA); 6) total body potassium (TBK); 7) dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); 8) computed tomography (CT); 9) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and 10) ultrasound (USS). Most methods estimate total adiposity. Regional fat distribution-central (truncal) compared with peripheral (limb) or visceral compared with subcutaneous-is important because of regional variation in adipocyte metabolism. Skinfolds, DEXA, CT, MRI, or USS can distinguish central from peripheral fat. CT, MRI, or USS can further subdivide central fat into visceral and subcutaneous. Perinatal outcomes examined in relation to body composition include pregnancy duration, birth weight, congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and the fetal origins of adult disease. A few studies suggest that central compared with peripheral fat correlates better with birth weight, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, and hypertension. Means of accurately assessing maternal body composition remain cumbersome and impractical, but may more accurately

  4. Anthropometry and body composition in soccer and volleyball players in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2007-06-01

    50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (p<0.001) higher among the sports persons. Soccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population. PMID:17704629

  5. The pristine nature of comets. [primeval composition of solar bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Abundance considerations suggest that comets are likely to be the most pristine minor bodies in the solar system. In proportion to solar abundances, the present scanty data suggest that cometary oxygen is not depleted, whereas carbon is by a factor of 4 and hydrogen, by a factor of 2000. This implies that comets are less depleted in H, C, N, O than CI chondrites, namely 10:1 in hydrogen, 4:1 in carbon and 3:1 in oxygen. These results have been obtained by using dust-to-gas ratios in comets to measure the relative abundance of silicon and metals to volatile material, and the spectra of atomic lines, mainly from the vacuum ultraviolet, to determine the H/O and C/O ratios of the mixture of volatile molecules.

  6. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, Eric L.; Chen, Ying; Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N.; Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W.; Shertzer, Howard G.

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  7. Anthropometry and Body Composition of Adolescents in Cracow, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Hołda, Mateusz K.; Piątek, Katarzyna; Wszołek, Karolina; Tyszka, Anna; Kmiotek, Elizabeth; Pliczko, Mateusz; Śliwińska, Aleksandra; Krauss, Klaudia; Miszczyk, Marcin; Walocha, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the level of adiposity and obesity in Polish adolescents and compare the results with earlier studies conducted in this population as well as those carried out in other populations. Methods The study group consisted of 456 boys and 514 girls aged 14-18 years living in Cracow chosen from randomly selected secondary schools. Weight, height, waist, and hip circumference (WC, HC) as well as triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio (STR), and percentage body fat were computed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity based on Polish children growth reference were calculated and age-dependent and gender-specific smoothed percentile curves for BMI and ROC curves were generated. Results Weight, height, WC, HC (up 16yr), WHtR (up 15yr), and WHR were considerably higher in males than females. Weight, height, and HC increased with age; WHtR remained the same. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 10.2% (boys 10.3%; girls 10.1%) and 4.2% (boys 5.3%; girls 3.3%). ROC analysis revealed that WHtR was the best tool for detection of obesity (AUC of 0.982±0.007) in males, whereas the sum of four SFTs (AUC: 0.968±0.011) and WHtR (AUC: 0.963±0.012) were the best predictors of obesity in females. Conclusions The level of adiposity in Cracow adolescents increased during the last decade. However, it is still lower than in other well-developed societies struggling with obesity epidemics. PMID:25815816

  8. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  9. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  10. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  11. Height and body composition determine arm propulsive force in youth swimmers independent of a maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner's stages of genital maturation (P1-5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013), arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042), sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009), % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016), lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015) and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026). Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22) of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat. PMID:25414760

  12. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

  13. Altered body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Heshka, Stanley; Ruggiero, Andrea; Bray, George A.; Foreyt, John; Kahn, Stephen E.; Lewis, Cora E.; Saad, Mohammed; Schwartz, Ann V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Design Overweight and obese (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2) Black, White and Hispanic men (490) and women (825) with type 2 diabetes ([mean±SD] age 58.5±6.6; BMI 35.3±5.3) who had a baseline dual energy x-ray absorptiometry whole body scan at the time of enrollment in the Look Ahead clinical trial, and 242 healthy controls, 91 males and 151 females (age 55.3±8.6 y, BMI 30.7±4.2 kg/m2) who were participating in unrelated research and were scanned on the same densitometers. Results Adjusted for covariates, total fat mass was smaller in persons with type 2 diabetes than in controls (−1.4±0.3[SE]; 34.5 vs 35.8 kg, p<0.001) while trunk fat was larger (1.3±0.2[SE]; 19.9 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001) and leg fat was smaller (−1.5±0.2[SE]; 10.7 vs 12.3 kg, p<0.001). The arms of subjects with type 2 diabetes did not have significantly less fat compared to controls. Adjusted trunk lean mass was larger in type 2 diabetes by 0.6 kg (28.4 vs 27.8 kg, p<0.001) while leg lean was smaller by 0.5 kg (18.1 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001). Conclusions Type 2 diabetes is associated with less total fat, leg fat and leg lean mass and more truncal fat and lean mass than controls. The physiological processes producing these deviations in tissue distribution and their metabolic significance warrant further investigation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953) PMID:18227843

  14. Efficacy of deuterium oxide to estimate body composition of growing swine

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1983-07-01

    An experiment involving 73 pigs was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the deuterium oxide (D/sub 2/O) dilution procedure for in vivo estimation of body composition in swine. Pigs were infused with known quantities of D/sub 2/O at 6.4 and 18 kg and then at approximately 18 kg increments to 145 kg body weight. Postinfusion blood D/sub 2/O concentrations were partitioned into early- and total-equilibrating pools. Results from D/sub 2/O analyses were compared with empty (ingesta-free) and total body water values obtained from chemical analysis of the ground animals. Both early- and total-equilibrating D/sub 2/O pools seemed to be good estimators of empty body weight. Total body D/sub 2/O space was similar to total body water at 6.4 kg, but consistently overestimated body water (averaged 20%) as the pigs attained heavier weights. Early- or total-body D/sub 2/O pool measurements accurately predicted chemically determined components with residual coefficients of variation below 5% and R2 greater than or equal to .90. However, total body D/sub 2/O space provided as accurate an estimate of empty body water as the early-pool technique and may be easier to use because catheterization of blood vessels is not required. The incorporation of live weight and sex in multiple regression equations did not improve the accuracy of empty body water prediction over that obtained from D/sub 2/O measurements alone. A method to estimate total body composition (water, protein, fat, ash) from the total body D/sub 2/O space measurements is presented.

  15. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  16. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  17. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  18. Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Korean Myopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Lee, Jang Woo; Suh, Mi Ri; Lee, Song Mi

    2016-01-01

    In myopathy patients, fat mass increases as the disease progresses, while lean body mass decreases. The present study aimed to investigate the overall nutritional status of Korean myopathy patients through surveys of diet and dietary habits, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and biochemistry tests, as well as the examination of related factors, for the purpose of using such findings as a basis for improving the nutritional status in myopathy patients. The energy intake of all participants was found to be insufficient at only 44.5% of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2010 (KDRIs 2010), whereas protein intake was sufficient at 89.8% of KDRIs 2010. Dietary fiber intake was found to be 58.4% of sufficient dietary fiber intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. Calcium intake was found to be 55.0% and magnesium was 14.9% of the recommended calcium and magnesium intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. With respect to quality of life (QOL), overall increase in QOL domain score showed significant positive correlations with vegetable fat intake (p < 0.05), vegetable protein intake (p < 0.05), and dietary fiber intake (p < 0.05). With respect to BIA, the mean phage angle of all participants was found to be 2.49 ± 0.93°, which was below the cutoff value. As a study that examined nutrient analysis and dietary habits of myopathy patients in Korea, the present study is meaningful in providing the basic data for future studies that aim to present dietary guidelines for patients suffering from myopathy. PMID:26839876

  19. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects’ body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  20. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  1. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  2. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  3. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  4. Relation between Lifestyle and Socio-Demographic Factors and Body Composition among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Azam, Kamal; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging is accompanied by various changes that can cause changes in diet and body composition resulting sometimes in malnutrition and disability in the elderly. Changes in body composition among the elderly are mainly the result of physical inactivity and nutrition. This study was designed to examine the relationship between lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and body composition. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 380 elderly people aged 60 and over in district 5 of Tehran, Iran. Their body composition was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and the Actigraph device was used for assessing physical activity patterns. A three-day food recall was conducted to measure their intake of energy and macronutrients. Lifestyle and socio-demographic information were collected by interview using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Overweight, obesity and central obesity were more prevalent in women than in men (p<0.001). Moreover, 57.1% and 18.7% of participants had high and very high fat mass index, respectively. High fat mass index was seen in 47% of men and 37.5% of women who had normal body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, age, gender, physical activity, energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat and protein, educational level, job, television watching time, smoking, chronic diseases, and taking medicine were significantly associated with anthropometric measurements (p<0.05). Conclusion: Overweight, obesity and high body fat percentage were common among the aged. Considering the factors that are significantly associated with body composition, programs that can increase their awareness about the dietary balance and suitable physical activity should be organized to address these problems. PMID:27045408

  5. REVIEW: A review of in vivo experimental methods to determine the composition of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    This review of experimental methods employed in the measurement of the composition of the human body covers the developments that have occurred over the past 30 years. Early methods such as hydrodensitometry and skinfold anthropometry have been superseded by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The measurement of the whole-body abundance of certain elements by isotopic dilution, neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence can give important information of clinical significance, but neutron activation facilities remain available in only a few centres worldwide. The relatively simple, rapid and risk-free electrical methods such as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, which can be employed at the bedside, have been found to be more complicated in their interpretation. Electromagnetic methods may only measure the composition of the human body at its surface. X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have not yet been employed much in body composition measurements. Some models for the composition of the human body are reviewed.

  6. Influence of Body Composition on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children With Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Junior, Dirceu; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S.; Araujo, Poliane N.; Barbalho-Moulin, Marcela C.; Alves, Viviane C.; Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects lung function and respiratory muscle strength. The aim of the present study was to assess lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children with obesity and determine the influence of body composition on these variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 75 children (40 with obesity and 35 within the ideal weight range) aged 6 - 10 years. Body mass index, z score, waist circumference, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), respiratory muscle strength and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated. Results Children with obesity exhibited larger quantities of both lean and fat mass in comparison to those in the ideal weight range. No significant differences were found between groups regarding the respective reference values for respiratory muscle strength. Male children with obesity demonstrated significantly lower lung function values (forced expiratory volume in the first second % (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) : 93.76 ± 9.78 and 92.29 ± 3.8, respectively) in comparison to males in the ideal weight range (99.87 ± 9.72 and 96.31 ± 4.82, respectively). The regression models demonstrated that the spirometric variables were influenced by all body composition variables. Conclusion Children with obesity demonstrated a reduction in lung volume and capacity. Thus, anthropometric and body composition characteristics may be predictive factors for altered lung function. PMID:26767078

  7. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  8. Ultrasound Use for Body Composition and Carcass Quality Assessment in Cattle and Lambs.

    PubMed

    Tait, Richard Gregory

    2016-03-01

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part because of introduction of new technology, such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound-measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are acquired before final selections of seed stock candidate animals are made, and have seen high adoption rates by beef seed stock producers. The Ultrasound Guidelines Council certifies technicians who collect and interpret ultrasound data for beef producers. Multiple traits important to beef quality and quantity are evaluated at the same time with one scan session. PMID:26922120

  9. Body composition changes in men and women after 2-3 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Price, D. C.; Newsom, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several parameters of body composition were measured in eight men before and after 14 days of continuous recumbency, and in eight women before and after 17 days of recumbency. The parameters measured included body weight, body water, body potassium, plasma volume, and plasma protein concentrations. From these, values were derived for body fat content, lean body mass, body mass, and circulating plasma proteins. In general, the men and women responded similarly to continuous recumbency. Characteristically, there was significant reduction of plasma volume and body potassium in both groups. The women showed a significant reduction in circulating plasma protein, entirely in the albumin fraction; a similar change was observed in the men. The women, but not the men, showed a significant increase in circulating fibrinogen. Both men and women lost body cell mass, while body fat content remained the same or tended to increase slightly. It is expected that similar changes would occur in weightlessness. It is further concluded that women should tolerate the weightlessness of space flight physiologically as well as men.

  10. Body composition data from the rat subjects of Cosmos 1129 experiment K-316

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 18.5 days of weightlessness on the body composition of young, growing, male laboratory rats were examined. Three groups of 5 rats each were examined. It is indicated that exposure of young, growing, male rats to 18.5 days of weightlessness produces: (1) no effect on the quantity of fat stored by the body; (2) a slight reduction in the quantity of fat free tissue laid down by the body; (3) a small reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free body mass; (4) a similar reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free skin and fat free carcass; (5) a shift in relative distribution of the total body water from skin to viscera; (6) a diminution in the fraction of extracellular water contained by the fat free body; (7) no effect on the fraction of total skeletal musculature contained by the fat free body, as indicated by body creatine content; (8) a sizeable reduction in the fraction of bone mineral contained by the fat free body, as calculated from body calcium content. The nature of the physiological changes induced by unloading from Earth gravity in the mammalian organism are illustrated.

  11. Body Composition QTLs Identified in Intercross Populations Are Reproducible in Consomic Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cailu; Fesi, Brad D.; Marquis, Michael; Bosak, Natalia P.; Theodorides, Maria L.; Avigdor, Mauricio; McDaniel, Amanda H.; Duke, Fujiko F.; Lysenko, Anna; Khoshnevisan, Amin; Gantick, Brian R.; Arayata, Charles J.; Nelson, Theodore M.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation contributes to individual differences in obesity, but defining the exact relationships between naturally occurring genotypes and their effects on fatness remains elusive. As a step toward positional cloning of previously identified body composition quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from F2 crosses of mice from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J inbred strains, we sought to recapture them on a homogenous genetic background of consomic (chromosome substitution) strains. Male and female mice from reciprocal consomic strains originating from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J strains were bred and measured for body weight, length, and adiposity. Chromosomes 2, 7, and 9 were selected for substitution because previous F2 intercross studies revealed body composition QTLs on these chromosomes. We considered a QTL confirmed if one or both sexes of one or both reciprocal consomic strains differed significantly from the host strain in the expected direction after correction for multiple testing. Using these criteria, we confirmed two of two QTLs for body weight (Bwq5-6), three of three QTLs for body length (Bdln3-5), and three of three QTLs for adiposity (Adip20, Adip26 and Adip27). Overall, this study shows that despite the biological complexity of body size and composition, most QTLs for these traits are preserved when transferred to consomic strains; in addition, studying reciprocal consomic strains of both sexes is useful in assessing the robustness of a particular QTL. PMID:26551037

  12. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  13. Adult Onset Global Loss of the Fto Gene Alters Body Composition and Metabolism in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sara; Teboul, Lydia; Tung, Y. C. Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; Bosch, Fatima; Jimenez, Veronica; Yeo, Giles S. H.; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Coll, Anthony P.; Cox, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    The strongest BMI–associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake. PMID:23300482

  14. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  15. Physical activity and body composition analysis of female baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Davidson, Michele R

    2003-09-01

    Although nursing students are educated about the importance of healthy diets and the benefits of exercise, many do not engage in health promotion behaviors. This study longitudinally examined specific indicators of obesity among a group of female nursing students who incorporated an exercise program into their normal weekly routine. Indicators for obesity were identified using anthropometric data that included weight, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat. Blood pressure, pulse data, and a physical activity level assessment were performed at the beginning and at the conclusion of the study period. Results indicated improvement in overall body composition, including a reduction in percent body fat and BMI. Students also showed improved physical activity levels. Since nurses need to counsel clients on primary prevention issues such as physical activity and maintaining ideal body weight and lean mass, the importance of positive health behaviors for nursing students and nurses cannot be stressed enough. PMID:19038116

  16. Body chemical composition of Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, E F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Araujo, F L; Magnani, E; Mercadante, M E Z

    2013-07-01

    Empty body and carcass chemical compositions, expressed as content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy, were evaluated in Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes (RFI). Forty-nine not castrated males, with 343 kg of average initial BW and 398 kg of average slaughter BW, were studied. Animals were divided in two subgroups: reference group (RG) and ad libitum feeding group. At the end of the adaptation period, animals of subgroup RG were slaughtered and the other animals were finished in individual pens for approximately 100 d, until they reached a subcutaneous fat thickness over the LM of 4 mm, and were slaughtered at an average age of 540 d. Body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and chemical composition of gain were also measured based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. No significant differences in slaughter BW (P = 0.8639), empty BW (P = 0.7288), HCW (P = 0.6563), or empty body and carcass rates of gain were observed between RFI groups, demonstrating that the low (-0.331 kg DM/d) and high (+0.325 kg DM/d) RFI animals presented similar body sizes and growth rates. No significant differences in empty body or carcass content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy were observed between the low and high RFI animals. And also there were no significant differences in empty BW or carcass gain, demonstrating that low and high RFI animals had a similar growth potential. More efficient animals (low RFI) consumed less feed than less efficient animals (high RFI) but presented similar body sizes, growth rates, and empty body and carcass chemical composition. PMID:23658334

  17. Ethnic Variation in Body Composition Assessment in a Sample of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid measure of body composition in a multiethnic sample of adolescent girls, as compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Method Data were from a physical activity intervention study among 276 14–20 year-old sedentary American girls, including 74 whites, 85 blacks, 46 Hispanics, and 71 Asians. Height and weight were objectively measured. Body composition was assessed using a foot-to-foot BIA and a fan-beam DXA. Linear regression models quantified baseline cross-sectional estimates of percent body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index and their BIA-DXA differences, which we considered an estimate of bias. Variation in BIA-DXA by ethnicity and DXA-assessed adiposity was examined with tests of statistical interaction. Results Compared to DXA measurement, BIA significantly underestimated percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass index, and overestimated fat-free mass and fat-free mass index in each ethnic group. There was significant ethnic variation in BIA-DXA bias: percent body fat was underestimated by between 4.8% in blacks and 8.6% in Asians (p-value, interaction<0.001), as were fat mass (p-value=0.012) and fat mass index (p-value<0.001); fat-free mass index was overestimated (p-value=0.002). The degree of ethnic-specific bias varied according to DXA-assessed body composition values. For example, there was relatively greater ethnic variation in bias estimating percent body fat at lower DXA-assessed percent body fat values. Conclusion Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated measures of adiposity in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Further, BIA-DXA bias varied by ethnicity and across measures of adiposity. PMID:21749194

  18. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height2(kg/m2). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm2). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation. PMID:25120859

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance for measurement of body composition in infants and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of body composition in infants and children is currently challenging. Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) has not been validated between ages 6 mo and 6 y and the requirement for stillness of the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) technique limits its use. Quantitative Nuclear Ma...

  20. Use of ultrasound scanning and body condition score to evaluate composition traits in mature beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned ...

  1. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  2. Influence of bovine temperament, transportation, and lipopolysaccharide challenge on ultrasound body composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of bovine temperament on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and endotoxin challenge. Brahman bulls (10 months of age) were selected based on temperament score which was an average of exit velocity (EV; objective measure...

  3. Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols from cinnamon (CN) have been described recently as insulin sensitizers and antioxidants, but their effects on the glucose/insulin system in vivo have not been totally investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CN on insulin resistance and body composition, using ...

  4. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  5. The Relationship between Student Body Racial Composition and the Normative Environment toward Diversity at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2013-01-01

    While there has been increased scholarship in recent years on diversity in higher education, most of this research has failed to include 2-year institutions in its analyses. This study examined whether the racial composition of the community college student body is correlated with an institution's normative climate toward three diversity…

  6. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  8. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  9. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  10. Effects of Stage of Lactation and Dietary Forage Level on Body Composition of Alpine Dairy Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Alpine does (42) were used to determine how stage of lactation and dietary forage level affect body composition. Initial measures were made with six does a few days after kidding (0 mo). Before parturition does were fed a 50% concentrate diet free-choice. Eighteen does were fed a 40% ...

  11. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  12. The use of NMR for infant body composition, comparison with DXA and chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is susceptible to programming during the early stages of development (in utero and/or during the first year of life). Obtaining accurate and precise measures of body composition (BC) in infants and children and through adulthood is critical to testing these hypotheses in both cross...

  13. Comparison of Growth, Body Composition, and Stress Response of Three Select Lines and Industry Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement in growth and resistance to stress has been identified as traits of interest for genetic improvement. Channel catfish selected solely for fast growth (fast growing) were compared to USDA103, USDA403, and industry pool groups of channel catfish for growth, body composition, and stress re...

  14. Accuracy of generalized body composition equations with diverse men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subjects used to develop the Jackson-Pollock (JP) body composition equations published in 1978 and 1980 were primarily white men and women. Current public health and demographic data show that the American population has grown more diverse and obese. To examine the accuracy of the JP equations ...

  15. The influence of temperament, transportation stress, and endotoxin challenge on body composition traits in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament of bulls on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and an endotoxin challenge. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected from a pool of 60 bulls based on temperament scores measured at weaning (n=8 each: calm, int...

  16. Effects of long versus short duration transportation on body composition on Brahman x Hereford calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of transport duration on body composition of Brahman x Hereford calves. Calves (8.5±0.4 mo of age) from Overton, TX, were blocked by sex (n=18 steers; n=14 heifers), BW, and temperament score and were randomly assigned to a transportation treatment of...

  17. The Use of NMR for Infant Body Composition, Comparison with DXA and Chemical Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is susceptible to programming during the early stages of development (in utero and/or during the first year of life). Obtaining accurate and precise measures of body composition (BC) in infants and children and through adulthood is critical to testing these hypotheses in both cross...

  18. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  19. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  20. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F1, and three breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow/calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL cal...

  1. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  2. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  3. Relationships between Body Composition and Fundamental Movement Skills among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okely, Anthony D.; Booth, Michael L.; Chey, Tien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations of fundamental movement skills (FMS) with measures of body composition. among children and adolescents. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data collected from 4,363 children and adolescents in Grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 as part of the 1997 New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity…

  4. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition of Soccer Referees; Do These Correlate With Proper Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Reza; Halabchi, Farzin; Seif Barghi, Tohid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The elite-level referee is exposed to similar physical demands to those placed on a midfield soccer player. They have an important responsibility to implement the rules of the game. So, good health and performance of soccer referees have a great importance. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of all 78 soccer referees officiating at the Iranian Premier League and determine the correlation between these parameters and performance. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all referees selected for the competitions were enrolled. Participants underwent exercise stress test, pulmonary function test and body composition assessment. Then the weekly scores of each referee, assessed by qualified supervisors of national federation were obtained using the FIFA standard form throughout the season (34 weeks) and registered. Results: Among 78 participants (including 32 center and 46 side referees), mean and standard deviation of age, body mass index, percent of body fat, VO2max and performance scores were 37 ± 3.8, 23.6 ± 2.1, 20.7 ± 3.9, 59.9 ± 7.1 and 85.8 ± 0.25, respectively. No significant correlation between referees’ mean score and selected parameters were found. Conclusions: It seems that the acquired scores of top-class referees may be influenced by multiple factors other than the laboratory findings of cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition. PMID:27231524

  6. In Vivo Determination of Body Composition in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Fowler, L Adele; Dennis, Lacey N; Barry, R Jeff; Powell, Mickie L; Watts, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel L

    2016-06-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model research organism continues to expand its relevance and role in multiple research disciplines, with recent work directed toward models of metabolism, nutrition, and energetics. Multiple technologies exist to assess body composition in animal research models at various levels of detail (tissues/organs, body regions, and whole organism). The development and/or validation of body composition assessment tools can open new areas of research questions for a given organism. Using fish from a comparative nutrition study, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) assessment of whole body fat and fat-free mass (FFM) in live fish was performed. QMR measures from two cohorts (n = 26 and n = 27) were compared with chemical carcass analysis (CCA) of FM and FFM. QMR was significantly correlated with chemical carcass values (fat, p < 0.001; lean, p = 0.002), although QMR significantly overestimated fat mass (FM) (0.011 g; p < 0.0001) and underestimated FFM (-0.024 g; p < 0.0001) relative to CCA. In a separate cross-validation group of fish, prediction equations corrected carcass values for FM (p = 0.121) and FFM (p = 0.753). These results support the utilization of QMR-a nonlethal nondestructive method-for cross-sectional or longitudinal body composition assessment outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:26974510

  7. Measurement of body composition in response to a short period of overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and overweight are increasing in prevalence in developed countries as a result of changing dietary habits and a lack of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in body composition during short-term overfeeding using the three-component model, which is composed of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW), and fat-free dry solids (FFDS). Methods Ten healthy men completed 3 days of overfeeding during which they consumed 1,500 kcal/day more energy than consumed in their normal diets. Body composition was evaluated at three time points: the day before and after their normal diets and the day after the 3-day overfeeding diet. Results Before and after their normal diets, there were no significant differences in body weight and composition, but after 3 days of overfeeding, body weight, TBW, and FFDS increased 0.7, 0.7, and 0.2 kg, respectively (P <0.0001). There was no significant difference in FM between the normal and overfeeding diets. Conclusion This study suggests that TBW gain contributes to weight gain following a short-term overfeeding. PMID:25208693

  8. Body Composition, Muscle Quality and Scoliosis in Female Collegiate Gymnasts: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Trexler, E T; Smith-Ryan, A E; Roelofs, E J; Hirsch, K R

    2015-11-01

    Research has demonstrated an elevated prevalence of body weight concerns and scoliosis among female gymnasts. The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as practical imaging modalities to measure body composition and spinal curvature variables that may correlate with performance in female collegiate gymnasts (n=15). DXA was used to evaluate body composition and lateral spinal curvature, utilizing a modified Ferguson method. Echo intensity (EI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis were determined from a panoramic cross-sectional ultrasound image. For returning athletes (n=9), performance scores from the previous season were averaged to quantify performance. The average performance score was correlated with lean mass of the arms (R=0.714; P=0.03) and right leg (R=0.680; P=0.04). Performance was not correlated with total mass, fat mass or body fat percentage (P>0.10). Scoliosis was identified in 3 of 15 scans (20%). Echo intensity and CSA of the vastus lateralis were inversely correlated with each other (R=-0.637, P=0.01), but not with other measures of body composition or performance. Results suggest that limb LBM may be a determinant of gymnastics performance, and DXA may provide important health and performance-related information for female collegiate gymnasts. PMID:26332905

  9. Effects of Resistance Training and Soy Isoflavone on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Orsatti, Fábio Lera; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Maesta, Nailza; Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Fernandes, Cesar Edurado

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the independent and additive effects of resistance training (RT) and soy isoflavone (ISO) on body composition in postmenopausal women (PW). Method. This study used a placebo-controlled, double-blind (soy), randomized (ISO versus placebo) × (RT versus No RT) design. A total of 80 PW, aged 45–70 years, were randomly (71 completed 9-months intervention): RT + ISO (n = 15), No RT + ISO (n = 20), RT + placebo (n = 18), and No RT + placebo (n = 18). ISO received 100 mg a day of isoflavone; and to RT attended supervised resistance training sessions. At baseline and 9-months, fat and muscle mass were estimated by DXA. ANOVA and test t were used. Results. RT groups showed significantly increased muscle strength (35.2%) and muscle mass (1.4%). Exercising attenuated gains in fat trunk and % body fat (P < .05). Significant decreases in muscle mass (−1.8%) and increases in fat mass of the whole-body (1.6%) and trunk (9.7%) was found in no-RT groups (P < .05). In ISO groups, there were no differences in body composition and muscle strength. ISO and RT had no additive effects. Conclusion. In PW: RT improved muscle mass and strength and attenuated gain of fat mass; ISO did not alter body composition and muscle strength; there were no additive effects of RT and ISO. PMID:20490353

  10. Effects of nutritional manipulation on body composition in the developing marsupial, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Jennifer A; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoffrey; Stefanidis, Aneta; Cowley, Michael A; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2016-06-15

    When 60-day-old tammar wallaby pouch young (Macropus eugenii) are fostered to mothers at 120 days of lactation, their growth, developmental rate and maturation of their GH/IGF axes are markedly accelerated. To determine the effect of fostering on energy intake, body composition and fat accretion, we first measured total body fat and lean mass in these young. Next, we mimicked the triglyceride oleic and palmitic acid composition of 120-day milk by supplementing 60 day young with these fatty acids and comparing their growth with that of growth accelerated young. There was no difference in the weight or growth axis maturation of supplemented young but there was significantly more body fat in these and in the growth-accelerated fostered young than in controls. We conclude that the accelerated growth and GH/IGF axis maturation observed previously in fostered young is most likely due to increased milk consumption and earlier access to specific nutrients. PMID:27032712

  11. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  12. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  13. The relationship between body composition and preseason performance tests of collegiate male lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean M; Silberlicht, Max; Perzinski, Chris; Smith, Stephen P; Davidson, Patrick W

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effects that body composition has on performance in football, soccer, and ice hockey; yet, there are no similar studies examining this relationship in men's lacrosse. The purpose of the study was to examine the physiological profiles and the relationship between body composition and performance in aerobic and anaerobic tests. Fifty-four (19.63 ± 1.21 years; 178.53 ± 6.17 cm; 81.66 ± 14.96 kg) Division III intercollegiate athletes participated. Performance tests, including a 1 repetition maximum power clean (PC), body weight (lbs), bench press repetitions, parallel bar triceps dips to fatigue (DR), two 300-yard shuttles, and a 1-mile run (MT), were completed after the completion of fall preseason practices. Body composition was estimated using air-displacement plethysmography. Correlation coefficients determined relationships between percent body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM), and testing variables. Increased %BF was negatively correlated to DR (r = -0.36, p = 0.01) whereas positively correlated to each 300-yard shuttle time (T1 and T2), total 300-yard shuttle time (TT), and MT (r = 0.64, p = 0.00; r = 0.68, p = 0.00; r = 0.69, p = 0.00; and r = 0.44, p = 0.00, respectively). Increased FFM was positively correlated with PC (r = 0.58, p = 0.00) yet not correlated (p ≥ 0.05) with other variables. Results indicated that increased %BF might be a detriment to the repetitive anaerobic performance and aerobic capacity vital to on-field lacrosse performance. Body composition also demonstrated a significant relationship to moving internal vs. external resistances. PMID:24626136

  14. Effect of current glycemic control on qualitative body composition in sedentary ambulatory Type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Makwana, Amit H.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Kamdar, Panna; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Shah, Chinmay J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are on rise with cause–effect relationship. Diabetics monitor blood sugar, neglecting qualitative body composition, leaving residual threat of ectopic fat unattended. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with parameters of body composition derived objectively by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Materials and Methods: A sample of 78 under treatment sedentary Type 2 diabetics of either sex with known glycemic and lipidemic control from our city. Following baseline assessment measurement was done by instrument Omron Karada Scan (Model HBF-510, China) using the principle of tetra poplar BIA to derive parameters of body composition. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with these parameters, both directly as well as after defining them as per established cutoff norms. Results: We found poor glycemic control in the study group (20% for Hb1AC), high body mass index, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat (VF), total body fat (TBF), and lesser mass of skeletal muscle in Type 2 diabetics. However, there were small, insignificant, and inconsistent difference of these parameters while directly correlating with the fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin. On qualitative assessment, the impact of glycemic control as per standard norms, the risk of high VF, high TBF, low skeletal muscle mass was though high (between 1 and 2) in Type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control as compared to good glycemics, but each strength lacks statistical significance. Conclusion: BIA reveals that Type 2 diabetics have more ectopic fat on expense of skeletal muscle that do not correlate with current glycemic status, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Measurement of body composition can be included and subjects can be motivated for lifestyle modification strategies while managing metabolic derangements of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27185972

  15. Seasonal DXA-measured body composition changes in professional male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Chiara; Cavedon, Valentina; Corradini, Giuliano; De Vita, Francesco; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated changes in body composition of professional soccer players attending an Italian Serie A club across the competitive season; it is original insofar as body composition was assessed at multiple time points across the season using the accurate three-compartment model provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-one players (4 goalkeepers, 13 defenders, 8 midfielders, 6 forwards) underwent DXA and anthropometry at pre-, mid- and end-season. One operator measured whole body and regional body composition (fat mass, FM; fat-free soft tissue mass, FFSTM; mineral mass). Two players were excluded from analysis due to serious injury. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA; factors were season time point and playing position. Results showed that whole-body FM and %FM significantly (P < 0.001) decrease at mid-season (-11.9%; -1.3%, respectively) and end-season (-8.3%; -0.8%, respectively) whereas FFSTM significantly (P < 0.001) increase at mid-season (+1.3%) and end-season (+1.5%). Limited, but significant changes took place in bone mineral content. Some regional (upper and lower limbs, trunk) differences in the pattern of body composition changes across the season were also found. Changes were similar for all playing positions. It was concluded that professional soccer players undergo changes in their FM, FFSTM, and mineral mass across the season with some regional variations, irrespective of the playing position. Changes are mostly positive at mid-season, possibly due to difference in training between the first and second phase of the season. PMID:25773172

  16. Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Lopes, Guilherme Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of body composition variables is important for planning of better activities in relation to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives (1) To evaluate changes in body composition in patients with SCI after a supervised physical activity process; (2) To correlate total body fat with time since injury. Design Pre-post intervention. Setting Sarah Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brazil. Participants Fifty-three men with SCI aged 18–52 years with duration of injury >3 years. Interventions The subjects were divided into three groups: tetraplegia (TT) (C5–C8), high paraplegia (HP) (T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP) (T7–L2). Body composition was estimated in the first and last weeks of hospitalization. Outcome measures Body weight (kg), skinfolds sum (mm), absolute (kg), and relative (%) fat and lean body mass. Results Body weight increased in TT and decreased in HP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.1–1.5; and −1.0 kg, 95%CI −2.0 to 0.0, respectively; P < 0.05). Skinfolds sum decreased only in HP (−13.1 mm, 95%CI −20.7 to −5.5; P < 0.05). Absolute and relative body fat decreased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Lean body mass (LBM) percentage increased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Absolute LBM increased in TT and LP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.3–1.3; and 1.3 kg, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between time since injury and skinfolds sum for the three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion TT, HP, and LP demonstrated favorable changes in body composition after 29 days of supervised physical activity. However, these changes were different in direction and magnitude. PMID:22330114

  17. Effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreeger, T.J.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition in 9 captive adult gray wolves, Canis lupus (6 males, 3 females), during May-June 1995. Body composition was estimated by the technique of tritiated water dilution. Wolves were immobilized and weighed, baseline blood samples were taken, tritiated water was injected, and additional blood samples were taken before fasting, after 10 d of fasting, and again after 2 d of refeeding. Male wolves lost 8% (P = 0.0001) and females lost 7% body mass (P = 0.01) during the 10 d. Males lost 54% of this mass in water, 28% in fat, and 18% in protein/ash; females lost 58% in water, 20% in fat, and 22% in protein/ash. Upon refeeding, male wolves consumed an average of 6.8 kg (15.3% body mass) of deer meat per day and females consumed 6.4 kg (18.7% body mass). All wolves regained their initial mass. Males regained 24% of this mass in water, 70% in fat, and 6% in protein/ash; females regained 35% in water, 51% in fat, and 14% in protein/ash. This study provided evidence that after prolonged fasting, captive wolves could quickly and efficiently regain lost body mass after refeeding.

  18. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area. PMID:27110820

  19. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; La Bounty, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent fasting is a broad term that encompasses a variety of programs that manipulate the timing of eating occasions by utilizing short-term fasts in order to improve body composition and overall health. This review examines studies conducted on intermittent fasting programs to determine if they are effective at improving body composition and clinical health markers associated with disease. Intermittent fasting protocols can be grouped into alternate-day fasting, whole-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding. Alternate-day fasting trials of 3 to 12 weeks in duration appear to be effective at reducing body weight (≈3%-7%), body fat (≈3-5.5 kg), total cholesterol (≈10%-21%), and triglycerides (≈14%-42%) in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans. Whole-day fasting trials lasting 12 to 24 weeks also reduce body weight (≈3%-9%) and body fat, and favorably improve blood lipids (≈5%-20% reduction in total cholesterol and ≈17%-50% reduction in triglycerides). Research on time-restricted feeding is limited, and clear conclusions cannot be made at present. Future studies should examine long-term effects of intermittent fasting and the potential synergistic effects of combining intermittent fasting with exercise. PMID:26374764

  20. Body composition changes in elite male bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T; Noell, C J; Whittingham, N O; Chatterton, B E; Schultz, C G; Keeves, J P

    1997-03-01

    Anthropometric profiles together with a 4 compartment criterion model of body composition analysis (total body water, bone mineral, fat and residual masses via a combination of deuterium dilution, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry) were conducted on 3 elite male bodybuilders 10 wk and then 5 d before competition. A mean body mass reduction from 99.70 (Quetelet's Index = 31.6 kg/m2) to 92.79 kg (Quetelet's Index = 29.2 kg/m2) was accompanied by a decline in the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf) from 51.1 to 36.7 mm. The 4 compartment body composition model indicated that there were reductions of: percent body fat (%BF) from 9.1 to 5.0%, fat free mass (FFM) from 90.60 to 88.14 kg and fat mass (FM) from 9.10 to 4.65 kg. Sixty-four percent of the 6.91 kg loss in body mass therefore came from the FM. The 2 compartment hydrodensitometric model yielded higher %BFs (initial = 11.2; final = 7.1) than the 4 compartment model (initial = 9.1; final = 5.0) which is theoretically more valid because it controls for biological variability in the percentages of water and bone mineral in the FFM. Nevertheless, both models registered decreases of 4.1%BF. PMID:9127683

  1. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.

  2. Body composition and military performance--many things to many people.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2012-07-01

    Soldiers are expected to maintain the highest possible level of physical readiness because they must be ready to mobilize and perform their duties anywhere in the world at any time. The objective of Army body composition standards is to motivate physical training and good nutrition habits to ensure a high state of readiness. Establishment of enforceable and rational standards to support this objective has been challenging even at extremes of body size. Morbidly obese individuals are clearly not suited to military service, but very large muscular individuals may be superbly qualified for soldier performance demands. For this reason, large individuals are measured for body fat using a waist circumference-based equation (female soldiers are also measured for hip circumference). The main challenge comes in setting appropriate fat standards to support the full range of Army requirements. Military appearance ideals dictate the most stringent body fat standards, whereas health risk thresholds anchor the most liberal standards, and physical performance associations fall on a spectrum between these 2 poles. Standards should not exclude or penalize specialized performance capabilities such as endurance running or power lifting across a spectrum of body sizes and fat. The full integration of women into the military further complicates the issue because of sexually dimorphic characteristics that make gender-appropriate standards essential and where inappropriately stringent standards can compromise both health and performance of this segment of the force. Other associations with body composition such as stress effects on intraabdominal fat distribution patterns and metabolic implications of a fat reserve for survival in extreme environments are also relevant considerations. This is a review of the science that underpins the U.S. Army body composition standards. PMID:22643136

  3. Associations between body composition and helminths of lesser snow geese during winter and spring migration.

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Alisauskas, Ray T; Daniel McLaughlin, J

    2012-07-01

    Costs of parasitism are predicted to be higher with greater parasite intensities and higher inter-parasite competition (diversity). We tested whether greater helminth intensities and diversity were associated with poorer body composition (whole-body fat, protein, mineral and true body mass) in lesser snow geese, Chen caerulescens caerulescens. As part of a larger study on nutritional ecology, 828 wintering or migrating geese were shot between January and May 1983 in 27 different date-locations (samples) during their northward migration through mid-continental North America. A large proportion of overall variation in body composition and parasite communities was among samples, so we analyzed data within each of the 27 samples, controlling for structural body size (the first principal component of 10 body size measurements), sex and the age of geese. There was no compelling evidence that cestodes, trematodes or helminth diversity were associated with variation in body composition but nematodes had several negative associations with fat reserves. However, negative associations between fat reserves and nematodes occurred most often in geese collected between March and May when nematode prevalences and intensities were relatively low. This suggests several possibilities: that the most common nematodes (Heterakis dispar and Trichostrongylus tenuis) were more virulent at this time, that infected individuals had been chronically infected and suffered cumulative nutrient deficits that lasted until late in the spring migration, or that geese became more vulnerable to the effects of parasites at this time of year, possibly because they redirected resources away from immunity toward fat storage in preparation for reproduction. PMID:22713759

  4. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  5. Physical activity and body composition in outpatients recovering from anorexia nervosa and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Tanja; Rieger, Elizabeth; Touyz, Stephen; Beumont, Pierre; Plasqui, Guy; Westerterp, Klaas

    2008-04-01

    The study aimed to compare differences in physical activity, the relationship between physical activity and body composition, and seasonal variation in physical activity in outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Physical activity (CM-AMT) and time spent in different intensities of 10 female individuals with AN and 15 female controls was assessed across three seasons along with the percentage body fat. The two groups did not differ in their physical activity and both demonstrated seasonal variation. The percentage body fat of individuals with AN, but not that of the controls, was negatively related to CM-AMT and time spent in low-moderate intensity activity (LMI). Seasonal variation in physical activity emerged with increases in engagement in LMI during the summer period for both groups. Possible interpretations of the finding that decreased physical activity was related to a normalization of percentage body fat in the individuals with AN are discussed and implications for treatment are highlighted. PMID:18493090

  6. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Body composition assessment and coronary heart disease risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study identified and compared anthropometric measurements, body composition and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among college students of three ethnic groups. METHODS: Subjects were assessed for cardiovascular risk. Body composition analysis was performed using the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). RESULTS: Black non-Hispanic females (30%) were significantly (p < 0.017) more in the "overweight" category compared to white non-Hispanic females (6.7%). Black non-Hispanic females had significantly (p < 0.044) higher percentages of body fat and lower percentages of body lean, and significantly (p < 0.040) lower percentages of body water than white non-Hispanic females. Significant positive correlations were found between CHD Risk Point Standard (CHDRPS) and percentages of body fat in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001). Significant inverse correlations were found between CHDRPS and percentages of body water in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.004), Hispanic males (p < 0.013) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001): body lean in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.005), Hispanic males (p < 0.016) and Hispanic females (p < 0.001); and lean/fat ratio in white non-Hispanic males (p < 0.008), Hispanic males (p < 0.030), black non-Hispanic males (p < 0.020) and Hispanic females (p < 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of overweight justifies a high priority for weight control in young adults in an effort to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) later in life. PMID:16035576

  9. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  10. Chemical composition of the Howardite Parent Body deduced from Kapoeta primary 'mafic' magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. R.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical data are presented for three 'mafic' clasts extracted from the Kapoeta howardite. Bulk compositions and petrologic observations suggest that two of these lithic clasts represent olivine-plagioclase bearing orthopyroxenites. Chondrite-relative refractory large ion lithophile abundances of two of the clasts are inferred to represent primary Mg-rich magmas produced by extensive (greater than about 70%) partial melting of a source composition indistinguishable from the silicate fraction of average CH-CL ordinary chondrites, with the exception of the depletion of the alkalis Na and K by a factor of 13 + or - 1 in the source composition. A metal-free and volatile depleted Kapoeta Parent Body (KPB) is subsequently deduced and is shown to compare very well with other similarly derived Achondrite Parent Body and Howardite Parent Body estimates but not to parent body estimates derived from inferences based on eucrite phase equilibrium studies. Other implications suggest that the KPB is heterogeneous with respect to Fe/Mg ratios.

  11. UCP1 and UCP3 Expression Is Associated with Lipid and Carbohydrate Oxidation and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Bruno A. P.; Pinhel, Marcela A. S.; Nicoletti, Carolina F.; Oliveira, Cristiana C.; Quinhoneiro, Driele C. G.; Noronha, Natália Y.; Marchini, Júlio S.; Marchry, Ana J.; Junior, Wilson S.; Nonino, Carla B.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins participate in thermogenesis and energy expenditure. This study aimed to evaluate how UCP1 and UCP3 expression influences substrate oxidation and elicits possible changes in body composition in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Subjects/Methods This is a longitudinal study comprising 13 women with obesity grade III that underwent bariatric surgery and 10 healthy weight individuals (control group). Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected for gene expression analysis. QPCR was used to evaluate UCP1 and UCP3 expression. Results Obese patients and the control group differed significantly in terms of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Six months after bariatric surgery, the differences disappeared. Lipid oxidation correlated with the percentage of fat mass in the postoperative period. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the UCP1 and UCP3 genes contributed to lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Additionally, UCP3 expression was associated with BMI, percentage of lean body mass, and percentage of mass in the postoperative period. Conclusions UCP1 and UCP3 expression is associated with lipid and carbohydrate oxidation in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. In addition, UCP3 participates in body composition modulation six months postoperatively. PMID:26959981

  12. Effects of Levothyroxine Replacement or Suppressive Therapy on Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women. Subjects underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, and thermic effect of food by indirect calorimetry; physical activity energy expenditure by accelerometer; caloric intake by 24-hour diet recall; and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: REE per kilogram lean body mass in the LT4 euthyroid women was 6% lower than that of the LT4-suppressed group, and 4% lower than that of the healthy control group (p = 0.04). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were directly correlated with REE, and were 10% lower in the LT4 euthyroid women compared with the other two groups (p = 0.007). The groups of subjects did not differ in other measures of energy expenditure, caloric intake, or body composition. Conclusions: LT4 suppression therapy does not adversely affect energy expenditure or body composition in women. However, LT4 replacement therapy is associated with a lower REE, despite TSH levels within the reference range. This may be due to lower fT3 levels, suggesting relative tissue hypothyroidism may contribute to impaired energy expenditure in LT4 therapy. PMID:26700485

  13. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition and Physical Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R.; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Methods Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. Results There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). Conclusions This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan. PMID:22375235

  14. Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy is Associated With Dyslipidemia Independent of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Women

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y.; Tchernof, André

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. RESULTS Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P < 0.05). Conversely, women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P < 0.001) independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P < 0.02). Associations between adipocyte size and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not significant once adjusted for adiposity and body fat distribution. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that omental, but not subcutaneous, adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with an altered lipid profile independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. PMID:21421806

  15. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  16. Body composition in aquatic organisms — A global data bank of relationships between mass, elemental composition and energy content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, Thomas; Müller-Wiegmann, Corinna; Zittier, Zora M. C.; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a global data bank on body composition of aquatic organisms that is available at http://www.thomas-brey.de/science/virtualhandbook. It covers ratios between body mass (wet, dry, ash free dry mass), body composition (protein, lipid, carbohydrate), macro-elements (C, N, P) and energy content (J). Sofar, data for 3158 different taxa (animals, plants, bacteria) were collected from 725 different sources. The principal purpose of the data bank is mining for conversion factors, as necessary in ecological studies that require a common energetic currency. The data bank can be used to explore general ecological principles, too: among all animals, carnivorous swimmers have the highest energy density, presumably an across-taxon selection for propulsion power and handling force. Plants and animals do not only differ in their C/N and C/P ratios, but these ratios change with temperature in opposite directions. In plants, C/N and C/P increase with temperature, most likely a response to the higher levels of N and P in polar waters. In animals C/N and C/P decrease with temperature, an indicator for selection towards lower activity and larger lipid stores in polar animals.

  17. Access to data on chemical composition of products used in auto repair and body shops.

    PubMed

    Karstadt, M; Bobal, R

    1984-01-01

    Some information on chemical composition of products used in the workplace can be obtained by requesting composition data from product marketers. Workers in auto repair and body shops identified 253 products used in their shops. Full disclosure of composition was obtained for approximately 20% of the 174 products marketed by companies which answered our letters. Composition was partially disclosed for approximately 40% of the products, and about 10% of the product formulations were claimed to be trade secret or confidential. The study reported in this paper was carried out in New York State in 1980, before the effective date of the New York State right-to-know law. The results of this study can be used as a benchmark to judge the effectiveness of worker right-to-know laws and product labeling regulations. PMID:6517067

  18. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  19. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  20. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  1. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  2. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  3. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise Interventions on Body Composition in HIV+ Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075

  4. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Otto, William H; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Spiering, Barry A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1199-1202, 2012-The present study compared the effects of 6 weeks of weightlifting plus traditional heavy resistance training exercises vs. kettlebell training on strength, power, and anthropometric measures. Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (a) weightlifting (n = 13; mean ± SD: age, 22.92 ± 1.98 years; body mass, 80.57 ± 12.99 kg; height, 174.56 ± 5.80 cm) or (b) kettlebell (n = 17; mean ± SD: age, 22.76 ± 1.86 years; body mass, 78.99 ± 10.68 kg; height, 176.79 ± 5.08 cm) and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. A linear periodization model was used for training; at weeks 1-3 volume was 3 × 6 (kettlebell swings or high pull), 4 × 4 (accelerated swings or power clean), and 4 × 6 (goblet squats or back squats), respectively, and the volume increased during weeks 4-6 to 4 × 6, 6 × 4, and 4 × 6, respectively. Participants were assessed for height (in centimeters), body mass (in kilograms), and body composition (skinfolds). Strength was assessed by the back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), whereas power was assessed by the vertical jump and power clean 1RM. The results of this study indicated that short-term weightlifting and kettlebell training were effective in increasing strength and power. However, the gain in strength using weightlifting movements was greater than that during kettlebell training. Neither method of training led to significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures. In conclusion, 6 weeks of weightlifting induced significantly greater improvements in strength compared with kettlebell training. No between-group differences existed for the vertical jump or body composition. PMID:22344061

  5. Body composition variables and leptin levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and amenorrhea related to eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Vincenzina; Dei, Metella; Morelli, Chiara; Schettino, M Teresa; Balzi, Daniela; Nuvolone, Daniela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify diagnostic criteria that can distinguish between subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea largely related to minimal energy deficiency and those in whom failure of adaptive response to stress prevails. We studied 59 young women with secondary amenorrhea related to modest eating disorders and 58 who complained of stressful events in their history. We assessed anthropometric measurements, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and basal endocrine profile. Subjects with disordered eating had lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) measured with both techniques, lumbar mineral density and direct and indirect measures of lean mass. Leptin and free tri-iodothyronine(FT(3)) concentrations also proved lower in the group of subjects with eating disorders, although there was no significant difference in cortisol between the two groups. Leptin levels were positively associated not only with fat mass, but also with body cell mass indexed to height and phase angle, parameters studied with BIA as expression of active lean compartment. A multivariate model confirmed the utility of integrating endocrine data with the study of body composition. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis proved to be, in clinical use, a valid diagnostic alternative to DEXA, especially considering body cell mass and phase angle. PMID:21906977

  6. The effect of frequent hemodialysis on nutrition and body composition: frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, George A; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Mehta, Ravindra L; Lindsay, Robert M; Depner, Tom A; Hall, Yoshio N; Daugirdas, John T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency of hemodialysis on nutritional status by analyzing the data in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial. We compared changes in albumin, body weight, and composition among 245 patients randomized to six or three times per week in-center hemodialysis (Daily Trial) and 87 patients randomized to six times per week nocturnal or three times per week conventional hemodialysis, performed largely at home (Nocturnal Trial). In the Daily Trial, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in serum albumin or the equilibrated protein catabolic rate by 12 months. There was a significant relative decrease in predialysis body weight of 1.5 ± 0.2 kg in the six times per week group at 1 month, but this significantly rebounded by 1.3 ± 0.5 kg over the remaining 11 months. Extracellular water (ECW) decreased in the six times per week compared with the three per week hemodialysis group. There were no significant between-group differences in phase angle, intracellular water, or body cell mass (BCM). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant between-group differences in any study parameter. Any gain in 'dry' body weight corresponded to increased adiposity rather than muscle mass but was not statistically significant. Thus, frequent in-center hemodialysis reduced ECW but did not increase serum albumin or BCM while frequent nocturnal hemodialysis yielded no net effect on parameters of nutritional status or body composition. PMID:22456602

  7. Effect of using composites on the dynamic response of multi-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabana, A. A.

    1986-08-01

    A finite element scheme is presented for studying the dynamic response of multi-body systems with components manufactured from orthotropic materials. The formulation presented is exemplified by using fiber-reinforced cornposite laminates. The multi-body system considered in this investigation consists of interconnected rigid and flexible components, each undergoing large angular rotations. The configuration of the elastic components is identified by using two sets of generalized co-ordinates, reference and elastic co-ordinates. Reference co-ordinates describe the location and orientation of a selected body reference while elastic co-ordinates describe the deformation with respect to the body reference. Component modes of elastic components in the system are used to reduce the number of generalized co-ordinates. The system differential equations of motion and the algebraic constraint equations describing mechanical joints in the system are written in terms of mixed sets of reference and modal co-ordinates. Two numerical examples, for a slider crank mechanism and a Peaucellier mechanism, are presented in order to demonstrate the effect of the use of the composites on the dynamic response of multi-body systems. Numerical results showed that the use of composites represents an effective passive control strategy.

  8. Study of body composition in small animals by a multifrequency impedancemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribbe, E.; Khider, N.; Moreno, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance is essentially used today to study the body composition in the human body but not really in small animals. The aim of this paper is to develop a model for body composition in rats to help pharmaceutical labs assessing effects of medicine on rats. We propose a non invasive, rapid and scientific method. With a multifrequency impedancemeter, Z-Métrix® (BioparHom© Company France), resistances and reactances are measured at 55 frequencies for a population of 40 rats (males and females). With our model, derived from Cole-Cole model, resistances of extracellular (Re) and total body (Rinf) compartment are extrapolated. Three methods were applied: posterior to posterior leg, anterior to posterior leg on the left and on the right side. Measurements by CT imaging were performed on the anesthetized population to determine Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), as our reference measurements. With electrical data, age, sex and weight, equations are created to calculate FM, LBM and BMC with the three methods. Graphs of correlation, between tissue masses calculated by bioimpedance and obtained with scanner, indicate that measurements with posterior to posterior leg are better. Moreover, there is no significantly difference between tissue masses measured by bioimpedance and with the scanner.

  9. Effects of short-term dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on body composition in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Calleja, Julio; Jourkesh, Morteza

    2010-02-28

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is often promoted as a slimming and weight/fat loss agent and ingestion of DHEA may have hypolipidemic and anti-obesity properties. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute DHEA intake on body composition and serum steroid hormones in young athletes. Twenty young (19 to 22 years) male soccer players were allocated into two randomly assigned trials in double-blind design by ingesting 100-mg daily oral DHEA or as placebo (PLA) for 28 days. Body mass was not affected by 4 weeks of DHEA supplementation (P > 0.05). No significant changes in body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat or total muscle mass for the two groups were detected at the end of the trial (P > 0.05). There was no within- or between-group difference in arm fat index (AFI) and corrected mid-upper-arm muscle area (cAMA) (P > 0.05). Treatment with DHEA resulted in a significant increase of total testosterone, estradiol and DHEA-S levels in treated subjects versus the placebo group (P < 0.05). Results of this study suggest that DHEA supplementation has no beneficial effects on body composition in young competitive athletes. PMID:21789881

  10. Association Between Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Men on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Sandra M S de A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Studies have revealed complex interactions between bone and fat, however there are few studies about this crosstalk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated possible relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Twenty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (47.0 [42.3-56.8] years, body mass index 26.0 ± 4.2 kg/m, dialysis vintage of 48.5 [26.7-95.7] months). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and parathormone levels were analyzed using Multiplex kits (R&D System Inc). Low bone mass in the femoral neck was reported in 54.8% of patients. Total BMD and total T-score were positively correlated with lean mass (r = 0.46, P = 0.04; r = 0.47, P = 0.04, respectively), but not with leptin or body fat mass. In conclusion, lean body mass is probably important to maintain bone health in male patients who underwent hemodialysis. PMID:26418381

  11. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  12. Low-cost appropriate technologies for body composition assessment: a field researcher's view.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Mazariegos, M

    1995-03-01

    The field setting, as distinct from the clinical and laboratory settings, relates to the study of populations and subpopulations. It can involve either free-living or institutionalized individuals. The concept of 'body composition' goes beyond the traditional assumptions of screening anthropometrics, although it includes many of the same measures. The principal practical considerations for the selection of measurement techniques are ethics and cost. The quantitative considerations are the precision and accuracy of the measures. The biological considerations relate to the interpretation of the measure in terms of underlying body constituents; do the values mean what we hope them to mean? PMID:24394242

  13. Effects of β-Alanine on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Women.

    PubMed

    Outlaw, Jordan J; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Buckley, Amanda L; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara; Wingfield, Hailee L; Campbell, Bill; Foster, Cliffa; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D

    2016-09-01

    Outlaw, JJ, Smith-Ryan, AE, Buckley, AL, Urbina, SL, Hayward, S, Wingfield, HL, Campbell, B, Foster, C, Taylor, LW, and Wilborn, CD. Effects of β-alanine on body composition and performance measures in collegiate women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2627-2637, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine (BA) supplementation and resistance training on body composition and performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 16 untrained collegiate females (mean ± SD: 21.0 ± 2.2 years; 64.8 ± 8.5 kg; 164.5 ± 7.0 cm; 30.1 ± 5.1 percent body fat [%BF]) completed 8 weeks of resistance training while consuming either 3.4 g BA or placebo (PL; 5 g maltodextrin) before training sessions. Training consisted of 4 days per week upper- and lower-body exercises. Lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and %BF were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), aerobic time to exhaustion, Wingate peak power, bench press and leg press 1RM (BPmax; LPmax), and repetitions at 65% (BPreps; LPreps), vertical jump (VJ), and standing broad jump were assessed using standard National Strength and Conditioning Association guidelines. All measurements were taken at baseline (T1), 4 weeks (T2), and 8 weeks (T3). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine significance. Body composition (LBM, FM, and %BF) improved over time (p < 0.01) for both groups. Maximal strength and VJ increased significantly from baseline to T3 (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant interaction for LPreps (p = 0.040), with only BA group resulting in significantly greater LPreps (p = 0.041) at T2 and T3. Results from this study suggest that 8 weeks, 4 days per week progressive resistance training and BA supplementation may be effective for improving lower-body muscular endurance. β-alanine had no additive effects on body composition or maximal strength in collegiate women. PMID

  14. Body size and body composition: a comparison of children in India and the UK through infancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, S; Yajnik, CS; Kumaran, K; Joglekar, C; Lubree, H; Crozier, S R; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M; Fall, C H D; Inskip, H M

    2015-01-01

    Background Indian babies are characterized by the ‘thin-fat phenotype’ which comprises a ‘muscle-thin but adipose’ body composition compared with European babies. This body phenotype is of concern because it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined whether the ‘thin-fat phenotype’ persists through early childhood, comparing Indian children with white Caucasians in the UK, at birth, infancy and childhood, using comparable measurement protocols. Methods We used data from two cohorts, the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (N=631) and the Southampton Women’s Survey (N=2643). Measurements of weight, head circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were compared at birth, one, two, three and six years of age. SD scores were generated for the Pune children, using the Southampton children as a reference. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the changes in SD scores across the children’s ages. Results The Indian children were smaller at birth in all body measurements than the Southampton children and became relatively even smaller from birth to two years, before ‘catching up’ to some extent at three years, and more so by six year. The deficit for both skinfolds was markedly less than for other measurements at all ages; triceps skinfold showed the least difference between the two cohorts at birth, and subscapular skinfold at all ages after birth. Conclusions The ‘thin-fat phenotype’ previously found in Indian newborns, remains through infancy and early childhood. Despite being shorter and lighter than UK children, Indian children are relatively adipose. PMID:26186243

  15. Effect of the Chemical Composition on The Pyroplastic Deformation of Sanitaryware Porcelain Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşim Tunçel, Derya; Kerim Kara, Mustafa; Özel, Emel

    2011-10-01

    Pyroplastic deformation is the bending of a ceramic specimen caused by gravity during heat treatment. It can be defined as the loss of shape of product during its firing. Pyroplastic deformation is related to properties of liquid phases formed during firing. Therefore, the effect of the chemical composition on the pyroplastic deformation of sanitaryware porcelain was investigated in this study. Systematical compositional arrangements were made according to different combinations of (SiO2/Al2O3) and (Na2O/K2O) ratios by using Seger formula approach. Pyroplastic deformation behaviour of compositions within a controlled firing regime was investigated by using fleximeter. The bodies were also prepared in a special form by slip casting method at laboratory scale in order to determine the pyroplastic deformation of the samples. The experimental results showed that a definite combination at SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 5 and Na2O/K2O ratio of 4 give the lowest pyroplastic deformation in the porcelain body formulations. The pyroplastic deformation value of this composition was determined as 25 mm which is 44% lower than that of the standard composition (45 mm).

  16. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is based on clinical studies including virtually all patients treated with peritoneal dialysis in Gothenburg during the 1990s. The patients had a fundamentally altered body composition compared to healthy subjects, characterised by a reduction in body cell mass and body fat already at start of dialysis. During PD treatment. a further decrease in body cell mass was observed. Energy stores tended to normalise during the first years of treatment and remained constant thereafter, or declined subsequently. Extracellular water, calculated from the four-compartment model, was increased when patients started PD treatment and increased further, in parallel to the reduction in body cell mass. These alterations were seen in combination with a normal. or slightly reduced, body weight. Standard methods of assessing nutritional status may therefore not be valid in the dialysis population. Prediction equations to estimate total body water, used in measurements of dialysis adequacy, give erroneous results in PD patients, as shown in a study on our PD population. This may have important clinical consequences, especially in wasted patients. Reduced muscle mass is a marker of protein-energy malnutrition, and therefore simple and reliable methods to measure muscle mass are warranted. When lean body mass was calculated from creatinine generation rate and compared to lean body mass estimated from measurements of total body potassium. the agreement between the two methods was low. Furthermore, when repeated measurements of creatinine generation rate were performed, the variation coefficient was unacceptably high. Thus. creatinine generation rate cannot be recommended as a method to evaluate somatic protein status in PD patients. The lipoprotein metabolic derangements are pronounced in PD patients. in which a further increase in cholesterol and cholesterol-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins are added to the already pre-existing renal dyslipidemia. characterised by increased

  17. Effect of altitude on body composition during mountaineering expeditions: interrelationships with changes in dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, M; Armellini, F; Turcato, E; Robbi, R; Micciolo, R; Todesco, T; Mandragona, R; Angelini, G; Bosello, O

    1996-01-01

    Loss of body weight occurs during high mountain expeditions but whether it is due to inadequate diet or other factors is unknown. Moreover the composition of the weight loss is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare the nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic changes during a mountaineering expedition in two groups of climbers, whose dietary energy intake was ad libitum, one given a lacto-fish-ovo-vegetarian diet and one an omnivorous diet. The intake of various nutrients, body weight, body composition and metabolic variables were evaluated before and during high altitude exposure and after the return to low altitude. The two groups were matched for age, body mass index and gender. No significant differences were found for nutritional variables between the two groups. Energy, animal and vegetable protein and fiber intake were significantly lower at climbing quote than before the beginning of the expedition. Significant differences between before the beginning and base camp in all variables were found. Energy and animal protein intake, but not vegetable protein and fiber intake, were significantly lower at climbing quote than at base camp. All subjects significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences but not fat-free mass and fat mass. Metabolic variables significantly improved after the mountaineering expedition. Our study seems to confirm that a mountaineering expedition decreases energy and protein intake, reduces body weight and improves metabolic variables. Because our subjects spontaneously tended to have the same food intake despite the different dietary recommendations, our study failed to observe any differences between the two groups. However, our study shows that a low protein diet, in which the type of protein is mostly vegetable protein, could be adapted for climbers determining only a small decrease of fat-free mass. PMID:9087309

  18. How dieting makes some fatter: from a perspective of human body composition autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Jacquet, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Dieting makes you fat - the title of a book published in 1983 - embodies the notion that dieting to control body weight predisposes the individual to acquire even more body fat. While this notion is controversial, its debate underscores the large gap that exists in our understanding of basic physiological laws that govern the regulation of human body composition. A striking example is the key role attributed to adipokines as feedback signals between adipose tissue depletion and compensatory increases in food intake. Yet, the relative importance of fat depletion per se as a determinant of post-dieting hyperphagia is unknown. On the other hand, the question of whether the depletion of lean tissues can provide feedback signals on the hunger-appetite drive is rarely invoked, despite evidence that food intake during growth is dominated by the impetus for lean tissue deposition, amidst proposals for the existence of protein-static mechanisms for the regulation of growth and maintenance of lean body mass. In fact, a feedback loop between fat depletion and food intake cannot explain why human subjects recovering from starvation continue to overeat well after body fat has been restored to pre-starvation values, thereby contributing to 'fat overshooting'. In addressing the plausibility and mechanistic basis by which dieting may predispose to increased fatness, this paper integrates the results derived from re-analysis of classic longitudinal studies of human starvation and refeeding. These suggest that feedback signals from both fat and lean tissues contribute to recovering body weight through effects on energy intake and thermogenesis, and that a faster rate of fat recovery relative to lean tissue recovery is a central outcome of body composition autoregulation that drives fat overshooting. A main implication of these findings is that the risk of becoming fatter in response to dieting is greater in lean than in obese individuals. PMID:22475574

  19. Proximate body composition and energy content of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) in relation to the condition factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costopoulos, C. G.; Fonds, M.

    Length, wet weight, dry weight, and the content of lipid, ash and protein of young plaice were determined. The energy content of the fish was estimated by multiplying lipid and protein content by the commonly used calorific equivalents. The data were sorted from low to high condition factor of the fish and grouped according to condition factor (K = 100·W·L -3) into 8 condition groups. Mean values of percentage body composition and energy content were calculated for each condition group. Equations giving the best fit between condition factor and the parameters of body composition and energy content are presented. From the decrease in condition factor in fasting fish the relative losses of lipid and protein energy are calculated. The accuracy of equations for the calculation of energy content of plaice from condition factor is discussed.

  20. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  1. Longitudinal Body Composition Changes in NCAA Division I College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Mann, J. Bryan; Ivey, Pat A.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes seek to optimize body composition to fit the physical demands of their sport. American football requires a unique combination of size, speed, and power. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition in Division I collegiate football players. For 57 players (Mean ± SD; Age=19.5 ± 0.9 yrs; Height=186.9 ± 5.7 cm; Weight=107.7 ± 19.1 kg), body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the off-season (March-Pre), end of off-season (May), mid-July (Pre-Season), and the following March (March-Post). Outcome variables included weight, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), android (AND) and gynoid (GYN) fat, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone density (BMD). For a subset of athletes (n=13 out of 57), changes over a 4-year playing career were evaluated with measurements taken every March. Throughout a single year, favorable changes were observed for BF% (Δ=−1.3 ± 2.5%), LM (Δ=2.8 ± 2.8 kg), GYN (Δ=−1.5 ± 3.0%), BMC (Δ=0.06 ± 0.14 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.015 ± 0.027g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Across four years, weight increased significantly (Δ=6.6 ± 4.1kg), and favorable changes were observed for LM (Δ=4.3 ± 3.0 kg), BMC (Δ=0.18 ± 0.17 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.033 ± 0.039 g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Similar patterns in body composition changes were observed for linemen and non-linemen. Results indicate that well-trained collegiate football players at high levels of competition can achieve favorable changes in body composition, even late in the career, which may confer benefits for performance and injury prevention. PMID:11834106

  2. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  3. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  4. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  7. Multi-Component Molecular-Level Body Composition Reference Methods: Evolving Concepts and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Zheng, Jolene; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Strauss, Boyd J.; Silva, Analiza M.; Ludwig, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted “reference” approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multicomponent body-volume class of “reference” models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein, and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes “adjustment” or measurement system approaches for model-required labeled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small but under some circumstances important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multicomponent body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  8. Lead effects on body composition and organ size of wintering canvasbacks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pace, R.M.; Hohman, W.L.; Custer, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    We tested whether lead exposure, as evidenced by liver lead concentration, affected body composition and organ sizes of canvasback ducks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana during winter 1987-88. After adjusting for body size, sex, age, and site and month of collection, we found decreases in ingesta-free body mass; breast, leg, and body protein; body fat; intestine length; and liver and gizzard masses associated with increased liver lead concentrations. There were no apparent associations between liver lead concentrations and testes and body ash masses, or caecal length. We used the concentration of 26.7 ppm of liver lead on a dry matter (dm) basis as indicative of lead toxicosis. We predicted that a canvasback with 26.7 ppm dm liver lead would weigh 209 g less and have 105 g less fat than an unexposed individual. Whereas many lead exposed canvasbacks may survive through winter, their subsequent survival, ability to reproduce and perform other annual cycle events may be compromised. We recommend management to make lead unavailable to waterfowl at major concentration areas and periodic monitoring of lead contamination in waterfowl populations.

  9. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI) centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:25839035

  10. Composition and evolution of the eucrite parent body - Evidence from rare earth elements. [extraterrestrial basaltic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consolmagno, G. J.; Drake, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative modeling of the evolution of rare earth element (REE) abundances in the eucrites, which are plagioclase-pigeonite basalt achondrites, indicates that the main group of eucrites (e.g., Juvinas) might have been produced by approximately 10% equilibrium partial melting of a single type of source region with initial REE abundances which were chondritic relative and absolute. Since the age of the eucrites is about equal to that of the solar system, extensive chemical differentiation of the eucrite parent body prior to the formation of eucrites seems unlikely. If homogeneous accretion is assumed, the bulk composition of the eucrite parent body can be estimated; two estimates are provided, representing different hypotheses as to the ratio of metal to olivine in the parent body. Since a large number of differentiated olivine meteorites, which would represent material from the interior of the parent body, have not been detected, the eucrite parent body is thought to be intact. It is suggested that the asteroid 4 Vesta is the eucrite parent body.

  11. Multi-component molecular-level body composition reference methods: evolving concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Ebbeling, C B; Zheng, J; Pietrobelli, A; Strauss, B J; Silva, A M; Ludwig, D S

    2015-04-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted 'reference' approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multi-component body volume class of 'reference' models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes 'adjustment' or measurement system approaches for model-required labelled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small, but under some circumstances, important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multi-component body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  12. A comparison of field methods to assess body composition in a diverse group of sedentary women.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Aluf, Ana; Vincent, Linda; Cooper, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of body composition is essential in the evaluation of obesity. While laboratory methods are commonly used to assess fat mass, field measures (e.g., skinfold thickness [SKF] and bioelectrical impedance [BIA]) may be more practical for screening large numbers of individuals in intervention studies. In this study, a correlational design was used among 46 racially and ethnically diverse, sedentary women (mean age = 25.73 years) to (a) compare the percentage of body fat as determined by SKF and the upper body BIA and (b) examine the effects of body mass index (BMI), racial/ethnic background, age, and stage of the menstrual cycle on differences in the estimated percentage of body fat obtained using the SKF and BIA. Overall, a significant correlation between SKF and BIA (r = .98, p < .001) was found, with similar findings among Black, Hispanic and White non-Hispanic women. The mean differences between BIA and SKF were not significantly correlated with BMI, age, race/ethnicity or stage of the menstrual cycle. Data from this study suggest that BIA showed similar body fat prediction values compared with SKF and may be a viable alternative to SKF among diverse groups of healthy women. Additional testing and comparison of these field methods with the laboratory methods of hydro-densitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is recommended to further determine whether BIA devices can be routinely recommended as an alternative to the SKF. PMID:19022781

  13. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  14. Familial resemblance of body composition, physical activity, and resting metabolic rate in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Djafarian, Kurosh; Speakman, John R; Stewart, Joanne; M Jackson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR), and physical activity (PA) of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Methods: Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. Results: There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM) between children and their mothers (P=0.02), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (average of father and mother value) (P=0.002) when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM) between children and mothers (P<0.01), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (P=0.001). There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers’ morning activities (P<0.01) and mid-parent (P=0.009). No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. Conclusion: These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents. PMID:26989715

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  16. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Body Composition in Adolescents: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the association between sleep duration trajectories and body composition in adolescents. We used data from participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study who were later followed up at age 18 years (response rate of 81.3%). At the time, 3974 adolescents had complete data on body composition, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Sleep duration was self-reported by participants at ages 11 and 18 years. Analyses were sex-stratified. The mean sleep duration at 11 years was 9.7 (SD 1.4) and 8.4 (SD 1.9) at 18 years. Sleep duration was dichotomized as inadequate (<8 hours/day) or adequate (≥8 hours/day). Mean body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass indices at 18 years were 23.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.5), 6.1 kg/m2 (SD 3.9) and 17.3 kg/m2 (SD 2.5), respectively. Girls who reported inadequate sleep duration at 11 years of age, but adequate sleep duration at 18, on average experienced an increase in body mass index (β = 0.39 z-scores; 95% CI 0.13, 0.65), fat mass index (β = 0.30 z-scores; 95% CI 0.07, 0.53), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.24 z-scores; 95% CI 0.08, 0.39) compared to those who had adequate sleep duration at both time points. The results suggest that changes in sleep duration across adolescence may impact body composition in later adolescence and that this may differ by sex. PMID:27010312

  17. Body Fat Composition: A Predictive Factor for Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajeev; Lesser, Daniel J.; Oliveira, Flavia G.S.A.; Tran, Winston H.; Keens, Thomas G.; Khoo, Michael C.K.; Davidson Ward, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between body fat composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning and pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) is not well established. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and DEXA parameters and their association with SRBD in obese children. Patients and Methods: Overnight polysomnography was performed on obese/overweight children (10–17 years) with habitual snoring. Total body fat mass (g), trunk fat mass (g), total body % fat, and trunk % fat were determined by DEXA. Results: Forty-one subjects were studied. Logarithm (Log) total arousal index correlated with BMI (p < 0.01, r = 0.473), total body fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.331), and trunk fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.319). Log desaturation index correlated with BMI (p < 0.05, r = 0.313), total body fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.375), and trunk fat mass (p < 0.05, r = 0.391), whereas obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) did not. In males 10–12 years, there was a significant correlation between Log total arousal index and obesity parameters, but not for males aged 13–17 years. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in all subjects: total body fat mass (p < 0.001, r = 0.850); total body % fat (p < 0.01, r = 0.425); trunk fat mass (p < 0.001, r = 0.792) and trunk % fat (p < 0.05, r = 0.318) and in 10–12 year old males. This relationship was not significant in males aged 13–17 years. Conclusions: Total body fat mass and trunk fat mass as well as BMI correlated with total arousal index and desaturation index. BMI correlated with DEXA parameters in 10–12 year old males but not in 13–17 year old males. The value of using DEXA scanning to study the relationship between obesity and SRBD may depend on age and pubertal stage. Citation: Bhatia R, Lesser DJ, Oliveira FG, Tran WH, Keens TG, Khoo MC, Davidson Ward SL. Body fat composition: a predictive factor for sleep related breathing disorder in obese children. J Clin Sleep Med

  18. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  19. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  20. The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition and nonspecific low back pain in elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Irandoust, Khadijeh; Taheri, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aquatic exercises on nonspecific low back pain (LBP) in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two elderly men aged 65 or older were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: aquatic training (3 d/wk for 12 wk) or a control group. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and trunk muscle mass were measured before and after training. [Results] The results suggested that all obesity variables including BMI, WHR, and PBF of the aquatic training group were decreased significantly, while the trunk muscle mass of the aquatic training group was increased significantly. Furthermore, low back pain was decreased in the subjects after the intervention. [Conclusion] The water-based program improved LBP and body composition in the elderly men. PMID:25729184

  1. Effects of meal frequency on body composition during weight control in boxers.

    PubMed

    Iwao, S; Mori, K; Sato, Y

    1996-10-01

    The effects of meal frequency on changes in body composition by food restriction were investigated. Twelve boxers were divided between a two meals day-1 group (the 2M group) and a six meals day-1 group (the 6M group). Both groups ingested 5.02 MJ (1200 kcal) day-1 for 2 weeks. Although there was no difference in change of body weight by food restriction between the two groups, the decrease in lean body mass (LBM) was significantly greater in the 2M group than in the 6M group. The decrease in urinary 3-methylhistidine/creatinine was significantly greater in the 6M group than in the 2M group. These results suggest that the lower frequency of meal intake leads to a greater myoprotein catabolism even if the same diet is consumed. PMID:8960647

  2. Physical growth of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos: body size, proportion, and composition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, F E; Laughlin, W S; Harper, A B; Ensroth, A E

    1982-08-01

    Growth patterns of body size, proportion, and composition were analyzed in 57 male and 56 female Eskimos from St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, ranging in age from 1.23 through 19.82 years. Age-groups means for whites and blacks of the U.S. Health Examination Survey served as reference data. Relative to HES data, the Eskimo sample were shorter with lower values for leg length, while there were no differences from the reference values for sitting height. The Eskimos also had higher values of Quetelet's Index, the sitting height/height ratio, and the upper arm muscle circumference, while there were no differences in body weight or triceps skinfold thickness. Differences from the reference data were more pronounced in males than in females. The growth patterns for size and body proportion are in conformity with known relationships between morphology and climate. PMID:7124933

  3. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total body potassium to total body water in patients with benign disease but not in those with cancer. Weight loss was probably due to inadequate food intake, the main defect being energy deficiency, since protein intake was usually well maintained. Supplementing with energy the voluntary ingested diet of patients with cancer would probably prevent weight loss in most cases. PMID:7427083

  4. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  5. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  6. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  8. Instrumental social support and women's body composition in El Alto, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    Instrumental social support, or aid in the form of labor or money, may exert a positive influence on economic welfare and food security. Several investigators have found a positive relationship between social support and nutritional status, while others have found a negative association between social support and central adiposity. In the rural Andes, extra-household economic cooperation has long been an important adaptive strategy, and the breakdown of these relationships is one reason for high rates of rural-to-urban migration, including to the Bolivian city of El Alto. This research investigates the influence of instrumental support on women's body composition. Information was collected on individual perception of instrumental support and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status including percent body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)), BMI, and distribution of fat on trunk relative to limbs (Ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR)), and multiple linear regression analysis used to test the prediction that instrumental social support is positively related to body fat stores. Controlling for age and household socioeconomic status, perceived access to one or more sources of instrumental support was positively and significantly related to overall levels of adiposity. There is no evidence that STR mediates the relationship between instrumental social support and body composition. This analysis offers support for the prediction that economic social support has direct effects on women's energy stores. The interpretation of these results is somewhat ambiguous given the high levels of overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:23913665

  9. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models. PMID:25117995

  10. Body composition in air and road inductees at high altitude during the initial days of acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, U. S.; Selvamurthy, W.

    This study assesses body composition changes and their time course during the initial days of acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Comparisons were made between gradual and acute induction to HA using 60 male lowlander volunteers (24-28 years of age) divided into two equal groups for inducting them to HA. Thirty subjects were air-lifted from sea level (SL) to 3500 m HA in 1 h. These subjects were air inductees (AI). The other 30 subjects were transported in 4 days by road to the same location at 3500 m. These were road inductees (RI). After remaining for 15 days at 3500 m both groups were inducted to 4200 m by road. All the subjects could not reach the various altitudes at the same time due to logistical problems. Ultimately, data for each altitude (SL, 3500 m and 4200 m) were available for only 26 RI subjects and 10 AI subjects. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements for the subscapular, thigh, triceps, biceps, juxtanipple, umbilicus, suprailiac and calf regions were taken in order to calculate fat percentages. Measurements were taken at SL and on days 1 and 9 at both 3500 m and 4200 m. On day 1 at 3500 m, RI showed a significant fall in body weight (BW) with respect to SL but AI maintained it. On subsequent days at HA both groups showed a significant fall in BW and lean body mass but not in percentage fat. SKF in the biceps and triceps regions decreased significantly but in the umbilicus and suprailiac regions it significantly increased at HA in both groups. Body composition, along with other parameters, is discussed determining the acclimatization schedule for sojourners at HA. Possibly, translocation of body fat takes place from the periphery to deep body fat depots in the core/main trunk due to the cold at HA.

  11. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: evidence from the motion-numerical compatibility effect.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Ge, Hui; Andoni, Deljfina; Ding, Xianfeng; Fan, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011) and Fischer (2012), suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher et al. (2008) found that participants' behavior in a random number generation task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e., a motion-numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion-numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g., arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008) finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out. PMID:26594188

  12. Relationships between body composition analysis measures in Greek women and US white women.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Stavroula J; Theodorou, Daphne J; Kalef-Ezra, John; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Agnantis, Niki; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Tsampoulas, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the regional changes in body composition relative to age, in healthy Caucasian women living in the Mediterranean area. Body composition of total and subtotal body was measured, and fat mass (FM) ratios along with FM and lean mass (LM) indices were calculated in 330 women aged 20-85 years, using DXA. Data were compared with the NHANES reference database. Peak bone mineral density and bone mineral content of total body were 1.149 g/cm(2) and 2,209 g and were achieved between ages 41 and 50. Peak %FM of total body, FM index (FMI; FM/height(2)), FM of trunk to legs, and FM of trunk to limbs were 41.5%, 13.69 kg/m(2), 1.623, and 1.14, respectively. Peak %FM and FMI were achieved between 61 and 70 years. Unlike US counterparts, in our series, both FM ratios showed a propensity for women to accrue fat in the trunk following the android pattern of fat distribution. Peak LM index for total body (LMI; LM/height(2)) and limbs (ASMMI; appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2)) was 18.08 kg/m(2) and 7.33 kg/m(2), respectively, and was achieved between 61 and 70 years. For Greeks, the ASMMI was greater from 55 years onwards. Greek women have increasing bone mass in early adulthood followed by significant decline during fifties and onwards. Compared with US white women, Greek women have significantly greater truncal fat for all ages, implying a greater risk of obesity-associated diseases. Middle-aged and older Greek women have greater appendicular skeletal muscle mass, which may eliminate the overall risk of sarcopenic obesity. PMID:25366468

  13. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: evidence from the motion-numerical compatibility effect

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Ge, Hui; Andoni, Deljfina; Ding, Xianfeng; Fan, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011) and Fischer (2012), suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher et al. (2008) found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e., a motion-numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion-numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g., arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.’s (2008) finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out. PMID:26594188

  14. Somatotype, Body Composition and Proportionality in Polish Top Greco-Roman Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L.; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Żarów, Ryszard T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (p<0.01) with canonical correlation coefficient of 0.754, and Wilks’ λ=0.431. Discriminant function=0.593774*TrainingExperience-0.300177*EN+0.627894*ME-0.242241*EC - 0.636081*Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio. Among the 23 observations used to fit the model, 19 (82.6%) were correctly classified. When compared with untrained subjects, wrestlers exhibited higher body mass (81.8 vs. 72.1 kg, t=3.15, p<0.01) and lower height-weight ratio (40.50 vs. 43.21, t=13.5, p<0.001). Wrestlers’ somatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0–6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7–4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also

  15. Somatotype, body composition and proportionality in polish top greco-roman wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Zarów, Ryszard T

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (p<0.01) with canonical correlation coefficient of 0.754, and Wilks' λ=0.431. Discriminant function=0.593774*TrainingExperience-0.300177*EN+0.627894*ME-0.242241*EC - 0.636081*Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio. Among the 23 observations used to fit the model, 19 (82.6%) were correctly classified. When compared with untrained subjects, wrestlers exhibited higher body mass (81.8 vs. 72.1 kg, t=3.15, p<0.01) and lower height-weight ratio (40.50 vs. 43.21, t=13.5, p<0.001). Wrestlers' somatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0-6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also be

  16. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  17. [Low calorie diet influence optimization on body composition at obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A; Bogdanova, A A; Feofanova, T B; Panfilova, N V; Nesierova, V E

    2015-01-01

    In open prospective monocentric study in 3 parallel groups we studied the effectiveness of correction of body composition using low calorie diet therapy with inclusion of specialized food products (SFP)--sources of polyphenols and iridoids made on the basis of the juice of Morinda citrifolia L. fruits. We studied 90 patients aged from 30 to 50 years old with grade III obesity and clinically expressed secondary diastolic heart failure. The duration of diet therapy was 42 days. It was shown that low-calorie diet has non-optimal effect on the body composition in morbidly obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure, namely leading to the expressed loss of body fatless (7.2%, p=0.00008) and muscle mass (by 16.6%, p=0.00004); at the same time the reduction of total body weight is noted only by 2.3% (p=0.053), reduction of waist measurement by 1.3% (p=0.028) and reduction of hips measurement by 1.3% (p=0.09), accompanied by the reduction of body fat by 8.5% (p=0.000017) and of liquid by 7.3% (p=0.0018). The introduction of the SFP into the diet optimizes the effect of low calorie diet therapy on the anthropometric parameters and body composition. The most important effect of the SFP is the ability to prevent the excess loss of muscle mass in patients, and this effect is being dose-dependent. The loss of muscle mass in two groups of patients was 3.1-4.1% after 6 weeks of diet therapy, while in the control group it was 8.5% (p=0.0051). We have concluded that the inclusion of the SFP, manufactured on the basis Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) juice to the low calorie diet allows to initiate mainly the loss of the body fat with the simultaneous protection of active cellular mass, which is without doubt can be considered as the advantage compared to the standard low calorie diet. PMID:26852530

  18. Weight and body composition change over a six-week holiday period.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D R; Larson, J N; Wengreen, H

    2012-03-01

    Change in weight and body composition was assessed over a six-week holiday period. Baseline testing occurred the Monday or Tuesday prior to Thanksgiving Day (November 24 or 25, 2008), and the post-holiday assessment was the Monday or Tuesday after New Year's Day (January 5 or 6, 2009). Thirteen men and 21 women ranging in age from 23-61 years completed the study. The majority of participants (24 of 34) perceived that they had gained weight, and four did gain ≥2 kg. However, despite some changes to dietary and exercise habits, on average there was no difference between pre-holiday weight (74.0±17.8 kg) and post-holiday weight (73.9±18.1 kg), nor between pre-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±9.0%) and post-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±8.9%). Despite a perception of substantial weight gain, body weight and body fat remained unchanged over a six-week holiday period. PMID:22751272

  19. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  20. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of undernutrition and recovery on body composition and blood and urinary profiles of 6 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 18 December 1984 and 3 May 1985. Deer were weighed, and blood and urine were collected every 2 weeks from 10 January to 3 May. At Weeks 2, 8, and 14, body composition was estimated by the dilution of tritiated water technique and standard predictive equations. Feed intake decreased and cumulative mass loss increased during nutritional restriction. Baseline body composition included 62.1 .+-. 0.9 (SE)% water, 11.9 .+-. 1.0% fat, 20.5 .+-. 0.7% protein, and 4.5 .+-. 0.0% ash. Percent protein loss was linearly related (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) to percent mass loss. Peak mass loss from the beginning of the study (12.8 .+-. 2.0%) occurred at Week 12; estimated protein loss was 12.5%. Fat reserves were 85% depleted from Week 2 to Week 14. Elevated packed cell volume (PCV), serum calcium (Ca), cholesterol, triglycerides, and cortisol; and diminished serum urea nitrogen, thyroxine (T4), urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine and potassium:creatinine were associated with reduced food intake, mass loss, and decreases in body water, fat, and protein. Altered values of most of these blood and urinary characteristics reflected initiation of nutritional recovery after nutrition improved. Sequential data collection and the use of a combination of indices in blood or urine will yield the most useful assessments of animal nutrition and condition.

  1. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Modify the Effect of FTO Variation on Body Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, Antti; Lappalainen, Jani; Oksala, Niku; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition. Methods 846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles. Results Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO2max (mL·kg−1·min−1) or FTO genotype-absolute VO2max (L·min−1) on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001). Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance. Conclusions Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance. PMID:23284729

  2. Less Favorable Body Composition and Adipokines in South Asians Compared to Other U.S. Ethnic Groups: Results from the MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Lin, Feng; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, Jeffrey; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared to Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared to other ethnic groups are lacking. Methods Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2,622 Whites; 803 Chinese Americans; 1,893 African Americans; and 1,496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass, and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and BMI. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, HDL, and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Results Compared to all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons to each MESA group, p < 0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (p < 0.001), and less lean mass (p < 0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared to Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (p < 0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared to African Americans (p < 0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. Conclusion There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass, and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in South Asians may partially

  3. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Paul J; Williams, Andrew D; Carey, Michael F; Hayes, Alan

    2006-10-01

    Different dietary proteins affect whole body protein anabolism and accretion and therefore, have the potential to influence results obtained from resistance training. This study examined the effects of supplementation with two proteins, hydrolyzed whey isolate (WI) and casein (C), on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine levels during a 10 wk, supervised resistance training program. In a double-blind protocol, 13 male, recreational bodybuilders supplemented their normal diet with either WI or C (1.5 gm/kg body wt/d) for the duration of the program. Strength was assessed by 1-RM in three exercises (barbell bench press, squat, and cable pull-down). Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma glutamine levels were determined by the enzymatic method with spectrophotometric detection. All assessments occurred in the week before and the week following 10 wk of training. Plasma glutamine levels did not change in either supplement group following the intervention. The WI group achieved a significantly greater gain (P < 0.01) in lean mass than the C group (5.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.4 kg for WI and C, respectively) and a significant (P < 0.05) change in fat mass (-1.5 +/- 0.5 kg) compared to the C group (+0.2 +/- 0.3 kg). The WI group also achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group in each assessment of strength. When the strength changes were expressed relative to body weight, the WI group still achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group. PMID:17240782

  4. Evaluation of body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue, and serum omentin-1 levels in overt hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cerit, Ethem Turgay; Akturk, Mujde; Altinova, Alev E; Tavil, Yusuf; Ozkan, Cigdem; Yayla, Cagri; Altay, Mustafa; Demirtas, Canan; Cakir, Nuri

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), serum omentin-1 levels, and the relationship among them along with some atherosclerosis markers in overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight newly diagnosed overt hypothyroid patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and compared to the healthy subjects in this prospective longitudinal study. Body compositions were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and EATT was measured by echocardiography. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), thyroid hormone levels, lipid parameters, high sensitive c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and omentin-1 levels were measured in all subjects. Body weight and lean body mass were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state after THRT (p = 0.012, 0.034, respectively). EATT was higher in patients with hypothyroidism than the control group (p < 0.001) and decreased with THRT (p = 0.012) but still remained higher than the control group (p < 0.001). Free T4 levels were found to be an independent factor to predict EATT (p < 0.001). In hypothyroid state, omentin-1 levels were lower than controls (p = 0.037) but increased in 6 months with THRT (p = 0.001). The c-IMT was higher, and FMD was lower in hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state and control group (p < 0.05). Increasing lean body mass, but not adipose tissue mass, was found to be responsible for weight gain in hypothyroidism. The increased amount of EATT and decreased omentin-1 levels can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in addition to other factors in hypothyroidism. PMID:25344100

  5. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  6. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  7. Associations of the lactase persistence allele and lactose intake with body composition among multiethnic children.

    PubMed

    Malek, Adil J; Klimentidis, Yann C; Kell, Kenneth P; Fernández, José R

    2013-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern with a multifaceted and sometimes confounding etiology. Dairy products have been implicated as both pro- and anti-obesogenic, perhaps due to the confounding relationship between dairy, lactose consumption, and potential genetic predisposition. We aimed to understand how lactase persistence influenced obesity-related traits by observing the relationships among lactose consumption, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the lactase (LCT) gene and body composition parameters in a sample of multiethnic children (n = 296, 7-12 years old). We hypothesized that individuals with the lactase persistence (LP) allele of the LCT SNP (rs4988235) would exhibit a greater degree of adiposity and that this relationship would be mediated by lactose consumption. Body composition variables were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and a registered dietitian assessed dietary intake of lactose. Statistical models were adjusted for sex, age, pubertal stage, ethnic group, genetic admixture, socio-economic status, and total energy intake. Our findings indicate a positive, significant association between the LP allele and body mass index (p = 0.034), fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.043), and waist circumference (p = 0.008), with associations being stronger in males than in females. Our results also reveal that lactose consumption is positively and nearly significantly associated with FMI. PMID:23479116

  8. Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscle and body composition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Leidy, Heather J

    2007-12-01

    The regular performance of resistance exercises and the habitual ingestion of adequate amounts of dietary protein from high-quality sources are two important ways for older persons to slow the progression of and treat sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Resistance training can help older people gain muscle strength, hypertrophy muscle, and increase whole body fat-free mass. It can also help frail elderly people improve balance and physical functioning capabilities. Inadequate protein intake will cause adverse metabolic and physiological accommodation responses that include the loss of fat-free mass and muscle strength and size. Findings from controlled feeding studies show that older persons retain the capacity to metabolically adjust to lower protein intakes by increasing the efficiency of nitrogen retention and amino acid utilization. However, they also suggest that the recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g protein x kg(-1) x d(-1) might not be sufficient to prevent subtle accommodations and blunt desired changes in body composition and muscle size with resistance training. Most of the limited research suggests that resistance training-induced improvements in body composition, muscle strength and size, and physical functioning are not enhanced when older people who habitually consume adequate protein (modestly above the RDA) increase their protein intake by either increasing the ingestion of higher-protein foods or consuming protein-enriched nutritional supplements. PMID:18187436

  9. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fernández, S.; Folgueira, C.; Castelao, C.; Al-Massadi, O.; Bravo, S. B.; Garcia-Caballero, T.; Leis, R.; Pardo, M.; Casanueva, F. F.; Seoane, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis. PMID:26961074

  10. FNDC5 is produced in the stomach and associated to body composition.

    PubMed

    Barja-Fernández, S; Folgueira, C; Castelao, C; Al-Massadi, O; Bravo, S B; Garcia-Caballero, T; Leis, R; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) discovered in 2002 has recently gained attention due to its potential role in protecting against obesity. In rat, no data exist regarding FNDC5 production and regulation in the stomach. The aim of the present work was to determine the expression of FNDC5 in the rat stomach and its potential regulation by body composition. The present data shows FNDC5 gene expression in the gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemical studies found FNDC5 immunopositivity in chief cells of gastric tissue. By the use of three different antibodies FNDC5 was found expressed in gastric mucosa and secreted by the stomach. The rate of gastric FNDC5 secretion parallels the circulating levels of FNDC5. The body fat mass increase after intervention with high fat diet coincided with a decrease in the secretion of FNDC5 from the stomach and a diminution in the FNDC5 circulating levels. In summary, the present data shows, for the first time, the expression of FNDC5 in the stomach of rats and its regulation by body composition, suggesting a potential role of gastric FNDC5 in energy homeostasis. PMID:26961074

  11. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Salivary latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Ellen W; Place, Rebecca; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Visich, Paul; Hoffman, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat. Saliva samples were measured 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days (later assayed for cortisol). A latent trait cortisol (LTC) factor explained 43% of the variance in cortisol levels within and across days. Confirmatory factor analysis identified three cardiovascular risk factors: lipids (i.e., TG and HDL-C), blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic), and body composition (i.e., BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat). Lower salivary LTC was associated with higher lipids, higher blood pressure, and higher body composition. The findings further support the internal and external validity of the LTC construct, and may also advance our understanding of the link between interindividual differences in HPA axis activity and cardiovascular risk in middle childhood. PMID:27262343

  13. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  14. Cthrc1 Controls Adipose Tissue Formation, Body Composition, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stohn, J. Patrizia; Wang, Qiaozeng; Siviski, Matthew E.; Kennedy, Kevin; Jin, Yong-Ri; Kacer, Doreen; DeMambro, Victoria; Liaw, Lucy; Vary, Calvin P.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Prudovsky, Igor; Lindner, Volkhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effects of loss of Cthrc1 on adipogenesis, body composition, metabolism, physical activity and muscle physiology. Methods Complete metabolic and activity monitoring as well as grip strength measurements and muscle myography were performed in Cthrc1 null and wildtype mice. Results Compared to wildtypes, Cthrc1 null mice had similar body weights but significantly reduced energy expenditure, decreased lean mass and increased fat mass, especially visceral fat. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cthrc1 inhibited adipocyte differentiation as well as PPAR and CREB reporter activity, while preadipocytes isolated from Cthrc1 null mice exhibited enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Voluntary physical activity in Cthrc1 null mice as assessed by wheel running was reduced to approximately half the distance covered by wildtypes. Reduced grip strength was observed in Cthrc1 null mice at the age of 15 weeks or older with reduced performance and mass of fast twitch muscle. In the brain, Cthrc1 expression was most prominent in neurons of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei with evidence for secretion into the circulation in the median eminence. Conclusions Our data indicate that Cthrc1 regulates body composition through inhibition of adipogenesis. In addition, central Cthrc1 may be a mediator of muscle function and physical activity. PMID:26148471

  15. Comparison of DXA and CT in the assessment of body composition in premenopausal women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bredella, Miriam A; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J; Torriani, Martin; Brick, Danielle J; Gerweck, Anu V; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2010-11-01

    Accurate methods for assessing body composition in subjects with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) are important for determination of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and to monitor therapeutic interventions. The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring abdominal and thigh fat, and thigh muscle mass in premenopausal women with obesity, AN, and normal weight compared to computed tomography (CT). In addition, we wanted to assess the impact of hydration on DXA-derived measures of body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We studied a total of 91 premenopausal women (34 obese, 39 with AN, and 18 lean controls). Our results demonstrate strong correlations between DXA- and CT-derived body composition measurements in AN, obese, and lean controls (r = 0.77-0.95, P < 0.0001). After controlling for total body water (TBW), the correlation coefficients were comparable. DXA trunk fat correlated with CT visceral fat (r = 0.51-0.70, P < 0.0001). DXA underestimated trunk and thigh fat and overestimated thigh muscle mass and this error increased with increasing weight. Our study showed that DXA is a useful method for assessing body composition in premenopausal women within the phenotypic spectrum ranging from obesity to AN. However, it is important to recognize that DXA may not accurately assess body composition in markedly obese women. The level of hydration does not significantly affect most DXA body composition measurements, with the exceptions of thigh fat. PMID:20111013

  16. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Ignasiak, Zofia; Radwan-Oczko, Malgorzata; Rozek-Piechura, Krystyna; Cholewa, Marta; Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Tomasz; Slawinska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD), and gingival bleeding. Results In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric characteristics and body composition were significantly and positively correlated with PD and bleeding on probing. Conclusion The results suggest that body composition and BMD are not significantly correlated with tooth number and gingival bleeding. PMID:27042033

  17. Bioelectrical impedance is an accurate method to assess body composition in obese but not severely obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Metz, Lore; Chaplais, Elodie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and segmental body composition results between bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and to test the reproducibility of BIA in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that BIA offers an accurate and reproducible method to assess body composition in adolescents with obesity. Whole-body and segmental body compositions were assessed by BIA (Tanita MC-780) and DXA (Hologic) among 138 (110 girls and 28 boys) obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14±1.5years. The BIA analysis was replicated on 3 identical occasions in 32 participants to test the reproducibility of the methods. Whole-body fat mass percentage was significantly higher using the BIA method compared with DXA (40.6±7.8 vs 38.8±4.9%, P<.001), which represents a 4.8% overestimation of the BIA technique compared with DXA. Similarly, fat mass expressed in kilograms is overestimated by 2.8% using BIA (35.8±11.7kg) compared with the DXA measure (34.3±8.7kg) (P<.001), and fat-free mass is underestimated by -6.1% using BIA (P<.001). Except for the right arm and leg percentage of fat mass, all the segmental measures of body composition are significantly different between the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Lin coefficient showed great agreement and concordance between both methods in assessing whole-body composition. Intraclass correlation coefficient between the 3 BIA measures ranged from 0.99 to 1 for body weight, body fat, and fat-free mass. Bioimpedance analysis offers an acceptable and reproducible alternative to assess body composition in obese adolescents, with however a loss of correlation between BIA and DXA with increasing body fat; its validity remains uncertain for segmental analysis among obese youth. PMID:27333957

  18. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  19. Sex-specific effects of maternal anthropometrics on body composition at birth

    PubMed Central

    O’tierney-ginn, Perrie; Presley, Ms. Larraine; Minium, Ms. Judi; Hauguel deMouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess if maternal factors associated with fetal lean and fat mass differ between sexes. Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort delivering via scheduled Cesarean from 2004–2013. Maternal blood was collected prior to surgery for metabolic parameters. Placental weight and neonatal anthropometrics were measured within 48 hrs. Anthropometric differences between sexes were assessed with Student’s t-test. Multiple stepwise regression analysis assessed the relationship between independent maternal variables and neonatal lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM) or percent (%) fat as dependent variables in males and females combined and separately. Results We analyzed 360 women with normal glucose tolerance and wide range of pregravid body mass index (BMI, 16–64 kg/m2) and their offspring (N=194 males and 166 females). Males had more FM (mean difference 40 ± 18 g, P=0.03) and LBM (mean difference 158 ± 34 g, P<0.0001) than females. Percent body fat and measured maternal variables did not differ between sexes. In both sexes, placental weight had the strongest correlation with both neonatal LBM and FM, accounting for 20–39% of the variance. In males, maternal height, BMI and weight gain were significant predictors of both lean and fat mass. In females, plasma interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were respectively independently associated with percent body fat and lean body mass. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the body composition and inflammatory environment of the mother modulate the metabolic fitness of neonates, as predicted by fat and lean mass, in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24858203

  20. Response of rat body composition to simultaneous exercise and centrifugation at 3.14g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is described calling into question the hypothesis that an increased physical load during chronic centrifugation contributes to the body composition changes observed in centrifuged rats. Considering fat-free and fat-free dry masses of the total body and carcass, it is seen that centrifugation combined with either wheel running or restraint reduced these masses to approximately 85% of the respective 1-g values, that is, the same result with either sedentary rats or rats running several hundred meters per day. It is pointed out that if an effect of a centrifugation-induced load is present but hidden by opposing factors, an analysis of variance should reveal it as an interaction between acceleration and other variables; however, no such interactions are found here. Tables are included emphasizing the pervasive influence of chronic centrifugation after only 12 days exposure.

  1. Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season

    PubMed Central

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed. PMID:26834884

  2. Bone, fat, and body composition: evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-05-01

    Disorders of body composition, including obesity and osteoporosis, have reached record proportions. Coincidentally, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling body mass also has greatly improved. Shared regulation at the hypothalamus and the bone marrow highlight major bone-fat interactions. The hypothalamus modulates fat and bone via the sympathetic nervous system by regulating appetite, insulin sensitivity, energy use, and skeletal remodeling. In the bone marrow, fat and bone cells arise from the same stem cells. Insights from disorders such as anorexia nervosa provide a new rationale for examining the mechanisms that link bone to fat. This article explores these relationships in the context of a new paradigm with implications for obesity and osteoporosis. PMID:19375545

  3. Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season.

    PubMed

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier

    2015-11-22

    The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB) players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm) participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m), handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed. PMID:26834884

  4. The Body Size-Dependent Diet Composition of North American Sea Ducks in Winter

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jean-François; Vanpé, Cécile; Guillemette, Magella

    2013-01-01

    Daily food requirements scale with body mass and activity in animals. While small species of birds have higher mass-specific field metabolic rates than larger species, larger species have higher absolute energy costs. Under energy balance, we thus expect the small species to have a higher energy value diet. Also the weight and time constraints for flighted and diurnal foragers should set a maximum to the amount of prey items taken in one meal and to the daily number of meals, respectively. Further, avoidance of competition causes the species to reduce the amount of shared prey in their diet. Some diet segregation is therefore to be expected between species. We tested these hypotheses and investigated the role of body mass in the diet composition of 12 sea duck species (Somateria mollissima, Somateria spectabilis, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, Bucephala clangula, Bucephala islandica, Bucephala albeola, Melanitta nigra, Melanitta perspicillata, Melanitta deglandi, Histrionicus histrionicus and Clangula hyemalis) wintering in North America. This study was based on a literature survey with special emphasis given to the diet data from the former US Bureau of Biological Survey. The data supported our hypothesis that the energy value of winter diet of sea ducks scales negatively with body mass. Diet diversity also scaled negatively with body mass. Our results suggest the existence of a minimum for the energy value of avian diets. PMID:23755266

  5. [Evaluation of a complex trace element composition and bioutilization using isotope technics and total body measurement].

    PubMed

    Balogh, L; Kerekes, A; Bodó, K; Körösi, L; Jánoki, G A

    1998-05-24

    Modified mineral and trace element solutions were prepared containing Zn-65, Co-57, Mn-54, Fe-59, Mo-99 and Ni-63 isotopes which were physico-chemically identical to the original solution. Bioutilization examinations were carried out on animals receiving their normal feeding, after p. os application of complex trace element composition (CTEC) namely whole-body retention studies, bioassays, scintigraphic and excretion examinations in altogether 180 Wistar rats, 6 Beagle and 2 mongrel dogs using whole body counter, gamma and beta counters, gamma camera and metabolic cages. Extremely high whole body retention was measured in case of iron (8-30%), high utilizations in case of zinc (4-5%), cobalt (4-6%), molybdenum (3-4%) and manganese (2-4%) and a lower value in case of nickel. Bioassay and scintigraphic evaluations showed marked liver-, kidney-, and muscle and moderated blood uptakes. The way of excretion was mainly (more than 90%) via the faeces in case of zinc, manganese, iron and nickel, although cobalt excreted in 8% and molybdenum in 52% via the urinary tract. Our results show, that isotope technique combined with whole body counting and excretion studies in an available method for trace element bioutilization studies. PMID:9632924

  6. Measurement of body composition as a surrogate evaluation of energy balance in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-03-26

    In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle. PMID:25825693

  7. Measurement of body composition as a surrogate evaluation of energy balance in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle. PMID:25825693

  8. Blueberries improve glucose tolerance and lipid handling without altering body composition in obese postmenopausal mice

    PubMed Central

    Elks, Carrie M.; Terrebonne, Jennifer D.; Ingram, Donald K.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk increases significantly during menopause and remains elevated post-menopause. Several botanicals, including blueberries (BB), have been shown to delay MetS progression, but few studies have been conducted in postmenopausal animal models. Here, we examined the effects of BB supplementation on obese postmenopausal mice using a chemically-induced menopause model. Design and Methods After induction of menopause, mice were fed a high-fat diet or the same diet supplemented with 4% BB powder for 12 weeks. Body weight and body composition were measured, and mice were subjected to glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Serum triglycerides and adiponectin were measured, and liver histology and hepatic gene expression were assessed. Results: Menopausal and BB-supplemented mice had significantly higher body weights and fat mass than control mice, while menopausal mice had impaired glucose tolerance and higher serum triglycerides when compared with control and BB-supplemented mice. Menopausal mice also had hepatic steatosis that was prevented by BB supplementation and correlated with expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Conclusions We conclude that BB supplementation prevents the glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis that occur in obese postmenopausal mice, and that these effects are independent of body weight. PMID:25611327

  9. Body Composition Features Predict Overall Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Amit G; Zhang, Peng; Waljee, Akbar K; Ananthakrishnan, Lakshmi; Parikh, Neehar D; Sharma, Pratima; Barman, Pranab; Krishnamurthy, Venkataramu; Wang, Lu; Wang, Stewart C; Su, Grace L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Existing prognostic models for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limitations. Analytic morphomics, a novel process to measure body composition using computational image-processing algorithms, may offer further prognostic information. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model for HCC patients using body composition features and objective clinical information. Methods: Using computed tomography scans from a cohort of HCC patients at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System between January 2006 and December 2013, we developed a prognostic model using analytic morphomics and routine clinical data based on multivariate Cox regression and regularization methods. We assessed model performance using C-statistics and validated predicted survival probabilities. We validated model performance in an external cohort of HCC patients from Parkland Hospital, a safety-net health system in Dallas County. Results: The derivation cohort consisted of 204 HCC patients (20.1% Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification (BCLC) 0/A), and the validation cohort had 225 patients (22.2% BCLC 0/A). The analytic morphomics model had good prognostic accuracy in the derivation cohort (C-statistic 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.89) and external validation cohort (C-statistic 0.75, 95% CI 0.68–0.82). The accuracy of the analytic morphomics model was significantly higher than that of TNM and BCLC staging systems in derivation (P<0.001 for both) and validation (P<0.001 for both) cohorts. For calibration, mean absolute errors in predicted 1-year survival probabilities were 5.3% (90% quantile of 7.5%) and 7.6% (90% quantile of 12.5%) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Conclusion: Body composition features, combined with readily available clinical data, can provide valuable prognostic information for patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:27228403

  10. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted. PMID:23075559

  11. Improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity with trenbolone in normogonadic rats.

    PubMed

    Donner, Daniel G; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-02-01

    Trenbolone (TREN) is used for anabolic growth-promotion in over 20 million cattle annually and continues to be misused for aesthetic purposes in humans. The current study investigated TREN's effects on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors; and its tissue-selective effects on the cardiovascular system, liver and prostate. Male rats (n=12) were implanted with osmotic infusion pumps delivering either cyclodextrin vehicle (CTRL) or 2mg/kg/day TREN for 6 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry assessment of body composition; organ wet weights and serum lipid profiles; and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Cardiac ultrasound examinations were performed before in vivo studies assessed myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Circulating sex hormones and liver enzyme activities; and prostate and liver histology were examined. In 6 weeks, fat mass increased by 34±7% in CTRLs (p<0.01). Fat mass decreased by 37±6% and lean mass increased by 11±4% with TREN (p<0.05). Serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were reduced by 62%, 57% and 78% (p<0.05) respectively in TREN rats. Histological examination of the prostates from TREN-treated rats indicated benign hyperplasia associated with an increased prostate mass (149% compared to CTRLs, p<0.01). No evidence of adverse cardiac or hepatic effects was observed. In conclusion, improvements in body composition, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity (key risk factors for cardiometabolic disease) were achieved with six-week TREN treatment without evidence of adverse cardiovascular or hepatic effects that are commonly associated with traditional anabolic steroid misuse. Sex hormone suppression and benign prostate hyperplasia were confirmed as adverse effects of the treatment. PMID:25554582

  12. Body composition characteristics of elite Australian rugby union athletes according to playing position and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Zemski, Adam J; Slater, Gary J; Broad, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the body composition traits of modern-day elite rugby union athletes according to playing position and ethnicity. Thirty-seven international Australian rugby athletes of Caucasian and Polynesian descent undertook body composition assessment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and surface anthropometry. Forwards were significantly taller, heavier and had a greater total fat mass and lean mass than backs. Backs displayed a higher percentage lean mass and lower sum of seven skinfolds and percentage fat mass. While no whole body composition differences were seen between ethnicities, significant regional differences were observed. In the periphery (arm and leg) regions, Polynesians had a greater proportion of fat mass (53.1% vs. 51.3%, P = 0.052, d = 0.5) and lean mass (49.7% vs. 48.6%, P = 0.040, d = 0.9), while in the trunk region a lower proportion of fat mass (37.2% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.019, d = 0.7) and lean mass (45.6% vs. 46.8%, P = 0.020, d = 1.1). Significant differences were also seen between Caucasian and Polynesian forwards in leg lean mass (31.4 kg vs. 35.9 kg, P = 0.014, d = 2.4) and periphery lean mass (43.8 kg vs. 49.6 kg, P = 0.022, d = 2.4). Elite Polynesian rugby athletes have different distribution patterns of fat mass and lean mass compared to Caucasians, which may influence their suitability for particular positions. PMID:25553727

  13. Evaluation of a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging system for whole body composition analysis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Joshua P; Zhang, Minzhi; Wang, ChuanFeng; Kuskowski, Michael A; Novak, Colleen M; Levine, James A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2010-08-01

    We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and outbred strains of rats and mice, and compared with measurements obtained using CCA. A second group of rats was measured before and after 18 h food or water deprivation. Significant positive correlations between QMR and CCA fat and lean mass measurements were shown for rats and mice. Although all live QMR fat and lean measurements were more precise than CCA for rats, values obtained for mice significantly differed from CCA for lean mass only. QMR performed PM slightly overestimated fat and lean values relative to live QMR but did not show lower precision than live QMR. Food deprivation reduced values for both fat and lean mass; water deprivation reduced estimates of lean mass only. In summary, all measurements using this QMR system were comparable to those obtained by CCA, but with higher overall precision, similar to previous reports for the murine QMR system. However, PM QMR measurements slightly overestimated live QMR values, and lean and fat mass measurements in this QMR system are influenced by hydration status and animal size, respectively. Despite these caveats, we conclude that the EchoMRI QMR system offers a fast in vivo method of body composition analysis, well correlated to but with greater overall precision than CCA. PMID:20057373

  14. Changes in Physical Activity and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women over Time

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Stacy T.; Kubo, Jessica; Desai, Manisha; Bea, Jennifer; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Chen, Zhao; Michael, Yvonne L.; Sullivan, Shannon D.; Beresford, Shirley; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Higher physical activity (PA) has been associated with greater attenuation of body-fat gain and preservation of lean mass across the lifespan. These analyses aimed to determine relationships of change in PA to changes in fat and lean body mass in a longitudinal prospective study of postmenopausal women. Methods Among 11,491 women enrolled at three Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers were selected to undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 8,352 had baseline body composition measurements, with at least one repeated measure at yr 1, 3, and 6. PA data were obtained by self-report at baseline, 3 and 6 yr of follow-up. Time-varying PA impact on change in lean and fat mass during the six-yr study period for age groups (50–59y, 60–69y, 70–79y) was estimated using mixed effects linear regression. Results Baseline PA and body composition differed significantly among the three age groups. The association of change in fat mass from baseline and time-varying PA differed across the three age groups (p=0.0006). In women aged 50–59, gain in fat mass from baseline was attenuated with higher levels of physical activity. Women aged 70–79 lost fat mass at all PA levels. In contrast, change in lean mass from baseline and time-varying PA did not differ by age group (p=0.1935). Conclusions The association between PA and change in fat mass varies by age group, with younger, but not older, women benefitting from higher levels of aerobic PA. Higher levels of aerobic activity are not associated with changes in lean mass, which tends to decrease in older women regardless of activity level. Greater attention to resistance training exercises may be needed to prevent lean mass loss as women age. PMID:23439422

  15. Parent-of-origin effects on voluntary exercise levels and body composition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Nehrenberg, Derrick L.; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R.; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G4 advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G4 females (compared to males) ran significantly more when provided access to a running wheel and were smaller with a greater percentage of body fat pre- and postwheel access. Change in body composition resulting from a 6-day exposure to wheels varied between the sexes with females generally regulating energy balance more precisely in the presence of exercise. We observed parent-of-origin effects on most voluntary wheel running and body composition traits, which accounted for 3–13% of the total phenotypic variance pooled across sexes. G4 individuals descended from progenitor (F0) crosses of HR♀ and C57BL/6J♂ ran greater distances, spent more time running, ran at higher maximum speeds/day, and had lower percent body fat and higher percent lean mass than mice descended from reciprocal progenitor crosses (C57BL/6J♀ × HR♂). For some traits, significant interactions between parent of origin and sex were observed. We discuss these results in the context of sex dependent activity and weight loss patterns, the contribution of parent-of-origin effects to predisposition for voluntary exercise, and the genetic (i.e., X-linked or mtDNA variations), epigenetic (i.e., genomic imprinting), and environmental (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care) phenomena potentially modulating these effects. PMID:19903762

  16. Correlation between motor performance scales, body composition, and anthropometry in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Erhan; Topcu, Yasemin; Karakaya, Pakize; Bayram, Meral Torun; Sahin, Ebru; Gunduz, Nihan; Yis, Uluc; Peker, Ozlen; Kurul, Semra Hiz

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition, anthropometry, and motor scales in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Twenty six patients with DMD were evaluated by Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE), gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometric measurements. Seventeen healthy children served as control group. There were 26 patients with a mean age of 9.5 ± 4.8 years. Ages and anthropometric measurements did not differ between groups. Of the 26 patients, nine were level I, seven were level II, two were level III, seven were level IV, and one was level V, according to the GMFCS. Despite the similar percentage of total body water, extracellular water/intracellular water ratio was significantly elevated in DMD patients (p = 0.001). Increased values of fat percentage and body fat mass index (BFMI) correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.785 and 0.719 respectively). Increased fat-free mass index (FFMI) correlated negatively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = -0.401). Increased fat percentage and BFMI correlated negatively with HFMSE scores (r = -0.779 and -0.698, respectively). Increased values of FFMI correlated positively with HFMSE scores. There was also a negative correlation between increased skin fold measurements from triceps and scapula and HFMSE scores (r = -0.618 and -0.683, respectively). Increased skin fold values from the same regions correlated positively with elevated GMFCS levels (r = 0.643 and 0.712, respectively). Significant body composition changes occur in patients with DMD. Anthropometric and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyses measurements show good correlation between motor function scales. These results may also be helpful to evaluate the effects of new treatment strategies. PMID:22975832

  17. Relationship between body composition and both cardiovascular risk factors and lung function in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Biasi, Domenico; Caimmi, Cristian; Barausse, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Ferrari, Marcello; Pieropan, Sara; Sabbagh, Dania; Adami, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate body composition in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess its association with the traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis and parameters of lung function. Eighty-six patients affected by SSc (13 men and 73 women, mean age 58.5 years, mean disease duration 10.7 years, 31 with diffuse form and 55 with limited pattern) underwent evaluation of body composition using a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) fan beam densitometer (GE Lunar iDXA) in order to assess total and regional body fat mass and fat-free mass. Clinical features, pulmonary function parameters, and the concomitant presence of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Android fat resulted to be higher in SSc patients with coexistence of hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.021), hypertension (P = 0.028), and overweight/obesity (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with body mass index (P < 0.001). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was inversely correlated with android fat (P = 0.034) and with the android fat/gynoid fat ratio (P = 0.013) and positively correlated with android lean (P = 0.041); the correlations were improved when FVC data were adjusted for sex, age, disease duration, and smoking habits (P = 0.010 for android fat, P = 0.010 for android fat/gynoid fat ratio, P = 0.011 for android lean). In this study, we showed that visceral abdominal fat, measured by DXA, is correlated with the main cardiovascular risk factors and lung volumes in SSc patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate if decrease of abdominal fat would improve lung function. PMID:24052413

  18. Dietary calcium intake, body size, and body composition in the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased calcium intake has been associated with lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies, as well as randomized clinical trials. However, much of the research on dietary calcium and body size to date has focused only on Caucasian, middle-aged men ...

  19. Spectral composition of a measuring signal during measurements of vibration rates of a moving body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daynauskas, I. A. I.; Slepov, N. N.

    1973-01-01

    Cybernetics diagnostics of machines and mechanisms using the spectral approach is discussed. The problem of establishing the accuracy of determination of the spectral composition is investigated. In systems with rectilinear or rotary movement, the vibrations appear in the form of movement rate vibrations, which are equivalent to frequency modulation of the signal, in proportion to the mean movement rate of the body. The case of a harmonic signal which reproduces and analyzes the characteristics of the frequency modulated signal is discussed. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters.

  20. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  1. The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes and consequently atherosclerotic vascular disease have become major health and public health issues worldwide. The increasing and staggering prevalence of obesity might not only be explained by nutritional habits or the reduction of energy expenditure through decreased physical activity. In addition, recent studies have focused on intestinal microbiota as environmental factors that increase energy yield from diet, regulate peripheral metabolism and thereby increase body weight. Obesity is associated with substantial changes in composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota, but the pathophysiological processes driving this bidirectional relationship have not been fully elucidated. This review discusses the relationships between the following: composition of gut microbiota, energy extracted from diet, synthesis of gut hormones involved in energy homeostasis, production of butyrate and the regulation of fat storage. PMID:20101384

  2. The consequences of sudden fluid shifts on body composition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Estimation of body composition as fat-free mass (FFM) is subjected to many variations caused by injury and stress conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU). Body cell mass (BCM), the metabolically active part of FFM, is reported to be more specifically correlated to changes in nutritional status. Bedside estimation of BCM could help to provide more valuable markers of nutritional status and may promote understanding of metabolic consequences of energy deficit in the ICU patients. We aimed to quantify BCM, water compartments and FFM by methods usable at the bedside for evaluating the impact of sudden and massive fluid shifts on body composition in ICU patients. Methods We conducted a prospective experimental study over an 6 month-period in a 18-bed ICU. Body composition of 31 consecutive hemodynamically stable patients requiring acute renal replacement therapy for fluid overload (ultrafiltration ≥5% body weight) was investigated before and after the hemodialysis session. Intra-(ICW) and extracellular (ECW) water volumes were calculated from the raw values of the low- and high-frequency resistances measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. BCM was assessed by a calculated method recently developed for ICU patients. FFM was derived from BCM and ECW. Results Intradialytic weight loss was 3.8 ± 0.8 kg. Percentage changes of ECW (-7.99 ± 4.60%) and of ICW (-7.63 ± 5.11%) were similar, resulting ECW/ICW ratio constant (1.26 ± 0.20). The fall of FFM (-2.24 ± 1.56 kg, -4.43 ± 2.65%) was less pronounced than the decrease of ECW (P < 0.001) or ICW (P < 0.001). Intradialytic variation of BCM was clinically negligible (-0.38 ± 0.93 kg, -1.56 ± 3.94%) and was significantly less than FFM (P < 0.001). Conclusions BCM estimation is less driven by sudden massive fluid shifts than FMM. Assessment of BCM should be preferred to FFM when severe hydration disturbances are present in ICU patients. PMID

  3. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:27351384

  4. Adipokines, hormones related to body composition, and insulin resistance in HIV fat redistribution syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution. Methods Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient’s fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation. Results Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV

  5. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss

  6. Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gottrand, Frederic; Roccaldo, Romana; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; Bueno, Gloria; de Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Wells, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study in adolescents were 1) to examine how various body composition-screening tests relate to single and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 2) to examine how lean mass and body fatness (independently of each other) relate to clustered CVD risk factors, and 3) to calculate specific thresholds for body composition indices associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk. We measured 1089 European adolescents (46.7% boys, 12.5-17.49years) in 2006-2007. CVD risk factors included: systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, homeostasis model assessment, C-reactive protein (n=748), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Body composition indices included: height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, the sum of four skinfolds, central/peripheral skinfolds, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Most body composition indices are associated with single CVD risk factors. The sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are strong and positively associated with clustered CVD risk. Interestingly, lean mass is positively associated with clustered CVD risk independently of body fatness in girls. Moderate and highly accurate thresholds for the sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk (all AUC>0.773). In conclusion, our results support an association between most of the assessed body composition indices and single and clustered CVD risk factors. In addition, lean mass (independent of body fatness) is positively associated with clustered CVD risk in girls, which is a novel finding that helps to understand why an index such as BMI is a good index of CVD risk but a bad index of adiposity. Moderate to highly accurate thresholds for body composition indices associated with a healthier clustered CVD risk were found. Further studies with a longitudinal design are needed to confirm these findings

  7. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. PMID:25012759

  8. Validation of dual x-ray absorptiometry for body-composition assessment of rats exposed to dietary stressors.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Hall, C B; Marchello, M J; Siders, W A

    2001-01-01

    Evidence of the validity and accuracy of dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure soft-tissue composition of laboratory rats with altered body composition associated with nutritional perturbations is lacking. We compared DXA determinations made in prone and supine positions with measurements of chemical composition of 49 male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed the basal AIN-93 growth diet, were fed the basal diet modified to contain 30% fat, were fasted for 2 d, were limit fed 6 g of the basal diet daily for 1 wk, or were treated with furosemide (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 h before DXA). DXA produced similar estimates of body mass and soft-tissue composition in the prone and supine positions. DXA estimates of body composition were significantly correlated with reference composition values (R(2) = 0.371-0.999). DXA discriminated treatment effects on body mass, fat-free and bone-free mass, fat mass, and body fatness; it significantly underestimated body mass (1% to 2%) and fat-free and bone-free mass (3%) and significantly overestimated fat mass and body fatness (3% to 25%). The greatest errors occurred in treatment groups in which body mass was diminished and body hydration was decreased. These findings suggest that DXA can determine small changes in fat-free, bone-free mass in response to obesity and weight loss. Errors in DXA determination of fat mass and body fatness associated with extra corporeal fluid and dehydration indicate the need for revision of calculation algorithms for soft-tissue determination. PMID:11448581

  9. Impact of body composition on performance in fitness tests among personnel of the Croatian navy.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Jukić, Igor; Bok, Daniel; Vuleta, Dinko; Harasin, Drazen

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of body weight on fitness tests among the personnel of the Croatian navy. Forty two naval personnel (age 27 +/- 4.1 years; body mass 86.2 +/- 4.9 kg; height 184.6 +/- 7.4 cm; body fat percentage 17.3 +/- 5.2) participated in this study. In order to evaluate the fitness of the naval servicemen, we applied a testing procedure that included measurements of 7 fitness tests and 15 body anthropometric tests. A negative correlation was found between the body fat percentage and all the analyzed sprint tests and three anaerobic power tests (r), SP5 (r = -0.42), SP10 (r = -0.51), SP20 (r = -0.53), SJ (r = -0.45), CM (r = -0.57), SLJ (r = -0.67). Also a negative correlation was found between the body fat percentage and VO2(max) (r = -0.44). A positive correlation was found between the sprint test and the power performance test and thigh and calf girth. Spiriting ability is influenced by the strength of a person. This is one of the reasons why we found a positive correlation between the sprint test (SP5, SP10 and SP20) and thigh and calf girth. In this study we found a negative correlation between body fat percentages and all the sprint tests and three anaerobic power tests and VO2(max). The ectomorph somatotypes have positive correlations with all variables. The mesomorph somatotypes have the greatest positive correlations with all variables. The endomorph somatotypes have negative correlations with all variables. According to the body composition of Croatian naval servicemen we can conclude that they need a sufficient level of strength and endurance for everyday tasks. The effectiveness of a weight-management program is determined by the success of the participants in losing the necessary amount of weight and being able to maintain that weight loss. This requires long-term tracking of these individuals in a naval environment. PMID:21755699

  10. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  11. Body-composition assessment in infancy: Air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Compositi...

  12. Measurement of changes in body composition of piglets from birth to 4 kg using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies of the growth of neonatal piglets it is important to be able to accurately assess changes in body composition. Previous studies have demonstrated that QMR provides accurate measurements of total body fat, lean, and water in non-anesthetized piglets. The purpose of this study was to us...

  13. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  14. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting body composition in a mouse intercross

    PubMed Central

    Vitarius, James A.; Sehayek, Ephraim; Breslow, Jan L.

    2006-01-01

    Gravimetric analysis and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry were used to determine lean, fat, and bone tissue traits in a F2 mouse population from a C57BL/6J and CASA/Rk intercross (B6CASAF2). These traits were used in a linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci that affect body composition. Linkage mapping showed that body weight (BW) loci on proximal chromosome 2 occurred in the same region as body length, lean tissue mass, and bone mineral content and on chromosome 13 in the same region as lean tissue mass, bone mineral density, and bone mineral content. Fat-related loci occurring on mid-chromosome 2 near 60 cM, proximal chromosome 6, and mid-chromosome 10 were distinct from BW, lean tissue, and bone tissue loci. In B6CASAF2 females, heterozygotes and CASA/Rk homozygotes at the chromosome 6 locus marker had higher body fat percentages, and this locus was responsible for 11% of the variance for body fat percentage. Female heterozygotes and C57BL/6J homozygotes at the chromosome 15 locus marker had higher bone mineral densities, and this locus could explain 8% of that trait's variance. A survey of the literature did not reveal any previous reports of fat-specific loci in the chromosomal 10 region near 42 cM reported in this study. The results of this study indicate that BW and BMI have limited usefulness as phenotypes in linkage or association studies when used as obesity phenotypes. PMID:17179051

  16. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posterior lower leg and rectus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasound. Results For boys, height, body weight, and LBM in less mature groups were lower than that in more mature groups. The maturity-related differences were still significant after adjusting for chronological age. On the other hand, muscle thickness values in the lower extremity and abdomen differed among the groups at different stages of pubic hair development, whereas there was no maturity-related difference in the relative values corrected by LBM, except for those thickness values measured at the abdomen. For girls, only the muscle thickness at the anterior thigh and muscle thickness relative to LBM1/3 at the posterior lower leg was significantly affected by maturity status, but significant maturity-related difference was not found after adjusting for chronological age. Conclusions At least for Japanese boys and girls aged 13 years, maturity status affected body size in boys, but not in girls, and the influence of maturation on the muscularity of the lower extremity and trunk muscles is less in both sexes. PMID:23497570

  17. Effects of two programs of exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seron, Bruna Barboza; Silva, Renan Alvarenga C.; Greguol, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12 week aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 41 adolescents with Down syndrome, aged 15.5±2.7 years, divided into three groups: Aerobic Training Group (ATG; n=16), Resisted Training Group (RTG; n=15) and Control Group (CG; n=10). There were two types of training: aerobic, with intensity of 50-70% of the heart rate reserve 3 times/week, and resisted, with intensity of 12 maximum repetitions 2 times week. Both trainings were applied during a 12-week period. The percentage of fat evaluation was performed using plethysmography with Bod Pod(r) equipment. Waist circumference (WC), body weight and height were also measured. Paired t-test was used to compare variables before and after the exercise program. Results: The percentage of body fat did not change significantly for both groups that participated in the training intervention. However, CG showed a significant increase in this variable (31.3±7.2 versus 34.0±7.9). On the other hand, body mass index (BMI) and WC were significantly reduced for ATG (BMI: 27.0±4.4 and 26.5±4.2; WC: 87.3±11.1 and 86.2±9.7), while RTG and GC showed no differences in these variables. Conclusions: The aerobic and resisted training programs maintained body fat levels. ATG significantly reduced BMI and WC measures. Individuals who did not attend the training intervention increased their percentage of fat. PMID:24676196

  18. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  19. Body composition of female road and track endurance cyclists: Normative values and typical changes.

    PubMed

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Barras, Martin; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G; Martin, David T

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe normative values and seasonal variation of body composition in female cyclists comparing female road and track endurance cyclists, and to validate the use of anthropometry to monitor lean mass changes. Anthropometric profiles (seven site skinfolds) were measured over 16 years from 126 female cyclists. Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as body weight × skinfolds(-x). The exponent (x) was calculated as the slope of the natural logarithm of body weight and skinfolds. Percentage changes in LMI were compared to lean mass changes measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of 25 road cyclists. Compared to sub-elite and elite cyclists, world class cyclists were (mean [95% CI]) 1.18 kg [0.46, 1.90] and 0.60 kg [0.05, 1.15] lighter and had skinfolds that were 7.4 mm [3.8, 11.0] and 4.6 mm [1.8, 7.4] lower, respectively. Body weight (0.41 kg [0.04, 0.77]) and skinfolds (4.0 mm [2.1, 6.0]) were higher in the off-season compared to the early-season. World class female road cyclists had lower body weight (6.04 kg [2.73, 9.35]) and skinfolds (11.5 mm [1.1, 21.9]) than track endurance cyclists. LMI (mean exponent 0.15 [0.13, 0.18]) explained 87% of the variance in DXA lean mass. In conclusion, higher performing female cyclists were lighter and leaner than their less successful peers, road cyclists were lighter and leaner than track endurance cyclists, and weight and skinfolds were lowest early in the season. LMI appears to be a reasonably valid tool for monitoring lean mass changes. PMID:26366462

  20. Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Čichoň, Rostislav; Maszczyk, Adam; Stastny, Petr; Uhlíř, Petr; Petr, Miroslav; Doubrava, Ondřej; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Gołaś, Artur; Cieszczyk, Paweł; Żmijewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine). The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period. PMID:26834875

  1. Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users.

    PubMed

    Čichoň, Rostislav; Maszczyk, Adam; Stastny, Petr; Uhlíř, Petr; Petr, Miroslav; Doubrava, Ondřej; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Gołaś, Artur; Cieszczyk, Paweł; Żmijewski, Piotr

    2015-11-22

    Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine). The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period. PMID:26834875

  2. Changes in body composition and energy expenditure after six weeks' growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, J W; Greene, S A; Jung, R T; Scrimgeour, C M; Rennie, M J

    1991-01-01

    Changes in body composition and energy expenditure were assessed in 15 children after six weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment. Body composition measurements were made by stable isotope labelled water (H2(18)O) dilution, bioelectrical impedance, and skinfold thickness techniques. Energy expenditure was assessed both by indirect ventilated hood calorimetry (resting energy expenditure) and the stable isotope doubly labelled water (2H2(18)O) technique (free living daily total energy expenditure). Mean increases in weight of 0.96 kg and fat free mass of 1.37 kg and a mean decrease in fat mass of 0.41 kg were observed. Significant increases both in resting energy expenditure and free living daily energy expenditure were detected. Absolute changes in fat mass and resting energy expenditure were correlated. The data suggest (i) that the increase in the fat free mass is the most significant early clinical measure of hGH response and (ii) that hGH increases the metabolic activity of the fat free mass. Monitoring such changes may be predictive of the efficacy of hGH in promoting growth. PMID:2039249

  3. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity. PMID:27344855

  4. [A new system using NMR technology for measurement of body composition in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Furutoh, Kenichi; Nishikibe, Masaru

    2004-04-01

    Measurement of body composition (fat mass) is an important item in pathophysiological and pharmacological studies using small animals (mice) in the fields of obesity and diabetes. The existing methods are, however, difficult, time consuming, and require a shielding facility. Now a novel system using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was developed for measurement of body composition in small animals (mice) that provides noninvasive and rapid measurement without anesthetics; we introduced and evaluated this system and tried another application of this system. First, we validated this system using canola oil, soft tissues (adipose and skeletal muscle), and various kinds of rodent chows. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of this system were demonstrated to be equal to those in standard chemical methods. A strong positive correlation (y=x) between the results of NMR and chemical methods was found. Secondly, we evaluated accuracy and assay range of the NMR method using live mice that were fasted overnight or fed high fat diet (HFD). In fasted mice, a small but quantitative decrease of fat mass (5.1% from 9.1%) was detected. Total decrease of fat and lean mass (5.0 g) in fasted mice was equivalent to the decrease of body weight (5.0 g). In mice fed the HFD, increase of fat mass with relative decrease of lean mass were qualitatively detected in a time-dependent manner. We would like to emphasize that operation of the system was actually easy and measurements were accomplished in a short time (1 minute). Thirdly, we tried to use the NMR system for determination of hepatic fat contents using mice fasted or treated with a PPARgamma agonist; our results showed a quantitative increase in fat by fasting or in decrease in fat by the drug treatment. The changes of fat contents determined by the NMR method were well correlated with the changes in triglyceride and total cholesterol values obtained by the biochemical assays. In conclusion, body composition data

  5. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources. PMID:18268376

  6. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  7. Associations between Body Composition, Hormonal and Lifestyle Factors, Bone Turnover, and BMD

    PubMed Central

    Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A.; Renner, Jordan B.; Rubin, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of body composition, lifestyle factors, bone turnover and hormonal factors in determining bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown. We studied younger postmenopausal women to determine whether modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis have stronger associations with BMD. Methods In multivariable linear regression models, we tested associations between non-bone body composition measures, self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary intake, urinary N-telopeptide (NTx), sex hormone concentrations, and BMD in 109 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years, adjusting for current hormone therapy use and clinical risk factors for low BMD. Lean mass, fat mass and areal BMD (aBMD) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and distal radius were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Higher body weight and self-reported nonwhite race were independently associated with higher aBMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and distal radius. Lean and fat mass were not independently associated with aBMD. Older age and higher urinary NTx were independently associated with lower aBMD at the distal radius but not at weight-bearing sites. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated lack of an independent association between total daily protein or calorie intake and BMD. Conclusions BMD, weight and race were the most important determinants of aBMD at all sites. Older age and higher bone turnover were independently associated with lower aBMD at the distal radius. In a limited analysis, self-reported physical activity, dietary protein and calorie intake were not associated with aBMD after adjustment for the other variables. PMID:24707468

  8. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kajale, Neha A.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1–2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3–4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P < 0.05) at 1-year PP (47 ± 10.0%) when compared to 1-week PP (44.3 ± 6.7%) and remained elevated at 3-year PP (45.6 ± 10.2%). Regression analysis revealed that at 1-year PP, increase in PPWR (Odd Ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 2.5], P < 0.001) and inactivity (OR 1.4, 95% CI= (0.97, 2.0), P < 0.1) were predictors for CMR. At 3-year PP, only PPWR was responsible for increase in CMR parameters (OR 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.3), P < 0.001) and not inactivity (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women. PMID:26180762

  9. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

  10. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS)

    PubMed Central

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as moderate (10°–39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  11. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS).

    PubMed

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb's angle was categorized as moderate (10°-39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  12. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients’ depression, sleep, and body composition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  13. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients' depression, sleep, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  14. Body Composition in Asians and Caucasians: Comparative Analyses and Influences on Cardiometabolic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sumanto; Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Within the last four decades Asia has witnessed major transformation in its population demographics, which gave rise to changes in food availability, food habits and lifestyle. A significant consequence of these changes has been the continuing rise in overweight and obesity across Asia. In parallel, there has been a significant rise in Asians in the incidence of the major chronic diseases, particularly in cardiometabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Given that the majority of the evidence, to date, investigating the associations between adiposity and cardiometabolic disorder risk have been obtained from studies undertaken either in European or in North American Caucasians, in this chapter, we have reviewed differences in body fat content and distribution between East Asians, South Asians, and Caucasians. The evidence is consistent that the content and distribution of body fat are markedly different between the various ethnic groups. We found that Asians have a greater predisposition towards adiposity at higher BMI than in Caucasians. Moreover, at any given level of adiposity, Asians have a much greater predisposition to risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Caucasians. We therefore strongly endorse the need for different adiposity cutoffs in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. We have also reviewed the predictive abilities of the various body composition/adiposity measures in determining risk of cardiometabolic disorders in Asians. PMID:26319906

  15. Lifetime physical activity, neuromuscular performance and body composition in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Weeda, J; Horan, S; Beck, B; Weeks, B K

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationships between lifetime physical activity participation, neuromuscular performance and body composition in men at musculoskeletal maturity. 50 healthy men (age 25.2±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. Lifetime physical activity was determined from the Bone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was calculated as an index of neuromuscular performance. Bone mineral density (BMD), lean and fat mass were determined from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR800, Norland). A subsample of participants (n=13) additionally underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, XCT3000, Stratec) measures. Results demonstrated that those in the highest tertile for lifetime physical activity exhibited the greatest lumbar spine BMD (µdiff=0.12 g/cm2, p=0.005) and lean body mass index (LBMI) (p=0.04). Those in the highest tertile for impulse also exhibited the highest whole body (µdiff=0.08 g/cm2), lumbar spine (µdiff=0.14 g/cm2), and femoral neck BMD (µdiff=0.15 g/cm2) (p≤0.05). All BMD differences exceeded the least significant change. Childhood physical activity was positively related to LBMI (r=0.28, p=0.05), whereas sedentary activity was inversely related to femoral neck BMD (r=-0.33, p=0.02). Results support recommendations for sustained physical activity participation during the growing years. PMID:24886922

  16. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can b