Kasiske, Bertram L; Kumar, Rajiv; Kimmel, Paul L; Pesavento, Todd E; Kalil, Roberto S; Kraus, Edward S; Rabb, Hamid; Posselt, Andrew M; Anderson-Haag, Teresa L; Steffes, Michael W; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J; Singh, Ravinder J; Weir, Matthew R
Previous studies have suggested that kidney donors may have abnormalities of mineral and bone metabolism typically seen in chronic kidney disease. This may have important implications for the skeletal health of living kidney donors and for our understanding of the pathogenesis of long-term mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease. In this prospective study, 182 of 203 kidney donors and 173 of 201 paired normal controls had markers of mineral and bone metabolism measured before and at 6 and 36 months after donation (ALTOLD Study). Donors had significantly higher serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (24.6% and 19.5%) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (9.5% and 8.4%) at 6 and 36 months, respectively, as compared to healthy controls, and significantly reduced tubular phosphate reabsorption (-7.0% and -5.0%) and serum phosphate concentrations (-6.4% and -2.3%). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower (-17.1% and -12.6%), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D (21.4% and 19.4%) concentrations were significantly higher in donors compared to controls. Moreover, significantly higher concentrations of the bone resorption markers, carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (30.1% and 13.8%) and aminoterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (14.2% and 13.0%), and the bone formation markers, osteocalcin (26.3% and 2.7%) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (24.3% and 8.9%), were observed in donors. Thus, kidney donation alters serum markers of bone metabolism that could reflect impaired bone health. Additional long-term studies that include assessment of skeletal architecture and integrity are warranted in kidney donors. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata
Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.
Eimori, Keiko; Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei
Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline. The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3), and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL) and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine) were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.
Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei
Background Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. Methods This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline. Results The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3), and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL) and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine) were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Conclusions Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients. PMID:27275738
Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Nii-Kono, Tomoko; Fujieda, Ayako; Uchida, Motoyuki; Hosokawa, Atsuko; Motojima, Masaru; Fukagawa, Masafumi
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) develop various kinds of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism, widely known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Although the pathogenesis of ESRD may be similar in many patients, the response of the bone varies widely, ranging from high to low turnover. ROD is classified into several types, depending on the status of bone turnover, by histomorphometric analysis using bone biopsy samples [1,2]. In the mild type, bone metabolism is closest to that of persons with normal renal function. In osteitis fibrosa, bone turnover is abnormally activated. This is a condition of high-turnover bone. A portion of the calcified bone loses its lamellar structure and appears as woven bone. In the cortical bone also, bone resorption by osteoclasts is active, and a general picture of bone marrow tissue infiltration and the formation of cancellous bone can be observed. In osteomalacia, the bone surface is covered with uncalcified osteoid. This condition is induced by aluminum accumulation or vitamin D deficiency. The mixed type possesses characteristics of both osteitis fibrosa and osteomalacia. The bone turnover is so markedly accelerated that calcification of the osteoid cannot keep pace. In the adynamic bone type, bone resorption and bone formation are both lowered. While bone turnover is decreased, there is little osteoid. The existence of these various types probably accounts for the diversity in degree of renal impairment, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, and serum vitamin D level in patients with ROD. However, all patients share a common factor, i.e., the presence of a uremic condition.
Upadhyay, Jagriti; Farr, Olivia M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.
Leptin was initially best known for its role in energy homeostasis and regulation of energy expenditure. In the past few years we have realized that leptin also plays a major role in neuroendocrine regulation and bone metabolism. Here, we review the literature on indirect and direct pathways through which leptin acts to influence bone metabolism and discuss bone abnormalities related to leptin deficiency in both animal and human studies. The clinical utility of leptin in leptin deficient individuals and its potential to improve metabolic bone disease are also discussed. We are beginning to understand the critical role leptin plays in bone metabolism; future randomized studies are needed to fully assess the potential and risk – benefit of leptin's use in metabolic bone disease particularly in leptin deficient individuals. PMID:25497343
Upadhyay, Jagriti; Farr, Olivia M; Mantzoros, Christos S
Leptin was initially best known for its role in energy homeostasis and regulation of energy expenditure. In the past few years we have realized that leptin also plays a major role in neuroendocrine regulation and bone metabolism. Here, we review the literature the indirect and direct pathways through which leptin acts to influence bone metabolism and discuss bone abnormalities related to leptin deficiency in both animal and human studies. The clinical utility of leptin in leptin deficient individuals and its potential to improve metabolic bone disease are also discussed. We are beginning to understand the critical role leptin plays in bone metabolism; future randomized studies are needed to fully assess the potential and risk-benefit of leptin's use in metabolic bone disease particularly in leptin deficient individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Lane, Joseph M; Rodriguez, Jose A
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of conditions characterized by abnormalities in calcium metabolism and/or bone cell physiology. These unbalanced processes can eventually lead to bony deformities and altered joint biomechanics, resulting in degenerative joint disease. Not infrequently, patients with metabolic bone diseases have restricting hip joint pain that ultimately necessitates hip arthroplasty. To minimize complications, the surgeon must consider the particular characteristics of these patients. The surgical and medical management of patients with metabolic bone diseases undergoing hip arthroplasty requires appropriate preoperative diagnosis, careful attention to the technical challenges of surgery, and strategies to maximize the long-term results of the surgical intervention, such as the use of bone anabolic and anticatabolic agents.
Skeletal abnormalities are a recognized component of Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), but a generalized metabolic bone defect in NF1 has not been fully characterized thus far. The purpose of this study was to characterize at the densitometric, biochemical, and pathological level the bone involvement ...
Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu
There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might
Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic
Yang, Hai-Ming; Meng, Xian-Jie; Wu, Wei; Liu, Ying-Lu; Zhai, Xiao-Juan
To analyze the interdependent relationship between serum bone metabolic markers and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in patients with chronic kidney disease (stages 3 and 4)-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), in order to provide the objective basis for exploring the rules of TCM syndrome differentiation in patients with CKD-MBD. The retrospective survey was conducted to collect 105 cases with CKD (stages 3 and 4)-MBD. General clinical indexes, frequency of TCM syndromes and distribution of TCM syndrome type were investigated. Furthermore, serum bone metabolic markers, including calcium (Ca2+), phosphonium (P3+), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), procollagen type 1 amino-N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and β-crosslaps (β-CTX) were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed. And then, the multivariate regression analysis was performed for serum bone metabolic markers and TCM syndromes. The results showed that the general clinical features of the 105 patients included old age, hypertension, fracture, loss of bone mass and mild abnormalities of serum bone metabolic markers. High-frequency TCM syndromes were related to Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney, Qi deficiency in Spleen and Kidney and blood stasis. Moreover, Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney and blood stasis were found as the most frequent characteristics of the distribution of TCM syndromes type. The clinical characteristics of patients with the syndrome type of Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney were probably old age, increase in TCM syndrome scores and abnormalities in iPTH and P1NP. In addition, the interdependent relationship between abnormality in Ca2+ and syndromes of hair loss, tooth shake and sexual dysfunction, abnormality in P3+ and syndromes of aches in waist and knees, abnormality in iPTH and syndromes of soreness and weakness in waist and knees, lassitude, fatigue and extreme chilliness, abnormality in ALP and
Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali
To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients.
Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali
Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Results: Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. Conclusion: This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients. PMID:24550954
Izadyar, Sina; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali
Melorheostosis is a rare benign non-hereditary sclerosing dysplasia involving the bone, often in a sclerotomal distribution. we report the case of a 27 years old lady with painful swelling of the left hand and forearm lasting for almost 15 years. The patient experienced aggravation of symptoms and limitation of motion during the past two months. Radiographic assessment revealed hyperostosis involving the left 3(rd) and 4(th) metacarpal bones and corresponding digits as well as the left ulna and distal humerus, with no soft tissue ossification. Angiographic and blood pool images of bone scintigraphy showed increased activity of mid-metacarpal region, corresponding to the sclerotom C-8. Delayed static views showed increased radiotracer uptake of the left 4(th) metacarpal bone and the corresponding digit as well as the left ulna and humerus, but no abnormal osteoblastic activity of the 3(rd) left metacarpal and digit. Histopathologic assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Melorheostosis. The case confirms that even in the same sclerotomal distribution, the multiple foci of involvement can present in different metabolic stages. In fact, the disease does not progress uniformly and different lesions can be seen in dissimilar stages of activity. Hence, metabolic imaging can be important to unmask which of the radiographically detected bony lesions are metabolically active and have the potential to be the source of current patient's symptoms and which of them are old, metabolically inactive and silent lesions, which are not clinically relevant to the patient's complaints.
Izadyar, Sina; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali
Melorheostosis is a rare benign non-hereditary sclerosing dysplasia involving the bone, often in a sclerotomal distribution. we report the case of a 27 years old lady with painful swelling of the left hand and forearm lasting for almost 15 years. The patient experienced aggravation of symptoms and limitation of motion during the past two months. Radiographic assessment revealed hyperostosis involving the left 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones and corresponding digits as well as the left ulna and distal humerus, with no soft tissue ossification. Angiographic and blood pool images of bone scintigraphy showed increased activity of mid-metacarpal region, corresponding to the sclerotom C-8. Delayed static views showed increased radiotracer uptake of the left 4th metacarpal bone and the corresponding digit as well as the left ulna and humerus, but no abnormal osteoblastic activity of the 3rd left metacarpal and digit. Histopathologic assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Melorheostosis. The case confirms that even in the same sclerotomal distribution, the multiple foci of involvement can present in different metabolic stages. In fact, the disease does not progress uniformly and different lesions can be seen in dissimilar stages of activity. Hence, metabolic imaging can be important to unmask which of the radiographically detected bony lesions are metabolically active and have the potential to be the source of current patient's symptoms and which of them are old, metabolically inactive and silent lesions, which are not clinically relevant to the patient's complaints. PMID:22514755
Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a
Sromicki, Jerzy Jan; Hess, Bernhard
Chronic acid retention is known to promote bone dissolution. In this study, 23 % of patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification (dRTA), a kidney dysfunction leading to chronic acid retention. Treating those patients with alkali-therapy shows improvement in bone density. To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal distal renal tubular acidification in patients with low bone mass (LBM) and the impact of additional alkali treatment on bone density in patients with concomitant LBM and dRTA,183 patients referred for metabolic evaluation of densitometrically proven low bone mass were screened for abnormal distal renal tubular acidification between 2006 and 2013. In all LBM urine pH (U-pH) was measured in the 2nd morning urines after 12 h of fasting. If U-pH was ≥5.80, LBM underwent a 1-day ammonium chloride loading, and U-pH was remeasured the next morning. If U-pH after acid loading did not drop below 5.45, patients were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification. Normal values were obtained from 21 healthy controls. All LBM with dRTA were recommended alkali citrate in addition to conventional therapy of LBM, and follow-up DXAs were obtained until 2014. 85 LBM underwent NH 4 Cl loading. 42 LBM patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA (idRTA; prevalence 23.0 %). During follow-up (1.6-8 years) of idRTA-LBM patients, subjects adhering to alkali treatment tended to improve BMD at all sites measured, whereas BMD of non-adherent idRTA patients worsened/remained unchanged. (1) About one out of four patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis has idRTA. (2) Upon NH 4 Cl loading, idRTA patients do not lower urine pH normally, but show signs of increased acid-buffering by bone dissolution. (3) In idRTA patients with low bone mass on conventional therapy, additional long-term alkali treatment improves bone mass at lumbar spine and potentially at other bone sites. (4) All patients with low bone mass undergoing
Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees
More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.
Joyce, Nanette C.; Hache, Lauren P.; Clemens, Paula R.
Synopsis This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Poor bone health with related morbidity is a significant problem for patients with NMD. Although the evidence addressing issues of bone health and osteoporosis have increased as a result of the Bone and Joint Decade, studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. These problems appear common. Osteomalacia often complicates disease-related baseline osteoporosis and may reduce fracture risk if treated. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies to both determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD. PMID:23137737
Recent advances of the measurement of bone turn over markers contribute to non-invasive assessment of bone-metabolic disorders. We can detect the cause of the metabolic disorders with bone turn over markers and hormonal profiles more easily than before. Today, we can diagnose and treat metabolic bone diseases without invasive procedure such as bone biopsy.
Komoroski, Monica; Azad, Nasrin; Camacho, Pauline
Metabolic bone disorders are very common in the general population and untreated, they can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. These diseases include osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, Paget's disease, and alterations in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium metabolism. Diagnosis is made through analysis of metabolic bone blood chemistries as well as radiologic studies such as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, bone scans, and X-rays. Treatment options have advanced significantly in the past decade for osteoporosis and Paget's disease and mainly include antiresorptive therapy. New recommendations for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism are discussed as well as therapy for calcium, phosphorus, and mineral disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Levens, M. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.
Weightlessness, as experienced during space flight, and simulated weightlessness induce osteopenia. Using the suspended rat model to simulate weightlessness, a reduction in total tibia Ca and bone formation rate at the tibiofibular junction as well as an inhibition of Ca-45 and H-3-proline uptake by bone within 5-7 days of skeletal unloading was observed. Between days 7 and 15 of unloading, uptake of Ca-45 and H-3-proline, and bone formation rate return to normal, although total bone Ca remains abnormally low. To examine the relationship between these characteristic changes in bone metabolism induced by skeletal unloading and vitamin D metabolism, the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) at various times after skeletal unloading were measured. The effect of chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the bone changes associated with unloading was also determined.
Cook, Gary J R; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Chua, Sue
The diphosphonate bone scan is ideally suited to assess many global, focal or multifocal metabolic bone disorders and there remains a role for conventional bone scintigraphy in metabolic bone disorders at diagnosis, investigation of complications, and treatment response assessment. In contrast, the role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of primary malignant bone tumors has reduced with the improvement of morphologic imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, an increasing role for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography is emerging as a functional assessment at diagnosis, staging, and neoadjuvant treatment response assessment.
Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.
Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.
Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa
The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.
Wilson, J D; Castillo, M
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a benign, self-limited cause of lymphadenitis occurring mainly in children and young adults. Its etiology is a delicate, small gram-negative pleomorphic bacillus. Less common manifestations of CSD are seen in 5% of patients and include Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome (with enlargement of the preauricular nodes), parotid gland enlargement, encephalitis, radiculopathy, pneumonitis, erythema nodosum, thrombocytopenia, and lytic bone lesions. We describe a patient in whom magnetic resonance imaging initially detected subtle vertebral bone marrow abnormalities that correlated with the site of abnormality on a subsequent radionuclide bone scan.
Dermience, Michael; Lognay, Georges; Mathieu, Françoise; Goyens, Philippe
The human skeleton, made of 206 bones, plays vital roles including supporting the body, protecting organs, enabling movement, and storing minerals. Bones are made of organic structures, intimately connected with an inorganic matrix produced by bone cells. Many elements are ubiquitous in our environment, and many impact bone metabolism. Most elements have antagonistic actions depending on concentration. Indeed, some elements are essential, others are deleterious, and many can be both. Several pathways mediate effects of element deficiencies or excesses on bone metabolism. This paper aims to identify all elements that impact bone health and explore the mechanisms by which they act. To date, this is the first time that the effects of thirty minerals on bone metabolism have been summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Yu, Elaine W.
Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277
Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6-/- mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6-/- and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6-/- mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6-/- mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6-/- mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6-/- mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243
Undale, Anita H; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Khosla, Sundeep
Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells in clinical applications. The ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, and other tissues of mesenchymal origin, makes them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. Patients who experience fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia, have benefited from human mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Because of their ability to modulate immune responses, allogeneic transplant of these cells may be feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. The field of regenerative medicine is still facing considerable challenges; however, with the progress achieved thus far, the promise of stem cell therapy as a viable option for fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases is closer to reality. In this review, we update the biology and clinical applicability of human mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases.
Chen, Xu Xu; Yang, Tianfu
Adipose tissue has been more accepted as an active contributor to whole body homeostasis, rather than just a fat depot, since leptin, a 16 kDa protein, was discovered as the product of the obese gene in 1994. With more and more studies conducted on this hormone, it has been shown that there is a close relationship between adipose tissue and bone, which have important effects on each other. Bone is the source of many hormones, such as osteocalcin, that can affect energy metabolism and then the anabolism or catabolism of fat tissue. In contrast, the adipose tissue synthesizes and releases a series of adipokines, which are involved in bone metabolism through direct or indirect effects on bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, leptin, one of the most important cytokines derived from fat tissue, seems to account for the largest part of effects on bone, through direct or indirect involvement in bone remodeling and by playing a significant role in many bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis, bone tumors and even fractures. In this review, we will discuss the progress in leptin research, particularly focusing on the roles of leptin in bone diseases.
Bacchetta, Justine; Ranchin, Bruno; Demède, Delphine; Allard, Lise
During childhood, growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). These problems remain present in patients undergoing renal transplantation, even though steroid-sparing strategies are more widely used. In this context, achieving normal height and growth in children after transplantation is a crucial issue for both quality of life and self-esteem. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology of CKD-mineral bone disorder (MBD) in children undergoing renal transplantation and to propose keypoints for its daily management. In adults, calcimimetics are effective for posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, but data are missing in the pediatric population. Fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are associated with increased risk of rejection, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. A recent meta-analysis also demonstrated the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in short transplanted children. In 2013, the daily clinical management of CKD-MBD in transplanted children should still focus on simple objectives: to optimize renal function, to develop and promote steroid-sparing strategies, to provide optimal nutritional support to maximize final height and avoid bone deformations, to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to provide acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status, to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen both bone and growth (mainly metabolic acidosis, anemia and malnutrition), promote good lifestyle habits (adequate calcium intake, regular physical activity, no sodas consumption, no tobacco exposure) and eventually to correct native vitamin D deficiency (target of 25-vitamin D >75 nmol/l).
Panis, B; Forget, P Ph; van Kroonenburgh, M J P G; Vermeer, C; Menheere, P P; Nieman, F H; Rubio-Gozalbo, M E
Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of galactose metabolism. Treatment consists of life-long dietary restriction of galactose. Despite treatment, long-term complications occur such as a decreased bone mineral density (BMD). A decreased BMD might be the result of either dietary deficiencies secondary to the galactose-restricted diet or unknown intrinsic factors. In this study, 40 children with classical galactosemia (13 males and 27 females, aged 3-17 years) on dietary treatment were included to gain insight in the bone metabolism of galactosemics. We found weight and height Z scores significantly decreased in galactosemics. Mean areal BMD Z scores of lumbar spine and of femoral neck as measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) were -0.6 (P < 0.001) and -0.3 (P = 0.066), respectively. Mean volumetric BMD of the femoral neck was significant lower in galactosemics (P < 0.001). The recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin D, and protein were met in all patients. Mean serum levels of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, zinc, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25OHD), parathormone (PTH), 17-beta estradiol, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and under-carboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) were normal. Serum levels of IGF-1 Z score, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC), N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) were significantly lower in galactosemics than in control subjects. The different bone markers were strongly correlated. The low levels of IGF-1 Z score, formation marker cOC, and resorption markers NTX and CTX suggest a decreased bone metabolism in galactosemics.
Reuss-Borst, M A
Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.
Uchimura, Tomoya; Hollander, Judith M; Nakamura, Daisy S; Liu, Zhiyi; Rosen, Clifford J; Georgakoudi, Irene; Zeng, Li
Postnatal bone growth involves a dramatic increase in length and girth. Intriguingly, this period of growth is independent of growth hormone and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, an IGF2 mutation was identified in humans with early postnatal growth restriction. Here, we show that IGF2 is essential for longitudinal and appositional murine postnatal bone development, which involves proper timing of chondrocyte maturation and perichondrial cell differentiation and survival. Importantly, the Igf2 null mouse model does not represent a simple delay of growth but instead uncoordinated growth plate development. Furthermore, biochemical and two-photon imaging analyses identified elevated and imbalanced glucose metabolism in the Igf2 null mouse. Attenuation of glycolysis rescued the mutant phenotype of premature cartilage maturation, thereby indicating that IGF2 controls bone growth by regulating glucose metabolism in chondrocytes. This work links glucose metabolism with cartilage development and provides insight into the fundamental understanding of human growth abnormalities. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Masi, L; Agnusdei, D; Bilezikian, J; Chappard, D; Chapurlat, R; Cianferotti, L; Devolgelaer, J-P; El Maghraoui, A; Ferrari, S; Javaid, M K; Kaufman, J-M; Liberman, U A; Lyritis, G; Miller, P; Napoli, N; Roldan, E; Papapoulos, S; Watts, N B; Brandi, M L
This article reports a taxonomic classification of rare skeletal diseases based on metabolic phenotypes. It was prepared by The Skeletal Rare Diseases Working Group of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and includes 116 OMIM phenotypes with 86 affected genes. Rare skeletal metabolic diseases comprise a group of diseases commonly associated with severe clinical consequences. In recent years, the description of the clinical phenotypes and radiographic features of several genetic bone disorders was paralleled by the discovery of key molecular pathways involved in the regulation of bone and mineral metabolism. Including this information in the description and classification of rare skeletal diseases may improve the recognition and management of affected patients. IOF recognized this need and formed a Skeletal Rare Diseases Working Group (SRD-WG) of basic and clinical scientists who developed a taxonomy of rare skeletal diseases based on their metabolic pathogenesis. This taxonomy of rare genetic metabolic bone disorders (RGMBDs) comprises 116 OMIM phenotypes, with 86 affected genes related to bone and mineral homeostasis. The diseases were divided into four major groups, namely, disorders due to altered osteoclast, osteoblast, or osteocyte activity; disorders due to altered bone matrix proteins; disorders due to altered bone microenvironmental regulators; and disorders due to deranged calciotropic hormonal activity. This article provides the first comprehensive taxonomy of rare metabolic skeletal diseases based on deranged metabolic activity. This classification will help in the development of common and shared diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for these patients and also in the creation of international registries of rare skeletal diseases, the first step for the development of genetic tests based on next generation sequencing and for performing large intervention trials to assess efficacy of orphan drugs.
Zatoński, Tomasz; Temporale, Hanna; Krecicki, Tomasz
There are reports that hearing loss is one of the clinical manifestations of metabolic bone diseases. Demineralization can lead to a reduction in ossicular mass. Paget's disease can reveal loss of mineral density of the cochlear bone. Ear bone remodeling in osteoporosis is similar to the changes in otosclerosis. Moreover, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and otosclerosis have a similar genetic mechanism. According to some researchers osteopenia and osteoporosis may well be associated with idiopathic benign positional vertigo (BPV). Dysfunction of the organ of hearing and balance in patients with renal insufficiency may be due to disturbances in calcium phosphate balance and renal osteodystrophy in the course of the disease. Proving the presence of hearing loss in patients with metabolic bone diseases may lead to determining the new indications for bone densitometry in some patients with hearing impairment. Furthermore, audiological examination in patients with osteoporosis may be important because of the impact of hearing loss on prognosis for patients with metabolic bone diseases.
Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste
Over the past 20 years, the idea that white adipose tissue (WAT) is simply an energy depot organ has been radically changed. Indeed, present understanding suggests WAT to be an endocrine organ capable of producing and secreting a wide variety of proteins termed adipokines. These adipokines appear to be relevant factors involved in a number of different functions, including metabolism, immune response, inflammation and bone metabolism. In this review, the authors focus on the effects of several adipose tissue-derived factors in bone pathophysiology. They also consider how the modification of the adipokine network could potentially lead to promising treatment options for bone diseases. There are currently substantial developments being made in the understanding of the interplay between bone metabolism and the metabolic system. These insights could potentially lead to the development of new treatment strategies and interventions with the aim of successful outcomes in many people affected by bone disorders. Specifically, future research should look into the intimate mechanisms regulating peripheral and central activity of adipokines as it has potential for novel drug discovery.
Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Kazama, Junichiro James
Prevention of bone fractures is one goal of therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), as indicated by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. CKD patients, including those on hemodialysis, are at higher risk for fractures and fracture-related death compared to people with normal kidney function. However, few clinicians focus on this issue as it is very difficult to estimate bone fragility. Additionally, uremia-related bone fragility has a more complicated pathological process compared to osteoporosis. There are many uremia-associated factors that contribute to bone fragility, including severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone, and bone mineralization disorders. Uremia also aggravates bone volume loss, disarranges microarchitecture, and increases the deterioration of material properties of bone through abnormal bone cells or excess oxidative stress. In this review, we outline the prevalence of fractures, the interaction of CKD-MBD with osteoporosis in CKD patients, and discuss possible factors that exacerbate the mechanical properties of bone. PMID:28421193
Holecki, Michał; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Wiecek, Andrzej; Nieszporek, Teresa; Zak-Gołab, Agnieszka
Both bone and adipose tissue change their size, shape and distribution during the whole human being's life. Many factors, including genetic factors, hormones and activity of nervous system are responsible for these changes. It is generally accepted that obesity has a protective effect on bone tissue. On the other hand some authors present an opposite results--the lack of beneficial effect of obesity on development of osteoporosis fractures. The aim of this article was to present and discuss the relations between adipose tissue and bone metabolism.
Kadriu, Bashkim; Gold, Philip W; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lener, Marc S; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Niciu, Mark J; Henter, Ioline D; Park, Lawrence T; De Sousa, Rafael Teixeira; Yuan, Peixiong; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zarate, Carlos A
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation—the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)—play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD. OPG is a decoy receptor for RANKL, thereby increasing BMD. OPN is the bone glue that acts as a scaffold between bone tissues matrix composition to bind them together and is an important component of bone strength and fracture resistance. Twenty-eight medication-free inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 16 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Peripheral bone marker levels and their responses to IV ketamine infusion in MDD patients and HCs were measured at four time points: at baseline, and post-infusion at 230 minutes, Day 1, and Day 3. Patients with MDD had significant decreases in baseline OPG/RANKL ratio and in plasma OPN levels. Ketamine significantly increased both the OPG/RANKL ratio and plasma OPN levels and significantly decreased RANKL levels. Bone marker levels in HCs remained unaltered. We conclude that the OPG-RANK-RANKL system and the OPN system play important roles in the serious bone abnormalities associated with MDD. These data suggest that in addition to its antidepressant effects, ketamine also has a salutary effect on a major medical complication of depressive illness. PMID:28555075
Kadriu, B; Gold, P W; Luckenbaugh, D A; Lener, M S; Ballard, E D; Niciu, M J; Henter, I D; Park, L T; De Sousa, R T; Yuan, P; Machado-Vieira, R; Zarate, C A
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation-the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)-play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD. OPG is a decoy receptor for RANKL, thereby increasing BMD. OPN is the bone glue that acts as a scaffold between bone tissues matrix composition to bind them together and is an important component of bone strength and fracture resistance. Twenty-eight medication-free inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 16 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Peripheral bone marker levels and their responses to IV ketamine infusion in MDD patients and HCs were measured at four time points: at baseline, and post-infusion at 230 min, Day 1, and Day 3. Patients with MDD had significant decreases in baseline OPG/RANKL ratio and in plasma OPN levels. Ketamine significantly increased both the OPG/RANKL ratio and plasma OPN levels, and significantly decreased RANKL levels. Bone marker levels in HCs remained unaltered. We conclude that the OPG-RANK-RANKL system and the OPN system play important roles in the serious bone abnormalities associated with MDD. These data suggest that, in addition to its antidepressant effects, ketamine also has a salutary effect on a major medical complication of depressive illness.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 30 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.109.
Liu, Jin; Nam, Hwa Kyung; Campbell, Cassie; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Millán, José Luis; Hatch, Nan E.
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is an enzyme present on the surface of mineralizing cells and their derived matrix vesicles that promotes hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism that, dependent upon age of onset, features rickets or osteomalacia due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding TNAP. Craniosynostosis is prevalent in infants with HPP and other forms of rachitic disease but how craniosynostosis develops in these disorders is unknown. Objectives: Because craniosynostosis carries high morbidity, we are investigating craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in Alpl−/− mice to establish these mice as a model of HPP-associated craniosynostosis and determine mechanisms by which TNAP influences craniofacial skeletal development. Methods: Cranial bone, cranial suture and cranial base abnormalities were analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Craniofacial shape abnormalities were quantified using digital calipers. TNAP expression was suppressed in MC3T3E1(C4) calvarial cells by TNAP-specific shRNA. Cells were analyzed for changes in mineralization, gene expression, proliferation, apoptosis, matrix deposition and cell adhesion. Results: Alpl−/− mice feature craniofacial shape abnormalities suggestive of limited anterior-posterior growth. Craniosynostosis in the form of bony coronal suture fusion is present by three weeks after birth. Alpl−/− mice also exhibit marked histologic abnormalities of calvarial bones and the cranial base involving growth plates, cortical and trabecular bone within two weeks of birth. Analysis of calvarial cells in which TNAP expression was suppressed by shRNA indicates that TNAP deficiency promotes aberrant osteoblastic gene expression, diminished matrix deposition, diminished proliferation, increased apoptosis and increased cell adhesion. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that Alpl−/− mice exhibit a craniofacial skeletal phenotype similar to that
Luce, Vincenza; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria
Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine “gland” and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteoprotegerin, in the regulation of insulin function and glucose metabolism. PMID:25873957
Recognition of the dynamic aspects of bone metabolism can lead to a unified concept involving endocrine and nutritional influences. Although most hormones can influence bone metabolism directly or indirectly, the principal ones involved in skeletal metabolism are parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. The actions of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D result in elevations of circulating extracellular fluid calcium concentration through actions directly on bone, intestine, and kidney. Calcitonin leads to decreases in calcium concentration, primarily by action on bone and kidney. The absorption and retention of calcium by the organism is further influenced by the dietary content of calcium, phosphorus, protein, and fluoride. Chronic dietary deficiencies of calcium and excesses of phosphorus may lead to chronic nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism with resulting skeletal demineralization. In both experimental animals and in man, the earliest manifestation of this condition may be demineralization of the jaw with resultant paradentosis. Experimental studies in animals and in man have shown that this form of demineralization may be completely reversed by increasing dietary calcium and decreasing dietary phosphrous.
Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.
The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554
Vaidya, Anand; Underwood, Patricia C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Ferri, Claudio; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.
Abnormal aldosterone physiology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases. Single aldosterone measurements capture only a limited range of aldosterone physiology. New methods of characterizing aldosterone physiology may provide a more comprehensive understanding of its relationship with cardio-metabolic disease. We evaluated whether novel indices of aldosterone responses to dietary sodium modulation, the Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI for serum and SAUSSI for urine), could predict cardio-metabolic risk factors. We performed cross-sectional analyses on 539 subjects studied on liberal (LIB) and restricted (RES) sodium diets with serum and urinary aldosterone measurements. SASSI and SAUSSI were calculated as the ratio of aldosterone on LIB (maximally suppressed aldosterone) to aldosterone on RES (stimulated aldosterone) diets, and associated with risk factors using adjusted regression models. Cardio-metabolic risk factors associated with either impaired suppression of aldosterone on LIB diet, or impaired stimulation on RES diet, or both; in all of these individual cases, these risk factors associated with higher SASSI or SAUSSI. In the context of abnormalities that comprise the metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was a strong positive association between the number of MetS components (0–4) and both SASSI and SAUSSI (P<0.0001) that was independent of known aldosterone secretagogues (angiotensin II, corticotropin, potassium). SASSI and SAUSSI exhibited a high sensitivity in detecting normal individuals with zero MetS components (86% for SASSI and 83% for SAUSSI). Assessing the physiologic range of aldosterone responses may provide greater insights into adrenal pathophysiology. Dysregulated aldosterone physiology may contribute to, and/or result from, early cardio-metabolic abnormalities. PMID:23399714
Lavoie, Brigitte; Lian, Jane B; Mawe, Gary M
The processes of bone growth and turnover are tightly regulated by the actions of various signaling molecules, including hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Imbalances in these processes can lead to skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis or high bone mass disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that serotonin can act through a number of mechanisms, and at different locations in the body, to influence the balance between bone formation and resorption. Its actions on bone metabolism can vary, based on its site of synthesis (central or peripheral) as well as the cells and subtypes of receptors that are activated. Within the central nervous system, serotonergic neurons act via the hypothalamus to suppress sympathetic input to the bone. Since sympathetic input inhibits bone formation, brain serotonin has a net positive effect on bone growth. Gut-derived serotonin is thought to inhibit bone growth by attenuating osteoblast proliferation via activation of receptors on pre-osteoblasts. There is also evidence that serotonin can be synthesized within the bone and act to modulate bone metabolism. Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes all have the machinery to synthesize serotonin, and they also express the serotonin-reuptake transporter (SERT). Understanding the roles of serotonin in the tightly balanced system of bone modeling and remodeling is a clinically relevant goal. This knowledge can clarify bone-related side effects of drugs that affect serotonin signaling, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and receptor agonists and antagonists, and it can potentially lead to therapeutic approaches for alleviating bone pathologies.
Al-Nuaim, A; El-Desouki, M; Sulimani, R; Mohammadiah, M
Hyperthyroidism can alter bone metabolism by increasing both bone resorption and formation. The increase in bone resorption predominates, leading to a decrease in bone mass. To assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone and mineral metabolism, we measured bone density using single photon absorptiometry in 30 untreated hyperthyroid patients. Patients were categorized into three groups based on sex and alkaline phosphatase levels: 44 sex- and age-matched subjects were used as controls. Bone densities were significanlty lower in all patient groups compared with controls. Alkaline phosphatase was found to be a useful marker for assessing severity of bone disease in hyperthyroid patients as there is significant bone density among patients with higher alkaline phosphatase value. Hyperthyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained alkaline phophatase activity.
Queen, Saulette R; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Laing, Susan T
Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.
Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.
Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.
Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu
Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.
Cao, Jay J
Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health. The rates of
Kim, Chul-Hee; Ko, Kwan-Ho; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up
Background/Aims Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Little is known, however, about the association between individual components of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities, especially in Asian populations. Methods We examined clinical and laboratory data from 31,399 subjects (age 20 to 89 years) who underwent medical check-ups. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode criteria. Ischemic ECG findings were separately identified and analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rates of ECG abnormalities were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Ischemic ECG was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in all age groups of both sexes, except for younger women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with ischemic ECG (odds ratio, 2.30 [2.04 to 2.62]; p < 0.01), after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, hyperglycemia in younger subjects and hypertension in elderly subjects were major factors for ischemic ECG changes, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was not an independent risk factor in any age group. The association between ischemic ECG findings and central obesity was weaker in women than in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex. PMID:20526391
Blank, Karen; Szarek, Bonnie L; Goethe, John W
Metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increasingly have been linked to depression. The authors studied examined inpatients 35 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD) to determine the prevalence of component metabolic abnormalities and the full MetS with age, treatment, and comorbid dementia. Data analysis involved retrospective cross-sectional review from a nonprofit psychiatry inpatient service of all discharges 35 years and older with a diagnosis of MDD during a 3 year period (April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2006) (N=1718). Metabolic measures included waist circumference, lipid measurements, glucose, and hypertension diagnosis. Abnormal metabolic measures and MetS were highly prevalent in both young and old patients with MDD: one or more component was present in 87.6% of older (65-99 years old) and 79.9% of younger patients. Full MetS was present in 31.5% of older and 28.9% of younger patients (not significant, P=0.85). Metabolic abnormalities were not associated with atypical antipsychotics after controlling other variables. One-quarter (n=79, 24.9%) of older inpatients had a dementia co-diagnosis. Older patients with MDD and dementia had greater risk of elevated glucose while younger patients were more often hypertensive. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relationships of MDD with or without dementia with these highly prevalent abnormal metabolic measures and MetS. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo
Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility.
Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.
Derman, Orhan; Cinemre, Alphan; Kanbur, Nuray; Doğan, Muhsin; Kiliç, Mustafa; Karaduman, Erdem
Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on bone metabolism among adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of swimming on bone metabolism during adolescence. Swimming, as a non-weight-bearing sport, has been considered to be insignificant in the maintenance of bone mass. We studied whether swimming is associated with a higher peak bone mass. Forty swimmers (males aged 10-17 years and females aged 9-16 years) were studied. The control group consisted of the same number of adolescents aged between 10-16 years who did not swim; distribution of male and female gender was similar in the non-swimming control group compared to the swimming group. Adolescents were matched for age, gender and pubertal stages based on Tanner staging. All subjects underwent combined measurement of bone mineral metabolism by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of total body calcium content, and specific biochemical markers of turnover including osteocalcin, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Bone age (determined by Greulich and Pyle's Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist), weight, height, ideal body weight, ideal body weight ratio, body mass index, Tanner classification (rated by examiner), diet, history of tobacco and alcohol exposure, exercise, socioeconomic status and history of chronic illness and medications were recorded to evaluate potential mediators that would affect bone metabolism. Tanner staging was used to assess puberty, and diet was evaluated based on reported consumption of milk, yogurt and cheese and cola/caffeine beverage consumption daily. There was significant difference in bone mineral content between adolescent male swimmers and the control group males. Consumption of cola beverages were significantly higher among the control group compared with the swimmer group. Ideal body weight ratio was significantly high among the female control group compared with female swimmers. Milk consumption was
Loeffler, Julia; Duda, Georg N; Sass, F Andrea; Dienelt, Anke
Over the past years, basic findings in cancer research have revealed metabolic symbiosis between different cell types to cope with high energy demands under limited nutrient availability. Although this also applies to regenerating tissues with disrupted physiological nutrient and oxygen supply, the impact of this metabolic cooperation and metabolic reprogramming on cellular development, fate, and function during tissue regeneration has widely been neglected so far. With this review, we aim to provide a schematic overview on metabolic links that have a high potential to drive tissue regeneration. As bone is, aside from liver, the only tissue that can regenerate without excessive scar tissue formation, we will use bone healing as an exemplarily model system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sousa, Cristina P; de Azevedo, Jorge T; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R
Changes in bone remodeling during pathological states and during their treatment can be assessed noninvasively by measuring biomarkers of bone metabolism. Their application is limited, however, by the potential biological variability in the levels of these biomarkers over time. To determine the short-term variability in biomarkers of bone metabolism in adult sheep, the authors measured serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), N-terminal propeptide of type-III procollagen (PIIINP), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), calcium and phosphorus intermittently over a 12-week period. There were significant differences in mean ALP activity and in phosphorus concentrations over time, but all other biomarkers showed no significant short-term variability. The results suggest that biomarkers of bone metabolism in sheep, especially the bone resorption marker DPD and the bone formation marker BALP, can be used reliably to detect changes in bone cellular activity.
Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng
Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone. PMID:22624037
Zheng, Xin; Li, Song; Zhang, Wei-hua; Yang, Hui
Metabolic abnormalities are common in cancers, and targeting metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach to cancer management. Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a type of benign tumor. Impairment of tumor cells’ metabolism in PA seems not to be as apparent as that of other malignant tumor cells; however, aberrant hormone secretion is conspicuous in most PAs. Hormones have direct impacts on systemic metabolism, which in turn, may affect the progression of PA. Nowadays, conventional therapeutic strategies for PA do not include modalities of adjusting whole-body metabolism, which is most likely due to the current consideration of the aberrant whole-body metabolism of PA patients as a passive associated symptom and not involved in PA progression. Because systemic metabolic abnormalities are presented by 22.3%–52.5% PA patients and are closely correlated with disease progression and prognosis, we propose that assessment of metabolic status should be emphasized during the treatment of PA and that control of metabolic abnormalities should be added into the current therapies for PA. PMID:26347444
Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Li; Ping, Zhiguang; Li, Linlin
To define the general correlation between anthropometric indicators and multiple metabolic abnormalities, and to put forward some particular suggestions for the prevention of multiple metabolic abnormalities. A random cluster sampling was carried out in one county of Henan Province. Questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical tests were admitted to the adult inhabitants. Non-linear canonical correlation analysis (NLCCA) was applied with OVERALS of SPSS 13.0. The coefficients of canonical correlation and multiple correlation were calculated. The plot of centroids labeled by variables showed the correlation among various indicators. In total, 2,914 objects were investigated. It included 1,134 (38.9%) males and 1,780 (61.1%) females (60.0%). The average age was (50.58 +/- 13.70) years old. The fitting result of NLCCA were as follows: the loss of 0.577 accounting for 28.8% of the total variation was relatively small, and indicated that the two sets of variables of this study, namely sets of biochemical indicators (including serum total cholesterol, total triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose) and sets of others (including gender, BMI and waist circumference) were closely related and often changed synchronously. Multivariate correlation coefficient showed that internal indicators of the above two sets were closely related respectively and often showed the multiple anomalies of the same set. The diagram of the center of gravity of the association of various indicators showed that the symptoms of metabolic abnormalities increased with age. Women were more liable to have metabolic abnormalities. Overweight and obese people often suffer multiple metabolic disorders. Waist circumference was positively correlated with metabolic abnormalities. (1) Biochemical indicators and anthropometric often change in combination. (2) Much attention should be paid to older people especially middle-aged or
Ito, Akemi; Yajima, Aiji
Histological analysis of undecalcified bone biopsy specimens is a valuable clinical and research tool for studying the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of metabolic bone diseases. In case of osteoporosis, bone biopsy is not usually required for the diagnosis ; however, bone histomorphometry may be useful in rare cases with unusual skeletal fragility. Bone histomorphometry also provides valuable information on the mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of new anti-osteoporosis drugs. Bone histomorphometry is useful for the diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response in rickets/osteomalacia and in CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders) . In Japan, bone biopsy is often performed to establish the diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone, especially to differentiate it from metastatic bone disease.
Williams, Emily D; Magliano, Dianna J; Tapp, Robyn J; Oldenburg, Brian F; Shaw, Jonathan E
The evidence supporting a relationship between stress and diabetes has been inconsistent. This study examined the effects of stress on abnormal glucose metabolism, using a population-based sample of 3,759, with normoglycemia at baseline, from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Perceived stress and stressful life events were measured at baseline, with health behavior and anthropometric information also collected. Oral glucose tolerance tests were undertaken at baseline and 5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), according to WHO 1999 criteria. Perceived stress predicted incident abnormal glucose metabolism in women but not men, after multivariate adjustment. Life events showed an inconsistent relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism. Perceived stress predicted abnormal glucose metabolism in women. Healthcare professionals should consider psychosocial adversity when assessing risk factor profiles for the development of diabetes.
Levasseur, Regis; Barrios, Roberto; Elefteriou, Florent; Glass, Donald A 2nd; Lieberman, Michael W.; Karsenty, Gerard
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a widely distributed ectopeptidase responsible for the degradation of glutathione in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. This cycle is implicated in the metabolism of cysteine, and absence of GGT causes a severe intracellular decrease in this amino acid. GGT-deficient (GGT-/-) mice have multiple metabolic abnormalities and are dwarf. We show here that this latter phenotype is due to a decreased of the growth plate cartilage total height resulting from a proliferative defect of chondrocytes. In addition, analysis of vertebrae and tibiae of GGT-/- mice revealed a severe osteopenia. Histomorphometric studies showed that this low bone mass phenotype results from an increased osteoclast number and activity as well as from a marked decrease in osteoblast activity. Interestingly, neither osteoblasts, osteoclasts, nor chondrocytes express GGT, suggesting that the observed defects are secondary to other abnormalities. N-acetylcysteine supplementation has been shown to reverse the metabolic abnormalities of the GGT-/- mice and in particular to restore the level of IGF-1 and sex steroids in these mice. Consistent with these previous observations, N-acetylcysteine treatment of GGT-/- mice ameliorates their skeletal abnormalities by normalizing chondrocytes proliferation and osteoblastic function. In contrast, resorbtion parameters are only partially normalized in GGT-/- N-acetylcysteine-treated mice, suggesting that GGT regulates osteoclast biology at least partly independently of these hormones. These results establish the importance of cysteine metabolism for the regulation of bone remodeling and longitudinal growth.
Holm, Laurits J; Krogvold, Lars; Hasselby, Jane P; Kaur, Simranjeet; Claessens, Laura A; Russell, Mark A; Mathews, Clayton E; Hanssen, Kristian F; Morgan, Noel G; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Gerling, Ivan C; Pociot, Flemming; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Buschard, Karsten
Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes and whether increasing the levels of the sphingolipid sulfatide would prevent models of diabetes in NOD mice. We examined the amount and distribution of sulfatide in human pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we treated NOD mice with fenofibrate, a known activator of sulfatide biosynthesis, to evaluate the effect on experimental autoimmune diabetes development. We found reduced amounts of sulfatide, 23% of the levels in control participants, in pancreatic islets of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. These gene polymorphisms correlated with the degree of cellular islet autoimmunity in a cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Finally, using fenofibrate, which activates sulfatide biosynthesis, we completely prevented diabetes in NOD mice and even reversed the disease in half of otherwise diabetic animals. These results indicate that islet sphingolipid metabolism is abnormal in type 1 diabetes and suggest that modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach. The RNA expression data is
Metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach. The physical forces find a rationale in the treatment of local alterations in bone-cartilage metabolism. In integrated treatment of vertebral fractures caused by fragility, stimulation with electrical fields has been observed to be effective in reducing pain and improving patients' quality of life.
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa and obesity are conditions at the extreme ends of the nutritional spectrum, associated with marked reductions versus increases respectively in body fat content. Both conditions are also associated with an increased risk for fractures. In anorexia nervosa, body composition and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content are important determinants of low bone density, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength. In addition, anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in marrow adiposity and decreases in cold activated brown adipose tissue, both of which are related to low bone density. In obese individuals, greater visceral adiposity is associated with greater marrow fat, lower bone density and impaired bone structure. In this review, we discuss bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and obesity in relation to adipose tissue distribution and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content. PMID:24079076
Kogan, Feliks; Fan, Audrey P; McWalter, Emily J; Oei, Edwin H G; Quon, Andrew; Gold, Garry E
To evaluate positron emission tomography / magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) knee imaging to detect and characterize osseous metabolic abnormalities and correlate PET radiotracer uptake with osseous abnormalities and cartilage degeneration observed on MRI. Both knees of 22 subjects with knee pain or injury were scanned at one timepoint, without gadolinium, on a hybrid 3.0T PET-MRI system following injection of 18 F-fluoride or 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). A musculoskeletal radiologist identified volumes of interest (VOIs) around bone abnormalities on MR images and scored bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and osteophytes using a MOAKS scoring system. Cartilage appearance adjacent to bone abnormalities was graded with MRI-modified Outerbridge classifications. On PET standardized uptake values (SUV) maps, VOIs with SUV greater than 5 times the SUV in normal-appearing bone were identified as high-uptake VOI (VOI High ). Differences in 18 F-fluoride uptake between bone abnormalities, BML, and osteophyte grades and adjacent cartilage grades on MRI were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. SUV max in all subchondral bone lesions (BML, osteophytes, sclerosis) was significantly higher than that of normal-appearing bone on MRI (P < 0.001 for all). Of the 172 high-uptake regions on 18 F-fluoride PET, 63 (37%) corresponded to normal-appearing subchondral bone on MRI. Furthermore, many small grade 1 osteophytes (40 of 82 [49%]), often described as the earliest signs of osteoarthritis (OA), did not show high uptake. Lastly, PET SUV max in subchondral bone adjacent to grade 0 cartilage was significantly lower compared to that of grades 1-2 (P < 0.05) and grades 3-4 cartilage (P < 0.001). PET/MRI can simultaneously assess multiple early metabolic and morphologic markers of knee OA across multiple tissues in the joint. Our findings suggest that PET/MR may detect metabolic abnormalities in subchondral bone, which appear normal on MRI. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON
Jakusova, Lubica; Jesenak, Milos; Schudichova, Jela; Banovcin, Peter
Children with cow milk allergy are suspected to develop calcium metabolism disturbances. We observed increased markers of bone turnover in these children. Children with cow milk allergy are more prone to develop the disturbances of the bone mineralization even in the first year of life.
Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina
Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.
Glendenning, Paul; Chubb, S A Paul; Vasikaran, Samuel
Bone turnover marker (BTMs) concentrations in blood and urine reflect bone-remodelling activity, and may be useful adjuncts in the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone diseases. Newer biomarkers, mainly bone regulatory proteins, are currently being investigated to elucidate their role in bone metabolism and disease and may in future be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disease. BTM concentrations increase around menopause in women, and at a population level the degree of increase in BTMs reflect bone loss. However, lack of adequate data precludes their use in individual patients for fracture risk assessment in clinical practice. The rapid and large changes in BTMs following anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies for osteoporosis treatment indicate they may be useful for monitoring therapy in clinical practice. The offset of drug effect on BTMs could be helpful for adjudicating the duration of bisphosphonate drug holidays. BTMs may offer useful additional data in skeletal diseases that are typically characterised by increased bone remodelling: chronic kidney disease (CKD), primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and Paget's disease. In CKD, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) is currently endorsed for use for the assessment of mineral bone disease. The role of BTMsin predicting the bone mineral density response to successful parathyroidectomy in PHPT shows some utility but the data are not consistent and studies are limited in size and/or duration. In Paget's disease of bone, BTMs are used to confirm diagnosis, evaluate extent of disease or degree of activity and for monitoring the response to bisphosphonate treatment. Whilst BTMs are currently used in specific clinical practice instances when investigating or managing metabolic bone disease, further data are needed to consolidate their clinical use where evidence of utility is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Over the past decade, our increasing awareness of the clinical importance of osteoporosis in men has stimulated intense interest in trying to better understand male skeletal physiology and pathophysiology. The present review focuses on a major focus of research in this area, namely the attempt to define the influence and therapeutic potential of gonadal steroids in male bone metabolism. Building on previous work defining the relative roles of androgens and estrogens in the developing male skeleton and in maintaining normal bone turnover, recent studies have begun to define these issues from epidemiologic, physiologic and therapeutic perspectives. With access to data from large prospectively defined populations of men, investigators are confirming and challenging existing hypotheses and forwarding new concepts. Clinical trials have expanded beyond standard androgen replacement studies to explore more complex hormonal interventions. Physiologic investigation has continued to probe the mechanisms underlying the differential and independent roles of androgens and estrogens in male bone metabolism. Recent work has added significantly to our understanding of the role of gonadal steroids in male skeletal physiology. Nonetheless, further research is necessary to build on these initial human studies and to capitalize on rapidly emerging advances in our understanding of the basic biology of bone metabolism.
Smith, Scott M.
The ability to understand and counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after space station or exploration missions lasting months or years, respectively. Until its deorbit in 2001 , the Mir Space Station provided a valuable platform for long-duration space missions and life sciences research. Long-duration flights are critical for studying bone loss, as the 2- to 3-week Space Shuttle flights are not long enough to detect changes in bone mass. This review will describe human spaceflight data, focusing on biochemical surrogates of bone and calcium metabolism. This subject has been reviewed previously. 1-
Hennersdorf, Florian; Friese, Natascha; Löwenheim, Hubert; Tropitzsch, Anke; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios
Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder presenting with orofacial and vertebral anomalies, which are also accompanied by abnormalities in other organs. We examined temporal bone changes with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities in these patients. A retrospective review of 7 new cases in addition to a previously published series of 14 cases with clinically diagnosed Goldenhar syndrome was carried out to search for inner ear anomalies. In addition, temporal bone imaging studies from the literature were summarized and compared with our results. Departments of Neuroradiology and Otorhinolaryngology at a university hospital. In addition to the previous series of 14 patients, 7 new patients with Goldenhar syndrome were identified. Patients underwent otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone. Temporal bone changes and specifically inner ear malformations. Nineteen of 21 patients showed changes of the external and middle ear correlating with the literature. Seven of 21 patients showed inner ear abnormalities constituting one-third of all patients. These ranged from mild such as vestibular enlargement to severe defects such as cochlear hypoplasia and common cavity. Inner ear abnormalities were present in one-third of patients. Although in some cases, these might not be of clinical significance, some patients show severe defects of the inner ear requiring more complex hearing loss therapy. Therefore, imaging of the temporal bone structures is important in the care of these patients.
Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J
Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention
Akinci, Baris; Koseoglu, Fatos Dilan; Onay, Huseyin; Yavuz, Sevgi; Altay, Canan; Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Ozisik, Secil; Demir, Leyla; Korkut, Meltem; Yilmaz, Nusret; Ozen, Samim; Akinci, Gulcin; Atik, Tahir; Calan, Mehmet; Secil, Mustafa; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Demir, Tevfik
Acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive selective fat loss. In previous studies, metabolic abnormalities were reported to be relatively rare in APL, whilst they were quite common in other types of lipodystrophy syndromes. In this nationwide cohort study, we evaluated 21 Turkish patients with APL who were enrolled in a prospective follow-up protocol. Subjects were investigated for metabolic abnormalities. Fat distribution was assessed by whole body MRI. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated by ultrasound, MRI and MR spectroscopy. Patients with diabetes underwent a mix meal stimulated C-peptide/insulin test to investigate pancreatic beta cell functions. Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Fifteen individuals (71.4%) had at least one metabolic abnormality. Six patients (28.6%) had diabetes, 12 (57.1%) hypertrigylceridemia, 10 (47.6%) low HDL cholesterol, and 11 (52.4%) hepatic steatosis. Steatohepatitis was further confirmed in 2 patients with liver biopsy. Anti-GAD was negative in all APL patients with diabetes. APL patients with diabetes had lower leptin and adiponectin levels compared to patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. However, contrary to what we observed in patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), we did not detect consistently very low leptin levels in APL patients. The mix meal test suggested that APL patients with diabetes had a significant amount of functional pancreatic beta cells, and their diabetes was apparently associated with insulin resistance. Our results show that APL is associated with increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities. We suggest that close long-term follow-up is required to identify and manage metabolic abnormalities in APL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cseprekál, Orsolya; Kis, Eva; Dégi, Arianna A; Kerti, Andrea; Szabó, Attila J; Reusz, György S
To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Following transplantation (Tx), improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)) were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191) months after Tx). Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r = -0.35; r = -0.36 respectively). PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD). In patients with a follow up of <24 months, PWV was correlated with BALP and beta-crosslaps (r=0.53; r = 0.69 respectively) while in the ≥24 months group, PWV was correlated with cholesterol (r=0.38). Increased bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.
Confavreux, Cyrille B
Besides locomotion, organ protection, and calcium–phosphorus homeostasis, the three classical functions of the skeleton, bone remodeling affects energy metabolism through uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a recently discovered hormone secreted by osteoblasts. This review traces how energy metabolism affects osteoblasts through the central control of bone mass involving leptin, serotoninergic neurons, the hypothalamus, and the sympathetic nervous system. Next, the role of osteocalcin (insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreas β-cell proliferation) in the regulation of energy metabolism is described. Then, the connections between insulin signaling on osteoblasts and the release of uncarboxylated osteocalcin during osteoclast bone resorption through osteoprotegerin are reported. Finally, the understanding of this new bone endocrinology will provide some insights into bone, kidney, and energy metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21346725
Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Holton, E.; Levens, M. J.; Globus, R.
The role of vitamin D in the change in bone metabolism was examined. The serum concentrations in rats sacrificed after 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 days of suspension was measured. Between days 1 and 5 of suspension and then gradually decreased towards normal between days 5 and 15. The time course of the changes in the circulating concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D mirror almost precisely the changes in bone metabolism. The relationship between the changes in vitamin D metabolism and bone metabolism is investigated. Whether the bone changes are due to the change in serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D or the changes in bone formation causing a reduction in Ca flux out of the serum pool and thereby suppressing 1,25(OH)2D production is examined. It is found that suspension had no effect on hormone concentration in the 1,25(OH)2D infused animals. Nevertheless, both vehicle and 1,25(OH)2D infused suspended rats exhibited the same reduction in bone mineral, and uptake of (45)Ca. It is suggested that the transitory reduction in circulating 1,25(OH)2D during suspension is not likely to cause the abnormalities in bone metabolism but rather that the changes in bone metabolism are primary and cause the fall in serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration. This supports the hypothesis that the metabolic abnormalities in bone associated with simulated weightlessness are due to the direct effect of unweighting on the bone.
Özdemir, Suna; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Celik, Cetin; Incesu, Feyzanur; Peru, Celalettin
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk factors with endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma among women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This study included 199 patients who had undergone endometrial curettage due to abnormal uterine bleeding. We divided the patients into two groups according to whether they had an abnormal (n = 53) or normal endometrium (n = 146). Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid levels were measured and statistically analyzed. The women in each group were matched with regard to mean age, gravidity, parity and menopausal status. We found increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated levels of glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol among women with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. These results were detected particularly in postmenopausal (>50 years) women compared to pre-menopausal cases (<50 years). All metabolic parameters were similar between hyperplasia and cancer groups. Metabolic syndrome and its components have been shown to have profound impacts on initiation and progession of endometrial pathology, particularly during post-menopausal period.
Green, Angela K; Jacques, Paul F; Rogers, Gail; Fox, Caroline S; Meigs, James B; McKeown, Nicola M
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. Adults were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese and, within these categories, metabolic health was defined based on five criteria-hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance. Individuals without metabolic abnormalities were considered metabolically healthy. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between categories of SSB consumption and risk of metabolic health after stratification by BMI. Comparing the highest category of SSB consumers (median of 7 SSB per week) to the lowest category (non-consumers), odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolically abnormal phenotypes, compared to the metabolically normal, were 1.9 (1.1-3.4) among the obese, 2.0 (1.4-2.9) among the overweight, and 1.9 (1.4-2.6) among the normal weight individuals. In this cross-sectional analysis, it is observed that, irrespective of weight status, consumers of SSB were more likely to display metabolic abnormalities compared to non-consumers in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Background Few studies have evaluated health impacts, especially biomarker changes, following implementation of a new environmental policy. This study examined changes in water fluoride, urinary fluoride (UF), and bone metabolism indicators in children after supplying low fluoride public water in endemic fluorosis areas of Southern China. We also assessed the relationship between UF and serum osteocalcin (BGP), calcitonin (CT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bone mineral density to identify the most sensitive bone metabolism indicators related to fluoride exposure. Methods Four fluorosis-endemic villages (intervention villages) in Guangdong, China were randomly selected to receive low-fluoride water. One non-endemic fluorosis village with similar socio-economic status, living conditions, and health care access, was selected as the control group. 120 children aged 6-12 years old were randomly chosen from local schools in each village for the study. Water and urinary fluoride content as well as serum BGP, CT, ALP and bone mineral density were measured by the standard methods and compared between the children residing in the intervention villages and the control village. Benchmark dose (BMD) and benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL) were calculated for each bone damage indicator. Results Our study found that after water source change, fluoride concentrations in drinking water in all intervention villages (A-D) were significantly reduced to 0.11 mg/l, similar to that in the control village (E). Except for Village A where water change has only been taken place for 6 years, urinary fluoride concentrations in children of the intervention villages were lower or comparable to those in the control village after 10 years of supplying new public water. The values of almost all bone indicators in children living in Villages B-D and ALP in Village A were either lower or similar to those in the control village after the intervention. CT and BGP are sensitive bone metabolism
Kolter, Donald P
HIV infection is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities, including lipodystrophy, a difficult-to-define disorder whose characteristics include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution. Current data suggest that lipodystrophy is caused by multiple factors. Dual-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy combined with protease inhibitor therapy has been shown to increase the risk of metabolic abnormalities, but susceptibility independent of drug effects has also been shown. While many of the treatments for the broad range of signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy bring about improvements in patient status, none have been demonstrated to bring about a return to baseline levels.
Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; p<0.0001) and low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia (1.013; 1.010-1.016; p<0.0001) in men. Length of smoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.
López-Gómez, Juan J; Pérez Castrillón, José L; de Luis Román, Daniel A
High weight is a protective factor against osteoporosis and risk of fracture. In obesity, however, where overweight is associated to excess fat, this relationship does not appear to be so clear, excess weight has sometimes been associated to decreased bone mass. Obesity interferes with bone metabolism through mechanical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors. These factors are closely related to weight, body composition, and dietary patterns of these patients. The net beneficial or harmful effect on bone mass or risk of fracture of the different components of this condition is not well known. We need to recognize patients at a greater risk of bone disease related to obesity to start an adequate intervention. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T
Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702
Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann
Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.
Acca, M; Ragno, A; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E
Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a procedure commonly applied to patients with advanced forms of intestinal malabsorption. Among TPN complications, bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia, are a common finding. Initially considered to be a manifestation of aluminium toxicity which followed massive contamination with the element of the solutions used in TPN, metabolic osteopathy during TPN is currently considered a multiform syndrome, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which may manifest itself with vague or clear clinical pictures. In this review, we analyse clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of the most common bone metabolic diseases in patients undergoing long-term TPN.
Yang, Gang; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Tingmei; Zhu, Weiwen; Ding, Shijia; Xu, Kaiming; Xu, Zhongwei; Guo, Yanlei; Zhang, Jian
Osteoarthritis (OA), one of the most widespread musculoskeletal joint diseases among the aged, is characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and continuous changes in subchondral bone. The exact pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is not completely clear. In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to analyze the metabolic profiling of subchondral bone from 42 primary osteoarthritis patients. This paper described a modified two-step method for extracting the metabolites of subchondral bone from primary osteoarthritis patients. Finally, 68 metabolites were identified to be significantly changed in the sclerotic subchondral bone compared with the non-sclerotic subchondral bone. Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and beta-alanine metabolism were probably relevant to the sclerosis of subchondral bone. Taurine, L-carnitine, and glycerophospholipids played a vital regulation role in the pathological process of sclerotic subchondral bone. In the sclerotic process, beta-alanine and L-carnitine might be related to the increase of energy consumption. In addition, our findings suggested that the intra-cellular environment of sclerotic subchondral bone might be more acidotic and hypoxic compared with the non-sclerotic subchondral bone. In conclusion, this study provided a new insight into the pathogenesis of subchondral bone sclerosis. Our results indicated that metabolomics could serve as a promising approach for elucidating the pathogenesis of subchondral bone sclerosis in primary osteoarthritis. Graphical Abstract Metabolic analysis of osteoarthritis subchondral bone.
Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.
Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.
Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio
Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Results Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012–1.018; p<0.0001) and low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia (1.013; 1.010–1.016; p<0.0001) in men. Length of smoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975–0.994; p = 0.007). Conclusions Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities. PMID:24312268
Rosario, Pedro Weslley
The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause.
Raubenheimer, Erich J; Noffke, Claudia E; Hendrik, Hilde D
Metabolic bone diseases often are asymptomatic and progress sub clinically. Many patients present at a late stage with catastrophic skeletal and extra skeletal complications. In this article, we provide an overview of normal bone remodeling and a synopsis of recent developments in the following conditions: osteoporosis, rickets/osteomalacia, endocrine-induced bone disease, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder and Paget's disease of bone. Our discussion will emphasize the clinical and microscopic manifestations of these diseases in the jaws.
Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie
To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk
Abbasi, Mahnaz; Farzam, Seyed Amir; Mamaghani, Zahra; Yazdi, Zohreh
Prevention of osteoporosis and bone fracture and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and bone density are controversial issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and its components with bone mineral density in post menopausal women referred for bone mineral density (BMD) test. A total of 143 postmenopausal women with at least one year of menopause experience participated in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics for all participants were collected. Also, biochemical parameters including fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol (HDL and LDL), triglyceride were measured. Association between the components of metabolic syndrome and bone densitometry were analyzed by statistical methods. In this study, 72% of participants did not have metabolic syndrome. Among them, 43.4% and 28.7% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Of remaining participants with metabolic syndrome, 12.6% and 15.4% had osteoporosis and normal density, respectively. Among the metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and waist to hip ratio were significantly associated with bone mass (P<0.05). Osteoporotic women had lower waist circumference and waist to hip ratio and higher HDL than women without osteoporosis. On the other hand, women with metabolic syndrome did not have significant differences than women without metabolic syndrome in terms of lumbar and femoral neck density (P>0.05). Results from this study showed that metabolic syndrome and its components did not induce bone mass loss. The discrepancies of the studies in this area call for more large scale studies in population so as to prevent women problems in this area. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuchendler, Dominika; Bolanowski, Marek
Osteoporosis is one of the commonest metabolic diseases of bone. Its possible causes may include thyroid hormonal dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on osseous tissue metabolism in premenopausal women. 38 women with hyperthyroidism, 40 with hypothyroidism and 41 healthy women participated in this study. Initially after 6 and 12 months, each patient underwent selected hormonal, immunological and biochemical tests, measurement of concentrations of bone turnover markers and densitometry were also performed. On initial evaluation, lower cortical bone density was found in patients with hyperthyroidism (femoral neck). After 12 months, an increase in BMD was seen, but it was still lower than in the control group. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of bone turnover markers, decreasing from the sixth month of treatment, were noted only in the group with hyperthyroidism. Statistically significant differences were not noted in the femoral neck nor in the lumbar spine BMD in patients with hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism poses a negative effect on bone metabolism. Hypothyroidism in premenopausal females does not have any influence on bone density.
Jia, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Jingyuan; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Ya; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan
To investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) and the related risk factors in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We analyzed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and clinical data of 107 IgAN patients and 106 healthy controls. Glucose metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of both groups were evaluated. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the IgAN group than in the control group (41.12% vs. 9.43%, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of IR between the two groups was not significantly different. IgAN patients have significantly higher fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, OGTT 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower ISI than healthy controls. Triglyceride (OR = 2.55), 24-hour urine protein excretion (OR = 1.39), and age (OR = 1.06) were independent risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in IgAN patients. BMI, eGFR, 24-hour urine protein excretion, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, and OGTT 2-hour insulin were significantly higher in IgAN patients with IR than in IgAN patients without IR, while HDL and ISI were significantly lower. BMI, serum albumin, and 24-hour urine protein excretion were correlated factors of IR in IgAN patients. Our study highlighted that abnormal glucose metabolism was common in IgAN patients. Triglyceride and 24-hour urine protein excretion were significant risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, sensitive screening for glucose metabolism status and timely intervention should be carried out in clinical work.
Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O
In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.
González-Gil, E M; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Santabárbara, J; Bueno-Lozano, G; Iglesia, I; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Kafatos, A; Widhalm, K; Manios, Y; Siani, A; Amaro-Gahete, F; Rupérez, A I; Cañada, D; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Dallongeville, J; Marcos, A; Ortega, F B; Moreno, L A
Inflammation may influence the cardio-metabolic profile which relates with the risk of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the inflammatory status by metabolic health (MH)/body mass index (BMI) category and to assess how inflammatory markers can predict the cardio-metabolic profile in European adolescents, considering BMI. A total of 659 adolescents (295 boys) from a cross-sectional European study were included. Adolescents were classified by metabolic health based on age- and sex-specific cut-off points for glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, high density cholesterol and BMI. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), complement factors (C3, C4) and cell adhesion molecules were assessed. Metabolically abnormal (MA) adolescents had higher values of C3 (p < 0.001) and C4 (p = 0.032) compared to those metabolically healthy (MHy). C3 concentrations significantly increased with the deterioration of the metabolic health and BMI (p < 0.001). Adolescents with higher values of CRP had higher probability of being in the overweight/obese-MH group than those allocated in other categories. Finally, high C3 and C4 concentrations increased the probability of having an unfavorable metabolic/BMI status. Metabolic/BMI status and inflammatory biomarkers are associated, being the CRP, C3 and C4 the most related inflammatory markers with this condition. C3 and C4 were associated with the cardio-metabolic health consistently. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Palmer, H. E.
Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.
Doherty, Alison H.; Florant, Gregory L.; Donahue, Seth W.
Precise coordination among organs is required to maintain homeostasis throughout hibernation. This is particularly true in balancing bone remodeling processes (bone formation and resorption) in hibernators experiencing nutritional deprivation and extreme physical inactivity, two factors normally leading to pronounced bone loss in non-hibernating mammals. In recent years, important relationships between bone, fat, reproductive, and brain tissues have come to light. These systems share interconnected regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism that potentially protect the skeleton during hibernation. This review focuses on the endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of bone/fat/energy metabolism in hibernators. Hibernators appear to have unique mechanisms that protect musculoskeletal tissues while catabolizing their abundant stores of fat. Furthermore, the bone remodeling processes that normally cause disuse-induced bone loss in non-hibernators are compared to bone remodeling processes in hibernators, and possible adaptations of the bone signaling pathways that protect the skeleton during hibernation are discussed. Understanding the biological mechanisms that allow hibernators to survive the prolonged disuse and fasting associated with extreme environmental challenges will provide critical information regarding the limit of convergence in mammalian systems and of skeletal plasticity, and may contribute valuable insight into the etiology and treatment of human diseases. PMID:24556365
Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic
Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL (eQTL) mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken) and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.
Chou, Sharon H; Mantzoros, Christos
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance. Adipokines, particularly leptin, provide information on fat/energy stores, and gut hormones play a role in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Alterations in all these hormones influence bone metabolism. Restricted in scope, current pharmacologic approaches to improve bone health have had overall limited success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bone works to play essential roles in mineral metabolism and hematopoiesis as well as to support our body and protect internal organs as a hard tissue. In order to accomplish these multiple functions, bone needs to communicate with other organs. Endocrine system functions as one of the communication pathways between bone and other organs. It has been known that bone is a target organ of many hormones. In addition, it has been established that bone itself produces hormones and works as an endocrine organ.
Ogata, Makiko; Ide, Risa; Takizawa, Miho; Tanaka, Mizuho; Tetsuo, Tamaki; Sato, Asako; Iwasaki, Naoko; Uchigata, Yasuko
Diabetes is a risk factor for osteoporosis, and glycemic control is critical during osteoporosis treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, diabetic therapies have potentially adverse effects on bone metabolism. Additionally, biomarkers for bone metabolism are directly affected by drug therapies for osteoporosis. This study examined resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) as indices of bone metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D. Forty-six postmenopausal Japanese women with T2D were examined. Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, a fasting serum bone formation marker) and carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links-1 (CTX-1, a resorption marker) were evaluated, along with intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), urine microalbumin, motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity, R-R interval, body composition, REE, RQ, and bone mineral density at the nondominant distal radius. The mean T-score was low with high variance (-1.7 ± 1.6), and 18 patients (39%) met the criteria for osteoporosis. REE was positively correlated with body mass index (β = 0.517; r(2) = 0.250), serum calcium (β = 0.624; r(2) = 0.200), glycated hemoglobin A1C for the previous 6 mo (β = 0.395; r(2) = 0.137), and the serum P1NP/CTX-1 ratio (β = 0.380; r(2) = 0.144). RQ was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D (β = 0.387; r(2) = 0.131). The basal metabolic rate and diabetic pathophysiology are interrelated with bone turnover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Culbertson, Christopher D.; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Bushinsky, David A.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) significantly increases with declining renal function, leading to reduced renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Elevated FGF23 is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the mechanisms by which it is regulated are not clear. Patients with chronic kidney disease have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis, which has a direct effect on bone cell activity. We hypothesized that metabolic acidosis would directly increase bone cell FGF23 production. Using cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, we found that metabolic acidosis increased medium FGF23 protein levels as well as FGF23 RNA expression at 24 h and 48 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. To exclude that the increased FGF23 was secondary to metabolic acidosis-induced release of bone mineral phosphate, we cultured primary calvarial osteoblasts. In these cells, metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 RNA expression at 6 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. Thus metabolic acidosis directly increases FGF23 mRNA and protein in mouse bone. If these results are confirmed in humans with chronic kidney disease, therapeutic interventions to mitigate acidosis, such as bicarbonate administration, may also lower levels of FGF23, decrease left ventricular hypertrophy, and perhaps even decrease mortality. PMID:22647635
Aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. We have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which are contained in soybeans, have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. Menaquinone-7, an analogue of vitamin K(2) which is abundant in fermented soybeans, has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Of various carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unchiu MARC), has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption. The supplementation of these factors has a preventive effect on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats, which are an animal model of osteoporosis, and their intake has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on bone mass in humans. Factors with an anabolic effect on bone metabolism were found in extracts obtained from wasabi leafstalk (Wasabi japonica MATSUM), the marine alga Sargassum horneri, and bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid was also found to have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Food chemical factors thus play a role in bone health and may be important in the prevention of bone loss with increasing age.
Borniger, Jeremy C; Walker Ii, William H; Surbhi; Emmer, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ning; Zalenski, Abigail A; Muscarella, Stevie L; Fitzgerald, Julie A; Smith, Alexandra N; Braam, Cornelius J; TinKai, Tial; Magalang, Ulysses J; Lustberg, Maryam B; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney
We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted. We next investigated neural populations coupling metabolism and sleep, and observed altered activity within lateral-hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) neurons. We used a dual HO-receptor antagonist to test whether increased HO signaling was causing metabolic abnormalities. This approach rescued metabolic abnormalities and enhanced sleep quality in tumor-bearing mice. Peripheral sympathetic denervation prevented tumor-induced increases in serum glucose. Our results link metabolic and sleep abnormalities via the HO system, and provide evidence that central neuromodulators contribute to tumor-induced changes in metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.
The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hypmore » mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.« less
Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Niemirska, Anna; Michałkiewicz, Jacek
There is an increasing amount of data indicating that primary hypertension (PH) is not only a hemodynamic phenomenon but also a complex syndrome involving abnormal fat tissue distribution, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), metabolic abnormalities, and activation of the immune system. In children, PH usually presents with a typical phenotype of disturbed body composition, accelerated biological maturity, and subtle immunological and metabolic abnormalities. This stage of the disease is potentially reversible. However, long-lasting over-activity of the SNS and immuno-metabolic alterations usually lead to an irreversible stage of cardiovascular disease. We describe an intermediate phenotype of children with PH, showing that PH is associated with accelerated development, i.e., early premature aging of the immune, metabolic, and vascular systems. The associations and determinants of hypertensive organ damage, the principles of treatment, and the possibility of rejuvenation of the cardiovascular system are discussed.
Olmedillas, Hugo; Gonzalez-Agüero, Alejandro; Rapún-López, Marta; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Pradas de la Fuente, Francisco; Moreno, Luís A; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
This study aimed to describe bone metabolic activity in adolescent competitive cyclists compared to age-matched controls. The main result is that younger subjects present a higher bone turnover than the older ones. Moreover, cyclists under the age of 17 have higher scores on all markers than age-matched controls. The purpose of this study was to describe bone metabolic activity in adolescent competitive cyclists compared to age-matched controls. Twenty-two male adolescent cyclists between 14 and 20 years (y) and 20 age-matched controls participated in this study. Serum osteocalcin (OC), aminoterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), and β-isomerized C-telopeptides (β-CTX) were analyzed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA); plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in bone metabolism markers and vitamin D between cyclists and controls. Cyclists over 17 y had a significantly lower concentration in bone formation and resorption biochemical markers compared to cyclists under 17 y (all P < 0.05). Moreover, controls over 17 y presented lower concentration for PINP (P < 0.05) compared to their peers under 17 y. Comparisons between cyclists and controls under 17 y revealed higher concentrations of OC and PINP (P < 0.05) in cyclists. Group interaction by age was found for OC, PINP, and β-CTX (P < 0.01). Cyclists over 17 y had higher concentrations of [25(OH)D] (P < 0.05) than age-matched controls. The present results support the idea that cycling during adolescence may be associated to a decrease in bone turnover that may affect bone health later in life.
Marie, Pierre J
Several metabolic, genetic and oncogenic bone diseases are characterized by defective or excessive bone formation. These abnormalities are caused by dysfunctions in the commitment, differentiation or survival of cells of the osteoblast lineage. During the recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the osteoblast dysfunctions in osteoporosis, skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors. This led to suggest novel therapeutic approaches to correct these abnormalities such as the modulation of WNT signaling, the pharmacological modulation of proteasome-mediated protein degradation, the induction of osteoprogenitor cell differentiation, the repression of cancer cell proliferation and the manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms. This article reviews our current understanding of the major cellular and molecular mechanisms inducing osteoblastic cell abnormalities in age-related bone loss, genetic skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors, and discusses emerging therapeutic strategies to counteract the osteoblast abnormalities in these disorders of bone formation.
Miyajima, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Yoon Taek; Oda, Hiromi
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing estrogen and decreasing androgen in males and increasing androgen and decreasing estrogen in females on bone metabolism in patients with gender identity disorder (GID). We measured and examined bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers retrospectively in GID patients who were treated in our hospital. In addition, we studied the effects of treatment on those who had osteoporosis. Patients who underwent a change from male to female (MtF) showed inhibition of bone resorption and increased L2-4 BMD whereas those who underwent a change from female to male (FtM) had increased bone resorption and decreased L2-4 BMD. Six months after administration of risedronate to FtM patients with osteoporosis, L2-4 BMD increased and bone resorption markers decreased. These results indicate that estrogen is an important element with regard to bone metabolism in males.
Stein, Emily M; Silva, Barbara C; Boutroy, Stephanie; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Udesky, Julia; Zhang, Chiyuan; McMahon, Donald J; Romano, Megan; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Costa, Aline G.; Cusano, Natalie; Irani, Dinaz; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward; Bilezikian, John P
Typically, in the milder form of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), seen in most countries now, bone density by DXA and detailed analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies by histomorphometry and µCT show detrimental effects in cortical bone, whereas the trabecular site (lumbar spine by DXA) and the trabecular compartment (by bone biopsy) appear to be relatively well preserved. Despite these findings, fracture risk at both vertebral and non-vertebral sites is increased in PHPT. Emerging technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), may provide additional insight into microstructural features at sites such as the forearm and tibia that have heretofore not been easily accessible. Using HRpQCT, we determined cortical and trabecular microstructure at the radius and tibia in 51 postmenopausal women with PHPT and 120 controls. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) and micro finite element (µFE) analyses of the HRpQCT images were also performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by HRpQCT might translate into effects on bone strength. Women with PHPT showed, at both sites, decreased volumetric densities at trabecular and cortical compartments, thinner cortices, and more widely spaced and heterogeneously distributed trabeculae. At the radius, trabeculae were thinner and fewer in PHPT. The radius was affected to a greater extent in the trabecular compartment than the tibia. ITS analyses revealed, at both sites, that plate-like trabeculae were depleted, with a resultant reduction in the plate/rod ratio. Microarchitectural abnormalities were evident by decreased plate-rod and plate-plate junctions at the radius and tibia, and rod-rod junctions at the radius. These trabecular and cortical abnormalities resulted in decreased whole bone stiffness and trabecular stiffness. These results provide evidence that in PHPT, microstructural abnormalities are pervasive and not limited to the cortical compartment. They may help to
Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong
Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.
Ben Goumi, M; Robins, S P; De La Farge, F; Coxam, V; Davicco, M J; Barlet, J P
'Krafft disease', occurring in camels living in the very arid areas of North Africa, is characterized by spontaneous fractures of costal and/or appendicular bones. To better understand the mechanisms of this, we studied the influence of water restriction on plasma and urinary markers of bone metabolism in camels. Eight 2-year-old nonpregnant, nonlactating camels were studied at the research station of Laâyoune (Morocco). After a 10 day period of daily watering, five animals were watered only every 10th day over a 50 day period, then again watered daily for a final 10 day period (rehydration). The three control animals were watered daily throughout the whole experimental period (70 days). Each camel was fed a ration of straw, luceme hay and barley, resulting in a daily intake of 25 g calcium and 11 g phosphorus. Water restriction induced a decrease in daily urinary volume and an increase in plasma osmolality. These symptoms of dehydration were not associated with any significant change either in the markers of osteoblastic activity (plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcine concentration) or in the markers of bone resorption (urinary excretion of calcium, hydroxyproline pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline). Thus, in well-fed camels, water restriction did not affect bone metabolism. However, no conclusions were possible regarding the influence of dehydration or calcium and/or phosphorus deficiency in the etiology of 'Kraft disease'.
Miller, Marvin; Mirkin, L David
The objective of the present study was to review the histopathology in the original articles by authors Kleinman and Marks that described the specificity of the classical metaphyseal lesion for child abuse and to determine if there were any oversights in the authors' analysis. We reviewed the histopathology of the original studies that equated the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse. We compared this with the histopathology of metaphyseal fractures caused by known accidental, severe trauma in children and reviewed the histopathology of artifacts that can sometimes be produced in bone histology preparations. Acute classical metaphyseal lesions showed no hemorrhage, and the chronic classical metaphyseal showed islands of cartilage proliferation at the metaphyses and growth plate, findings consistent with rickets and other metabolic bone disorders. Some of the acute metaphyseal lesions were consistent with artifacts. We believe the original studies that equate the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse are flawed. The most compelling observation that challenges the histopathology of the classical metaphyseal lesion as being a fracture is the absence of hemorrhage in the acute classical metaphyseal lesion. We hypothesize that some of the classical metaphyseal lesions were artifacts or represent metabolic bone disorders that were not considered and that these two non-traumatic explanations may have been the basis of the abnormal bone findings. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.
It is pointed out that prolonged space flight, bedrest, and immobilization are three factors which can produce a negative calcium balance, osteopenia, and an inhibition of bone formation. It is not known whether the effects of gravity on bone mineral metabolism are mediated by systemic endocrine factors which affect all bones simultaneously, or by local factors which affect each bone individually. The present investigation has the objective to test the relative importance of local vs. systemic factors in regulating the bone mineral response to conditions simulating weightlessness. Experiments were conducted with male Sprague-Dawley rats. The test conditions made it possible to compare the data from weighted and unweighted bones in the same animal. The obtained findings indicate that a decrease in bone mass relative to control value occurs rapidly under conditions which simulate certain aspects of weightlessness. However, this decrease reaches a plateau after 10 days.
Smith, Scott M; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda C; Sibonga, Jean D; Spatz, Jordan; Pietrzyk, Robert A; Hudson, Edgar K; Zwart, Sara R
Bone loss and renal stone risk are longstanding concerns for astronauts. Bone resorption brought on by spaceflight elevates urinary calcium and the risk of renal stone formation. Loss of bone calcium leads to concerns about fracture risk and increased long-term risk of osteoporosis. Bone metabolism involves many factors and is interconnected with muscle metabolism and diet. We report here bone biochemistry and renal stone risk data from astronauts on 4- to 6-month International Space Station missions. All had access to a type of resistive exercise countermeasure hardware, either the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) or the Interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED). A subset of the ARED group also tested the bisphosphonate alendronate as a potential anti-resorptive countermeasure (Bis+ARED). While some of the basic bone marker data have been published, we provide here a more comprehensive evaluation of bone biochemistry with a larger group of astronauts. Regardless of exercise, the risk of renal stone formation increased during spaceflight. A key factor in this increase was urine volume, which was lower during flight in all groups at all time points. Thus, the easiest way to mitigate renal stone risk is to increase fluid consumption. ARED use increased bone formation without changing bone resorption, and mitigated a drop in parathyroid hormone in iRED astronauts. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation, increased 10-15% in both groups of astronauts who used the ARED (p<0.06). IGF-1, which regulates bone growth and formation, increased during flight in all 3 groups (p<0.001). Our results are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that the hyper-resorptive state of bone that is brought on by spaceflight can be countered pharmacologically or mitigated through an exercise-induced increase in bone formation, with nutritional support. Key questions remain about the effect of exercise-induced alterations in bone
Yiu, Wai Han; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Allamarvdasht, Mohammad; Kim, So Youn; Chou, Janice Y.
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed. GSD-Ib patients suffer from disturbed glucose homeostasis and myeloid dysfunctions. To evaluate the feasibility of gene replacement therapy for GSD-Ib, we have infused adenoviral (Ad) vector containing human G6PT (Ad-hG6PT) into G6PT-deficient (G6PT-/-) mice that manifest symptoms characteristics of the human disorder. Ad-hG6PT-infusion restores significant levels of G6PT mRNA expression in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen and corrects metabolic as well as myeloid abnormalities in G6PT-/- mice. The G6PT-/- mice receiving gene therapy exhibit improved growth; normalized serum profiles for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and lactic acid; and reduced hepatic glycogen deposition. The therapy also corrects neutropenia and lowers the elevated serum levels of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. The development of bone and spleen in the infused G6PT-/- mice is improved and accompanied by increased cellularity and normalized myeloid progenitor cell frequencies in both tissues. This effective use of gene therapy to correct metabolic imbalances and myeloid dysfunctions in GSD-Ib mice holds promise for the future of gene therapy in humans. PMID:17006547
Panayiotopoulos, Aristotle; Bhat, Nandini; Bhangoo, Amrit
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has progressed to a chronic disease and HIV positive individuals are living longer lives. This has lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality due to secondary issues, one being HIV bone disease. HIV infected pediatric and adult populations have a greater incidence in reduction of BMD as compared to the controls. Osteoporosis has been reported to be present in up to 15 % of HIV positive patients. We are starting to understand the mechanism behind the changes in HIV bone disease. Viral proteins interfere with osteoblastic activity either by direct interaction or by the inflammatory process that they induce. Anti-viral management, including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), protease inhibitors, and nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) also are involved in disrupting proper bone metabolism. Vitamin D levels have strong correlation with bone disease in HIV patients, and are dependent not only to chronic disease state, but interaction of pharmacologic management and inflammatory process as well. Work up of the secondary causes of osteopenia and osteoporosis should be undertaken in all patients. DEXA scan is recommended in all post-menopausal women with HIV, all HIV infected men 50 years of age or older and in those with a history of fragility fractures regardless of age or gender. Preventive measures include adequate nutrition, calcium and Vitamin D intake daily, muscle strengthening and balance exercises to increase BMD and reduce fractures. Bisphosphonates are considered to be the first line for the treatment of HIV associated bone disease. This review will describe how the balanced mechanism of bone metabolism is interrupted by the HIV infection itself, the complications that arise from HIV/AIDS, and its treatment options.
Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan
Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inmore » addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.« less
Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej
In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.
Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Yu-xin; Zhu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Jian-min; Zheng, Zhe
Objective: The aim of our meta-analysis was to assess the effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in epileptic children. Methods: Searches of PubMed and Web of Science were undertaken to identify studies evaluating the association between antiepileptic drugs and bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Results: A total of 22 studies with 1492 subjects were included in our research. We identified: (1) a reduction in bone mineral density at lumbar spine (standardized mean difference (SMD)=−0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) [−0.61, −0.05]), trochanter (mean difference (MD)=−0.07, 95% CI [−0.10, −0.05]), femoral neck (MD=−0.05, 95% CI [−0.09, −0.02]), and total body bone mineral density (MD=−0.33, 95% CI [−0.51, −0.15]); (2) a reduction in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (MD=−3.37, 95% CI [−5.94, −0.80]) and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (SMD=0.71, 95% CI [0.38, 1.05]); (3) no significant changes in serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, or phosphorus. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that treatment with antiepileptic drugs may be associated with decreased bone mineral density in epileptic children. PMID:26160719
Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...
Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.
Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu
The number of patients with lifestyle-related diseases is rapidly increasing in Japan. Metabolic syndrome caused by abdominal fat accumulation induces diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, resulting in an increase in cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that the lifestyle-related diseases are risk factors of osteoporotic fractures. Although it remains still unclear how metabolic disorders affect bone tissue, oxidative stress and/or glycation stress might directly have negative impacts on bone tissue and increase the risk of fractures. In this review, we describe the association of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia with the fracture risk through oxidative stress and glycation stress.
Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi
To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective
Sarazin, M; Alexandre, C; Thomas, T
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease driven primarily by the genetic factors that control bone metabolism. Among environmental factors, diet may play a key role, affording a target for low-cost intervention. Calcium and vitamin D are well known to affect bone metabolism. Other nutrients may influence bone mass changes; for instance, a number of trace elements and vitamins other than vitamin D are essential to many of the steps of bone metabolism. A wide variety of foods provide these nutrients, and in industrialized countries deficiencies are more often due to idiosyncratic eating habits than to cultural influences. Both culture and vogue influence the amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the typical diet. In children, the current trend is to reduce protein and to increase carbohydrate and fat. Data from epidemiological and animal studies suggest that this may adversely affect bone mass and the fracture risk.
Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hans, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Helmut; Rathkolb, Birgit; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cohrs, Christian M; Klaften, Matthias; Seedorf, Hartwig; Eck, Sebastian; Benet-Pagès, Ana; Favor, Jack; Esposito, Irene; Strom, Tim M; Wolf, Eckhard; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin
Metabolic bone disorders arise as primary diseases or may be secondary due to a multitude of organ malfunctions. Animal models are required to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the imbalances of bone metabolism in disturbed bone mineralization diseases. Here we present the isolation of mutant mouse models for metabolic bone diseases by phenotyping blood parameters that target bone turnover within the large-scale genome-wide Munich ENU Mutagenesis Project. A screening panel of three clinical parameters, also commonly used as biochemical markers in patients with metabolic bone diseases, was chosen. Total alkaline phosphatase activity and total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in plasma samples of F1 offspring produced from ENU-mutagenized C3HeB/FeJ male mice were measured. Screening of 9,540 mice led to the identification of 257 phenodeviants of which 190 were tested by genetic confirmation crosses. Seventy-one new dominant mutant lines showing alterations of at least one of the biochemical parameters of interest were confirmed. Fifteen mutations among three genes (Phex, Casr, and Alpl) have been identified by positional-candidate gene approaches and one mutation of the Asgr1 gene, which was identified by next-generation sequencing. All new mutant mouse lines are offered as a resource for the scientific community.
Haffner-Luntzer, M; Liedert, A; Ignatius, A
Mechanical stimuli are known to significantly influence bone metabolism and fracture healing. Various studies have demonstrated the involvement of complex molecular mechanotransduction pathways, such as the Wnt/beta-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and estrogen receptor signaling pathways in mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is influenced by aging and the comorbidities of the patient. Pharmacological modulation of signal transduction influences bone formation and the mechanosensitivity of skeletal tissue. The combination of pharmacological and biomechanical therapies may be useful for the treatment of fractures with impaired healing.
Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.
Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312
Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina
Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca)more » and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females.« less
Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H
The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair, and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K
Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45-98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR-defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy, and food intakes. Healthy obesity was not
Recently, attention has been focused on the disorders of bone and calcium metabolism during space flight. The skeletal system has evolved on the Earth under 1-g. Space flights under low gravity appear to cause substantial changes in bone and calcium homeostasis of the animals adapted to 1-g. A space experiment for the First Materials Processing Test (FMPT) was proposed to examine the effects of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation using chick embryos loaded in a space shuttle. This space experiment was proposed based on the following two experimental findings. First, it has been reported that bone density decreases significantly during prolonged space flight. The data obtained from the US Skylab and the U.S.S.R. Salyut-6 cosmonauts have also documented that the degree of bone loss is related to the duration of space flight. Second, the US-Soviet joints space experiment demonstrated that the decrease in bone density under low gravity appears to be due to the decrease in bone formation rather than the increase in bone resorption. The purpose of our space experiment is, therefore, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone growth under low gravity using fertilized chick embryos.
Hwang, D-K; Choi, H-J
We examined the relationship between low bond mass and metabolic syndrome in 2,475 Korean women. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, age and weight adjusted vertebral BMD was significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key component in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. It has been suggested that proinflammatory cytokines and low-grade systemic inflammation activate bone resorption and may lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between low bone mass and metabolic syndrome in Korean women. This is a cross-sectional study of 2,548 women aged 18 years and over who had visited the Health Promotion Center. Physical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Vertebral BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Among 2,475 women, 511 (21.0%) women had metabolic syndrome. Women with abdominal obesity or hypertriglyceridemia had significantly lower vertebral BMD than women without respective components after adjustment for age, weight, and height. After adjustment for all covariates, mean vertebral BMD was significantly lower in women with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.031). Moreover, age- and weight-adjusted vertebral BMD were significantly decreased with additional components of the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.004). These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome might be another risk factor for osteoporosis and related fractures.
Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R
Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P < .001). After 1 week of the low-additive diet, consuming the additive-enhanced diet for 1 week significantly increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), osteopontin, and osteocalcin concentrations by 23, 10, and 11%, respectively, and decreased mean sclerostin concentrations (P < .05 for all). Similarly, high-phosphorus diets in mice significantly increased blood FGF23, osteopontin and osteocalcin, lowered sclerostin, and decreased bone mineral density (P < .05 for all). The enhanced phosphorus content of processed foods can disturb bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.
Kryskiewicz, Edyta; Pawlowska, Joanna; Pludowski, Pawel; Ismail, Hor; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Skorupa, Ewa; Ryzko, Jozef; Kalicinski, Piotr; Socha, Jerzy; Lorenc, Roman S
Bone disorders are common in children with end-stage liver diseases, especially those associated with cholestasis. Abnormal hepatocyte function, disordered vitamin D metabolism and calcium-phosphorous homeostasis, malnutrition, and immunosuppressive treatment are potential risk factors of bone tissue pathology before and after transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term effect of successful living-related liver transplantation (LRLTx) on skeletal status and bone metabolism in cholestatic children. Eighteen cholestatic children (1.4±0.5yr old; 12 females [F]/6 males [M]) qualified for LRLTx were analyzed; 16 (5F/11M) of them participated in long-term observation (V4). Serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) were assayed before (V0) and 6mo (V1), 12mo (V2), 18mo (V3), and 4.4yr (V4) after LRLTx. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) and total body bone mineral density (TBBMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the same pattern. Before LRLTx, the OC, P1NP, CTx, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 levels as well as TBBMC and TBBMD were decreased compared with age-matched control group. The mean serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were within reference ranges from V0 to V4. After LRLTx, the OC, P1NP, CTx, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 as well as TBBMC and TBBMD reached the age-matched reference values. At V4, the level of P1NP decreased below and the PTH increased above the reference range that coincided with reduced Z-scores of both TBBMC (-1.11±1.24) and TBBMD (-1.00±1.19). P1NP and CTx, both measured at V3, correlated with IGF-I at V2 (R=0.86, p=0.014 and R=0.78, p=0.021, respectively) and PTH at V3 for P1NP and V1 for CTx (R=0.64, p=0.048 and R=0.54, p=0.038, respectively
Hinton, Pamela S
Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a
Li, Ziru; Hardij, Julie; Bagchi, Devika P; Scheller, Erica L; MacDougald, Ormond A
Most adipocytes exist in discrete depots throughout the body, notably in well-defined white and brown adipose tissues. However, adipocytes also reside within specialized niches, of which the most abundant is within bone marrow. Whereas bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) shares many properties in common with white adipose tissue, the distinct functions of BMAT are reflected by its development, regulation, protein secretion, and lipid composition. In addition to its potential role as a local energy reservoir, BMAT also secretes proteins, including adiponectin, RANK ligand, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and stem cell factor, which contribute to local marrow niche functions and which may also influence global metabolism. The characteristics of BMAT are also distinct depending on whether marrow adipocytes are contained within yellow or red marrow, as these can be thought of as 'constitutive' and 'regulated', respectively. The rBMAT for instance can be expanded or depleted by myriad factors, including age, nutrition, endocrine status and pharmaceuticals. Herein we review the site specificity, age-related development, regulation and metabolic characteristics of BMAT under various metabolic conditions, including the functional interactions with bone and hematopoietic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bowden, Sasigarn A; Mahan, John D
Zoledronic acid (ZA), a highly potent intravenous bisphosphonate (BP), has been increasingly used in children with primary and secondary osteoporosis due to its convenience of shorter infusion time and less frequent dosing compared to pamidronate. Many studies have also demonstrated beneficial effects of ZA in other conditions such as hypercalcemia of malignancy, fibrous dysplasia (FD), chemotherapy-related osteonecrosis (ON) and metastatic bone disease. This review summarizes pharmacologic properties, mechanism of action, dosing regimen, and therapeutic outcomes of ZA in a variety of metabolic bone disorders in children. Several potential novel uses of ZA are also discussed. Safety concerns and adverse effects are also highlighted.
Mahan, John D.
Zoledronic acid (ZA), a highly potent intravenous bisphosphonate (BP), has been increasingly used in children with primary and secondary osteoporosis due to its convenience of shorter infusion time and less frequent dosing compared to pamidronate. Many studies have also demonstrated beneficial effects of ZA in other conditions such as hypercalcemia of malignancy, fibrous dysplasia (FD), chemotherapy-related osteonecrosis (ON) and metastatic bone disease. This review summarizes pharmacologic properties, mechanism of action, dosing regimen, and therapeutic outcomes of ZA in a variety of metabolic bone disorders in children. Several potential novel uses of ZA are also discussed. Safety concerns and adverse effects are also highlighted. PMID:29184807
Gorka, Jagoda; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina M.
In 1891, Von Recklinghausen first established the association between the development of osteoporosis in the presence of overt hyperthyroidism. Subsequent reports have demonstrated that BMD loss is common in frank hyperthyroidism, and, to a lesser extent, in subclinical presentations. With the introduction of antithyroid medication in the 1940s to control biochemical hyperthyroidism, the accompanying bone disease became less clinically apparent as hyperthyroidism was more successfully treated medically. Consequently, the impact of the above normal thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis may be presently underrecognized due to the widespread effective treatments. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism. The vast number of recent papers touching on this topic highlights the recognized impact of this common medical condition on bone health. Our focus in this review was to search for answers to the following questions. What is the mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism? What are the clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on BMD and fracture risk? What differences are there between men and women with thyroid disease and how does menopause change the clinical outcomes? Lastly, we report how different treatments for hyperthyroidism benefit thyroid hormone-induced osteoporosis. PMID:23970897
Chen, Yih-Wen; Harris, Robert A.; Hatahet, Zafer; Chou, Kai-ming
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have evolved to be major health issues throughout the world. Whether loss of genome integrity contributes to this epidemic is an open question. DNA polymerase η (pol η), encoded by the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V) gene, plays an essential role in preventing cutaneous cancer caused by UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Herein, we demonstrate that pol η deficiency in mice (pol η−/−) causes obesity with visceral fat accumulation, hepatic steatosis, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. In comparison to WT mice, adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice exhibits increased DNA damage and a greater DNA damage response, indicated by up-regulation and/or phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Concomitantly, increased cellular senescence in the adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice was observed and measured by up-regulation of senescence markers, including p53, p16Ink4a, p21, senescence-associated (SA) β-gal activity, and SA secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as early as 4 wk of age. Treatment of pol η−/− mice with a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, reduced adipocyte senescence and attenuated the metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, elevation of adipocyte DNA damage with a high-fat diet or sodium arsenite exacerbated adipocyte senescence and metabolic abnormalities in pol η−/− mice. In contrast, reduction of adipose DNA damage with N-acetylcysteine or metformin ameliorated cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities. These studies indicate that elevated DNA damage is a root cause of adipocyte senescence, which plays a determining role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26240351
Abrams, S A; Silber, T J; Esteban, N V; Vieira, N E; Stuff, J E; Meyers, R; Majd, M; Yergey, A L
We evaluated seven female adolescents with anorexia nervosa to determine whether calcium metabolism was affected by their disorder. We measured calcium absorption, urinary calcium excretion, and calcium kinetics, using a dual-tracer, stable-isotope technique during the first weeks of an inpatient nutritional rehabilitation program. Results were compared with those from a control group of seven healthy adolescent girls of similar ages. The percentage of absorption of calcium was lower in subjects with anorexia nervosa than in control subjects (16.2% +/- 6.3% vs 24.6% +/- 7.2%; p < 0.05). Urinary calcium excretion was greater in subjects with anorexia nervosa than in control subjects (6.4 +/- 2.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1 x day-1; p < 0.01) and was associated with bone resorption rather than calcium hyper-absorption. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrated a decreased rate of bone formation and an increased rate of bone resorption. These results suggest marked abnormalities in mineral metabolism in patients with anorexia nervosa. From these results, we hypothesize that improvement in bone mineralization during recovery from anorexia nervosa will require resolution of hormonal abnormalities, including hypercortisolism, in addition to increased calcium intake.
Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Capuano, Annalisa; Colao, Annamaria; Giugliano, Dario
The risk of bone fractures in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is unknown. We did a meta-analysis to assess the association between metabolic syndrome, risk of fractures, and bone mineral density (BMD). We did searches on electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge) until December 2012 and searched reports to identify studies in humans on bone fractures and BMD at different sites. Two independent reviewers collected the relevant reports. We did random-effects meta-analyses to determine the risk of fractures and BMD values associated with metabolic syndrome. A total of 17 studies, with 35 datasets, were included. In 10 articles (14 datasets) including 1350 incident and 1628 prevalent fractures, metabolic syndrome was associated with a reduced fracture risk (risk ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.00; high heterogeneity: I(2) = 55%, P = .006). Omission of 2 outlier studies resulted in a significant negative association (risk ratio = 0.85, P = .012; I(2) = 34%, P = .130). Most of the reduced fracture risk was seen in cohort studies (18% reduced risk), suggesting a direction of causality; sex, site of fracture, and definition of the syndrome did not affect the estimates. In 16 articles, including 29 341 subjects, there was no difference in spine, femoral neck, or calcaneus BMD values between subjects with or without metabolic syndrome; mean differences ranged from 0.001 to 0.012 g/cm(2) (P > .10). This article shows a reduced risk of bone fractures associated with metabolic syndrome, without modification of BMD. The clinical significance of these findings remains uncertain and should be addressed in future prospective studies.
Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis.
Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa
Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.
Leder, Benjamin Z; Finkelstein, Joel S
Both estrogens and androgens play important roles in skeletal development and maintenance in men. The relative importance of estrogens and androgens in male bone metabolism, however, remains undefined. Anastrozole is an oral aromatase inhibitor that decreases estrogen production and increases androgen production in men. Currently, anastrozole is being investigated as a potential agent for the treatment of hypogonadism in aging men. Because anastrozole lowers estrogen levels and raises androgen levels, its effect on bone metabolism is difficult to predict. To assess the effects of anastrozole on bone turnover, we randomized 37 elderly (ages 62-74) mildly hypogonadal men (serum testosterone <350 ng/dl) to receive either anastrozole 1 mg daily (n=12), anastrozole 1 mg twice weekly (n=11), or daily placebo (n=14) for 12 weeks. Serum gonadal steroid levels, serum and urine biochemical markers of bone turnover, serum osteoprotegerin, and total body bone mineral density were measured at baseline and week 12. Mean serum levels of total and bioavailable testosterone increased substantially in both treated groups. Specifically, mean +/- SD bioavailable testosterone levels increased from 99+/-31 ng/dl to 207+/-65 ng/dl in the group receiving 1 mg of anastrozole daily and from 115+/-37 ng/dl to 178+/-55 ng/dl in the subjects receiving 1 mg of anastrozole twice weekly ( p <0.001 vs placebo for both groups). Serum estradiol levels decreased modestly in both treated groups (from 26+/-8 pg/ml to 17+/-6 pg/ml in the daily treatment group and from 27+/-8 pg/ml to 17+/-5 pg/ml in the twice-weekly treatment group, p <0.001 vs placebo for both groups). Despite these hormonal changes, no increases in biochemical markers of bone resorption were observed. Specifically, mean serum N-telopeptide and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations remained stable in both treated groups over the 12-week treatment period. Similarly, serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and amino
Zivna, Helena; Gradošová, Iveta; Zivny, Pavel; Cermakova, Eva; Palicka, Vladimir
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) represent a model of essential hypertension. We studied the effect of amlodipine (AML) on bone markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical properties of osteopenic bone induced by orchidectomy in male SHR. Rats were allocated to 3 groups and were sacrificed after 12 weeks: sham-operated control; orchidectomised control; and orchidectomised receiving a diet supplemented with AML. Indicators of bone turnover were assessed in bone homogenate, BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the femurs were subjected to biomechanical testing. Long-term AML administration does not have a negative impact on bone metabolism and density in male SHR. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barera, Graziano; Beccio, Sabrina; Proverbio, Maria Carla; Mora, Stefano
A gluten-free diet (GFD) rapidly corrects the bone mineral deficit of children with untreated celiac disease. The mechanisms underlying such changes are still poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we monitored changes in bone metabolism during consumption of a GFD. We studied 22 white patients with celiac disease (11 girls) aged 10.5 +/- 1.0 y at the time of diagnosis. We compared bone metabolism and bone mass values in these patients with those in 428 healthy white children aged 11.3 +/- 0.2 y. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation index) and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx; a bone resorption marker) were measured at the time of diagnosis and after 2, 6, and 12 mo of the GFD. Bone mineral content was measured at the lumbar spine and for the whole skeleton. The bone mineral content of patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at the time of diagnosis but not after 1 y of the GFD. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentrations of patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.0064) and increased gradually and significantly during the GFD (ANOVA F = 4.71; P = 0.024). Conversely, patients with untreated disease had significantly higher urinary concentrations of NTx than did healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001). Urinary concentrations of NTx were not significantly affected by treatment (P = 0.37). The rate of bone metabolism is altered in children with untreated celiac disease, and these alterations may be the cause of osteopathy. Remarkable changes occur after the initiation of a GFD, and they result in a more balanced equilibrium.
Smith, Scott M.
Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to
Li, Kang-Chu; Ma, Shi-Rong; Ding, Gui-Rong; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guo-Zhen
To study the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on bone metabolism of mice in vivo. Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups (n=8). The whole-body of mice in experimental groups were exposed to 50 kV/m and 400kV/m EMP, 400 pulses daily for 7 consecutive days at 2 seconds intervals. Alkaline phosphotase (ALP) activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, %) were measured immediately after EMP exposure by biochemical, ELISA and morphological methods. The ALP activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and BV/TV in experimental groups remained unchanged after EMP exposure. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect bone metabolism of mice in vivo.
Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; de Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Sousa, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho
This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion PMID:23049386
Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK
Background: Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. Objective: We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45–98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Results: Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR–defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy
Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel
Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel
Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. PMID:26278462
Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876
Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela
The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.
Seymour, Roger S.; Smith, Sarah L.; White, Craig R.; Henderson, Donald M.; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela
The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat. PMID:21733896
Cao, Yixuan; Wang, Yongqiang; Sprangers, Sara; Picavet, Daisy I; Glogauer, Michael; McCulloch, Christopher A; Everts, Vincent
Adseverin is an actin-severing/capping protein that may contribute to osteoclast differentiation in vitro but its role in bone remodeling of healthy animals is not defined. We analyzed bone and osteoclast structure in adseverin conditional null mice at alveolar and long bone sites. In wild-type and adseverin null mice, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, there were no differences of bone mineral content or bone mineral density, indicating no change of bone metabolism. In tibiae, TRAcP + osteoclasts were formed in comparable numbers in adseverin null and wild-type mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed normal and similar abundance of ruffled borders, sealing zones, and mitochondria, and with no difference of osteoclast nuclear numbers. In contrast, analyses of long bone showed that in the absence of adseverin osteoclasts were smaller (120 ± 13 vs. 274 ± 19 µm 2 ; p < 0.05), as were nuclear size and the surface area of cytoplasm. The nuclei of adseverin null osteoclasts exhibited more heterochromatin (31 ± 3%) than wild-type cells (8 ± 1%), suggesting that adseverin affects cell differentiation. The data indicate that in healthy, developing tissues, adseverin contributes to the regulation of osteoclast structure but not to bone metabolism in vivo.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the...
Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar
Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.
Liu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Su, Yen-Bo; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong
In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities, including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, antihepatic steatosis, and anti-insulin resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6 wk of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunological and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Compared with HFD vehicle (HFD-V) rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and muscle macrophages and their intracellular cytokine levels. Metabolically, the increase in metabolic rates reduced lipid accumulation in various tissues, resulting in reduced adiposity, lower fat mass, decreased body weight, amelioration of hepatic steatosis, and improved systemic/muscle insulin resistance. Further mechanistic approaches revealed an upregulation of tissue lipogenic [(SREBP1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase)/insulin-sensitizing (GLUT4 and p-IRS1)] markers in HFD-caf rats. Significantly, ex vivo experiments revealed that the cytokine release by the cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell (monocyte) and WAT (adipocyte), which are known to stimulate macrophage migration and hepatocyte lipogenesis, were lower in HFD-V groups than HFD-caf groups. Caffeine treatment simultaneously ameliorates immune and metabolic pathogenic signals present in tissue to normalize immunolgical and metabolic abnormalities found in HFD-induced obese rats.
Mirzababaei, Atieh; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Khorrami-Nezhad, Leila; Maghbooli, Zhila; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali
Link between obesity and bone health is controversial. It seems that maybe the difference in metabolic status leads to this difference. We studied relation between metabolically healthy/unhealthy components with bone mineral density. Results showed metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) phenotypes have better bone status at hip site than metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare total BMD and L-L4 BMD in MHO and MUHO base on Karelis criteria. We enrolled 272 Iranian obese women and men (BMI ≥ 30). According to Karelis criteria, the participants were grouped base to MHO and MUHO. The body composition and BMD were assessed for all cases. Serum HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were quantified by ELISA method. Our results demonstrate MUHO phenotype have high total BMD more than MHO (P = 0.01, CI = 0.12 to 0.21). Also, the results of logistic regression analysis showed MUHO have strongly associated with total BMD (β = -0.42, CI = - 0.31 to - 0.04, P = 0.009), but did not affected L2-L4 BMD (β = - 0.09, CI = - 0.14 to 0.08, P = 0.578); this represents that there was discordance in MUHO subjects. Our evidence implicated that HOMA-IR, high level serum TG, hs-CRP, and low level serum HDL had mediatory effect on relationship between obesity and high BMD at the hip region in MUHO subjects (P < 0.05). Present evidence indicates that, could be a novel link between difference in MUH phenotype and MH phenotype with bone status. Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites.
Smith, Scott M.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Abrams, Steven A.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)
The acceleration of age-related bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after long-duration missions. Studies in healthy ambulatory individuals have linked high salt (sodium) diets, hypercalciuria, and increased renal stone risk. Dietary salt may modulate bone loss through changes in calcium metabolism and the calcium endocrine system. The research proposed here will determine the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone during simulated space flight. Calcium metabolism will be determined through calcium kinetics studies, endocrine and biochemical measurements; and estimates of the mass, distribution and mechanical properties of bone, in subjects fed low (100 mmol sodium/day) or high (250 mmol sodium/day) levels of dietary salt during 28 days of headdown tilt bedrest. This research addresses the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone and calcium in space flight, and integrates the changes in calcium metabolism with those occurring in other physiologic systems. These data will be critical for both countermeasure development, and in determination of nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight. The potential countermeasures resulting from this research will reduce health risks due to acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and increased risk of renal stone formation..
Fisher, A; Srikusalanukul, W; Davis, M; Smith, P
Background Considerable controversy exists regarding the contribution of mineral/bone metabolism abnormalities to the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and osteoporotic fractures. Aims and methods To determine the relationships between mineral/bone metabolism biomarkers and CVD in 746 older patients with hip fracture, clinical data were recorded and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, troponin I, parameters of bone turnover, and renal, liver, and thyroid functions were measured. Results CVDs were diagnosed in 472 (63.3%) patients. Vitamin D deficiency was similarly prevalent in patients with (78.0%) and without (82.1%) CVD. The CVD group had significantly higher mean PTH concentrations (7.6 vs 6.0 pmol/L, P < 0.001), a higher prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SPTH) (PTH > 6.8 pmol/L, 43.0% vs 23.3%, P < 0.001), and excess bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline corrected by creatinine [DPD/Cr] > 7.5 nmol/μmol, 87.9% vs 74.8%, P < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, SHPT (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, P = 0.007) and high DPD/Cr (OR 2.8, P = 0.016) were independent indictors of CVD. Compared to those with both PTH and DPD/Cr in the normal range, multivariate-adjusted ORs for the presence of CVD were 17.3 (P = 0.004) in subjects with SHPT and 9.7 (P < 0.001) in patients with high DPD/Cr. CVD was an independent predicator of SHPT (OR 2.8, P = 0.007) and excess DPD/Cr (OR 2.5, P = 0.031). CVD was predictive of postoperative myocardial injury, while SHPT was also an independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death. Conclusion SHPT and excess bone resorption are independent pathophysiological mediators underlying the bidirectional associations between CVD and hip fracture, and therefore are important diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:23460043
Lee, C W; Lee, J H; Kim, J J; Park, S W; Hong, M K; Kim, S T; Lim, T H; Park, S J
Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated cerebral metabolism and its determinants in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of cardiac transplantation on these measurements. Few data are available about cerebral metabolism in CHF. Fifty patients with CHF (ejection fraction < or = 35%) and 20 healthy volunteers were included for this study. Of the patients, 10 patients underwent heart transplantation. All subjects performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was obtained from localized regions (8 to 10 ml) of occipital gray matter (OGM) and parietal white matter (PWM). Absolute levels of the metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol) were calculated. In PWM only creatine level was significantly lower in CHF than in control subjects, but in OGM all four metabolite levels were decreased in CHF. The creatine level was independently correlated with half-recovery time and duration of heart failure symptoms in PWM (r = -0.56, p < 0.05), and with peak oxygen consumption and serum sodium concentration in OGM (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were improved after successful cardiac transplantation. This study shows that cerebral metabolism is abnormally deranged in advanced CHF and it may serve as a potential marker of the disease severity.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. R.
Several classic twin studies show genetic effects on markers of bone health, including bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone (PTH). This study was performed to assess the relative contribution of genetics to biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Fifteen sets of identical twins (8 male, 7 female) were housed in a clinical research center where diet was controlled (15% protein, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) for 3 consecutive days. Each day, 24-h urine pools were collected and N-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and serum PTH were measured. The broad-sense heritability factor (H2) is an estimation of the portion of the total variance of a given phenotype that is attributable to genetic variance. H2 was estimated from the correlation coefficient of the phenotype data. H2 for NTX was 94% for males and 80% for females, DPD was 88% for males and 97% for females, urinary calcium excretion was 97% for males and 90% for females, and PTH was 92% for males and 79% for females. Since environmental variability was minimized for the 3 days of data collection, these heritability factors are likely overestimated. Nonetheless, the data support the concept that PTH is a predominantly heritable trait, and suggest that NTX, DPD, and calcium excretion are as well. These biochemical data support the previously documented heritability of bone health.
Lau, Wei Ling; Linnes, Michael; Chu, Emily Y; Foster, Brian L; Bartley, Bryan A; Somerman, Martha J; Giachelli, Cecilia M
Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic syndrome characterized by imbalances in mineral homeostasis, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and ectopic calcification. The mechanisms underlying this syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not yet clear. We examined the effect of normal phosphate (NP) or high phosphate (HP) feeding in the setting of CKD on bone pathology, serum biochemistry and vascular calcification in calcification-prone dilute brown non-agouti (DBA/2) mice. In both NP and HP-fed CKD mice, elevated serum parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were observed, but serum phosphorus levels were equivalent compared with sham controls. CKD mice on NP diet showed trabecular alterations in the long bone consistent with high-turnover ROD, including increased trabecular number with abundant osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Despite trabecular bone and serum biochemical changes, CKD/NP mice did not develop vascular calcification. In contrast, CKD/HP mice developed arterial medial calcification (AMC), more severe trabecular bone alterations and cortical bone abnormalities that included decreased cortical thickness and density, and increased cortical porosity. Cortical bone porosity and trabecular number strongly correlated with the degree of aortic calcification. HP feeding was required to induce the full spectrum of CKD-MBD symptoms in CKD mice.
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poikiloderma, small stature, sparse hair, skeletal abnormalities, increased risk of osteosarcoma, and decreased bone mass. To date, there has not been a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence and extent of me...
Macri, Elisa V; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Mandalunis, Patricia; Zeni, Susana; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M
High-fat diets are usually associated with greater weight (W) gain and body fat (BF). However, it is still unclear whether the type and amount of fat consumed influence BF. Additionally, dietary fat intake may also have consequences on skeletal health. To evaluate in healthy growing rats the effects of high-fat diets and type of dietary fat intake (saturated or vegetable oils) on energy and bone metabolism. At weaning, male Wistar rats (n = 50) were fed either a control diet (C; fat = 7% w/w) or a high-fat diet (20% w/w) containing either: soybean oil, corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), or beef tallow (BT) for 8 weeks. Zoometric parameters, BF, food intake and digestibility, and total and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) were assessed. Total skeleton bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), BMC/W, spine BMD, and bone volume (static-histomorphometry) were measured. Animals fed BT diet achieved lower W versus C. Rats fed high-fat vegetable oil diets showed similar effects on the zoometric parameters but differed in BF. BT showed the lowest lipid digestibility and BMC. In contrast, high vegetable oil diets produced no significant differences in BMC, BMC/W, BMD, spine BMD, and bone volume. Marked differences were observed for LO and BT groups in b-AP and CO and BT groups in bone volume. BT diet rich in saturated fatty acids had decreased digestibility and adversely affected energy and bone metabolisms, in growing healthy male rats. There were no changes in zoometric and bone parameters among rats fed high vegetable oil diets.
Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J
The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis.
Laurent, M R; Cook, M J; Gielen, E; Ward, K A; Antonio, L; Adams, J E; Decallonne, B; Bartfai, G; Casanueva, F F; Forti, G; Giwercman, A; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Lee, D M; Pendleton, N; Punab, M; Claessens, F; Wu, F C W; Vanderschueren, D; Pye, S R; O'Neill, T W
We examined cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its components with male bone turnover, density and structure. Greater bone mass in men with metabolic syndrome was related to their greater body mass, whereas hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia or impaired insulin sensitivity were associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass deficits. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass or strength deficits (i.e. not proportionate to body mass index, BMI), but the relative contributions of MetS components related to insulin sensitivity or obesity to male bone health remain unclear. We determined cross-sectional associations of MetS, its components and insulin sensitivity (by homeostatic model assessment-insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S)) using linear regression models adjusted for age, centre, smoking, alcohol, and BMI. Bone turnover markers and heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were measured in 3129 men aged 40-79. Two centres measured total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density ( a BMD, n = 527) and performed radius peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, n = 595). MetS was present in 975 men (31.2 %). Men with MetS had lower β C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (β-CTX), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and osteocalcin (P < 0.0001) and higher total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine a BMD (P ≤ 0.03). Among MetS components, only hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with PINP and β-CTX. Hyperglycaemia was negatively associated with BUA, hypertriglyceridaemia with hip a BMD and radius cross-sectional area (CSA) and stress-strain index. HOMA-S was similarly associated with PINP and β-CTX, BUA, and radius CSA in BMI-adjusted models. Men with MetS have higher a BMD in association with their greater body mass, while their lower bone turnover and relative deficits in heel BUA and
Pater, Agnieszka; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents. The incidence of diabetes mellitus type 1 is increasing rapidly worldwide. Recently, the largest rate of increase is observed in children aged 0-4 years. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Pathological changes occur in the bone structure. The lack of diagnosis and treatment of alterations of the bone tIssue metabolism may lead to osteoporosis, which is characterized by much reduced bone mineral density and changes in the microarchitecture of the bone tIssue, which in consequence results in increased susceptibility to fractures. Diabetes mellitus type 1 most often starts before achieving peak bone mass, which constitutes a point of reference for predicting risk of fractures in a later period of life. Mechanisms responsible for loss of the bone tIssue in diabetes of type 1 still remain unexplained. Many research findings indicate the anabolic role of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, mainly IGF-1. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent papers about alterations of bone metabolism in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1.
Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S
Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small
Bouquegneau, Antoine; Salam, Syrazah; Delanaye, Pierre; Eastell, Richard
Bone and mineral disorders occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients and are associated with a high risk of fracture, morbidity, and mortality. There is a broad spectrum of often overlapping bone diseases seen after transplantation, including osteoporosis as well as persisting high– or low–turnover bone disease. The pathophysiology underlying bone disorders after transplantation results from a complex interplay of factors, including preexisting renal osteodystrophy and bone loss related to a variety of causes, such as immunosuppression and alterations in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 axis as well as changes in mineral metabolism. Management is complex, because noninvasive tools, such as imaging and bone biomarkers, do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect these abnormalities in bone structure and function, whereas bone biopsy is not a widely available diagnostic tool. In this review, we focus on recent data that highlight improvements in our understanding of the prevalence, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of mineral and bone disorders in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26912549
Wen, H J; Huang, T H; Li, T L; Chong, P N; Ang, B S
Measurement of bone turnover markers is an alternative way to determine the effects of exercise on bone health. A 10-week group-based step aerobics exercise significantly improved functional fitness in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, and showed a positive trend in reducing resorption activity via bone turnover markers. The major goal of this study was to determine the effects of short-term group-based step aerobics (GBSA) exercise on the bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD), and functional fitness of postmenopausal women (PMW) with low bone mass. Forty-eight PMW (aged 58.2 ± 3.5 years) with low bone mass (lumbar spine BMD T-score of -2.00 ± 0.67) were recruited and randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG) or to a control group (CG). Participants from the EG attended a progressive 10-week GBSA exercise at an intensity of 75-85 % of heart rate reserve, 90 min per session, and three sessions per week. Serum bone metabolic markers (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTX] and osteocalcin), BMD, and functional fitness components were measured before and after the training program. Mixed-models repeated measures method was used to compare differences between the groups (α = 0.05). After the 10-week intervention period, there was no significant exercise program by time interaction for CTX; however, the percent change for CTX was significantly different between the groups (EG = -13.1 ± 24.4 % vs. CG = 11.0 ± 51.5 %, P < 0.05). While there was no significant change of osteocalcin in both groups. As expected, there was no significant change of BMD in both groups. In addition, the functional fitness components in the EG were significantly improved, as demonstrated by substantial enhancement in both lower- and upper-limb muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance (P < 0.05). The current short-term GBSA exercise benefited to bone metabolism and general health by significantly reduced bone resorption activity and improved
Tang, Chris C; Eidelberg, David
Metabolic imaging in the rest state has provided valuable information concerning the abnormalities of regional brain function that underlie idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, network modeling procedures, such as spatial covariance analysis, have further allowed for the quantification of these changes at the systems level. In recent years, we have utilized this strategy to identify and validate three discrete metabolic networks in PD associated with the motor and cognitive manifestations of the disease. In this chapter, we will review and compare the specific functional topographies underlying parkinsonian akinesia/rigidity, tremor, and cognitive disturbance. While network activity progressed over time, the rate of change for each pattern was distinctive and paralleled the development of the corresponding clinical symptoms in early-stage patients. This approach is already showing great promise in identifying individuals with prodromal manifestations of PD and in assessing the rate of progression before clinical onset. Network modulation was found to correlate with the clinical effects of dopaminergic treatment and surgical interventions, such as subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and gene therapy. Abnormal metabolic networks have also been identified for atypical parkinsonian syndromes, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Using multiple disease-related networks for PD, MSA, and PSP, we have developed a novel, fully automated algorithm for accurate classification at the single-patient level, even at early disease stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide
The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
Idelevich, Anna; Sato, Kazusa; Nagano, Kenichi; Rowe, Glenn; Gori, Francesca; Baron, Roland
In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific, genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that agouti-related peptide-expressing (AgRP-expressing) or proopiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC-expressing) neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole-body energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed. In contrast, AP1 alterations in steroidogenic factor 1-expressing (SF1-expressing) neurons, present in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), increase energy but decrease bone density, suggesting that these effects are independent. Altered AP1 signaling also increased the level of the neuromediator galanin in the hypothalamus. Global galanin deletion (VHT galanin silencing using shRNA) or pharmacological galanin receptor blockade counteracted the observed effects on energy and bone. Thus, AP1 antagonism reveals that AgRP- and POMC-expressing neurons can stimulate body metabolism and increase bone density, with galanin acting as a central downstream effector. The results obtained with SF1-expressing neurons, however, indicate that bone homeostasis is not always dictated by the global energy status, and vice versa.
Protein is the major structural constituent of bone (50% by volume). But it is also a major source of metabolic acid, especially protein from animal sources because it contains sulfur amino acids that generate sulfuric acid. Increased potential renal acid load has been closely associated with increa...
Marin-Padilla, M; Marin-Padilla, T M
Specific developmental malformations have been demonstrated in the occipital bone of two chondrodysplastic disorders (achondroplasia and thanatophoric dwarfism). Analysis of these malformations indicates that the occipital bone is primary affected in these disorders. In both cases, the endochondral-derived components of the occipital bone (the basioccipital, the two lateral parts, and the planum nuchale of the squama occipitalis) have failed to grow properly and are smaller and shorter than normal. On the other hand, the planum occipitalis of the squama, which derives from intramembranous ossification, is unaffected. In addition, the nature of these abnormalities indicates that the occipital synchondroses, together with the epiphyseal plates of other bones, are primarily affected in these two chondrodysplasias. The components of the occipital bone formed between the affected synchondroses failed to grow normally. The resulting malformation of the occipital bone is undoubtedly the cause of the shortening of the posterior cerebral fossa and of the considerable narrowing of the foramen magnum often described in these chondrodysplasias. It is postulated that growth disturbances between the affected occipital bone and the unaffected central nervous system results in the inadequacy of the posterior cerebral fossa and the foramen magnum to accommodate the growing brain. Consequently, compression of the brain at the posterior cerebral fossa or the foramen magnum levels could occur and thus lead to neurologic complications such as hydrocephalus and compression of the brain stem. It is suggested that the surgical removal of the fused posterior border of the lateral parts of the occipital bone (partial nuchalectomy) for the purpose of enlarging the narrow foramen magnum may be indicated in those chondrodysplastic children who develop these types of neurologic complications.
Weissensteiner, Jaroslav; Babušíková, Eva
Malignant melanoma is a malignancy located predominantly in the skin and the incidence of melanoma increases. We compared the markers of bone metabolism - osteocalcin (OC), beta-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CrossLaps, β-CTx) and tumour marker - human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in the serum with finding during the entry examination and the check-up of whole-body bone scintigraphy of the patient with a malignant melanoma. Serum concentrations of OC, β-CTx, HE4 were determined in 1 patient (female, age 64 years) with malignant melanoma and correlated with the presence of equivocal bone metastases detected by whole-body bone scintigraphy (the entry examination and check-up after 6 months). Concentrations of bone metabolism markers decreased during six months and we observed progress in bone metastases. The change of the markers levels during the entry examination and the check-up of the whole-body bone scintigraphy with equivocal finding of bone metastases could be a sign of a possible initiating progression of malignant melanoma despite a clinically negative finding that does not prove the progression of the disease.
Cai, David J; Zhao, Yongdong; Glasier, Jennifer; Cullen, Diane; Barnes, Stephen; Turner, Charles H; Wastney, Meryl; Weaver, Connie M
This study provided a comprehensive investigation on the effect of soy protein and soy isoflavones on both calcium and bone metabolism in virgin adult rats. The measurements included bone histology, calcium kinetic modeling, calcium balance, bone densitometry, and whole body densitometry. Results confirmed the bone-preserving effect of estrogen but did not support a bone-sparing role of soy isoflavones. Several animal and short-term human studies have indicated that soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones may be used as an alternative therapy to estrogen replacement therapy. However, none of the previous studies have investigated this estrogenic effect on both calcium and bone metabolism in animals or humans, which is essential in ascertaining the mode of action of isoflavones. This study was designed to determine the effects of soy protein versus isoflavones on calcium and bone metabolism in an ovariectomized rat model. Unmated 6-month-old ovariectomized and sham-operated female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to nine groups (16 rats/group) and pair-fed soy- or casein-based diets with or without isoflavones for 8 weeks. A reference group was administered estrogen through subcutaneous implants (20-35 pg/liter plasma). Bone densitometry, histomorphometry, and mechanical testing were used to study bone metabolism and quality. Calcium metabolism was studied using calcium tracer balance and kinetics. After ovariectomy, estrogen prevented bone loss in trabecular bone and suppressed formation on both trabecular and cortical bone surfaces. Isoflavones given as enriched soy protein isolate or supplements did not prevent trabecular bone loss. Combining isoflavones with estrogen had no additional benefits over estrogen alone. There were no differences in response to isoflavones caused by protein source. None of the treatments significantly affected either total Ca balance or (45)Ca absorption. However, soy protein showed significant effects on reducing
Pawlak, Krystyna; Oksztulska-Kolanek, Ewa; Domaniewski, Tomasz; Znorko, Beata; Karbowska, Malgorzata; Citkowska, Aleksandra; Rogalska, Joanna; Roszczenko, Alicja; Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Pawlak, Dariusz
Background Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism represent one of the most complex complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serotonin, a monoamine synthesized from tryptophan, may play a potential role in bone metabolism. Brain-derived serotonin exerts a positive effect on the bone structure by limiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Tryptophan is the precursor not only to the serotonin but also and primarily to kynurenine metabolites. The ultimate aim of the present study was to determine the association between central kynurenine metabolism and biomechanical as well as geometrical properties of bone in the experimental model of the early stage of CKD. Methods Thirty-three Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham-operated and subtotal nephrectomized animals). Three months after surgery, serum samples were obtained for the determination of biochemical parameters, bone turnover biomarkers, and kynurenine pathway metabolites; tibias were collected for bone biomechanical, bone geometrical, and bone mass density analysis; brains were removed and divided into five regions for the determination of kynurenine pathway metabolites. Results Subtotal nephrectomized rats presented higher serum concentrations of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone, and developed hypocalcemia. Several biomechanical and geometrical parameters were significantly elevated in rats with experimentally induced CKD. Subtotal nephrectomized rats presented significantly higher kynurenine concentrations and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and significantly lower tryptophan levels in all studied parts of the brain. Kynurenine in the frontal cortex and tryptophan in the hypothalamus and striatum correlated positively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics and bone geometry. Discussion In addition to the complex mineral, hormone, and metabolite changes, intensified central kynurenine turnover may play an important role in the development of bone
Richkind, Kathleen E; Mortimer, Errol; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Fraire, Armando
We report the results of cytogenetic analysis of a case of unicameral bone cyst with a t(16;20(p11.2;q13) present as the sole abnormality. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a cytogenetically characterized tumor of this type.
James, S. Jill; Melnyk, Stepan; Jernigan, Stefanie; Hubanks, Amanda; Rose, Shannon; Gaylor, David W.
An integrated metabolic profile reflects the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that affect the candidate pathway of interest. Recent evidence suggests that some autistic children may have reduced detoxification capacity and may be under chronic oxidative stress. Based on reports of abnormal methionine and…
Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.
Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.
Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L
Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P < .001) in serum osteocalcin (indicative of bone turnover), whereas the placebo arm exhibited a 21% increase (P = .003). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased 23% (P = .001) in the intervention arm and decreased 12% (P = .03) in the placebo arm. The between-arm differences for osteocalcin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were statistically significant. Serum insulin-like growth factor I was statistically increased in both arms, but the between-arm differences were not statistically significant. Subanalysis showed that among those in the highest tertile of baseline insulin-like growth factor I, the intervention arm exhibited a significant increase in amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, whereas the placebo arm showed a significant decrease at 14 weeks. Treatment with rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suchacki, Karla J; Cawthorn, William P
The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. Herein, we review the most recent developments of BMAT research in both humans and rodents, including the distinct nature of BMAT; the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine interactions between BMAT and various tissues, both in physiological and pathological scenarios; how these interactions might impact energy metabolism; and the most recent technological advances to quantify BMAT. Though still dwarfed by research into white and brown adipose tissues, BMAT is now recognised as endocrine organ and is attracting increasing attention from biomedical researchers around the globe. We are beginning to learn the importance of BMAT both within and beyond the bone, allowing us to better appreciate the role of BMAT in normal physiology and disease.
Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P
Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
Tsai, Chung-Hung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Yin-Fan; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen
To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in a non-diabetic population. A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. A total of 447 subjects (5.5%) had gallstones, with 239 (5.1%) men and 208 (6.0%) women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.
Locatelli, Vittorio; Bianchi, Vittorio E.
Background. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered. PMID:25147565
Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M
Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373
Hamed, Sherifa A
Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies revealed that patients with epilepsy and on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk for metabolic bone diseases. Bone diseases were reported in about 50% of patients on AEDs. Low bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, altered concentration of bone turnover markers and fractures were reported with phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. The mechanisms for AEDs-induced bone diseases are heterogeneous and include hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and direct acceleration of bone loss and/or reduction of bone formation. This article reviews the evidence, predictors and mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone abnormalities and its clinical implications. For patients on AEDs, regular monitoring of bone health is recommended. Prophylactic administration of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all patients. Treatment doses of calcium and vitamin D and even anti-resorptive drug therapy are reserved for patients at high risk of pathological fracture.
Pathological and metabolic bone diseases are common and relevant occurrences in orthopedics and trauma surgery; however, fractures are often treated as being the illness itself and not seen as the symptom of an underlying bone disease. This is why further diagnostics and systemic treatment options are often insufficiently considered in the routine treatment of fractures. This review focuses on osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, hypophosphatasia and Paget's disease of bone.In patients with osteoporotic vertebral or proximal femur fractures, pharmaceutical treatment to prevent subsequent fractures is an integral part of fracture therapy together with surgical treatment. Osteopetrosis is caused by compromised osteoclastic bone resorption; therefore, even in the face of an elevated bone mass, vitamin D3 supplementation is crucial to avoid clinically relevant hypocalcemia. Unspecific symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, especially together with stress fractures, are typically found in patients suffering from hypophosphatasia. In these patients measurement of alkaline phosphatase shows reduced enzyme activity. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase are found in Paget's disease of bone where bisphosphonates are still the treatment of choice.
Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zi; Han, Yiwei; Yu, Huan
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy complication. Maternal underlying condition and adverse factors both influence the pathogenesis of PE. Abnormal lipid metabolism as a maternal underlying disease may participate in the occurrence and development of PE. This study aimed to observe the effects of adverse factors on PE-like symptoms of pregnant mice with genetic abnormal lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3) transgenic mice with abnormal lipid metabolism were subcutaneously injected with L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or normal saline (NS) daily starting at Day 7 or 16 of pregnancy (ApoC3+L-NA and ApoC3+NS groups), and wild-type (WT) mice served as a control (WT+L-NA and WT+NS groups). All mice were subdivided into early and late subgroups by injection time. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary protein were measured. Pregnancy outcomes, including fetal weight, placental weight, live birth rate, and fetal absorption rate, were analyzed. Pathologic changes in the placenta were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. One-way analysis of variance, t-test, and χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis. MAP significantly increased for ApoC3+NS groups compared with WT+NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in urine protein. Following L-NAME injection, MAP and urinary protein significantly increased for ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), and the increase for ApoC3+L-NA was more obvious. Urinary protein levels in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA significantly increased compared with the corresponding late groups (P < 0.05). Fetal absorption rate significantly increased and fetal and placental weights significantly decreased in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in late ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA groups. Fetal weight in early ApoC3+L-NA was significantly lower than in early WT+L-NA group (P < 0.05). Morphologic
Eller-Vainicher, C; Bassotti, A; Imeraj, A; Cairoli, E; Ulivieri, F M; Cortini, F; Dubini, M; Marinelli, B; Spada, A; Chiodini, I
The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is characterized by abnormal connective tissue but bone involvement is debated. We found a reduced BMD and bone quality and increased prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in eugonadal patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These findings suggest the need of a bone health evaluation in these patients. The Ehlers-Danlos (EDS) syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of the connective tissue leading to ligamentous laxity and skin and tissue fragility. We evaluated the bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality (measured by trabecular bone score, TBS), and the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFx) in a group of eugonadal adult EDS patients. Fifty consecutive Caucasian patients, aged 30-50 years (36 females, 14 males) with classical or hypermobility EDS and 50 age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were enrolled. In all subjects' calcium-phosphorous metabolism, bone turnover, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femur (femoral neck, FN and total femur, FT) and TBS by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the VFx presence by spine radiograph were assessed. Patients showed reduced BMD (Z-scores LS -0.45 ± 1.00, FN -0.56 ± 1.01, FT -0.58 ± 0.92) and TBS (1.299 ± 0.111) and increased prevalence of morphometric VFx (32 %) than controls (Z-scores LS 0.09 ± 1.22, FN 0.01 ± 0.97, FT 0.08 ± 0.89; TBS 1.382 ± 0.176; VFx 8 %, p <0.05 for all comparisons), while vitamin D levels, calcium-phosphorous metabolism, and bone turnover were comparable. Fractured EDS patients showed lower TBS values than non-fractured ones (1.245 ± 0.138 vs 1.325 ± 0.086, p < 0.05), despite comparable BMD. In EDS patients, the VFx presence was significantly associated with TBS even after adjusting for sex, age, BMD, EDS type, and falls frequency. EDS patients have reduced BMD and bone quality (as measured by TBS) and increased prevalence of VFx.
Gevi, Federica; Zolla, Lello; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status. ASD-specific urinary metabolomic patterns were explored at an early age in 30 ASD children and 30 matched controls (age range 2-7, M:F = 22:8) using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-UHPLC and mass spectrometry, a highly sensitive, accurate, and unbiased approach. Metabolites were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis and grouped by metabolic pathway. Urinary metabolites displaying the largest differences between young ASD and control children belonged to the tryptophan and purine metabolic pathways. Also, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, phenylalanine-tyrosine-tryptophan biosynthesis, pantothenate and CoA, and pyrimidine metabolism differed significantly. ASD children preferentially transform tryptophan into xanthurenic acid and quinolinic acid (two catabolites of the kynurenine pathway), at the expense of kynurenic acid and especially of melatonin. Also, the gut microbiome contributes to altered tryptophan metabolism, yielding increased levels of indolyl 3-acetic acid and indolyl lactate. The metabolic pathways most distinctive of young Italian autistic children largely overlap with those found in rodent models of ASD following maternal immune activation or genetic manipulations. These results are consistent with the proposal of a purine-driven cell danger response, accompanied by overproduction of epileptogenic and
Kurabayashi, Takumi; Tamura, Ryo; Hata, Yuki; Nishijima, Shota; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Yanase, Toru
Calcium transfer from the mother to the infant during pregnancy and lactation plays an extremely important role in the bone health of the mother and neonate. Calcium aids in bone health through all ages but is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the structure and metabolism of bone during pregnancy and the early stage of postpartum are evaluated by investigating bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometry and bone markers of human or animal models. The bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, and the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. Puerperal BMD remained static over the subsequent 5-10 years. If the women have a low BMD at this stage of their reproductive life, it tends not to improve over this time. Perhaps identification of this at-risk group may lead to effective interventions to reduce fracture risk in later life.
Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.
Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718
Panahifar, Arash; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Doschak, Michael R
In this article, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new class of nonionizing bone-targeting contrast agents based on bisphosphonate-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), for use in imaging of bone turnover with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similar to bone-targeting (99m)Technetium medronate, our novel contrast agent uses bisphosphonates to impart bone-seeking properties, but replaces the former radioisotope with nonionizing SPIONs which enables their subsequent detection using MRI. Our reported method is relatively simple, quick and cost-effective and results in BP-SPIONs with a final nanoparticle size of 17 nm under electron microscopy technique (i.e., TEM). In-vitro binding studies of our novel bone tracer have shown selective binding affinity (around 65%) for hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral of bone. Bone-targeting SPIONs offer the potential for use as nonionizing MRI contrast agents capable of imaging dynamic bone turnover, for use in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases and related bone pathology.
TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2012 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Abnormalities in Human Brain Creatine Metabolism in...levels of total creatine (tCr) in veterans with Gulf War Illness have been observed in prior studies. The goal of this research is to estimate amounts and
Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan
The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.
Corre, Jill; Mahtouk, Karène; Attal, Michel; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Huynh, Anne; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Danho, Clotaire; Laharrague, Patrick; Klein, Bernard; Rème, Thierry; Bourin, Philippe
Recent literature suggested that cell of the microenvironment of solid tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression with Affymetrix arrays and phenotypic and functional study in 3 groups of individuals: patients with MM and those with monoclonal gamopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), and healthy aged-matched subjects. Gene expression profile independently classified the BMMSCs of these individuals in a normal and in a MM group. MGUS BMMSCs were interspersed between those 2 groups. Among the 145 distinct genes differentially expressed in MM and normal BMMSCs 46% were involved in tumor-microenvironment cross-talk. Known soluble factors involved in MM pathophysiologic features, (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, DKK1 and amphiregulin, were revealed and new ones found. In particular, GDF-15 was found to induce dose-dependant growth of MOLP-6, a stromal cell-dependent myeloma cell line. Functionally, MM BMMSCs induced an over-growth of MOLP-6, and their capacity to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage was impaired. Thus, BMMSCs from MM patients could create a very efficient niche to support the survival and proliferation of the myeloma stem cells. PMID:17344918
Kim, Hye Kyung; Lee, Sena; Leem, Kang-Hyun
Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide, and most current therapy used in osteoporosis treatment acts by either increasing bone formation or decreasing bone resorption. However, the adverse effects of these therapies may preclude their long-term use. We examined the effects of egg yolk water-soluble peptide (YPEP) on bone metabolism as an alternative to current therapeutic agents in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In the first step, the in vitro effects of YPEP on bone loss were determined. The proliferation, collagen content, and alkaline phosphatase activity of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells were measured. The in vivo experiment confirmed the positive effect of YPEP on bone tissue. Three-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed commercial chow diet or 0.1% YPEP-supplemented diet for 3 month. YPEP increased preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Collagen content was also increased by YPEP treatment. Furthermore, YPEP potently suppressed osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells. YPEP (100 μg/mL) abolished the formation of osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. OVX rats supplemented with YPEP showed an osteoprotective effect, as the bone mineral density and cortical thickness in the tibia were increased compared with the OVX controls. Moreover, histological data indicate that YPEP prevented the cancellous bone loss induced by ovariectomy. None of these protective effects were observed in casein-treated rats. The present study suggests that YPEP is a promising alternative to current therapeutic agents for the management of osteoporosis.
Holick, M. F.
As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.
Holick, M F
As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.
Starke, Astrid; Corsenca, Alf; Kohler, Thomas; Knubben, Johannes; Kraenzlin, Marius; Uebelhart, Daniel; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Müller, Ralph; Ambühl, Patrice M
Acidosis and transplantation are associated with increased risk of bone disturbances. This study aimed to assess bone morphology and metabolism in acidotic patients with a renal graft, and to ameliorate bone characteristics by restoration of acid/base homeostasis with potassium citrate. This was a 12-month controlled, randomized, interventional trial that included 30 renal transplant patients with metabolic acidosis (S-[HCO(3)(-)] <24 mmol/L) undergoing treatment with either potassium citrate to maintain S-[HCO(3)(-)] >24 mmol/L, or potassium chloride (control group). Iliac crest bone biopsies and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were performed at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Bone biopsies were analyzed by in vitro micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry, including tetracycline double labeling. Serum biomarkers of bone turnover were measured at baseline and study end. Twenty-three healthy participants with normal kidney function comprised the reference group. Administration of potassium citrate resulted in persisting normalization of S-[HCO(3)(-)] versus potassium chloride. At 12 months, bone surface, connectivity density, cortical thickness, and cortical porosity were better preserved with potassium citrate than with potassium chloride, respectively. Serological biomarkers and bone tetracycline labeling indicate higher bone turnover with potassium citrate versus potassium chloride. In contrast, no relevant changes in bone mineral density were detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with potassium citrate in renal transplant patients is efficient and well tolerated for correction of metabolic acidosis and may be associated with improvement in bone quality. This study is limited by the heterogeneity of the investigated population with regard to age, sex, and transplant vintage.
Zayzafoon, M.; Rymaszewski, M.; Heiny, J.; Rios, M.; Hauschka, P. V.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in neuronal differentiation/survival, the regulation of food intake, and the pathobiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. BDNF and its receptor are expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocyte. BDNF in vitro has a positive effect on bone; whether central BDNF affects bone mass in vivo is not known. We therefore examined bone mass and energy use in brain-targeted BDNF conditional knockout mice (Bdnf2lox/2lox/93). The deletion of BDNF in the brain led to a metabolic phenotype characterized by hyperphagia, obesity, and increased abdominal white adipose tissue. Central BDNF deletion produces a marked skeletal phenotype characterized by increased femur length, elevated whole bone mineral density, and bone mineral content. The skeletal changes are developmentally regulated and appear concurrently with the metabolic phenotype, suggesting that the metabolic and skeletal actions of BDNF are linked. The increased bone development is evident in both the cortical and trabecular regions. Compared with control, Bdnf2lox/2lox/93 mice show greater trabecular bone volume (+50% for distal femur, P < 0.001; +35% for vertebral body, P < 0.001) and midfemoral cortical thickness (+11 to 17%, P < 0.05), measured at 3 and 6 months of age. The skeletal and metabolic phenotypes were gender dependent, with female being more affected than male mice. However, uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown fat, a marker of sympathetic tone, was not different between genotypes. We show that deletion of central BDNF expression in mice results in increased bone mass and white adipose tissue, with no significant changes in sympathetic signaling or peripheral serotonin, associated with hyperphagia, obesity, and leptin resistance. PMID:23011922
Stagi, Stefano; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Cecchi, Cecilia; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Romano, Silvia; de Martino, Maurizio
To evaluate bone mineral status and metabolism in a cohort of patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Thirty-one children (15 females, 16 males; mean age 9.6±2.74 years) and 10 young adults (6 females, 4 males; mean age 21.4±5.11 years) with WBS were cross-sectionally evaluated and compared with two age-, sex-, and body-size-matched paediatric (155 subjects, 75 females and 80 males; mean age 9.7±2.93 years) and adult (50 subjects, 30 females and 20 males; mean age 22.3±5.42 years) healthy controls. We evaluated ionised and total calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase levels, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT) z-scores. WBS patients showed a significantly reduced AD-SoS z-score (p <0.001) and BTT z-score (p <0.001) compared with the controls. This finding persisted when we divided the sample into paediatric and adult patients. WBS patients also had significantly higher ionised (p <0.001) and total calcium (p <0.001) levels as well as higher PTH levels (p <0.001) compared with the controls. Furthermore, WBS children and adolescents had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (p <0.001) and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations (p <0.001) than controls. WBS subjects exhibit a significant reduction in bone mineral status and impaired bone metabolism. These findings point to the need for close monitoring of WBS patients.
Romero, Juana B; Briones, Evangelina; Palacios, Gerardo C; Castelán, Kathia
Childhood obesity has increased to epidemic levels and is considered a public health problem due to its association with a number of metabolic abnormalities, which are being detected at earlier stages of life. The objective was to evaluate the association between the presence of subclinical metabolic abnormalities (SMA) and obesity in a sample of pre-pubertal Mexican schoolchildren. Children of both sexes and 6 to 13 years old were questioned for signs of puberty, underwent anthropometric measurement and had their Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. Two groups were formed: those with obesity (case group) and those with normal weight paired by age and chosen randomly (control group). Fasting insulin, glucose and cholesterol were measured. 92 children were included, 46 in each group, mean age 9.9 and 9.5 years old, respectively (p = 0.97). A higher frequency of hyperinsulinism was found in the case group: Fasting insulin > 15 mU/ml, 75% vs. 21% (case group vs. control group, respectively); fasting glucose to insulin ratio < 6, 72% vs. 24%; HOMA IR > 2.7, 83% vs. 14%; and decrease in QUICKI (< 0.3), 80% vs. 19% (p = 0.000). Hypercholesterolemia was 25% vs. 15% (p = 0.22), impaired fasting glucose 28% vs. 8% (p = 0.01), and family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) 35% vs. 9% (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 1.5-22.2; p = 0.002). In this sample of Mexican schoolchildren, obesity was associated to a higher frequency of SMA, such as hyperinsulinism and impaired fasting glucose, and to a family history of DM.
Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Leproux, Philippe; Alfano, R. R.
Many areas of the body such as the tibia have minimal tissue thickness overlying bone. Near-infrared (NIR) optical windows may be used to image more deeply to reveal abnormalities hidden beneath tissue. We report on the potential application of a compact Leukos supercontinuum laser source (model STM-2000-IR) with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows (from 650 nm to 950 nm, 1,100 nm to 1,350 nm, 1,600 to 1,870, and 2,100 nm to 2,300 nm, respectively) and between 200 - 500 microwatt/nm power, with InGaAs (Goodrich Sensors Inc. SU320- 1.7RT) and InSb detectors (Teledyne Technologies) to image microfractures and abnormalities of bone hidden beneath tissue.
Recent studies of mouse genetics and human gene mutations has greatly contributed to clarifying the molecular mechanism of bone metabolism. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication among bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and endothelial cells. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Thus, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy skeleton and bone disease.
Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia
Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.
Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.
Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed inmore » serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.« less
Yang, Youngran; Herting, Jerald R; Choi, Jongsan
This study sought to compare the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and four body health types by gender. The study included 6217 men and 8243 women over 30 years of age chosen from a population-based survey. Participants were grouped by body mass index and metabolic abnormality into four types: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically abnormal but normal weight (MANW), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), and metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO). HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D health questionnaire. The outcomes encompassed five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression), and the impaired HRQoL dichotomized by the EQ-5D preference score. Complex sample multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to adjust for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors, and disease comorbidity. Among men, those in the MANW group presented worse conditions on all dimensions and the impaired HRQoL compared to other men. However, no significant effect remained after adjusting for relevant covariates. For women, those in the MAO group had the most adversely affected HRQoL followed by those females in the MHO group. The domain of mobility and impaired HRQoL variable of the MAO and MHO groups remained significant when controlling for all covariates in the model. The MANW is the least favorable condition of HRQoL for men, suggesting that metabolic health may associate with HRQoL more than obesity for males. In women, the MAO and MHO groups had the most adversely affected HRQoL, implying that MHO is not a favorable health condition and that obesity, in general, may be strongly associated with HRQoL in women.
Liu, Yanzhi; Cui, Yang; Chen, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Su, Yanjie; Cui, Liao
To investigate the long-term effects of three antiarthritics, namely dexamethasone, celecoxib, and methotrexate on the histology and metabolism of intact bone tissue in rats. Thirty-two 12-week-old healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups: 1) control (saline, daily); 2) dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, twice weekly); 3) celecoxib (50 mg/kg, daily); and 4) methotrexate (0.5 mg/kg, twice weekly). The drugs were administered to the rats for 12 weeks and the animals were weighed on a weekly basis. The femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for bone mineral density and bone mechanical properties analyses. The proximal tibiae were processed for bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography analyses. The following results were obtained: 1) dexamethasone strongly inhibited bone formation rate accompanied with a decrease in bone mineral density and bone biomechanical properties; 2) celecoxib stimulated bone resorption, leading to a decrease of bone mass and femur biomechanic properties; and 3) methotrexate caused bone loss and bone quality deterioration to a lesser extent due to the increase of the bone turnover rate on the proximal tibial metaphysis of the rats. This study provides a comparative profile of the long-term effects of clinical doses of celecoxib, methotrexate, and dexamethasone on intact skeletons of the rats. The results indicate that the three antiarthritics have varying degrees of side effects on bone metabolism, and these findings will help physicians to learn more about the potential effects of antiarthritics on bone metabolism.
Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata
Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers—bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)—were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP (p = 0.002) and CTX-I (p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC (p = 0.067) and BMD (p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities. PMID:29414859
Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna
Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492
Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y
Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from themore » mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with
Chavassieux, P; Seeman, E; Delmas, P D
Minimal trauma fractures in bone diseases are the result of bone fragility. Rather than considering bone fragility as being the result of a reduced amount of bone, we recognize that bone fragility is the result of changes in the material and structural properties of bone. A better understanding of the contribution of each component of the material composition and structure and how these interact to maintain whole bone strength is obtained by the study of metabolic bone diseases. Disorders of collagen (osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget's disease of bone), mineral content, composition and distribution (fluorosis and osteomalacia); diseases of high remodeling (postmenopausal osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and hyperthyroidism) and low remodeling (osteopetrosis, pycnodysostosis); and other diseases (idiopathic male osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis) produce abnormalities in the material composition and structure that lead to bone fragility. Observations in patients and in animal models provide insights on the biomechanical consequences of these illnesses and the nature of the qualities of bone that determine its strength.
Cho, H-J; Kim, J-W; Ju, S-Y; Park, Y-K
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artemisia princeps (AP) extract on bone metabolism and its potential role in the prevention of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Twenty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and treated as follows: sham-operated control group (SHAM); ovariectomized control group (OVX), ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 10 mg/kg/day alendronate (ALEN); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 100 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP100); ovariectomized group treated by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day Artemisia princeps (AP300). Treatment of ovariectomized rats with AP extracts for 15 weeks prevented the reduction in bone thickness and trabecular bone mineral density caused by urinary Ca and Cr excretion, and also prevented the increase in bone turnover by maintaining the serum Ca/P ratio. As a result, the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and cortical bone after ovariectomy was markedly improved by administration of AP extracts. In conclusion, AP prevented bone loss and osteoclast activity associated with high bone turnover in ovariectomized rats by controlling the serum Ca/P ratio and through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Our data implicate AP as a promising therapeutic option for the improvement of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.
Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.
Rubinacci, A; Covini, M; Bisogni, C; Villa, I; Galli, M; Palumbo, C; Ferretti, M; Muglia, M A; Marotti, G
To detect whether the mutual interaction occurring between the osteocytes-bone lining cells system (OBLCS) and the bone extracellular fluid (BECF) is affected by load through a modification of the BECF-extracellular fluid (ECF; systemic extracellular fluid) gradient, mice metatarsal bones immersed in ECF were subjected ex vivo to a 2-min cyclic axial load of different amplitudes and frequencies. The electric (ionic) currents at the bone surface were measured by a vibrating probe after having exposed BECF to ECF through a transcortical hole. The application of different loads and different frequencies increased the ionic current in a dose-dependent manner. The postload current density subsequently decayed following an exponential pattern. Postload increment's amplitude and decay were dependent on bone viability. Dummy and static loads did not induce current density modifications. Because BECF is perturbed by loading, it is conceivable that OBLCS tends to restore BECF preload conditions by controlling ion fluxes at the bone-plasma interface to fulfill metabolic needs. Because the electric current reflects the integrated activity of OBLCS, its evaluation in transgenic mice engineered to possess genetic lesions in channels or matrix constituents could be helpful in the characterization of the mechanical and metabolic functions of bone.
Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Weitzmann, M. Neale
The skeleton is an organ whose integrity is maintained by constant lifelong renewal involving coordinated removal of worn bone by osteoclasts and resynthesis of new bone by osteoblasts. In young adult humans and animals this process is homeostatic with no net gain or loss of bone mass. With natural aging and exacerbated by numerous pathological conditions, bone removal exceeds bone formation, disrupting homeostasis and resulting in bone loss. Over time, skeletal decline reaches clinical significance with development of osteopenia and eventually osteoporosis, conditions that dramatically increase bone fragility and the risk of fracture. Bone fractures can be devastating with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the last decade, it has become clear that skeletal renewal is strongly influenced by the immune system, a consequence of deep integration and centralization of common cell types and cytokine mediators, which we have termed the “immuno-skeletal interface.” Consequently, dysregulated skeletal renewal and bone loss is a common feature of inflammatory conditions associated with immune activation. Interestingly, bone loss is also associated with conditions of immunodeficiency, including infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Disruptions to the immuno-skeletal interface drive skeletal deterioration contributing to a high rate of bone fracture in HIV infection. This review examines current knowledge concerning the prevalence and etiology of skeletal complications in HIV infection, the effect of antiretroviral therapies (ART) on the skeleton, and how disruption of the immuno-skeletal interface may underlie bone loss in HIV infection and ART. PMID:21616037
Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss
Wang, L; Zhang, L; Pan, H; Peng, S; Zhao, X; Lu, W W
Loss of bone microstructure integrity is thought to be related to osteonecrosis. But the relationship between the time when bone microstructure integrity loss appears and the onset of osteonecrosis has not yet been determined. Our study demonstrated abnormal changes of subchondral bone microstructure involved in the early pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the changes of subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration to identify the onset of abnormal bone microstructure development in steroid-induced osteonecrosis. Fifty-five adult female Japanese White rabbits (mean body weight 3.5 kg; mean age 24 months) were used and randomly divided among three time points (3, 7, and 14 days) consisting of 15 rabbits each, received a single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MP; Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV) at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and a control group consisting of 10 rabbits was fed and housed under identical conditions but were not given steroid injections. A micro-CT scanner was applied to detect changes in the trabecular region of subchondral bone of excised femoral head samples. Parameters including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface (BS), trabecular bone pattern factor (Tb.Pf), trabecular thickness/number/separation (Tb.Th, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp), and structure model index (SMI) were evaluated using the software CTAn (SkyScan). After micro-CT scans, bilateral femoral heads were cut in the coronal plane at a thickness of 4 μm. The sections were then stained with haematoxylin-eosin and used for the diagnosis of osteonecrosis and the rate of development of osteonecrosis. The BV/TV, BS, Tb.Th and Tb.N demonstrated a time-dependent decline from 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group, while the Tb.Pf, Tb.Sp and SMI demonstrated an increase at 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group. For the histopathology portion, osteonecrosis was not seen 3 days after steroid treatment, but was
Yao, J; Zhang, J; Hou, J-F
The effects of ipriflavone on caged layer bone metabolism were examined in vitro and in vivo. Ipriflavone at 10(-8) M stimulated the activity of osteoblasts cultured from embryonic chick calvariae, and 10(-9) to 10(-7) M inhibited osteoclasts from chick tibias and humeri. Ipriflavone concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M inhibited osteoblast activity. These results suggest that ipriflavone influences bone metabolism by regulating the functional balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Based on these in vitro experiments, in vivo studies were conducted to further clarify the effects of ipriflavone. Five hundred 58-wk-old ISA caged layers were divided into 5 groups that were fed diets containing 0, 15, 25, 50, and 100 ppm of ipriflavone. The experiment lasted 70 d. Egg production increased in hens fed 25 ppm and decreased in hens fed 50 and 100 ppm when compared with the controls and hens fed 15 ppm (P < 0.05). Egg weight, shell quality, BW, and serum P, Ca, estrogen, and bone mineral content were not affected by inclusion of ipriflavone in the diet. Hens consuming 25 ppm of ipriflavone had greater serum alkaline phosphatase and bone gla-protein levels than controls. Adding 25 ppm of ipriflavone to the feed appears to be close to an ideal level for clinical treatment of osteoporosis because of improved egg production while maintaining bone mineral content.
Dokos, Charalampos; Tsakalidis, Christos; Manaridou, Kyriakoula; Karayianni, Paraskevi; Kyrkos, Ioannis; Roussos, Israel
Summary Premature infants are a major risk group for bone metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study is to clarify certain aspects of bone metabolism in healthy preterm and full-term neonates. Forty neonates (20 preterm and 20 full-term) were the material of the study. For each neonate demographic data (gender, gestational week) and anthropometric data (body weight) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and biochemical markers of bone metabolism (serum ALP, Ca, P, Mg) were immediately estimated. According to the results there is a statistically significant difference in average ALP of preterm neonates compared to full term neonates. Slightly higher values of Ca, P, Mg occurred in premature neonates while there was a statistically significant difference in the weeks of gestation and body weights between the two groups. It is typical in premature neonates the decrease in levels of ALP by the weeks of gestation and the stable levels of Ca. Gestational week seems to positively affect P and Mg levels in preterm neonates. Conclusively from our study’s results arises that the week of gestation and not so much the body weight influence the alterations of bone biochemical biomarkers in healthy premature newborns. It seems that very premature neonates have high levels of serum ALP in decompensation of lower levels of Mg and P from all the newborns in this study. Therefore in very premature neonates, it is recommended to estimate serum ALP, Mg and P for assessment of bone turnover. PMID:29263727
Dokos, Charalampos; Tsakalidis, Christos; Manaridou, Kyriakoula; Karayianni, Paraskevi; Kyrkos, Ioannis; Roussos, Israel
Premature infants are a major risk group for bone metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study is to clarify certain aspects of bone metabolism in healthy preterm and full-term neonates. Forty neonates (20 preterm and 20 full-term) were the material of the study. For each neonate demographic data (gender, gestational week) and anthropometric data (body weight) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and biochemical markers of bone metabolism (serum ALP, Ca, P, Mg) were immediately estimated. According to the results there is a statistically significant difference in average ALP of preterm neonates compared to full term neonates. Slightly higher values of Ca, P, Mg occurred in premature neonates while there was a statistically significant difference in the weeks of gestation and body weights between the two groups. It is typical in premature neonates the decrease in levels of ALP by the weeks of gestation and the stable levels of Ca. Gestational week seems to positively affect P and Mg levels in preterm neonates. Conclusively from our study's results arises that the week of gestation and not so much the body weight influence the alterations of bone biochemical biomarkers in healthy premature newborns. It seems that very premature neonates have high levels of serum ALP in decompensation of lower levels of Mg and P from all the newborns in this study. Therefore in very premature neonates, it is recommended to estimate serum ALP, Mg and P for assessment of bone turnover.
Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Al-Abedalla, Khadijeh; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Alkhraisat, Mohammad H; Bassett, David C; Gbureck, Uwe; Barralet, Jake E
Onlay grafts made of monolithic microporous monetite bioresorbable bioceramics have the capacity to conduct bone augmentation. However, there is heterogeneity in the graft behaviour in vivo that seems to correlate with the host anatomy. In this study, we sought to investigate the metabolic activity of the regenerated bone in monolithic monetite onlays by using positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in rats. This information was used to optimize the design of monetite onlays with different macroporous architecture that were then fabricated using a 3D-printing technique. In vivo, bone augmentation was attempted with these customized onlays in rabbits. PET-CT findings demonstrated that bone metabolism in the calvarial bone showed higher activity in the inferior and lateral areas of the onlays. Histological observations revealed higher bone volume (up to 47%), less heterogeneity and more implant osseointegration (up to 38%) in the augmented bone with the customized monetite onlays. Our results demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to achieve osseointegration of dental implants in bone augmented with 3D-printed synthetic onlays. It was also observed that designing the macropore geometry according to the bone metabolic activity was a key parameter in increasing the volume of bone augmented within monetite onlays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hagiwara, Hiromi; Sugizaki, Toshinori; Tsukamoto, Yu; Senoh, Emi; Goto, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko
Alkylphenols are endocrine disruptors that show estrogen-like effects in various wildlife species. However, little information is available about the action of these chemicals on bone metabolism. We investigated the effects of alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), on the formation of bone using several culture systems for osteoclasts and osteoblasts, as well as in vivo experiments. NP and OP dose-dependently inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (osteoclasts) in cocultures of mouse spleen cells or mouse bone marrow cells with ST2 cells. However, beta-estradiol at 10(-9)M to 10(-6)M did not affect this process. In contrast, neither compound affected the proliferation and differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (ROB cells). When NP or OP (0.1mg/kg body weight) was administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice at 10 days, 12 days and 14 days post-coitus, fetuses at 17.5 days post-coitus showed stimulation of sternebrae bone calcification. Our findings suggest that alkylphenols have critical effects on the formation of bone by non-estrogenic effects.
Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin
Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.
Wu, Yuwei; Tu, Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma; Zhang, Jin; Murray, Dana; Dong, Lily Q.; Cheng, Jessica; Jiang, Hua; Rios, Maribel; Morgan, Elise; Tang, Zhihui
Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipocyte-secreted adipokine, regulates energy homeostasis and exerts well-characterized insulin-sensitizing properties. The peripheral or central effects of APN regulating bone metabolism are beginning to be explored but are still not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice fed a normal diet exhibited decreased trabecular structure and mineralization and increased bone marrow adiposity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. APN intracerebroventricular infusions decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue, epinephrine and norepinephrine serum levels, and osteoclast numbers, whereas osteoblast osteogenic marker expression and trabecular bone mass increased in APN-KO and WT mice. In addition, centrally administered APN increased hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C (Htr2C) expressions but decreased hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor-1 expression. Treatment of immortalized mouse neurons with APN demonstrated that APN-mediated effects on TPH2, CART, and Htr2C expression levels were abolished by downregulating adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 expression. Pharmacological increase in sympathetic activity stimulated adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and reversed APN-induced expression of the lysine-specific demethylases involved in regulating their commitment to the osteoblastic lineage. In conclusion, we found that APN regulates bone metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms to decrease sympathetic tone, inhibit osteoclastic differentiation, and promote osteoblastic commitment of BMSC. PMID:24780611
Wu, Yuwei; Tu, Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma; Zhang, Jin; Murray, Dana; Dong, Lily Q; Cheng, Jessica; Jiang, Hua; Rios, Maribel; Morgan, Elise; Tang, Zhihui; Chen, Jake
Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipocyte-secreted adipokine, regulates energy homeostasis and exerts well-characterized insulin-sensitizing properties. The peripheral or central effects of APN regulating bone metabolism are beginning to be explored but are still not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice fed a normal diet exhibited decreased trabecular structure and mineralization and increased bone marrow adiposity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. APN intracerebroventricular infusions decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue, epinephrine and norepinephrine serum levels, and osteoclast numbers, whereas osteoblast osteogenic marker expression and trabecular bone mass increased in APN-KO and WT mice. In addition, centrally administered APN increased hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C (Htr2C) expressions but decreased hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor-1 expression. Treatment of immortalized mouse neurons with APN demonstrated that APN-mediated effects on TPH2, CART, and Htr2C expression levels were abolished by downregulating adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 expression. Pharmacological increase in sympathetic activity stimulated adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and reversed APN-induced expression of the lysine-specific demethylases involved in regulating their commitment to the osteoblastic lineage. In conclusion, we found that APN regulates bone metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms to decrease sympathetic tone, inhibit osteoclastic differentiation, and promote osteoblastic commitment of BMSC. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Guo, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Wang, Huan-Bo; Wang, Huan; An, Guang-Zhou; Zhou, Yan; Meng, Guo-Lin; Ding, Gui-Rong
To investigate the effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency (RF) field on bone microstructure and metabolism of femur in mice, C57BL/6 mice (male, age 4 weeks) were whole-body exposed or sham exposed to 1.8 GHz RF field. Specific absorption rates of whole body and bone were approximately 2.70 and 1.14 W/kg (6 h/day for 28 days). After exposure, microstructure and morphology of femur were observed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Subsequently, bone parameters were calculated directly from the reconstructed images, including structure model index, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume/total volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. Biomarkers that reflect bone metabolism, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), were determined by biochemical assay methods. Micro-CT and histology results showed that there was no significant change in bone microstructure and the above parameters in RF group, compared with sham group. The activity of serum ALP and BALP increased 29.47% and 16.82%, respectively, in RF group, compared with sham group (P < 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the activity of serum TRACP-5b between RF group and sham group. In brief, under present experimental conditions, we did not find support for an effect of 1.8 GHz RF field on bone microstructure; however, it might promote metabolic function of osteoblasts in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L
The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These
Silva, Carla C; Goldberg, Tamara B L; Nga, Hong S; Kurokawa, Cilmery S; Capela, Renata C; Teixeira, Altamir S; Dalmas, José C
To evaluate the behavior of biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in healthy male Brazilian adolescents according to their biological maturation. Eighty-seven volunteers were divided into age groups according to bone age (BA): 10-12 years (n = 25), 13-15 years (n = 36), and 16-18 years (n = 26). Weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (kg/m(2)), calcium intake from 3 days assessed by 24-h food recall (mg/day), pubertal event evaluation by Tanner criteria, and serum biomarker levels (osteocalcin [OC] [ng/mL], bone alkaline phosphatase [BAP] [U/L], and serum carboxyterminal telopeptide [S-CTx] [ng/mL]) were recorded and correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm(2)) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole body. Biomarkers showed similar behaviors, presenting higher median values in the 13-15 year group (BAP = 154.71 U/L, OC = 43.0 ng/mL, S-CTx = 2.09 ng/mL; p < 0.01) and when adolescents were in the pubertal stage G4. Median biomarker values decreased with advancing BA and sexual maturation. Biomarker values showed parallelism with peak height velocity, and, interestingly, bone formation biomarkers indicated significant negative correlation with BMD in the different evaluated locations, i.e., higher BMD values correlated with lower bone biomarker values. This is the first study of healthy Brazilian adolescents with rigid and careful inclusion and exclusion criteria to assess the correlation of bone markers and BMD with biological maturation indicators. Our results can help understand bone turnover and monitor bone metabolism.
Lewiecki, E Michael; Bilezikian, John P; Bukata, Susan V; Camacho, Pauline; Clarke, Bart L; McClung, Michael R; Miller, Paul D; Shepherd, John
The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting of healthcare professionals and clinical researchers that details the clinical relevance of advances in knowledge of skeletal diseases. The 17th Santa Fe Bone Symposium was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, on August 5-6, 2016. The program included plenary lectures, oral presentations by endocrinology fellows, meet-the-professor sessions, and panel discussions, all aimed to provide ample opportunity for interactive discussions among all participants. Symposium topics included recent developments in the translation of basic bone science to patient care, new clinical practice guidelines for postmenopausal osteoporosis, management of patients with disorders of phosphate metabolism, new and emerging treatments for rare bone diseases, strategies to enhance fracture healing, and an update on Bone Health Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes, using a teleconferencing platform to elevate the level of knowledge of healthcare professionals in underserved communities to deliver best practice care for skeletal diseases. The highlights and important clinical messages of the 2016 Santa Fe Bone Symposium are provided herein by each of the faculty presenters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Campistol, Josep M; Holt, David W; Epstein, Solomon; Gioud-Paquet, Martine; Rutault, Karine; Burke, James T
Sirolimus is a new immunosuppressive agent used as treatment to prevent acute renal allograft rejection. One of the complications of renal transplantation and subsequent long-term immunosuppression is bone loss associated with osteoporosis and consequent fracture. Two open-label, randomized, phase 2 studies comparing sirolimus versus cyclosporine (CsA) included indices of bone metabolism as secondary end-points. Markers of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptides, were measured over a 1-year period in 115 patients receiving either CsA or sirolimus as a primary therapy in combination with azathioprine and glucocorticoids (study A) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and glucocorticoids (study B). Urinary excretion of N-telopeptides and the concentrations of serum osteocalcin were consistently higher in the CsA-treated patients and significantly different at week 24 for N-telopeptides and at weeks 12, 24, and 52 for osteocalcin. In conclusion, future trials are warranted to test whether a sirolimus-based regimen conserves bone mineral density compared with a CsA-based regimen.
Bonneton, C; Guest, M; Delbarre, F
A method for studying in vitro bone resorption by the use of 35S labeled injection was investigated. Various substances (papaine) and hormones (calcitonin, vitamin D analogues) were tested and their effects on 35S and 45Ca metabolism were compared.
Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime
We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.
van Nieuwpoort, I Caroline; Twisk, Jos W R; Curfs, Leopold M G; Lips, Paul; Drent, Madeleine L
In patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) body composition is abnormal and alterations in appetite regulating factors, bone mineral density and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels have been described. Studies in PWS adults are limited. In this study, we investigated body composition, appetite regulating peptides, bone mineral density and markers of bone remodeling in an adult PWS population. Furthermore, we investigated the association between these different parameters and IGF-1 levels because of the described similarities with growth hormone deficient patients. In this cross-sectional observational cohort study in a university hospital setting we studied fifteen adult PWS patients. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, IGF-1 levels, bone mineral density and bone metabolism were evaluated. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was calculated. Fourteen healthy siblings served as a control group for part of the measurements. In the adult PWS patients, height, fat free mass, IGF-1 and bone mineral content were significantly lower when compared to controls; body mass index (BMI), waist, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass were higher. There was a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the PWS patients. Also, appetite regulating peptides and bone remodelling markers were aberrant when compared to reference values. Measurements of body composition were significantly correlated to appetite regulating peptides and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), furthermore HOMA was correlated to BMI and adipokines. In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome alterations in body composition, adipokines, hs-CRP and bone mineral density were demonstrated but these were not associated with IGF-1 levels. Further investigations are warranted to gain more insight into the exact pathophysiology and the role of these alterations in the metabolic and cardiovascular complications seen in PWS, so these complications can be prevented or treated as
Zhang, Qin; Bai, Bao-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Miao, Chun-Yue; Li, Hui-Li
To explore the association of polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, with complex congenital abnormalities and to further investigate its association with complex congenital abnormalities derived from three germ layers. A total of 250 cases of birth defects (with complex congenital abnormalities including congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, and craniofacial anomalies) in Shanxi Province, China were included in the study. MTRR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1801394) and MTHFR SNP (rs1801133) were genotyped by the SNaPshot method, and the genotyping results were compared with those of controls (n=420). SNPs rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. For the recessive model, individuals with GG genotype at rs1801394 and CC genotype at rs1801133 had a relatively low risk of developing birth defects, so the two genotypes were protective factors against birth defects. The homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801133, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities, while the homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801394, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm-, mesoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities. Among the Chinese population in Shanxi Province, the SNPs in folate metabolism genes (MTRR and MTHFR) are associated with complex congenital abnormalities and related to ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm development.
Salvatore, Deborah; Satnick, Ava; Abell, Rebecca; Messina, Catherine R; Chawla, Anupama
This retrospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal metabolic parameters in obese children and its correlation to the degree of obesity determined by body mass index (BMI). In total, 101 children seen at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Obesity Clinic at Stony Brook Children's University Hospital were enrolled in the study. The degree of obesity was characterized according to the following formula: (patient's BMI/BMI at 95th percentile) × 100%, with class I obesity >100%-120%, class II obesity >120%-140%, and class III obesity >140%. A set of metabolic parameters was evaluated in these patients. Frequency distributions of all study variables were examined using the χ(2) test of independence. Mean differences among the obesity classes and continuous measures were examined using 1-way analysis of variance. Within our study population, we found that 80% of our obese children had a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, 58% had elevated fasting insulin levels, and 32% had an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Class II obese children had a 2-fold higher ALT value when compared with class I children (P = .036). Fasting insulin, ALT, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels trended with class of obesity. Obese children in classes II and III are at higher risk for developing abnormal laboratory values. We recommend obese children be further classified to reflect the severity of the obesity since this has predictive significance for comorbidities. Obesity classes I, II, and III could help serve as a screening tool to help communicate risk assessment. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Krishnan, Abhaya; Muthusami, Sridhar
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented. Hormones, which include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the leutinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, estrogens, growth hormones (GH), cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin are disturbed in PCOS women. These hormones influence bone metabolism in human subjects directly as well as indirectly. The imbalance in these hormones results in increased prevalence of osteoporosis in PCOS women. Limited evidence suggests that the drugs taken during the treatment of PCOS increase the risk of bone fracture in PCOS patients through endocrine disruption. This review is aimed at the identification of the relationship between bone mineral density and hormonal changes in PCOS subjects and identifies potential areas to study bone-related disorders in PCOS women. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
Tower, R J; Campbell, G M; Müller, M; Glüer, C C; Tiwari, S
The turnover of bone is a tightly regulated process between bone formation and resorption to ensure skeletal homeostasis. This process differs between bone types, with trabecular bone often associated with higher turnover than cortical bone. Analyses of bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) reveal changes in structure and mineral content, but are limited in the study of metabolic activity at a single time point, while analyses of serum markers can reveal changes in bone metabolism, but cannot delineate the origin of any aberrant findings. To obtain a site-specific assessment of bone metabolic status, bisphosphonate binding kinetics were utilized. Using a fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonate, we show that early binding kinetics monitored in vivo using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) can monitor changes in bone metabolism in response to bone loss, stimulated by ovariectomy (OVX), or bone gain, resulting from treatment with the anabolic bone agent parathyroid hormone (PTH), and is capable of distinguishing different, metabolically distinct skeletal sites. Using time-lapse micro-CT, longitudinal bone turnover was quantified. The spine showed a significantly greater percent resorbing volume and surface in response to OVX, while mice treated with PTH showed significantly greater resorbing volume per bone surface in the spine and significantly greater forming surfaces in the knee. Correlation studies between binding kinetics and micro-CT suggest that forming surfaces, as assessed by time-lapse micro-CT, are preferentially reflected in the rate constant values while forming and resorbing bone volumes primarily affect plateau values. Additionally, we developed a blood pool correction method which now allows for quantitative multi-compartment analyses to be conducted using FMT. These results further expand our understanding of bisphosphonate binding and the use of bisphosphonate binding kinetics as a tool to monitor site-specific changes in bone metabolism in
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.
Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.
The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCA) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12 months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCA and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral (ScB) and trabecular (TB) bone structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCA was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCA was lower than Non-Op and other OCA. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCA did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCA contained “basal” cysts, localized to deeper regions, some “subchondral” cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These
Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.
High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.
Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1f/f;Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2 weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous by EXT mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822
Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC.
He, Meizi; Li, E T S; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W; Yau, Chun Y; Anderson, G Harvey
To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. Cross-sectional survey. Primary care and community settings in Ontario. Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m(2)) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m(2) and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m(2) and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m(2) in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m(2) in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m(2) in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time.
Felice, Juan Ignacio; Gangoiti, María Virginia; Molinuevo, María Silvina; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María
The aims of this study were: first, to evaluate the possible effects of a fructose rich diet (FRD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) on different aspects of long bone histomorphometry in young male rats; second, to investigate the effects of this diet on bone tissue regeneration; and third, to correlate these morphometric alterations with changes in the osteogenic/adipogenic potential and expression of specific transcription factors, of marrow stromal cells (MSC) isolated from rats with fructose-induced MS. MS was induced in rats by treatment with a FRD for 28 days. Halfway through treatment, a parietal wound was made and bone healing was evaluated 14 days later. After treatments, histomorphometric analysis was performed in dissected femoral and parietal bones. MSC were isolated from the femora of control or fructose-treated rats and differentiated either to osteoblasts (evaluated by type 1 collagen, Alkaline phosphatase and extracellular nodule mineralization) or to adipocytes (evaluated by intracellular triglyceride accumulation). Expression of Runx2 and PPARγ was assessed by Western blot. Fructose-induced MS induced deleterious effects on femoral metaphysis microarchitecture and impaired bone regeneration. Fructose treatment decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and Runx2 expression. In addition, it increased the adipogenic commitment of MSC and PPARγ expression. Fructose-induced MS is associated with deleterious effects on bone microarchitecture and with a decrease in bone repair. These alterations could be due to a deviation in the adipogenic/osteogenic commitment of MSC, probably by modulation of the Runx2/PPARγ ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sanz-Salvador, Lucía; García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio
Changes in bone density and bone markers suggest that pregnancy is associated with deterioration of bone mass in the mother. The metabolism of calcium resets to allow for the needs imposed by the building of the fetal skeleton. The fetus contributes to the process through the output of regulators from the placenta. Understanding of the whole process is limited, but some changes are unambiguous. There is an increase in the circulating levels of vitamin D, but its functional impact is unclear. Fetal parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrp) play an indirect role through support of a calcium gradient that creates hypercalcemia in the fetus. Placental GH, which increases up to the end of pregnancy, may exert some anabolic effects, either directly or through the regulation of the IGF1 production. Other key regulators of bone metabolism, such as estrogens or prolactin, are elevated during pregnancy, but their role is uncertain. An increase in the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an additional pro-resorbing factor in bone. The increase in bone resorption may lead to osteoporosis and fragility fracture, which have been diagnosed, although rarely. However, the condition is transitory as long-term studies do not link the number of pregnancies with osteoporosis. Prevention is limited by the lack of identifiable risk factors. When fractures are diagnosed, rest, analgesics, or, when indicated, orthopedic intervention have demonstrated efficacy. Systemic treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs is effective, but the potential harm to the fetus imposes caution in their use. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Lee, Chang Hwa
Central obesity and related metabolic components are important risks for microalbuminuria. To describe the effects of interactions between central obesity and related metabolic components on microalbuminuria, we conducted a nation-wide, population-based interaction analysis using cardio-metabolic index (CMI) as a candidate indicator of central obesity and related abnormal lipid metabolism. We recruited native Koreans aged 20 years or older with no medical illness. A total of 5398 participants were divided into quintiles according to CMI with sex as a covariate factor. Participants in the highest CMI quintile had elevated blood pressure (BP), increased glycemic exposure, poor lipid profile, and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared to other lower quintiles. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, systolic BP, and diastolic BP showed that CMI had an independent association with increased glycemic exposure and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Our interaction analysis revealed a significant interaction between the highest CMI quintile and prediabetes with an increased risk of microalbuminuria (adjusted RERI = 0.473, 95% CI = 0.464–0.482; adjusted AP = 0.276, 95% CI = 0.156–0.395; adjusted SI = 2.952, 95% CI = 1.234–4.670). Our findings suggest a significant association between central obesity-related abnormal lipid metabolism and prediabetes, and their interaction may exert a synergistic effect on renal vascular endothelial dysfunction even before the appearance of full-blown diabetes mellitus. To confirm these findings, large population-based prospective studies are needed. PMID:28715448
Piussan, C; Maroteaux, P; Castroviejo, I; Risbourg, B
Six cases of a new hereditary chondrodyplasia are reported. The features are severe dwarfism, generalized hypotonia, frequent and considerable desaxations of fingers and toes. Slight facial dysmorphism with evolutive scoliosis is often associated. Osteopetrosis is diffuse and is associated with important metaphyseal widening as well as epiphyseal irregularities and often carpal and tarsal supernumerary bones. No metabolic or chromosomal abnormality was found. The relations of the disease with related types described in Larsen's syndrome are considered.
Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E.; Gibson, Gary E.
Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26077923
Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.
Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those
Krupski, W; Tatara, M R; Charuta, A; Brodzki, A; Szpetnar, M; Jóźwik, A; Strzałkowska, N; Poławska, E; Łuszczewska-Sierakowska, I
1. Sex-related differences of long pelvic limb bones and serum bone metabolism indices were evaluated in 14-month-old female (N = 7) and male (N = 7) ostriches of similar body weights. 2. Densitometric parameters of femur, tibia and tarsometatarsus were determined using quantitative computed tomography (volumetric bone mineral density, calcium hydroxyapatite density and mean volumetric bone mineral density) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density and bone mineral content) methods. Geometrical parameters such as cortical bone area, cross-sectional area, second moment of inertia, mean relative wall thickness and cortical index were determined in the midshaft of bones. Mechanical properties of bones (maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength) were evaluated using three-point bending test. Serum concentrations of free amino acids, osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen and total antioxidative capacity were also determined. 3. Bone weight and relative bone weight of all bones were significantly higher in males than in females. Significantly lower values of trabecular bone mineral density and calcium hydroxyapatite density were found in the trabecular bone of tibia in males. The highest number of the sex-related differences was observed in the tarsometatarsus where bone length, bone mineral content, cortical bone area, cross-sectional area and ultimate strength were higher in males. Serum concentrations of taurine, hydroxyproline, valine and isoleucine were significantly higher in males. 4. Higher loading of the tarsometatarsus in comparison to femur and tibia may be an important factor interacting with sex hormones in regulation of bone formation and mineralisation processes. Sex-related differences of bone properties were associated with increased serum concentration of selected amino acids in males.
Turner, R. T.
This review of the peer-reviewed literature focuses on the effects of spaceflight on bone. Studies performed in humans and laboratory animals have revealed abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism that suggest that long-duration spaceflight will have detrimental effects on the skeleton. However, because of large gaps in our knowledge, it is not presently possible to estimate the magnitude of the health risk, individual variations in risk, effective countermeasures, or mechanism(s) of action. Specific recommendations are made for future research to ascertain risk and develop appropriate countermeasures.
Litten-Brown, J C; Corson, A M; Clarke, L
The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the role of pigs as a biomedical model for humans. The usefulness and limitations of porcine models have been discussed in terms of metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive and bone diseases in humans. Domestic pigs and minipigs are the main categories of pigs used as biomedical models. One drawback of minipigs is that they are in short supply and expensive compared with domestic pigs, which in contrast cost more to house, feed and medicate. Different porcine breeds show different responses to the induction of specific diseases. For example, ossabaw minipigs provide a better model than Yucatan for the metabolic syndrome as they exhibit obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, all of which are absent in the Yucatan. Similar metabolic/physiological differences exist between domestic breeds (e.g. Meishan v. Pietrain). The modern commercial (e.g. Large White) domestic pig has been the preferred model for developmental programming due to the 2- to 3-fold variation in body weight among littermates providing a natural form of foetal growth retardation not observed in ancient (e.g. Meishan) domestic breeds. Pigs have been increasingly used to study chronic ischaemia, therapeutic angiogenesis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abdominal aortic aneurysm as their coronary anatomy and physiology are similar to humans. Type 1 and II diabetes can be induced in swine using dietary regimes and/or administration of streptozotocin. Pigs are a good and extensively used model for specific nutritional studies as their protein and lipid metabolism is comparable with humans, although pigs are not as sensitive to protein restriction as rodents. Neonatal and weanling pigs have been used to examine the pathophysiology and prevention/treatment of microbial-associated diseases and immune system disorders. A porcine model mimicking various degrees of prematurity in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition has been established to
Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime
Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322
Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.
Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non
Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Baumann, C; Noël-Pétroff, N; Sekkal, A; Couloigner, V; Devriendt, K; Wilson, M; Marlin, S; Sebag, G; Pingault, V
Waardenburg syndrome, characterized by deafness and pigmentation abnormalities, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, consisting of 4 distinct subtypes and involving several genes. SOX10 mutations have been found both in types 2 and 4 Waardenburg syndrome and neurologic variants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the full spectrum and relative frequencies of inner ear malformations in these patients. Fifteen patients with Waardenburg syndrome and different SOX10 mutations were studied retrospectively. Imaging was performed between February 2000 and March 2010 for cochlear implant work-up, diagnosis of hearing loss, and/or evaluation of neurologic impairment. Eleven patients had both CT and MR imaging examinations, 3 had MR imaging only, and 1 had CT only. Temporal bone abnormalities were bilateral. The most frequent pattern associated agenesis or hypoplasia of ≥1 semicircular canal, an enlarged vestibule, and a cochlea with a reduced size and occasionally an abnormal shape, but with normal partition in the 13/15 cases that could be analyzed. Three patients lacked a cochlear nerve, bilaterally in 2 patients. In addition, associated abnormalities were found when adequate MR imaging sequences were available: agenesis of the olfactory bulbs (7/8), hypoplastic or absent lacrimal glands (11/14), hypoplastic parotid glands (12/14), and white matter signal anomalies (7/13). In the appropriate clinical context, bilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the semicircular canals or both, associated with an enlarged vestibule and a cochlear deformity, strongly suggests a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome linked to a SOX10 mutation.
Posthumus, Lotte; Al-Toma, Abdul
Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated small intestine enteropathy precipitated by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Adult presentation is often atypical and malabsorption of vitamins and minerals is common, with a consequent disturbance of bone metabolism. We aim to evaluate laboratory deficiencies related to bone metabolism and the relationship between severity of histological damage and degree of bone mass loss at diagnosis of CD. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 176 adult coeliac patients was carried out. All patients fulfilled the histopathological criteria for CD. Biochemical data were analysed (calcium/phosphate/alkaline-phosphatase/vitamin D/parathormone). Duodenal histology was classified according to the Marsh classification. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar and femoral regions measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation was found between the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the Marsh histopathological stage (P>0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was most common (44.5%), whereas only 5.7% had hypocalcaemia. Calcium was lower (P<0.05) and parathormone was higher (P=0.01) in patients with Marsh III. These patients had lower lumbar T-score (P<0.05). Although low BMD occurred in all age groups, most osteoporotic patients were aged 45-49 years (81.8%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the Marsh histopathological stage could be a predictor of lower lumbar BMD (r=0.322, B=-1.146, P<0.05). Laboratory deficiencies and decreased BMD could be severe and unrelated to the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. At diagnosis, the Marsh histopathological stage could predict the occurrence of low BMD, which carries a risk of developing into osteoporosis. In coeliac patients older than 30 years, evaluation of bone biomarkers and dual X-ray absorptiometry examination should be considered.
Kim, Sang Eun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sungdo David; Paik, Kyung Hoon; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, An Hee; Kwon, Eun Kyung; Choe, Yon Ho
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the nonexpression of paternal genes in the PWS region of chromosome 15q11-13 and is the most common cause of human syndromic obesity. We investigated regional brain metabolic impairment in children with PWS by 18F-FDG PET. Sixteen children with PWS (9 males, 7 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.2 +/- 1.1 y) and 7 healthy children (4 males, 3 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.0 +/- 1.7 y) underwent brain 18F-FDG PET in the resting state. The images of PWS children were compared using statistical parametric mapping analysis with those of healthy children in a voxelwise manner. Group comparison showed that children with PWS had decreased glucose metabolism in the right superior temporal gyrus and left cerebellar vermis, regions that are associated with taste perception/food reward and cognitive and emotional function, respectively. Metabolism was increased in the right orbitofrontal, bilateral middle frontal, right inferior frontal, left superior frontal, and bilateral anterior cingulate gyri, right temporal pole, and left uncus, regions that are involved in cognitive functions related to eating or obsessive-compulsive behavior. Interestingly, no significant metabolic abnormality was found in the hypothalamus, the brain region believed to be most involved in energy intake and expenditure. This study describes the neural substrate underlying the abnormal eating behavior and psychobehavioral problems of PWS.
Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism. Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed. Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28658166
Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Liesegang, A; Hüttenmoser, D; Risteli, J; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M; Wanner, M
The objective of this study was to identify the effect of high alpine grazing, associated with varying pasture grass qualities and more pronounced exercise on typically steep slopes, on bone metabolism by improving bone density and enhancing bone turnover in growing sheep. Twenty-four 5-month-old sheep were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was kept at high altitude (HA; 2000-2200 m a.s.l.) for 3 months, and the other group (C; control) remained in the lowlands (400 m a.s.l.). Both groups were kept in grazing pastures with access to good-quality swards. Before the start of the experiment, blood samples were taken, the sheep were weighed, and the left metatarsus of each animal was analysed by quantitative computer tomography. After 1 month, blood samples were taken and body weight was measured, followed by biweekly sampling. Finally, the animals were slaughtered, and the bones were collected for analysis of various bone parameters. Body weight development did not differ between the groups. Concentrations of 25-OH-Vitamin D, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and activities of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were always higher in the HA group than in the C group, except on the last two sampling dates. Bone mineral content and density increased in both groups during the experiment, but more intensively in the HA group. In addition, the cortical thickness of the HA group increased. The present study demonstrates an increase in bone turnover and mineral content of the bones of the growing sheep grazing in high alpine pastures. The factors associated with HA grazing, therefore, clearly seem to improve bone composition. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Liesegang, A; Limacher, S; Sobek, A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen on bone turnover and to monitor the progress of chronic osteoarthritic dogs by measuring different bone markers and radiographic evalutation of the corresponding joints. For this purpose 20 dogs of different ages and weight were devided into 2 groups. Ten dogs were assigned to Group R, treated with carprofen, and ten dogs to Group C, which had no treatment. Radiographs of the affected joints were reviewed initially and six months later at the end of the experiment. Blood was taken 8 times from each dog. Four bone markers (Osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP), carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), serum CrossLaps (CTX) as well as 1,25-(OH)2-Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were monitored for 6 months. No significant group effects on bone markers were notied. In Group R a decrease in ICTP concentrations during the first three months and a significant decrease in CTX concentrations in the first two months of the study were observed. The bone formation marker bAP revealed a significant decrease throughout the experiment. Three dogs of Group C and one dog of Group R showed osteoarthritic progression in the radiographs. The significant decrease of CTX indicates that carprofentreatment could have a retarding effect on the progression of osteoarthritis. Radiological findings suggest that carprofen may delay osteophyte formation. The monitoring of focal metabolic processes as in bone of a osteoarthrotic joint is difficult, since the bone mass is very active and metabolic processes may have an influence on the monitoring.
Melis, Daniela; Rossi, Alessandro; Pivonello, Rosario; Del Puente, Antonio; Pivonello, Claudia; Cangemi, Giuliana; Negri, Mariarosaria; Colao, Annamaria; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). It is characterized by liver, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle involvement. The presence of systemic complications such as growth retardation, ovarian polycystosis, diabetes mellitus and osteopenia/osteoporosis has been reported. The pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis is still unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in GSDIII patients and the role of metabolic and endocrine factors and physical activity on bone status. Nine GSDIII patients were enrolled (age 2-20years) and compared to eighteen age and sex matched controls. BMD was evaluated by Dual-emission-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Clinical and biochemical parameters of endocrine system function and bone metabolism were analyzed. Serum levels of the metabolic control markers were evaluated. Physical activity was evaluated by administering the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). GSDIII patients showed reduced BMD detected at both DXA and QUS, decreased serum levels of IGF-1, free IGF-1, insulin, calcitonin, osteocalcin (OC) and increased serum levels of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). IGF-1 serum levels inversely correlated with AST and ALT serum levels. DXA Z-score inversely correlated with cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels and directly correlated with IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. No difference in physical activity was observed between GSDIII patients and controls. Our data confirm the presence of reduced BMD in GSDIII. On the basis of the results, we hypothesized that metabolic imbalance could be the key factor leading to osteopenia, acting through different mechanisms: chronic hyperlipidemia, reduced IGF-1, Insulin and OC serum levels. Thus, the mechanism of osteopenia/osteoporosis in GSDIII is probably multifactorial
Zhaojun, Wang; Lin, Wang; Zhenyong, Wang; Jian, Wang; Ran, Liu
In order to investigate the effect of manganese (Mn) deficiency on bone metabolism in chicks, ninety 1-day-old male Arbor Acre chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups and each group were given a diet having a different concentration of Mn (60 mg kg(-1), control group; 40 mg kg(-1), Mn-deficient group I; 8.7 mg kg(-1), Mn-deficient group II). The serum was collected at 42 days old. Tests were performed to evaluate the changes in the levels of PTH, CT, ALP, TrACP, HOP TNF-alpha, OC, Mn and Ca in the serum of the chicks and the results showed that the levels of CT, ALP, TrACP, HOP, and Mn decreased markedly (P < 0.05), while PTH, Ca, and TNF-alpha increased markedly (P < 0.05) due to manganese deficiency in the diet, which indicates that Mn deficiency results in disorder of bone regulatory hormones and enzymes of bone metabolism in the serum.
Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne
Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863
Loomer, P M
Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. In-flight measures used to counteract this, including intensive daily exercise regimens, have been only partially successful in reducing the bone loss and in the process have consumed valuable work time. If this bone loss is to be minimized or, preferably, prevented, more effective treatment strategies are required. This, however, requires a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is affected by microgravity. Various research strategies have been used to examine this problem, including in vitro studies using bone cells and in vivo studies on humans and rats. These have been conducted both in flight and on the ground, by strategies that produce weightlessness to mimic the effects of microgravity. Overall, the majority of the studies have found that marked decreases in gravitation loading result in the loss of bone mass. The processes of bone formation and bone resorption become uncoupled, with an initial transitory increase in resorption accompanied by a prolonged decrease in formation. Loss of bone mass is not uniform throughout the skeleton, but varies at different sites depending on the type of bone and on the mechanical load received. It appears that the skeletal response is a physiologic adaptation to the space environment which, after long space flights or repeated shorter ones, could eventually lead to significant reductions in the ability of the skeletal tissues to withstand the forces of gravity and increased susceptibility to fracture.
Armour, K E; Armour, K J; Gallagher, M E; Gödecke, A; Helfrich, M H; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H
Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that is produced by bone cells constitutively and in response to diverse stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines, mechanical strain, and sex hormones. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the predominant NOS isoform expressed in bone, but its physiological role in regulating bone metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied various aspects of bone metabolism in female mice with targeted disruption of the eNOS gene. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS KO) had reduced bone mineral density, and cortical thinning when compared with WT controls and histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed profound abnormalities of bone formation, with reduced osteoblast numbers, surfaces and mineral apposition rate. Studies in vitro showed that osteoblasts derived from eNOS KO mice had reduced rates of growth when compared with WT and were less well differentiated as reflected by lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Mice with eNOS deficiency lost bone normally following ovariectomy but exhibited a significantly blunted anabolic response to high dose exogenous estrogen. We conclude that the eNOS pathway plays an essential role in regulating bone mass and bone turnover by modulating osteoblast function.
Zhang, Martin Y. H.; Ranch, Daniel; Pereira, Renata C.; Armbrecht, Harvey J.; Portale, Anthony A.
The X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse carries a loss-of-function mutation in the phex gene and is characterized by hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate (Pi) wasting, inappropriately suppressed 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] production, and rachitic bone disease. Increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration is responsible for the disordered metabolism of Pi and 1,25(OH)2D. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-23-induced activation of MAPK signaling in Hyp mice can reverse their metabolic derangements and rachitic bone disease. Hyp mice were administered the MAPK inhibitor, PD0325901 orally for 4 wk. PD0325901 induced a 15-fold and 2-fold increase in renal 1α-hydroxylase mRNA and protein abundance, respectively, and thereby higher serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations (115 ± 13 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml, P < 0.05), compared with values in vehicle-treated Hyp mice. With PD0325901, serum Pi levels were higher (5.1 ± 0.5 vs. 3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, P < 0.05), and the protein abundance of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter Npt2a, was greater than in vehicle-treated mice. The rachitic bone disease in Hyp mice is characterized by abundant unmineralized osteoid bone volume, widened epiphyses, and disorganized growth plates. In PD0325901-treated Hyp mice, mineralization of cortical and trabecular bone increased significantly, accompanied by a decrease in unmineralized osteoid volume and thickness, as determined by histomorphometric analysis. The improvement in mineralization in PD0325901-treated Hyp mice was confirmed by microcomputed tomography analysis, which showed an increase in cortical bone volume and thickness. These findings provide evidence that in Hyp mice, chronic MAPK inhibition improves disordered Pi and 1,25(OH)2D metabolism and bone mineralization. PMID:22334725
Zhang, Martin Y H; Ranch, Daniel; Pereira, Renata C; Armbrecht, Harvey J; Portale, Anthony A; Perwad, Farzana
The X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse carries a loss-of-function mutation in the phex gene and is characterized by hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate (Pi) wasting, inappropriately suppressed 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)₂D] production, and rachitic bone disease. Increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration is responsible for the disordered metabolism of Pi and 1,25(OH)₂D. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-23-induced activation of MAPK signaling in Hyp mice can reverse their metabolic derangements and rachitic bone disease. Hyp mice were administered the MAPK inhibitor, PD0325901 orally for 4 wk. PD0325901 induced a 15-fold and 2-fold increase in renal 1α-hydroxylase mRNA and protein abundance, respectively, and thereby higher serum 1,25(OH)₂D concentrations (115 ± 13 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml, P < 0.05), compared with values in vehicle-treated Hyp mice. With PD0325901, serum Pi levels were higher (5.1 ± 0.5 vs. 3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, P < 0.05), and the protein abundance of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter Npt2a, was greater than in vehicle-treated mice. The rachitic bone disease in Hyp mice is characterized by abundant unmineralized osteoid bone volume, widened epiphyses, and disorganized growth plates. In PD0325901-treated Hyp mice, mineralization of cortical and trabecular bone increased significantly, accompanied by a decrease in unmineralized osteoid volume and thickness, as determined by histomorphometric analysis. The improvement in mineralization in PD0325901-treated Hyp mice was confirmed by microcomputed tomography analysis, which showed an increase in cortical bone volume and thickness. These findings provide evidence that in Hyp mice, chronic MAPK inhibition improves disordered Pi and 1,25(OH)₂D metabolism and bone mineralization.
Reddy, P. Amaresh; Harinarayan, C. V.; Sachan, Alok; Suresh, V.; Rajagopal, G.
Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by manifestations of excess thyroid hormone, is one of the commonly-recognised conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes acceleration of bone remodelling and though it is one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis, the metabolic effects of thyroxine on bone are not well discussed. Studies show that thyroid hormones have effects on bone, both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and metabolic alterations, and decreases the fracture risk. There are limited studies in India as to whether these changes are fully reversible. In this review we discuss about the effects of thyrotoxicosis (endogenous and exogenous) on bone and mineral metabolism, effects of subclinical thyrotoxicosis on bone and mineral metabolism and effects of various forms of treatment in improving the bone mineral density in thyrotoxicosis. PMID:22561612
Reddy, P Amaresh; Harinarayan, C V; Sachan, Alok; Suresh, V; Rajagopal, G
Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by manifestations of excess thyroid hormone, is one of the commonly-recognised conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes acceleration of bone remodelling and though it is one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis, the metabolic effects of thyroxine on bone are not well discussed. Studies show that thyroid hormones have effects on bone, both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and metabolic alterations, and decreases the fracture risk. There are limited studies in India as to whether these changes are fully reversible. In this review we discuss about the effects of thyrotoxicosis (endogenous and exogenous) on bone and mineral metabolism, effects of subclinical thyrotoxicosis on bone and mineral metabolism and effects of various forms of treatment in improving the bone mineral density in thyrotoxicosis.
Crofton, Patricia M
Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cheung, Ching-Lung; Tan, Kathryn C B; Lam, Karen S L; Cheung, Bernard M Y
Serum alkaline phosphatase plays a role in vascular calcification. It is found in various tissues, whereas bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) more specifically reflects mineral metabolism. The relationship of serum alkaline phosphatase (total and bone-specific) with diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS), 2 major risk factors of vascular calcification, is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationships between glucose metabolism, components of the MetS, and alkaline phosphatase. This was a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in 1999 through 2004. Participants were 3773 nondiabetic participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. We measured serum BAP and total alkaline phosphatase. In multivariable linear regression, updated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2) for insulin resistance (β = 0.068), HOMA2 for β-cell function (β = 0.081), insulin (β = 0.065), mean arterial pressure (β = 0.15), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (β = 0.209) were positively associated with BAP, whereas HOMA2 for insulin sensitivity (β = -0.065) was negatively associated with BAP. On the other hand, only mean arterial pressure and HDL-cholesterol were significantly associated with total alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, a structural equation model revealed that hypertension, low HDL, and insulin resistance had significant direct effects on serum BAP levels, whereas obesity and inflammation might have indirect effects on serum BAP levels. The overall model showed very good fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.995, root mean square error of approximation = 0.037, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.006). Glucose metabolism and MetS are significantly related to serum BAP levels. How BAP mediates vascular calcification in diabetes and MetS warrants further studies.
Bacchetta, Justine; Fargue, Sonia; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Basmaison, Odile; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Plotton, Ingrid; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Dohin, Bruno; Kohler, Rémi; Cochat, Pierre
The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). We report here an evaluation of the bone status of 12 PH1 children based on bone biomarkers [parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)] and radiological assessments (skeletal age, three-dimensional high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, HR-pQCT) carried out within the framework of a cross-sectional single-center study. The controls consisted of healthy and children with chronic kidney disease already enrolled in local bone and mineral metabolism studies. The mean age (+ or - standard deviation) age of the patients was 99 (+ or - 63) months. Six children suffered from fracture. Bone maturation was accelerated in five patients, four of whom were <5 years. The combination of new imaging techniques and biomarkers highlighted new and unexplained features of PH1: advanced skeletal age in young PH1 patients, increased FGF23 levels and decreased total volumetric bone mineral density with bone microarchitecture alteration.
Sun, Kan; Liu, Jianmin; Lu, Nan; Sun, Hanxiao; Ning, Guang
Emerging epidemiological evidence suggest an association between metabolic syndrome and fractures. However, whether metabolic syndrome is an independent risk or protective factor of fractures remains controversial. Our goal is to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between metabolic syndrome and bone fractures by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. The PubMed and Embase database were searched through to March 2013 to identify studies that met pre-established inclusion criteria. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using a fixed or random effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Eight epidemiologic studies involving 39,938 participants were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, metabolic syndrome was not associated with prevalent fractures [pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 - 1.03] in cross-sectional studies or incident fractures [pooled relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.37 - 2.12] in prospective cohort studies. No evidence of heterogeneity was found in cross-sectional studies (p = 0.786, I2 = 0.0%). A substantial heterogeneity was detected in cohort studies (p = 0.001, I2 = 85.7%). No indication of significant publication bias was found either from Begg's test or Egger's test. Estimates of total effects were substantially consistent in the sensitivity and stratification analyses. The present meta-analysis of observational studies suggests that the metabolic syndrome has no explicit effect on bone fractures.
Wang, Xiao-Qin; Zou, Xin-Rong; Zhang, Yuan Clare
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. Two signaling pathways essential for calcium-phosphate metabolism can mediate the effect of kidneys in bone homeostasis, one requiring renal production of bioactive vitamin D and the other involving an endocrine axis based on kidney-expressed Klotho and bone-secreted fibroblast growth factor 23. Disruption of either pathway can lead to calcium-phosphate imbalance and vascular calcification, accelerating metabolic bone disorder. Chinese herbal medicine is an adjunct therapy widely used for treating CKD and diabetes. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of a Chinese herbal formulation, Shen-An extracts, in diabetic nephropathy and renal osteodystrophy. We believe that the smart combination of Eastern and Western concepts holds great promise for inspiring new ideas and therapies for preventing and treating complications of CKD and diabetes.
Layegh, Parvin; Mousavi, Zohreh; Farrokh Tehrani, Donya; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad
Insulin resistance has an important role in pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Yet there are certain controversies regarding the presence of insulin resistance in non-obese patients. The aim was to compare the insulin resistance and various endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in obese and non-obese PCOS women. In this cross-sectional study which was performed from 2007-2010, 115 PCOS patients, aged 16-45 years were enrolled. Seventy patients were obese (BMI ≥25) and 45 patients were non-obese (BMI <25). Presence of insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities were compared between two groups. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. There was no significant difference in presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.3) between two groups (p=0.357). Waist circumference (p<0.001), waist/hip ratio (p<0.001), systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic (p<0.001) blood pressures, fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and insulin (p=0.011), HOMA-IR (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.001) were all significantly higher in obese PCOS patients. There was no significant difference in total testosterone (p=0.634) and androstenedione (p=0.736) between groups whereas Dehydroepiandrotendione sulfate (DHEAS) was significantly higher in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.018). There was no case of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in non-obese patients, whereas they were seen in 31.3% and 39.4% of obese PCOS women, respectively. Our study showed that metabolic abnormalities are more prevalent in obese PCOS women, but adrenal axis activity that is reflected in higher levels of DHEAS was more commonly pronounced in our non-obese PCOS patients.
Rehman, Moghis Ur; Narchi, Hassib
Neonatal osteopenia is an important area of interest for neonatologists due to continuing increased survival of preterm infants. It can occur in high-risk infants such as preterm infants, infants on long-term diuretics or corticosteroids, and those with neuromuscular disorders. Complications such as rickets, pathological fractures, impaired respiratory function and poor growth in childhood can develop and may be the first clinical evidence of the condition. It is important for neonatologists managing such high-risk patients to regularly monitor biochemical markers for evidence of abnormal bone turnover and inadequate mineral intake in order to detect the early phases of impaired bone mineralization. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry has become an increasingly used research tool for assessing bone mineral density in children and neonates, but more studies are still needed before it can be used as a useful clinical tool. Prevention and early detection of osteopenia are key to the successful management of this condition and oral phosphate supplements should be started as soon as is feasible. PMID:26413483
Wilhelm, Birgit; Kann, Peter Herbert
Subnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk are described in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Growth hormone (GH) has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone in GHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of GH replacement therapy on bone metabolism, BMD, and bone quality in patients with GHD. 20 adult patients with GHD (eleven male, nine female, mean age 42.5 years) were included in the study and randomized to either GH or placebo in a dose of 0.25 U/kg body weight/week. After 6 months all patients received GH. After a 1-year double-blind, placebo-controlled study the patients were followed for another 72 months in an open study. The patients were compared to 20 age- und sex-matched healthy controls. Bone turnover was determined by ICTP (type I collagen carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide) as parameter of bone resorption and PICP (carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen) as marker of bone formation. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and at the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA). Apparent phalangeal ultrasound transmission velocity (APU) was assessed as parameter of bone quality independent of BMD. At the beginning of the study BMD at both measuring sites was lower in patients with GHD than in healthy controls. During the 1st year of GH replacement therapy BMD decreased, followed by a continuous increase in BMD (about 12%) up to 60 months which remained unchanged thereafter, building up a plateau. After 72 months no significant difference between the patients and the healthy controls could be detected. Concerning parameters of bone turnover, first ICTP as marker of bone resorption showed a significant increase, later on the marker of bone formation increased as well. APU decreased during the first 6 months of treatment, but had returned to its baseline value after 24 months and remained unchanged throughout the rest of the study. BMD
Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G
Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.
Kraenzlin, Marius E; Kraenzlin, Claude A; Meier, Christian; Giunta, Cecilia; Steinmann, Beat
The pyridinium cross-links pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) are established markers of bone resorption. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of a commercially available PYD HPLC assay and established reference intervals in children and adults. We used a commercially available reagent set (Chromsystems Instruments & Chemicals) to measure PYD and DPD in 319 healthy controls (156 premenopausal women, 80 healthy men, and 83 healthy children age 1 month to 14 years) and 397 patients with metabolic bone diseases (postmenopausal osteoporosis, n = 175; male osteoporosis, n = 176; hyperparathyroidism, n = 17; hyperthyroidism, n = 19; Paget disease, n = 10). The mean intraassay and interassay CVs were <6% and <8% for both PYD and DPD, respectively. The reference interval was constant for premenopausal women in the age group 20-49 years. In men, cross-link values peaked at 20-29 years and decreased thereafter. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis had significantly higher PYD (51%) and DPD (58%) values compared to premenopausal women. Similar results were found in osteoporotic men. In children the highest values were found in the first weeks and months after birth, followed by a decrease of 50%-60% at age 11-14 years. In metabolic bone diseases cross-link concentrations were significantly increased. The DPD:PYD ratio (mean value approximately 0.2) was remarkably constant in all populations evaluated. The automated HPLC assay is a precise and convenient method for PYD and DPD measurement. We established reference intervals for adult women and men and for children up to 14 years old. The cross-link concentrations we determined by use of this HPLC method confirm its clinical value in enabling identification of increased bone resorption in patients with metabolic bone diseases.
Chen, Zhi-guo; Cai, Hua-jie; Jin, Xian; Lu, Jin-hua; Wang, Jing; Fang, Ning-yuan
We explored the effects of atorvastatin on BMD and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in a 1-year, prospective, randomized controlled study. 64 male patients with osteopenia and mild dyslipidemia (mean age 80.1±6.6 years) were randomized to a 1-year atorvastatin treatment or control. BMD of hip and lumbar spine was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DXA). Bone metabolic markers including resorption markers β-c-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), formative markers osteocalcin (OC), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Other bone metabolism markers including intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and testosterone were measured with chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Levels of serum lipid and biochemical parameters were measured with automatic biochemical analyzer. All the parameters were recorded at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Compared with the control group, the atorvastatin treatment group showed significant reduction of triglyceride (TG, P<0.01) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, P<0.01). At 12 month, total hip BMD in atorvastatin group was significantly higher (P<0.01) compared with the control group, while there were no similar effect on femoral neck or lumbar spine between the two groups (P=0.48 and 0.53 respectively). Meanwhile, CTx significantly reduced in atorvastatin treatment group (P<0.001) compared with baseline. Our findings suggest that in elderly male patients with osteopenia and mild dyslipidemia, therapeutic doses of atorvastatin were associated with positive effects on BMD, probably mediated by suppressed bone resorption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Characteristic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint: Focus on Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal of the Mandibular Condyle, Pannus, and Lymph Node Swelling in the Parotid Glands.
Hirahara, Naohisa; Kaneda, Takashi; Muraoka, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Taiga; Ito, Kotaro; Kawashima, Yusuke
The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicating bone and soft tissue involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Twenty-one patients with RA and TMJ pain who underwent MRI examination of the TMJs at the authors' hospital from August 2006 to December 2014 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients with normal TMJs who underwent MRI examination at the authors' hospital from November to December 2014 were included as controls. MRI findings were compared between the 2 groups. MRI findings of RA in the TMJ included 1) abnormal disc position (95.2%), 2) abnormal disc morphology (83.3%), 3) joint effusion (30.9%), 4) osseous changes in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), 5) synovial proliferation (pannus; 85.7%), 6) erosion of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (9.52%), 7) deformity of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (16.6%), 8) abnormal bone marrow signal in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), and 9) swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands (78.5%). The abnormal bone marrow signal and pannus in the mandibular condyle and lymph node swelling in the parotid glands were markedly more common in patients with RA than in controls. MRI findings of RA of the TMJs were characterized by bone and soft tissue involvement, including abnormal bone marrow signal of the mandibular condyle, pannus, and swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands. These characteristic MRI findings could be useful in detecting RA in the TMJ in a clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chew, F S; Hudson, T M
The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative 99mTc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.
London, Edythe D; Simon, Sara L; Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Lichtman, Aaron M; Bramen, Jennifer; Shinn, Ann K; Miotto, Karen; Learn, Jennifer; Dong, Yun; Matochik, John A; Kurian, Varughese; Newton, Thomas; Woods, Roger; Rawson, Richard; Ling, Walter
Mood disturbances in methamphetamine (MA) abusers likely influence drug use, but the neurobiological bases for these problems are poorly understood. To assess regional brain function and its possible relationships with negative affect in newly abstinent MA abusers. Two groups were compared by measures of mood and cerebral glucose metabolism ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) during performance of a vigilance task. Participants were recruited from the general community to a research center. Seventeen abstaining (4-7 days) MA abusers (6 women) were compared with 18 control subjects (8 women). Self-reports of depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured, as were global and relative glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal, cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and insular cortices and the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum. Abusers of MA provided higher self-ratings of depression and anxiety than control subjects and differed significantly in relative regional glucose metabolism: lower in the anterior cingulate and insula and higher in the lateral orbitofrontal area, middle and posterior cingulate, amygdala, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In MA abusers, self-reports of depressive symptoms covaried positively with relative glucose metabolism in limbic regions (eg, perigenual anterior cingulate gyrus and amygdala) and ratings of state and trait anxiety covaried negatively with relative activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and left insula. Trait anxiety also covaried negatively with relative activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and positively with amygdala activity. Abusers of MA have abnormalities in brain regions implicated in mood disorders. Relationships between relative glucose metabolism in limbic and paralimbic regions and self-reports of depression and anxiety in MA abusers suggest that these regions are involved in affective dysregulation and may be an important target of intervention for MA dependence.
Kakareko, Katarzyna; Rydzewska-Rosolowska, Alicja; Brzosko, Szymon; Gozdzikiewicz-Lapinska, Joanna; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Samocik, Pawel; Kozlowski, Robert; Mysliwiec, Michal; Naumnik, Beata; Hryszko, Tomasz
Increased concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and decreased levels of soluble Klotho (sKL) are linked to negative clinical outcomes among patients with chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that GFR reduction caused by nephrectomy might alter mineral metabolism and induces adverse consequences. Whether nephrectomy due to urological indications causes derangements in FGF-23 and sKL has not been studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acute GFR decline due to unilateral nephrectomy on bone metabolism, FGF-23 and sKL levels. This is a prospective, single-centre observational study of patients undergoing nephrectomy due to urological indications. Levels of C-terminal FGF-23 (c-FGF-23), sKL and bone turnover markers [β-crosslaps (CTX), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b)] were measured before and after surgery (5 ± 2 days). Twenty-nine patients were studied (14 females, age 63.0 ± 11.6, eGFR 87.3 ± 19.2 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). After surgery, eGFR significantly declined (p < 0.0001). Nephrectomy significantly decreased sKL level [709.8 (599.9-831.2) vs. 583.0 (411.7-752.6) pg/ml, p < 0.001] and did not change c-FGF-23 concentration [70.5 (49.8-103.3) vs. 77.1 (60.5-109.1) RU/ml, p = 0.9]. Simultaneously, alterations in bone turnover markers were observed. Serum concentration of CTX increased [0.49 (0.4-0.64) vs. 0.59 (0.46-0.85) ng/ml, p = 0.001], while bALP and TRAP 5b decreased [23.6 (18.8-31.4) vs. 17.9 (15.0-22.0) U/l, p < 0.0001 and 3.3 (3.0-3.7) vs. 2.8 (2.3-3.2) U/l, p < 0.001, respectively]. Nephrectomy among patients with preserved renal function before surgery does not increase c-FGF-23 but reduces sKL. Moreover, nephrectomy results in derangements in bone turnover markers in short-term follow-up. These changes may participate in pathogenesis of bone disease after nephrectomy.
Büyükkaragöz, Bahar; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Kandur, Yaşar; Isiyel, Emel; Akcaboy, Meltem; Buyan, Necla; Hasanoglu, Enver
This study aims to evaluate BMD and bone biomarkers and to investigate the effects of immunosuppressives on bone disease after RTx. Thirty-three RTR aged 16.7 ± 3.7 yr and healthy controls (n = 32) were enrolled. There was no difference between pre-RTx BMD and BMD at the time of study (45.9 ± 30.9 months after RTx), while both values were lower than controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Worst BMD scores were obtained at sixth month after RTx (-0.2 ± 0.9) and best at fourth year (1.4 ± 1.3). 25-hydroxy-(OH) vitamin D and OPG were higher in RTR (p < 0.001). BMD z scores negatively correlated with OPG and cumulative CS doses at the time of study (r = -0.344, p < 0.05 and r = -0.371, p < 0.05, respectively). Regression analysis revealed OPG as the only predictor of BMD (β -0.78, 95% CI -0.004 to -0.013, p < 0.001). The increase in OPG, a significant predictor of BMD, could either be secondary to graft dysfunction or for protection against bone loss. CS doses should be minimized to avoid their untoward effects on bone metabolism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I
Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.
Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Girard, Jean Marie; Segvich, Dyann; Meyer, Catalina; Turnbull, Julie; Zhao, Xiaochu; Minassian, Berge A; Depaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J
Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset in the teenage years followed by neurodegeneration and death within 10 years. A characteristic is the widespread formation of poorly branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers (polyglucosan) known as Lafora bodies, which accumulate in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half of the cases of Lafora disease result from mutations in the EPM2A gene, which encodes laforin, a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family that is able to release the small amount of covalent phosphate normally present in glycogen. In studies of Epm2a(-/-) mice that lack laforin, we observed a progressive change in the properties and structure of glycogen that paralleled the formation of Lafora bodies. At three months, glycogen metabolism remained essentially normal, even though the phosphorylation of glycogen has increased 4-fold and causes altered physical properties of the polysaccharide. By 9 months, the glycogen has overaccumulated by 3-fold, has become somewhat more phosphorylated, but, more notably, is now poorly branched, is insoluble in water, and has acquired an abnormal morphology visible by electron microscopy. These glycogen molecules have a tendency to aggregate and can be recovered in the pellet after low speed centrifugation of tissue extracts. The aggregation requires the phosphorylation of glycogen. The aggregrated glycogen sequesters glycogen synthase but not other glycogen metabolizing enzymes. We propose that laforin functions to suppress excessive glycogen phosphorylation and is an essential component of the metabolism of normally structured glycogen.
Tomas, Cara; Newton, Julia
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease. This mini-review offers a brief summary of current research into the identification of metabolic abnormalities in CFS/ME which may represent potential biomarkers for the disease. The progress of research into key areas including immune dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, skeletal muscle cell acidosis, and metabolomics are presented here. Studies outlined in this mini-review show many potential causes for the pathogenesis of CFS/ME and identify many potential metabolic biomarkers for the disease from the aforementioned research areas. The future of CFS/ME research should focus on building on the potential biomarkers for the disease using multi-disciplinary techniques at multiple research sites in order to produce robust data sets. Whether the metabolic changes identified in this mini-review occur as a cause or a consequence of the disease must also be established. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Sugawara, Norio; Sagae, Toyoaki; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Sugai, Takuro; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yutaro; Ozeki, Yuji; Okamoto, Kurefu; Someya, Toshiyuki
Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than the general population. Minimizing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in a population with an already high prevalence of obesity is of clinical and social importance. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of monthly nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. From July 2014 to December 2014, we recruited 265 obese patients who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to a standard care (A), doctor's weight loss advice (B), or an individual nutritional education group (C) for 12 months. The prevalence of MetS and body weight were measured at baseline and 12 months. After the 12-month treatment, 189 patients were evaluated, and the prevalence of MetS based on the ATP III-A definition in groups A, B, and C was 68.9%, 67.2%, and 47.5%, respectively. Group C showed increased weight loss (3.2 ± 4.5 kg) over the 12-month study period, and the change in weight differed significantly from that of group A; additionally, 26.2% of the participants in group C lost 7% or more of their initial weight, compared with 8.2% of those in group A. Individual nutrition education provided by a dietitian was highly successful in reducing obesity in patients with schizophrenia and could be the first choice to address both weight gain and metabolic abnormalities induced by antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol
Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength. The underlying cellular mechanisms (cellular failure) are related to suppression of osteoblast-induced bone formation and bone calcium accretion, as well as to enhancement of osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Several other T2DM-related pathophysiological changes, e.g., osteoblast insulin resistance, impaired productions of osteogenic growth factors (particularly insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone morphogenetic proteins), overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, also aggravate diabetic osteopathy. In the kidney, DM and the resultant hyperglycemia lead to calciuresis and hypercalciuria in both humans and rodents. Furthermore, DM causes deranged functions of endocrine factors related to mineral metabolism, e.g., parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and fibroblast growth factor-23. Despite the wealth of information regarding impaired bone remodeling in DM, the long-lasting effects of DM on calcium metabolism in young growing individuals, pregnant women, and neonates born to women with gestational DM have received scant attention, and their underlying mechanisms are almost unknown and worth exploring.
Hansen, Morten S S; Tencerova, Michaela; Frølich, Jacob; Kassem, Moustapha; Frost, Morten
The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognized as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibit several physiological functions including regulation of islet hormone secretion and glucose levels. A number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are currently used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, GIP and GLP-1 cognate receptors are widely expressed suggesting that incretin hormones mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged. The aim of this MiniReview was to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the in vivo and in vitro effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism. We identified a total of 30 pre-clinical and clinical investigations of the effects of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-1RAs on bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), bone microarchitecture and fracture risk. Studies conducted in cell cultures and rodents demonstrated that GIP and GLP-1 play a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis, with pre-clinical data suggesting that GIP inhibits bone resorption whereas GLP-1 may promote bone formation and enhance bone material properties. These effects are not corroborated by clinical studies. While there is evidence of effects of GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism in pre-clinical investigations, clinical trials are needed to clarify whether similar effects are present and clinically relevant in humans. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).
Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.
Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.
Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632
Introduction Evaluation of disease severity in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis is inevitably associated with assessment of structural bone damage. A noninvasive imaging technology allowing objective quantification of pathophysiological alterations of bone structure in rodents could substantially extend the methods used to date in preclinical arthritis research for staging of autoimmune disease severity or efficacy of therapeutical intervention. Sodium 18 F-fluoride (18 F-NaF) is a bone-seeking tracer well-suited for molecular imaging. Therefore, we systematically examined the use of 18 F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI)–induced arthritis for quantification of pathological bone metabolism. Methods F-fluoride was injected into mice before disease onset and at various time points of progressing experimental arthritis. Radioisotope accumulation in joints in the fore- and hindpaws was analyzed by PET measurements. For validation of bone metabolism quantified by 18 F-fluoride PET, bone surface parameters of high-resolution μCT measurements were used. Results Before clinical arthritis onset, no distinct accumulation of 18 F-fluoride was detectable in the fore- and hindlimbs of mice immunized with G6PI. In the course of experimental autoimmune disease, 18 F-fluoride bone uptake was increased at sites of enhanced bone metabolism caused by pathophysiological processes of autoimmune disease. Moreover, 18 F-fluoride signaling at different stages of G6PI-induced arthritis was significantly correlated with the degree of bone destruction. CT enabled identification of exact localization of 18 F-fluoride signaling in bone and soft tissue. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that small-animal PET/CT using 18 F-fluoride as a tracer is a feasible method for quantitative assessment of pathophysiological bone metabolism in experimental arthritis. Furthermore, the
Zidan, Jamal; Keidar, Zohar; Basher, Walid; Israel, Ora
At the present time, tamoxifen is the most widely used anti-estrogen for adjuvant therapy and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, a population at high risk for osteoporosis. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant tamoxifen on bone mineral density and all biochemical markers concomitantly in women with early-stage breast cancer in one study. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, prior to and 12 mo after tamoxifen treatment, bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured in 44 women with T1-T2N0M0 estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen 20 mg/d. Biomarkers that can affect bone mineral metabolism were measured before and after 3 and 12 mo of tamoxifen treatment. Bone mineral density was minimally increased in lumbar spine and femoral neck after 12 mo treatment with tamoxifen (p = 0.79 and 0.55, respectively). No differences were found in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, creatinine, ALAT, albumin, LDH, calcitonin, or estradiol. A significant decrease in osteocalcin levels was found after 3 and 12 mo (p < or = 0.01). TSH and PTH levels were increased (p < or = 0.05) after 3 mo, returning to baseline after 12 mo. In conclusion, tamoxifen has an estrogen-like effect on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and is associated with preservation of bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck. Changes in serum concentration of biochemical markers may reflect decreased bone turnover or bone remodeling and add to the understanding of tamoxifen's effect on bone mineral density.
Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A
Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone
Zheng, Junke; Lu, Zhigang; Kocabas, Fatih; Böttcher, Ralph T.; Costell, Mercedes; Kang, Xunlei; Liu, Xiaoye; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Wang, Qianming; Chen, Guo-Qiang
How stem cells interact with the microenvironment to regulate their cell fates and metabolism is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that the deletion of the cytoskeleton-modulating protein profilin 1 (pfn1) in hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) led to bone marrow failure, loss of quiescence, and mobilization and apoptosis of HSCs in vivo. A switch from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also observed in HSCs on pfn1 deletion. Importantly, treatment of pfn1-deficient mice with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine reversed the ROS level and loss of quiescence of HSCs, suggesting that the metabolism is mechanistically linked to the cell cycle quiescence of stem cells. The actin-binding and proline-binding activities of pfn1 are required for its function in HSCs. Our study provided evidence that pfn1 at least partially acts through the axis of pfn1/Gα13/EGR1 to regulate stem cell retention and metabolism in the bone marrow. PMID:24385538
Ma, Jie; Yun-guang, Hu; Zhang, Da-hui
To observe the effect of acupuncture (Acu) on bone metabolism and serum estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats for studying its underlying mechanism in treating osteoporosis. Forty female SD rats of six months were randomized into sham operation (sham), model, Acu and Diethylstibestrol (DES) groups, with 10 cases in each. Postmenopausal osteoporosis model was established by removing ovaries under anesthesia. In Acu group, bilateral "Dazhu" (BL 11), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20) were punctured and stimulated for 30 minutes, once daily for 60 days. Rats of DES group were drenched with saline+DES (22.5 microg/ml) 1 ml/100 g, once daily for 60 days. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected from femoral artery for assaying serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) contents by using biochemistry, and serum bone gla protein (BGP) and E2 levels by immunoradioassay. Compared with sham group, uterus wet weight, serum E2 content in model group decreased significantly (P < 0.01) while body weight, serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels in model group increased significantly (P < 0.01, 0.05). Compared with model group, uterus wet weight and serum Ez content in Acu and DES groups increased significantly (P < 0.01); while body weight, serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels decreased considerably (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between Acu and DES groups in serum E2, ALP, BGP and TRAP levels (P > 0.05). Acupuncture can suppress abnormal increase of body weight and decrease of serum E2 level, and significantly downregulate serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels in OVX rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving osteoporosis.
Clinkenbeard, Erica L; Farrow, Emily G; Summers, Lelia J; Cass, Taryn A; Roberts, Jessica L; Bayt, Christine A; Lahm, Tim; Albrecht, Marjorie; Allen, Matthew R; Peacock, Munro; White, Kenneth E
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gain of function mutations can lead to autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) disease onset at birth, or delayed onset following puberty or pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that the combination of iron deficiency and a knock-in R176Q FGF23 mutation in mature mice induced FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia that paralleled the late-onset ADHR phenotype. Because anemia in pregnancy and in premature infants is common, the goal of this study was to test whether iron deficiency alters phosphate handling in neonatal life. Wild-type (WT) and ADHR female breeder mice were provided control or iron-deficient diets during pregnancy and nursing. Iron-deficient breeders were also made iron replete. Iron-deficient WT and ADHR pups were hypophosphatemic, with ADHR pups having significantly lower serum phosphate (p < 0.01) and widened growth plates. Both genotypes increased bone FGF23 mRNA (>50 fold; p < 0.01). WT and ADHR pups receiving low iron had elevated intact serum FGF23; ADHR mice were affected to a greater degree (p < 0.01). Iron-deficient mice also showed increased Cyp24a1 and reduced Cyp27b1, and low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). Iron repletion normalized most abnormalities. Because iron deficiency can induce tissue hypoxia, oxygen deprivation was tested as a regulator of FGF23, and was shown to stimulate FGF23 mRNA in vitro and serum C-terminal FGF23 in normal rats in vivo. These studies demonstrate that FGF23 is modulated by iron status in young WT and ADHR mice and that hypoxia independently controls FGF23 expression in situations of normal iron. Therefore, disturbed iron and oxygen metabolism in neonatal life may have important effects on skeletal function and structure through FGF23 activity on phosphate regulation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Yassin, Mohammed A; Mustafa, Kamal; Xing, Zhe; Sun, Yang; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Leknes, Knut N
Functionalizing polymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles (nDPs) has pronounced effect on the surface properties, such as improved wettability, an increased active area and binding sites for cellular attachment and adhesion, and increased ability to immobilize biomolecules by physical adsorption. This study aims to evaluate the effect of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) scaffolds, functionalized with nDPs, on bone regeneration in a rat calvarial critical size defect. Poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds functionalized with nDPs are also compared with pristine scaffolds with reference to albumin adsorption and seeding efficiency of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Compared with pristine scaffolds, the experimental scaffolds exhibit a reduction in albumin adsorption and a significant increase in the seeding efficiency of BMSCs (p = 0.027). In the calvarial defects implanted with BMSC-seeded poly(LLA-co-CL)/nDPs scaffolds, live imaging at 12 weeks discloses a significant increase in osteogenic metabolic activity (p = 0.016). Microcomputed tomography, confirmed by histological data, reveals a substantial increase in bone volume (p = 0.021). The results show that compared with conventional poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds those functionalized with nDPs promote osteogenic metabolic activity and mineralization capacity. It is concluded that poly(LLA-co-CL) composite matrices functionalized with nDPs enhance osteoconductivity and therefore warrant further study as potential scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn't have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn't show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.
Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. [Results] As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn’t have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn’t show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). [Conclusion] These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption. PMID:25566441
Simko, Julius; Fekete, Sona; Gradosova, Iveta; Malakova, Jana; Zivna, Helena; Valis, Martin; Palicka, Vladimir; Zivny, Pavel
There is only limited data concerning the effect of the newer antiepileptic drugs on bone. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of topiramate (TPM) and lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD), mineral content (BMC), bone markers, body composition and bone mechanical strength in the orchidectomized (ORX) rat model. 24 orchidectomized Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups, 8 rats in each group. The control rats received standard laboratory diet (SLD) while rats in the test group were fed with SLD enriched with LTG or TPM for 12 weeks. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. The concentrations of bone metabolism markers were assayed in bone homogenate. In addition, both femurs were measured and used for biomechanical testing. Compared to the control group, both test groups had significantly lower weight, fat mass, whole body and femur BMD, BMC and reduced mechanical strength of bone. All of these changes were more pronounced in rats exposed to LTG. In conclusion, both LTG and TPM significantly reduce BMD and body weight and impair mechanical strength of bone. A question arises as to the degree of dependence of the effect on the dose. Further studies are warranted to establish whether LTG and TPM may have a clinically significant effect on BMD exclusively in the model of gonadectomized rats, or whether the effect applies also in the model of gonadally intact animals, and in the respective human models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zelenchuk, Lesya V; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N
Context Mice with null mutations in Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) have increased bone mass, increased trabecular density and abnormal cancellous bone (MN-mice). These defects worsen with age and MEPE over expression induces opposite effects. Also, Genome Wide Association studies show MEPE plays a major role in bone mass. We hypothesized the conserved C-terminal MEPE ASARM-motif is chiefly responsible for regulating bone mass and trabecular structure. Design To test our theory we over expressed C-terminal ASARM-peptide in MN-mice using the Col1α1 promoter (MNAt-mice). We then compared the bone and renal phenotypes of the MNAt-mouse with the MN-mouse and the X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets mouse (HYP). The HYP mouse over expresses ASARM-peptides and is defective for the PHEX gene. Results The MN-mouse developed increased bone mass, bone strength and trabecular abnormalities that worsened markedly with age. Defects in bone formation were chiefly responsible with suppressed sclerostin and increased active β-catenin. Increased uric acid levels also suggested abnormalities in purine-metabolism and a reduced fractional excretion of uric acid signaled additional renal transport changes. The MN mouse developed a worsening hyperphosphatemia and reduced FGF23 with age. An increase in the fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP) despite the hyperphosphatemia confirms an imbalance in kidney-intestinal phosphate regulation. Also, the MN mice showed an increased creatinine clearance suggesting hyperfiltration. A reversal of the MN bone-renal phenotype changes occurred with the MNAt mice including the apparent hyperfiltration. The MNAt mice also developed localized hypomineralization, hypophosphatemia and increased FGF23. Conclusions The C-terminal ASARM-motif plays a major role in regulating bone–mass and cancellous structure as mice age. In healthy mice, the processing and release of free ASARM-peptide is chiefly responsible for preserving normal bone and
Aoki, Motokuni; Kawahata, Hirohisa; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Yu, Hisahiro; Moriguchi, Atsushi; Nakagami, Hironori; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi
Although recent studies suggest that several antihypertensive drugs could reduce the risk of bone fracture, it is still unclear how these drugs act on bone remodeling, especially in elderly women with severe osteoporosis with disuse syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on bone metabolism in elderly bedridden women with hypertension and disuse syndrome. Elderly bedridden women (aged >75 years) receiving antihypertensive therapy treated with CCB were recruited in the present study. The participants were divided into two groups--CCB group and ARB group--and followed up to 12 months. Markers of bone resorption were markedly increased, suggesting accelerated bone resorption in the participants of the present study. In the follow-up period, the patients treated with a CCB showed a significant decrease in bone mineral density in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant increase in bone resorption markers, whereas treatment with olmesartan inhibited bone loss, associated with attenuation of increased bone resorption markers. Bone mineral density of femoral neck in the CCB group was significantly lower than that in the ARB group at 6 months. The present study showed inhibitory effects of an ARB on bone resorption in hypertensive patients with accelerated bone resorption, such as elderly bedridden women, and indicated an important role of the renin-angiotensin system in bone metabolism. In elderly hypertensive patients, ARB might be expected to have additional beneficial potential to maintain bone health in bedridden patients. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Susiarjo, Martha; Xin, Frances; Stefaniak, Martha; Mesaros, Clementina; Simmons, Rebecca A; Bartolomei, Marisa S
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals impacts maternal and fetal health, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We previously showed that dietary exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d and 10 mg/kg bw/d of bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy induced metabolic abnormalities in F1 male offspring and gestational glucose intolerance in F0 pregnant mice. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying etiologies of BPA exposure-induced metabolic disease by analyzing the male fetal liver metabolome. Using the Metabolon Discover HD4 Platform, our laboratory identified metabolic pathways that were altered by BPA exposure, including biochemicals in lipid and amino acid metabolism. Specifically, primary and secondary bile acids were increased in liver from BPA-exposed embryonic day 18.5 male fetuses. We subsequently showed that increased bile acid was associated with a defective farnesoid X receptor-dependent negative feedback mechanism in BPA-exposed fetuses. In addition, through metabolomics, we observed that BPA-exposed fetuses had elevated tryptophan levels. Independent liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry measurement revealed that BPA-exposed dams also had increased tryptophan levels relative to those of controls. Because several key enzymes in tryptophan catabolism are vitamin B6 dependent and vitamin B6 deficiencies have been linked to gestational diabetes, we tested the impact of vitamin B6 supplementation and showed that it rescued gestational glucose intolerance in BPA-exposed pregnant mice. Our study has therefore identified two pathways (bile acid and tryptophan metabolism) that potentially underlie BPA-induced maternal and fetal metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
García-Martín, Antonia; Quesada Charneco, Miguel; Alvárez Guisado, Alejandro; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Fonollá Joya, Juristo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel
To analyze the effects of nutritional intervention with a milk product enriched with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women. We performed a double-blind controlled randomized trial in ninety-nine postmenopausal women. Group S women (n=48) were randomized to consume milk product enriched with soy isoflavone (50 mg/day) while group C (n=51) consumed product control for 12 months. Parameters of quality of life (Cervantes scale), markers of bone metabolism and bone mass estimated by ultrasound of the calcaneus (QUS) were evaluated. Overall, there was an improvement in the domains menopause (P=.015) and vasomotor symptoms (P<.001). S group emphasized the assessment of vasomotor symptoms (P=.001) and differed positively from group C in health (P=.019), sex (P=.021) and partner (P=.002). Serum levels TRAP (P<.001) and OPG (P=.007) decreased and concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D increased (P<.001) without differences between groups. In the assessment of QUS, there was an increase in estimated bone mineral density in group S (P=.040), whereas in group C there were no significant differences. Daily consumption of these milk products increases levels of 25-OH-vitamin D and decreases bone metabolism markers. Additional supplementation with soy isoflavones seems to improve quality of life and bone mass in Spanish postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda.
Ward, L M; Rauch, F; Travers, R; Roy, M; Montes, J; Chabot, G; Glorieux, F H
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by linear striations of the long bones, osteosclerosis of the cranium, and extra-skeletal anomalies. We provide a comprehensive description of the skeletal phenotype in a French-Canadian girl with a moderate to severe form of sporadic OS-CS. Multiple medical problems, including anal stenosis and the Pierre-Robin sequence, were evident in the first few years of life. At 14 years, she was fully mobile, with normal intellect and stature. She suffered chronic lower extremity pain in the absence of fractures, as well as severe headaches, unilateral facial paralysis, and bilateral mixed hearing loss. Biochemical indices of bone and mineral metabolism were within normal limits. Bone densitometry showed increased areal bone mineral density in the skull, trunk, and pelvis, but not in the upper and lower extremities. An iliac bone biopsy specimen revealed an increased amount of trabecular bone. Trabeculae were abnormally thick, but there was no evidence of disturbed bone remodeling. In a cranial bone specimen, multiple layers of periosteal bone were found that covered a compact cortical compartment containing tightly packed haversian canals. Bone lamellation was normal in both the iliac and skull samples. Osteoclast differentiation studies showed that peripheral blood osteoclast precursors from this patient formed functional osteoclasts in vitro. Thus, studies of bone metabolism did not explain why bone mass is increased in most skeletal areas of this patient. Cranial histology points to exuberant periosteal bone formation as a potential cause of the cranial sclerosis.
Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M
Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798
Mineral metabolism abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The bone and cardiovascular consequences should lead to the implementation of some adapted strategies for the prevention and treatment on the basis of the physiopathology of the disease and international recommendations. Biological bone markers such as serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are necessary to classify bone diseases without the need for bone biopsy. Elevated levels of bone markers are detected in cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), whereas decreased levels are observed in cases of adynamic bone disease (ABD). Bone mineral density, however, is not useful for the diagnosis. Vitamin D supplementation and reducing hyperphosphataemia by dietary phosphate-intake restriction, phosphate binders, and dialysis, are the main steps for the prevention of SHPT. Calcitriol analogs and calcimimetics should be used in second line in cases of SHPT. For the treatment of ABD, excess use of calcium salts and calcitriol analogs need to be avoided. Managing these therapies adequately can help maintain the main biological values (i.e. serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus, and ALP) within their recommended ranges. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p < 0.001) respectively. After adjusting for age, the indicators (central obesity, hypertension, fasting insulin, SHBG, dyslipinaemia) for metabolic disturbances were significantly higher in PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276
Li, Rong; Yu, Geng; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, Xiaoke; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Qiao, Jie
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p < 0.001) respectively. After adjusting for age, the indicators (central obesity, hypertension, fasting insulin, SHBG, dyslipinaemia) for metabolic disturbances were significantly higher in PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance.
Stone, Tori M; Wingo, Jonathan E; Young, John C; Navalta, James W
Weight-bearing physical activity can optimize bone mass early in life and prevent the development of osteoporosis. However, less is known about the potential benefits of non-weight-bearing activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of structured physical activity classes on bone metabolism. Twenty-eight premenopausal women, aged 18-35 years who were either enrolled in a yoga class (n=14) or cardio-kickboxing class (n=14) voluntarily consented to participate. Both classes were introductory classes meeting twice per week for 50 min per session for 12 weeks. Anteroposterior spine (L1-L4), hip (dual femur), and total body bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in both groups pre and post intervention using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Pre and post blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum osteocalcin (OC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in each group. Baseline subject characteristics including age, height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean body mass did not differ between groups. BMD levels did not increase but were held stable over the course of the intervention. Yoga increased OC by 68% (P < 0.001) and cardio-kickboxing increased OC by 67% (P < 0.001) over the course of the 12-week classes. While 12 weeks of yoga and cardio-kickboxing were insufficient to induce BMD changes, OC levels reflect the bone formation process was initiated, but not yet complete. Increased OC levels suggest the selected physical activity classes provided enough of a stimulus to precipitate a future response of bone growth, assuming exercise training remains constant.
Chui, D H; Marotta, F; Liu, T; Minelli, E; Yadav, H; Signorelli, P; Lorenzetti, A; Jain, S
This study aims to determine the effects of a high protein diet and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic turnover in rats. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by bone status, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical markers from blood and urine. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated for 8 weeks as follows: baseline control group (n. 10, C), high-protein supplemented diet group (n. 10, chronic acidosis, CA group) and supplemented chronic acidosis (n.10, SCA). Diet-treated rats were fed an acidic high-protein diet and the supplementation consisted in a modified alkaline formula (Basenpulver, NaMed, Italy). At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were drawn and femur and tibia were removed for analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In the CA group, 24-hour urinary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) excretion were increased 2.1-fold (p<0.05 vs normal diet controls) as well as kidney weight. However, serum Ca and P concentration, as well as urinary Dpd excretion were not significantly changed. Femural and tibial BMD was significantly decreased in the CA group (p<0.05), but alkaline supplementation prevented such phenomenon (p<0.05 vs CA). These results suggest that blood Ca and P concentrations in chronic acidosis condition during the 12-week supplementation might be maintained by hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia at the expenses of bone structure. However, modified alkaline supplementation is able to prevent such derangements.
Smith, E L; Gilligan, C
The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.
Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L
This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.
Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.
''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but themore » early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.« less
Laure, B; Petraud, A; Sury, F; Bayol, J-C; Marquet-Van Der Mee, N; de Pinieux, G; Goga, D
We report the case of a patient with a craniofacial black bone disease. This was discovered accidentally during a coronal approach. A 38-year-old patient was referred to our unit for facial palsy having appeared 10 years before. Rehabilitation of the facial palsy was performed with a lengthening temporal myoplasty and lengthening of the upper eyelid elevator. An unusual black color of the skull was observed at incision of the coronal approach. Subperiostal dissection of skull and malars confirmed the presence of a black bone disease. A postoperative history revealed minocycline intake (200mg per day) during 3 years. This craniofacial black bone disease was caused by minocycline intake. The originality of this case is to see directly the entire craniofacial skeleton black. This abnormal pigmentation may affect various organs or tissues. Bone pigmentation is irreversible unlike that of the mouth mucosa or of the skin. This abnormal pigmentation is usually discovered accidentally.
Pawlak, Dariusz; Domaniewski, Tomasz; Znorko, Beata; Oksztulska-Kolanek, Ewa; Lipowicz, Paweł; Doroszko, Michał; Karbowska, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Krystyna
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in decreased bone strength. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the critical regulators of bone health, fulfilling distinct functions depending on its synthesis site: brain-derived serotonin (BDS) favors osteoblast proliferation, whereas gut-derived serotonin (GDS) inhibits it. We assessed the role of BDS and peripheral leptin in the regulation of bone metabolism and strength in young rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. BDS synthesis was accelerated during CKD progression. Decreased peripheral leptin in CKD rats was inversely related to BDS content in the hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex. Serotonin in these brain regions affected bone strength and metabolism in the studied animals. The direct effect of circulating leptin on bone was not shown in uremia. At the molecular level, there was an inverse association between elevated GDS and the expression of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (Creb) gene in bone of CKD animals. In contrast, increased expression of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4) was shown, which was associated with GDS-dependent transcription factor 1 (Foxo1), clock gene - Cry-1, cell cycle genes: c-Myc, cyclins, and osteoblast differentiation genes. These results identified a previously unknown molecular pathway, by which elevated GDS can shift in Foxo1 target genes from Creb to Atf4-dependent response, disrupting the leptin-BDS - dependent gene pathway in the bone of uremic rats. Thus, in the condition of CKD the effect of BDS and GDS on bone metabolism and strength can't be distinguished. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morey, E. R.
Earlier manned spaceflight studies have revealed that the near-weightless environment of orbital flight produce certain biological effects in humans, including abnormalities in mineral metabolism. The data collected were compatible with bone mineral loss. Cosmos 782 and 936 experiments have shown a decrease in rat bone formation rate. In this paper, a rat model of weightlessness is described, which is unique in that the animal is free to move about a 360-deg arc. The model meets the requirements for an acceptable system. Data from the model and spaceflight are presented. Many of the responses noted in suspended animals indicate that the model closely mimics results from rats and man exposed to near-weightlessness during orbital spaceflight.
Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès
Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.
Sauer, Aisha V; Mrak, Emanuela; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Zacchi, Elena; Cavani, Francesco; Casiraghi, Miriam; Grunebaum, Eyal; Roifman, Chaim M; Cervi, Maria C; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Carlucci, Filippo; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Villa, Anna; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Aiuti, Alessandro
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a disorder of the purine metabolism leading to combined immunodeficiency and systemic alterations, including skeletal abnormalities. We report that ADA deficiency in mice causes a specific bone phenotype characterized by alterations of structural properties and impaired mechanical competence. These alterations are the combined result of an imbalanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin axis, causing decreased osteoclastogenesis and an intrinsic defect of osteoblast function with subsequent low bone formation. In vitro, osteoblasts lacking ADA displayed an altered transcriptional profile and growth reduction. Furthermore, the bone marrow microenvironment of ADA-deficient mice showed a reduced capacity to support in vitro and in vivo hematopoiesis. Treatment of ADA-deficient neonatal mice with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy resulted in full recovery of the altered bone parameters. Remarkably, untreated ADA-severe combined immunodeficiency patients showed a similar imbalance in RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels alongside severe growth retardation. Gene therapy with ADA-transduced hematopoietic stem cells increased serum RANKL levels and children's growth. Our results indicate that the ADA metabolism represents a crucial modulatory factor of bone cell activities and remodeling.
Larmonier, C B; McFadden, R-M T; Hill, F M; Schreiner, R; Ramalingam, R; Besselsen, D G; Ghishan, F K; Kiela, P R
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D₃ has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D₃ plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D₃ supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10-/- CD4⁺ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D₃ metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D₃ diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D₃ group. Our data suggest that vitamin D₃, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation in patients with active IBD.
Ramanathan, Madhumati; Patil, Mitali; Epur, Rigved; Yun, Yeoheung; Shanov, Vasselin; Schulz, Mark; Heineman, William R; Datta, Moni K; Kumta, Prashant N
C-terminal telopeptide (cTx), a fragment generated during collagen degradation, is a key biomarker of bone resorption during the bone remodeling process. The presence of varying levels of cTx in the bloodstream can hence be indicative of abnormal bone metabolism. This study focuses on the development of an immunosensor utilizing carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes coated with gold nanoparticles for the detection of cTx, which could ultimately lead to the development of an inexpensive and rapid point-of-care (POC) tool for bone metabolism detection and prognostics. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was implemented to monitor and detect the antigen-antibody binding events occurring on the surface of the gold-deposited CNT electrode. Type I cTx was used as the model protein to test the developed sensor. The sensor was accordingly characterized at various stages of development for evaluation of the optimal sensor performance. The biosensor could detect cTx levels as low as 0.05 ng/mL. The feasibility of the sensor for point-of-care (POC) applications was further demonstrated by determining the single frequency showing maximum changes in impedance, which was determined to be 18.75 Hz. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay; Canpolat, Nur; Duzova, Ali; Sözeri, Betül; Bacchetta, Justine; Balat, Ayse; Büscher, Anja; Candan, Cengiz; Cakar, Nilgun; Donmez, Osman; Dusek, Jiri; Heckel, Martina; Klaus, Günter; Mir, Sevgi; Özcelik, Gül; Sever, Lale; Shroff, Rukshana; Vidal, Enrico; Wühl, Elke; Gondan, Matthias; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz
Objectives The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6–18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10–60 ml/min/1.73m2. 41 children receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy were compared to an untreated matched control group. Results Standardized levels of BAP, TRAP5b and cFGF-23 were increased whereas sclerostin was reduced. BAP was correlated positively and cFGF-23 inversely with eGFR. Intact serum parathormone was an independent positive predictor of BAP and TRAP5b and negatively associated with sclerostin. BAP and TRAP5B were negatively affected by increased C-reactive protein levels. In children receiving recombinant growth hormone, BAP was higher and TRAP5b lower than in untreated controls. Sclerostin levels were in the normal range and higher than in untreated controls. Serum sclerostin and cFGF-23 independently predicted height standard deviation score, and BAP and TRAP5b the prospective change in height standard deviation score. Conclusion Markers of bone metabolism indicate a high-bone turnover state in children with chronic kidney disease. Growth hormone induces an osteoanabolic pattern and normalizes osteocyte activity. The osteocyte markers cFGF23 and sclerostin are associated with standardized height, and the markers of bone turnover predict height velocity. PMID:25659076
Martínez, Esteban; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Reyes García, Rebeca; Carpintero, Pedro; Casado, José Luis; Del Pino Montes, Javier; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Maalouf, Jorge; Negredo, Eugenia; Ocampo, Antonio; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel
To provide practical recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of metabolic bone disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Members of scientific societies related to bone metabolism and HIV: Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GeSIDA), Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), Sociedad Española de Investigación Ósea y del Metabolismo Mineral (SEIOMM), and Sociedad Española de Fractura Osteoporótica (SEFRAOS). A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, and papers in English and Spanish with a publication date before 28 May 2013 were included. Recommendations were formulated according to GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) setting both their strength and the quality of supporting evidence. Working groups were established for each major part, and the final resulting document was later discussed in a face-to-face meeting. All the authors reviewed the final written document and agreed with its content. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations on the detection and treatment of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Wan Hasan, Wan Nuraini; Chin, Kok-Yong; Jolly, James Jam; Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana
Osteoporosis is a silent skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and destruction of skeletal microarchitecture, leading to an increased fracture risk. This occurs due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, whereby the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation. Mevalonate pathway, previously known to involve in cholesterol synthesis, is an important regulatory pathway for bone remodelling. This review aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between mevalonate pathway and bone metabolism, as well as agents which act through this pathway to achieve their therapeutic potential. Mevalonate pathway produces farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate essential in protein prenylation. An increase in protein prenylation favours bone resorption over bone formation. Non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase which produces farnesyl pyrophosphate. They are used as the first line therapy for osteoporosis. Statins, a well-known class of cholesterol-lowering agents, inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. It was shown to increase bone mineral density and prevent fracture in humans. Tocotrienol is a group of vitamin E commonly found in palm oil, rice bran and annatto bean. It causes degradation of HMG-CoA reductase. Many studies demonstrated that tocotrienol prevented bone loss in animal studies but its efficacy has not been tested in humans. mevalonate pathway can be exploited to develop effective antiosteoporosis agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Tsentidis, Charalampos; Gourgiotis, Dimitrios; Kossiva, Lydia; Marmarinos, Antonios; Doulgeraki, Artemis; Karavanaki, Kyriaki
Sclerostin is an inhibitor of the Wnt/beta-catenin bone metabolic pathway. Increased sclerostin levels and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) have been documented in adult patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), predominantly in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). No relative data exist on childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Our objective was to study plasma sclerostin in T1DM children and adolescents and controls and its correlations with metabolic bone markers and BMD. This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted at an outpatient clinical center. Forty T1DM children and adolescents were evaluated (mean ± SD age: 13.04 ± 3.53 yr, T1DM duration: 5.15 ± 3.33 yr), along with 40 healthy matched controls (age 12.99 ± 3.3 yr). Sclerostin, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (s-RANKL), osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide crosslinks, electrolytes, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and total 25(OH)D were measured. Lumbar and subcranial total body BMD were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sclerostin levels demonstrated a Gaussian distribution, with no significant difference between patients and controls (51.56 ± 12.05 vs. 50.98 ± 13.55 pmol/L, p = 0.84). Significantly lower values were found in girls and prepubertal children. Sclerostin values were significantly and gradually increased in children through pubertal Tanner stages 1-3, were reduced at stage 4 and increased again at pubertal stage 5. Sclerostin levels were positively correlated with logCTX (logarithm of C-terminal telopeptide crosslinks of type I collagen), logOsteocalcin (logarithm of Osteocalcin), magnesium, total body, and L1-L4 BMD z-score. T1DM patients had similar levels of sclerostin with controls. Sclerostin correlated with bone resorption and formation markers and also with bone mass indices, gender, and pubertal stage. The decrease in sclerostin values observed in pubertal stage 4 adolescents coincides with the concurrent growth
Spencer, R.P.; Levinson, E.D.; Baldwin, R.D.
Four young patients who presented with pain over the anterior compartment of the legs, gave a recent athletic history suggesting stress fractures. Although radiographs were initially normal in all four cases, the bone scintigrams were positive. The individual findings, however, were quite different. In one there was a single focal area of increased radioactivity in each of the tibias; the second patient had uneven uptake of radiotracer and several foci of accumulation in the fibulas; the third showed diffuse linear tibial uptake suggesting periosteal lesions; and the fourth case revealed uptake in the lateral malleolus and in bones of themore » foot.« less
Fei, Fan; Lee, Keith M.; McCarry, Brian E.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.
Macrophages are major contributors to age-associated inflammation. Metabolic processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and the urea cycle regulate inflammatory responses by macrophages. Metabolic profiles changes with age; therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of metabolic processes could contribute to macrophage hyporesponsiveness to LPS. We examined the intracellular metabolome of bone marrow-derived macrophages from young (6-8 wk) and old (18-22 mo) mice following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and tolerance. We discovered known and novel metabolites that were associated with the LPS response of macrophages from young mice, which were not inducible in macrophages from old mice. Macrophages from old mice were largely non-responsive towards LPS stimulation, and we did not observe a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The critical regulatory metabolites succinate, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine, ornithine and adenosine were increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages from young mice, but not macrophages from old mice. A shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was not observed during LPS tolerance in macrophages from either young or old mice. Metabolic bottlenecks may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the dysregulation of LPS responses with age.
Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis
To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p < 0.001). Increasing dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in osteopenic postmenopausal women appears to be effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.
Pitel, Anne-Lise; Aupée, Anne-Marie; Chételat, Gaël; Mézenge, Florence; Beaunieux, Hélène; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice
Background Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker. PMID:19936229
Harjes, Ulrike; Verfaillie, Catherine; Carmeliet, Peter
The vasculature of the bone marrow remains poorly characterized, yet crucial to maintain hematopoiesis and retain stem cells in a quiescent state. A recent study by Itkin et al. (2016) in Nature reports how vascular barrier integrity and endothelial cell metabolism regulate hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and leukocyte trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bani Hassan, Ebrahim; Demontiero, Oddom; Vogrin, Sara; Ng, Alvin; Duque, Gustavo
Marrow (MAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues display different metabolic profiles and varying associations with aging, bone density, and fracture risk. Using a non-invasive imaging methodology, we aimed to investigate the associations between MAT, SAT, and visceral fat (VAT) with bone volume, bone remodeling markers, insulin resistance, and circulating inflammatory mediators in a population of older men. In this cross-sectional study, 96 healthy men (mean age 67 ± 5.5) were assessed for anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum biochemistry, and inflammatory panel. Using single-energy computed tomography images, MAT (in L2 and L3 and both hips), VAT, and SAT (at the level of L2-L3 and L4-L5) were measured employing Slice-O-Matic software (Tomovision), which enables specific tissue demarcation applying previously reported Hounsfield unit thresholds. MAT volume was similar in all anatomical sites and independent of BMI. In all femoral regions of interest (ROIs) there was a strong negative association between bone and MAT volumes (r = - 0.840 to - 0.972, p < 0.001), with location-dependent variations in the lumbar spine. Unlike VAT and SAT, no associations between MAT and serum glucose, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance indicators were found. Bone decline occurred without red marrow expansion; thus lost bone was mainly (if not exclusively) replaced by MAT. In conclusion, strong inverse correlations between MAT and bone mass, which have been previously observed in women, were also confirmed in older men. However, MAT volume in all ROIs was interrelated and unlike women, mainly independent of VAT or SAT. The lack of strong association between MAT vs VAT/SAT, and its discordant associations with metabolic and inflammatory mediators provide further evidence on MAT's distinct attributes in older men.
Hughes, E C
This paper presents preliminary data concerning the relationship of various components of glandular epithelium and effect of enzymes on metabolism, storage, and release of certain substances in normal and abnormal endometria. Activity of these endometrial enzymes has been compared between two groups: 252 patients with normal menstrual histories and 156 patients, all over the age of 40, with abnormal uterine bleeding. Material was obtained by endometrial biopsy or curettage. In the pathologic classification of the group of 156, 30 patients had secretory endometria, 88 patients had endometria classified as proliferative, 24 were classified as endometrial hyperplasia, and 14 were classified as adenocarcinoma. All tissue was studied by histologic, histochemical, and biochemical methods. Glycogen synthetase activity caused synthesis of glucose to glycogen, increasing in amount until midcycle, when glycogen phosphorylase activity caused the breakdown to glucose during the regressive stage of endometrial activity. This normal cyclic activity did not occur in the abnormal endometria, where activity of both enzymes continued at low constant tempo. Only the I form of glycogen synthetase increased as the tissue became more hyperplastic. With the constant glycogen content and the increased activity of both the TPN isocitric dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the hyperplastic and cancerous endometria, tissue energy was created, resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. These altered biochemical and cellular activities may be the basis for malignant cell growth.
Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge; Andersen, Thomas L; Langdahl, Bente L; Buhl, Thora; Christiansen, Lene; Brixen, Kim; Christensen, Kaare
Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. A total of 153 BW-extremely discordant MZ twin pairs were recruited from the Danish Twin Registry. Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP), and cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were quantified. Femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), lumbar spine (LS), and whole-body (WB) bone mineral density (BMD) (ie, FN-BMD, TH-BMD, LS-BMD, and WB-BMD, respectively) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twins were studied as single individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intrapair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's t test and fixed-regression models. BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-BMD, TH-BMD, FN-BMD, or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB-BMC, and WB-Area after adjustments. Compared to the co-twin, twins with the highest BW were heavier and taller in adulthood (mean differences ± SD): 3.0 ± 10.5 kg; 1.6 ± 2.6 cm; both p < 0.001). Within-pair analyses showed that LS-BMD, TH-BMD, and FN-BMD tended to be higher in twins with highest BW (for all: mean difference 0.01 ± 0.1 g/cm(2) ; p = 0.08, 0.05, and 0.10, respectively). No difference was observed after adjustment for adult body size. Intrapair differences in BW were not associated with differences in any of the biochemical parameters or BMD. Small differences between twins in BMD were explained by dissimilarities in body size. These results suggest that BW and adult bone metabolism are unrelated. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807
Meyer, Thomas; Kneissel, Michaela; Mariani, Jean; Fournier, Brigitte
Bone is a major target site for steroid hormone action. Steroid hormones like cortisol, vitamin D, and estradiol are responsible for principal events associated with bone formation and resorption. Over the past decade, new members of the nuclear hormone gene family have been identified that lack known ligands. These orphan receptors can be used to uncover signaling molecules that regulate yet unidentified physiological networks. In the present study the function of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) α in bone metabolism has been examined. We showed that RORα and RORγ, but not RORβ, are expressed in mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. Interestingly, for RORα we observed an increased messenger signal expression between control cells and cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the direct activation of mouse bone sialoprotein by RORα, typically 7-fold, has been shown. In contrast, transient overexpression of RORα overrides the activation of the osteocalcin promoter by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In addition, we have investigated bone mass parameters and bone geometry in the mouse mutant staggerer (sg/sg), a mouse strain that carries a deletion within the RORα gene. Homozygote mutants have thin long bones compared with the heterozygote animals and wild-type littermates. More interestingly, the bones of the sg/sg animals are osteopenic as indicated by the comparison of bone mineral contents of sg/sg animals to the heterozygote and wild-type animals. We conclude that these in vitro and in vivo results suggest a function for RORα in bone biology. RORα most likely acts by direct modulation of a bone matrix component. PMID:10900268
Zhang, Jing; Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Zhuang, Jing; Chen, Yan; Xu, Wenming
Leptin may be a potential option in preventing osteoporosis for menopausal women. The objective of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism of leptin on bone metabolism in osteoblast. Primary osteoblasts were isolated from parietal bone of adult female rats. mRNA level of OB-Rb in osteoblasts was inhibited by siRNA to block leptin signal transmission. The whole genome expression was tested by using gene chip to preliminarily explore the molecular mechanism of leptin in regulating osteoblast activity. The optimal concentration of siRNA was 25 nM, resulting in a maximal inhibition of OB-Rb mRNA. Ossification (p < 0.05) and bone mineralization (p = 0.0001) were downregulated by inhibiting leptin signal transmission, while bone resorption (p = 0.007), osteoblast differentiation (p = 0.026) and negative regulation of bone remodeling (p = 0.004) were upregulated. The expressions of some genes were regulated by OB-Rb siRNA. The expressions of alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.014) and osteocalcin (p = 0.002) were reduced, while that of vascular endothelial growth factor A (p = 0.0076) and IL-6 (p = 0.021) were increased. In a model of osteoblast, leptin positively promotes ossification through multiple ways including bone mineralization, remodeling, resorption and osteoblast differentiation, but which way plays the most critical role is not discussed in this study and needs to be clarified in future.
Hardouin, P; Flautre, B; Sutter, B; Leclet, H; Grardel, B; Fauquert, P
A new case of osteomesopyknosis, a rare autosomal dominant axial osteosclerosis is reported, with 4 affected members of the same family. Biochemical investigations, bone mineral content (BMC) measurement, 99mTc HMDP bone scan and microscopy of iliac crest bone and femoral head have been performed on 1 subject. A marked increase of BMC was found, without abnormality of biochemical data. Microscopy of bone showed an increase of trabecular thickness, and a low rate of bone turnover. No abnormality of mineralization was found on microradiographs.
Varley, Ian; Jones, Thomas W.; James, Ruth M.; Tang, Jonathan C. Y.; Fraser, William D.; Greeves, Julie P.
Bone resorption is increased after running, with no change in bone formation. Feeding during exercise might attenuate this increase, preventing associated problems for bone. This study investigated the immediate and short-term bone metabolic responses to carbohydrate (CHO) feeding during treadmill running. Ten men completed two 7-day trials, once being fed CHO (8% glucose immediately before, every 20 min during, and immediately after exercise at a rate of 0.7 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1) and once being fed placebo (PBO). On day 4 of each trial, participants completed a 120-min treadmill run at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max). Blood was taken at baseline (BASE), immediately after exercise (EE), after 60 (R1) and 120 (R2) min of recovery, and on three follow-up days (FU1-FU3). Markers of bone resorption [COOH-terminal telopeptide region of collagen type 1 (β-CTX)] and formation [NH2-terminal propeptides of procollagen type 1 (P1NP)] were measured, along with osteocalcin (OC), parathyroid hormone (PTH), albumin-adjusted calcium (ACa), phosphate, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin, cortisol, leptin, and osteoprotogerin (OPG). Area under the curve was calculated in terms of the immediate (BASE, EE, R1, and R2) and short-term (BASE, FU1, FU2, and FU3) responses to exercise. β-CTX, P1NP, and IL-6 responses to exercise were significantly lower in the immediate postexercise period with CHO feeding compared with PBO (β-CTX: P = 0.028; P1NP: P = 0.021; IL-6: P = 0.036), although there was no difference in the short-term response (β-CTX: P = 0.856; P1NP: P = 0.721; IL-6: P = 0.327). No other variable was significantly affected by CHO feeding during exercise. We conclude that CHO feeding during exercise attenuated the β-CTX and P1NP responses in the hours but not days following exercise, indicating an acute effect of CHO feeding on bone turnover. PMID:26251510
Holy, Xavier; Collombet, Jean-Marc; Labarthe, Frédéric; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Bégot, Laurent
The aim of the study was to determine the seasonal influence of vitamin D status on bone metabolism in French submariners over a 2-mo patrol. Blood samples were collected as follows: prepatrol and patrol days 20, 41, and 58 on crewmembers from both a winter (WP; n = 20) and a summer patrol (SP; n = 20), respectively. Vitamin D status was evaluated for WP and SP. Moreover, extended parameters for acid-base balance (Pco(2), pH, and bicarbonate), bone metabolism (bone alkaline phosphatase and COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen), and mineral homeostasis (parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and phosphorus) were scrutinized. As expected, SP vitamin D status was higher than WP vitamin D status, regardless of the considered experimental time. A mild chronic respiratory acidosis (CRA) was identified in both SP and WP submariners, up to patrol day 41. Such an occurrence paired up with an altered bone remodeling coupling (decreased bone alkaline phosphatase-to-COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen ratio). At the end of the patrol (day 58), a partial compensation of CRA episode, combined with a recovered normal bone remodeling coupling, was observed in SP, not, however, in WP submariners. The mild CRA episode displayed over the initial 41-day submersion period was mainly induced by a hypercapnia resulting from the submarine-enriched CO(2) level. The correlated impaired bone remodeling may imply a physiological attempt to compensate this acidosis via bone buffering. On patrol day 58, the discrepancy observed in terms of CRA compensation between SP and WP may result from the seasonal influence on vitamin D status.
Hamed, Enas A; Faddan, Nagla H Abu; Elhafeez, Hebh A Adb; Sayed, Douaa
Skeletal involvement in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has complex pathogenesis and despite numerous researches on this problem, many questions remain unanswered. This study aimed to assess bone status by measurement parathormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels in children and adolescents with T1DM and its relation to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), disease duration, puberty stage, and metabolic control. This study included 36 children and adolescents with T1DM and 15 apparently healthy controls. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, PTH, IGF-1 measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (PO(4) ) using autoanalyzer. Bone quality assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Diabetic patients showed significant increase in PO(4) and PTH levels, while significant decrease in Ca, IGF-1, and 25(OH)D serum levels. As much as 52.8% of patients showed reduced 25(OH)D, and 30.65% showed elevated PTH serum levels. In diabetic patients, abnormal bone status (osteopenia-osteoporosis) found mostly in total body (94.40%) then lumber-spine (88.90%), ribs (88.90%), pelvis (86.10%), thoracic-spine (80.60%), arms (80.60%) and legs (77.80%), while head bones showed no abnormalities. Long diabetic duration had negative; meanwhile PTH, onset age, and puberty age had positive impact on bone status. Children and adolescent with T1DM have abnormal bone status mostly in axial skeleton which may be contributed to impairment of formation of 25(OH)D and IGF-1. Physical activity, calcium and vitamin D supplement seem important in T1DM. Elevated serum PTH level in diabetic patients is not uncommon and its positive correlation with bone status needs further investigations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Sgambat, Kristen; Moudgil, Asha
The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), altered growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF-23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD–MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF-23 antibodies, FGF-23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization. PMID:24605319
Del Conte, Alessandro; Minatel, Emilio; Schinella, Domenico; Baresic, Tanja; Basso, Stefano M M; Lumachi, Franco
Gefitinib is highly active in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. The feasibility and the degree of response to treatment with gefitinib in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been fully described in literature. We describe the case of a 70-year-old man with CRF undergoing hemodialysis three times-a-week who developed vertebral and rib bone metastasis three years after lobectomy. The bone biopsy confirmed the pulmonary origin and pyrosequencing analysis revealed deletion in E746-E750 of exon 19. We started daily administration of 250 mg gefitinib with no changes in the hemodialysis schedule. Gefitinib was well-tolerated without any adverse event. After three months, the (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) showed complete metabolic remission of bone lesions. The patient is still under treatment and maintains response (30 months to date). To our knowledge, this is the first description of complete metabolic remission in this type of patient. In conclusion, gefitinib has been safely administered to a patient with NSCLC with EGFR-activating mutation undergoing chronic hemodialysis and its use has achieved an excellent and prolonged response on bone metastases.
Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive
Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive
Tekes, Aylin; Ishman, Stacey L; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Lin, Sandra Y; Tunkel, David E; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Huisman, Thierry A G M
This study aimed to determine the spectrum of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) abnormalities in children with conductive hearing loss (CHL) with and without microtia. From 1993 to 2008, a total of 3396 pediatric records including CHL were reviewed at our institution and revealed 180 cases of persistent CHL, 46 of whom had diagnostic temporal bone CT examinations. All of these examinations were systematically reviewed by two pediatric neuroradiologists, working in consensus, who had 5 and 18 years, respectively, of dedicated pediatric neuroradiology experience. Of the 46 children, 16 were boys and 30 were girls (age: 0.2-16 years; mean: 5 years). Also, 21 (46%) children had microtia and 25 (54%) children did not, as determined by clinical evaluation. External auditory canal atresia/stenosis (EAC-A/S) was the most common anomaly in both microtia and non-microtia groups. Two or more anomalies were observed in 18/21 children with microtia. The frequency of EAC-A/S was greater in children with microtia versus those without it (86% versus 32%, respectively; P = 0.0003). Syndromic diagnoses were also significantly more frequently made in children with microtia versus those without microtia (76% versus 20%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Temporal bone CT scans were normal in 10 children (22%) with persistent CHL. Microtia is an important finding in children with CHL. EAC and middle ear/ossicle anomalies were significantly more frequently seen in children with microtia, and multiple anomalies and bilateral microtia were more common in children with syndromic associations. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the embryological development of the temporal bone. The presence of one anomaly should raise suspicion of the possibility of other anomalies, especially in the setting of microtia. Bilateral microtia and multiple anomalies should also raise suspicion of genetic syndromes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Doherty, Alison H; Roteliuk, Danielle M; Gookin, Sara E; McGrew, Ashley K; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Condon, Keith W; Prenni, Jessica E; Wojda, Samantha J; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W
Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. We tested the hypothesis that bone turnover rates would decrease and bone structural and mechanical properties would be preserved in hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Femurs and tibias were collected from marmots during hibernation and in the summer following hibernation. Bone remodeling was significantly altered in cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation with suppressed formation and no change in resorption, unlike the increased bone resorption that occurs during disuse in humans and other animals. Trabecular bone architecture and cortical bone geometrical and mechanical properties were not different between hibernating and active marmots, but bone marrow adiposity was significantly greater in hibernators. Of the 506 proteins identified in marmot bone, 40 were significantly different in abundance between active and hibernating marmots. Monoaglycerol lipase, which plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system, was 98-fold higher in hibernating marmots compared with summer marmots and may play a role in regulating the changes in bone and fat metabolism that occur during hibernation.
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai
Mineral and bone disorders (MBDs), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease, occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about the clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on posttransplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, and the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities, often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed.
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai
Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626
Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bobjer, Johannes; Bogefors, Karolina; Isaksson, Sigrid; Leijonhufvud, Irene; Åkesson, Kristina; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Giwercman, Aleksander
It is yet unknown to which degree young subfertile men present with signs of hypogonadism and whether low testosterone concentration, like in older men, is associated with risk of osteoporosis and metabolic derangements in those subjects. The objective was therefore to investigate the prevalence of hypogonadism and its association with metabolic and bone parameters in young subfertile men. Cross-sectional case-control study. Men from infertile couples (n = 192); 18-50 years; sperm concentration <20 × 10(6) /ml and population-based age-matched controls (n = 199). Blood sampling, anthropometrics, blood pressure, ankle-brachial index and assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were undertaken. Odds ratios of biochemical hypogonadism (total testosterone <8·0 nmol/l and/or luteinizing hormone ≥8·6 IU/l and/or ongoing androgen replacement therapy) were calculated. Serum concentrations of sex hormones, lipids, glucose, insulin and HbA1c were assessed and bone mineral density (BMD) evaluated. Compared to controls, the risk of hypogonadism was increased among subfertile men (OR 10; 95% CI, 5·1, 22), being highest in those with nonobstructive azoospermia. Hypogonadal men had higher HbA1c concentration (mean diff. 2·8 mmol/mol; 95% CI, 0·64, 4·9; P = 0·011) and lower lumbar spine BMD (mean diff. 0·05 g/cm(2) ; 95% CI, 0·01, 0·10; P = 0·032) compared to eugonadal subfertile men, even more pronounced in subfertile men with subnormal testosterone levels. Young subfertile men have 10 times increased OR of hypogonadism, which is linked to increased HbA1c and decreased bone mineralization. Endocrine assessment and, if needed, measures to prevent metabolic sequelae and osteoporosis should be included in the routine management of men from infertile couples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, S-F; Hu, T-M; Lan, T-H; Chiu, H-J; Sheen, L-Y; Loh, E-W
Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients. We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients. Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006. Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology. Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kollmann, Katrin; Pestka, Jan Malte; Kühn, Sonja Christin; Schöne, Elisabeth; Schweizer, Michaela; Karkmann, Kathrin; Otomo, Takanobu; Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Marshall, Robert Percy; Krause, Matthias; Santer, Rene; Amling, Michael; Braulke, Thomas; Schinke, Thorsten
Mucolipidosis type II (MLII) is a severe multi-systemic genetic disorder caused by missorting of lysosomal proteins and the subsequent lysosomal storage of undegraded macromolecules. Although affected children develop disabling skeletal abnormalities, their pathogenesis is not understood. Here we report that MLII knock-in mice, recapitulating the human storage disease, are runted with accompanying growth plate widening, low trabecular bone mass and cortical porosity. Intralysosomal deficiency of numerous acid hydrolases results in accumulation of storage material in chondrocytes and osteoblasts, and impaired bone formation. In osteoclasts, no morphological or functional abnormalities are detected whereas osteoclastogenesis is dramatically increased in MLII mice. The high number of osteoclasts in MLII is associated with enhanced osteoblastic expression of the pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine interleukin-6, and pharmacological inhibition of bone resorption prevented the osteoporotic phenotype of MLII mice. Our findings show that progressive bone loss in MLII is due to the presence of dysfunctional osteoblasts combined with excessive osteoclastogenesis. They further underscore the importance of a deep skeletal phenotyping approach for other lysosomal diseases in which bone loss is a prominent feature. PMID:24127423
Liesegang, A; Risteli, J
The purpose of this study was to investigate, if different Ca concentrations in diets have an influence on bone mineral metabolism in growing goats and sheep. Twelve growing goats and sheep were divided into two groups. The two control groups received 6.1 g calcium/day (nG) and 6.7 g calcium/day (nS) for goat and sheep respectively. The other two groups were fed 17.7 g calcium/day (hG) and 18.5 g calcium/day (hS). Blood samples were taken 2, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after the start of the experiment. In serum Ca and vitamin D were determined and bone metabolism was measured using crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), crosslaps, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (OC). Bone mineral density (BMD) was quantified using quantitative computed tomography. Bone resorption marker (ICTP) concentrations were significantly different between both groups control sheep/control goat and hS/hG, but no significant differences were evident in the different feeding groups within one species. OC concentrations showed a similar course to ICTP. The goats had significantly higher concentrations compared with sheep. The 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (VITD) concentrations in both hCa groups were significantly lower than in the control groups. BMD increased in the hCa groups compared with the control groups with the time, but significant differences were only evident in sheep in week 2. The hCa diet did not induce differences between the groups within one species for all bone markers. The control Ca diet seems to improve the active Ca absorption via VITD whereas the hCa diet leads to a higher amount of Ca apparently digested. Higher BMD was only observed in group hS compared with nS.
Park, Shin-Eui; Choi, Nam-Gil; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS. The metabolic concentration of myo-inositol in patients with OCD increased significantly by 52% compared with the healthy controls, whereas glutamine/glutamate was decreased by 11%. However, there were no significant differences in N-acetylaspartate, choline, lactate and lipid between the two groups. These findings would be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of OCD associated with the brain metabolic abnormalities in the right DLPFC.
... ency/article/000414.htm Paget disease of the bone To use the sharing features on this page, ... Paget disease is a disorder that involves abnormal bone destruction and regrowth. This results in deformity of ...
Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Kim, Audrey J; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Phipps, Matthew; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Feng, Jian Q; Kim, Harry Kw
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities, including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype. Serum FGF23 levels were 4 times increased in cKO mice compared with age-matched controls. In addition, calcium-phosphorus metabolism was significantly altered (calcium reduced; phosphorus reduced; parathyroid hormone [PTH] increased; 1,25(OH) 2 D decreased). Bone histomorphometry showed dramatically increased osteoid parameters, including osteoid volume, surface, and thickness. Dynamic bone histomorphometry revealed reduced bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the cKO mice. TRAP staining showed a reduced osteoclast number. Micro-CT demonstrated thinner and porous cortical bones in the cKO mice, in which osteocyte dendrites were disorganized as assessed by electron microscopy. Interestingly, the cKO mice exhibited spontaneous fractures in long bones, as found in NF1 patients. Mechanical testing of femora revealed significantly reduced maximum force and stiffness. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased FGF23 protein in the cKO bones. Moreover, primary osteocytes from cKO femora showed about eightfold increase in FGF23 mRNA levels compared with control cells. The upregulation of FGF23 was specifically and significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, indicating upregulation of FGF23 through PI3K in Nf1-deficient osteocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Nf1 deficiency in osteocytes dramatically increases FGF23 production and causes a mineralization
Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.
An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.
Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily
Recent results obtained on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and bone browth during short-term flights and ground simulated-microgravity experiments are presented. Results demonstrate that two principal components of calcium metabolism respond within days to changes in body position and to weightlessness: the calcium endocrine system and bone characteristics. Furthermore, results of recent studies imply that bone biomechanics are more severely affected by spaceflight exposures than is the bone mass.
Philbrick, Kenneth A; Wong, Carmen P; Branscum, Adam J; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T
Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, is essential for normal bone growth, maturation and turnover. Peripheral actions of leptin occur at lower serum levels of the hormone than central actions because entry of leptin into the central nervous system (CNS) is limited due to its saturable transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We performed a study in mice to model the impact of leptin production associated with different levels of adiposity on bone formation and compared the response with well-established centrally mediated actions of the hormone on energy metabolism. Leptin was infused (0, 4, 12, 40, 140 or 400 ng/h) for 12 days into 6-week-old female ob/ob mice (n = 8/group) using sc-implanted osmotic pumps. Treatment resulted in a dose-associated increase in serum leptin. Bone formation parameters were increased at EC 50 infusion rates of 7-17 ng/h, whereas higher levels (EC 50 , 40-80 ng/h) were required to similarly influence indices of energy metabolism. We then analyzed gene expression in tibia and hypothalamus at dose rates of 0, 12 and 140 ng/h; the latter dose resulted in serum leptin levels similar to WT mice. Infusion with 12 ng/h leptin increased the expression of genes associated with Jak/Stat signaling and bone formation in tibia with minimal effect on Jak/Stat signaling and neurotransmitters in hypothalamus. The results suggest that leptin acts peripherally to couple bone acquisition to energy availability and that limited transport across the BBB insures that the growth-promoting actions of peripheral leptin are not curtailed by the hormone's CNS-mediated anorexigenic actions. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
Ghislain, Mathilde; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Meyer, Laurence; Capeau, Jacqueline; Fellahi, Soraya; Gérard, Laurence; May, Thierry; Simon, Anne; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile
Objectives HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation. Methods Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142). Results Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07). Conclusion After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:26636578
Buie, Helen R; Bosma, Nick A; Downey, Charlene M; Jirik, Frank R; Boyd, Steven K
Bone defects can occur in various forms and present challenges to performing a standard micro-CT evaluation of bone quality because most measures are suited to homogeneous structures rather than ones with spatially focal abnormalities. Such defects are commonly associated with pain and fragility. Research involving bone defects requires quantitative approaches to be developed if micro-CT is to be employed. In this study, we demonstrate that measures of inter-microarchitectural bone spacing are sensitive to the presence of focal defects in the proximal tibia of two distinctly different mouse models: a burr-hole model for fracture healing research, and a model of osteolytic bone metastases. In these models, the cortical and trabecular bone compartments were both affected by the defect and were, therefore, evaluated as a single unit to avoid splitting the defects into multiple analysis regions. The burr-hole defect increased mean spacing (Sp) by 27.6%, spacing standard deviation (SpSD) by 113%, and maximum spacing (Spmax) by 72.8%. Regression modeling revealed SpSD (β=0.974, p<0.0001) to be a significant predictor of the defect volume (R(2)=0.949) and Spmax (β=0.712, p<0.0001) and SpSD (β=0.271, p=0.022) to be significant predictors of the defect diameter (R(2)=0.954). In the mice with osteolytic bone metastases, spacing parameters followed similar patterns of change as reflected by other imaging technologies, specifically bioluminescence data which is indicative of tumor burden. These data highlight the sensitivity of spacing measurements to bone architectural abnormalities from 3D micro-CT data and provide a tool for quantitative evaluation of defects within a bone. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; Shebini, Salwa M. El; Kazem, Yusr I.; Tapozada, Salwa T.
AIM: To investigate the relation between bone parameters and the metabolic syndrome criteria, before and after the administration of two different natural dietary supplements in middle aged working obese Egyptian women suffering from metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty eight middle aged obese female volunteers suffering from metabolic syndrome were divided into two groups. During the first period, group (A) consumed a low caloric diet and nutritional supplement consisting of doum flour biscuits, while group (B) consumed whole meal wheat flour biscuit with the same instructions. During the second period, both supplements were omitted. Assessment of blood pressure, relevant anthropometric parameters, lipid accumulation product, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH) D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were performed. RESULTS: Data showed that although both supplements improved the MetS criteria and the bone health parameters, the supplement containing the doum flour proved to be more effective. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the benefit of doum in improving bone health parameter [25 (OH) D/PTH axis] in the MetS patients, beside the MetS criteria. So, we can conclude that natural effective supplements lead towards the optimization of biochemical parameters in favor of a healthy outcome. PMID:27275291
Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C
A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P < 0.05 for TO-2 starch versus control; TO-2 sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Yu; Xi, Qian-qian; Dai, Wei; Yang, Shu-han; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Xin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that presents a spectrum of qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, as well as restricted and stereotyped behavioral patterns, interests, and activities. Several studies have suggested that the etiology of ASD can be partly explained by oxidative stress. However, the implications of abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and oxidative stress, and their relation with ASD are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several transsulfuration pathway metabolites in Chinese participants diagnosed with ASD, to better understand their role in the etiology of this disorder. Fifty children (39 male, 11 female) diagnosed with ASD and 50 age- and gender-matched non-ASD children (i.e., control group) were included in this study. This prospective blinded study was undertaken to assess transsulfuration and oxidative metabolites, including levels of homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), total glutathione (tGSH), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG). The clinical severity of ASD was evaluated with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the autistic children's present behavior was measured by the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). The results indicated that Hcy and GSSG levels were significantly higher in children diagnosed with ASD, Cys, tGSH and GSH levels as well as the GSH/GSSG ratio showed remarkably lower values in ASD children compared to control subjects. Hcy levels correlated significantly with increasing CARS scores and GSSG levels in children with ASD. Our results suggest that an abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and reduced antioxidant capacity (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia and increased oxidative stress), and Hcy level appears to have a potentially negative impact on clinical severity of autistic disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lerchbaum, E; Schwetz, V; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; Wallaschofski, H; Hannemann, A
Accumulating evidence demonstrates an important interaction between bone and energy metabolism. We aimed to study the associations of three bone turnover markers (BTM: osteocalcin, beta-crosslaps, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide) as well as of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a large population-based cohort. This cross-sectional study comprised 2671 adult men and women participating in the first follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess sex-specific associations between the BTMs, 25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone and metabolic disease. All models were adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate and month of blood sampling. The models for women were further adjusted for menopausal status. Higher BTM or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with significantly lower odds for metabolic disease, while there was no association between parathyroid hormone and MetS or T2DM. Our results contribute to the accumulating evidence of a cross-sectional association between high BTM or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a lower prevalence of MetS or T2DM. Further research is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarıtekin, İlker; Açıkgöz, Şerefden; Bayraktaroğlu, Taner; Kuzu, Fatih; Can, Murat; Güven, Berrak; Mungan, Görkem; Büyükuysal, Çağatay; Sarıkaya, Selda
Sclerostin, which is a glycoprotein produced by osteocytes, reduces the formation of bones by inhibiting the Wnt signal pathway. Thyroid hormones are related with Wnt signal pathway and it has been reported that increased thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism fasten epiphysis maturation in childhood, and increase the risk of bone fractures by stimulating the bone loss in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the sclerostin serum levels, the relation between sclerostin and thyroid hormones as well as the biochemical markers of the bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism (including multinodular goiter and Graves' disease), whose treatments have not started yet. No difference was found in the serum sclerostin levels between the hyperthyroidism group (n=24) and the control group (n=24) (p=0.452). The serum osteocalcin levels and 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion were found to be higher in the hyperthyroid group than in the control group (p<0.001, p=0.009). A positive correlation was determined between the sclerostin and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.001); a negative correlation between the osteocalcin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p<0.05); a positive correlation between the osteocalcin and thyroid hormones (FT 3 ,FT 4 ) (p<0.001); and a positive correlation between the deoxypyridinoline and hydroxyproline (p<0.001). No correlation was determined between sclerostin and TSH,FT 3 ,FT 4 (p>0.05). Therefore, we consider that a long-term study that covers the pre-post treatment stages of hyperthyroidism, including both the destruction and construction of the skeleton would be more enlightening. Moreover, the assessment of the synthesis of sclerostin in the bone tissue and in the serum level might show differences.
Feng, Jian Q.; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; Yuan, Baozhi; White, Kenneth E.; Drezner, Marc K.
Although recent studies have established that osteocytes function as secretory cells that regulate phosphate metabolism, the biomolecular mechanism(s) underlying these effects remain incompletely defined. However, investigations focusing on the pathogenesis of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), heritable disorders characterized by abnormal renal phosphate wasting and bone mineralization, have clearly implicated FGF23 as a central factor in osteocytes underlying renal phosphate wasting, documented new molecular pathways regulating FGF23 production, and revealed complementary abnormalities in osteocytes that regulate bone mineralization. The seminal observations leading to these discoveries were the following: 1) mutations in FGF23 cause ADHR by limiting cleavage of the bioactive intact molecule, at a subtilisin-like protein convertase (SPC) site, resulting in increased circulating FGF23 levels and hypophosphatemia; 2) mutations in DMP1 cause ARHR, not only by increasing serum FGF23, albeit by enhanced production and not limited cleavage, but also by limiting production of the active DMP1 component, the C-terminal fragment, resulting in dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, which contributes to impaired bone mineralization; and 3) mutations in PHEX cause XLH both by altering FGF23 proteolysis and production and causing dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, similar to abnormalities in ADHR and ARHR, but secondary to different central pathophysiological events. These discoveries indicate that ADHR, XLH, and ARHR represent three related heritable hypophosphatemic diseases that arise from mutations in, or dysregulation of, a single common gene product, FGF23 and, in ARHR and XLH, complimentary DMP1 and PHEX directed events that contribute to abnormal bone mineralization. PMID:23403405
Sabuncu, T; Aksoy, N; Arikan, E; Ugur, B; Tasan, E; Hatemi, H
The effects of thyroid hormones on various organs and metabolic systems have been the focus of intensive research. In this study we investigated the mechanisms of the changes in some parameters of bone and mineral metabolism before and during treatment of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Our study groups were as follows; 1) Untreated hyperthyroid patients (n= 38), 2) Hyperthyroid patients treated for three months (n=21), 3) Untreated hypothyroid patients (n=27), 4) Hypothyroid patients treated for three months (n= 20), and 5) Euthyroid control subjects (age, weight, sex and menopausal status matched) (n = 47). As expected, the mean serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urinary Ca/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr)/creatinine levels were higher in group-1 than in the control group. Serum PTH level was lower in group-1 than in group-5. However, after treatment for three months (group-2) we found that the serum and urinary levels of these parameters (except ALP) were not different than in the control group. Group-3 and group-4 did not show any differences in these parameters compared with group-5. Covariance analysis showed that urinary D-Pyr excretion had a positive, independent relationship to the serum free T3 level and age (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). These results suggest that both bone formation and resorption markers increase in hyperthyroid patients, and with the treatment, particularly, in the period of first three months the bone resorption markers decrease rapidly. If the treatment is maintained the decrease slows, becoming more gradual. However, bone formation markers like ALP remain high in hyperthyroid patients during the treatment. In the light of this data, it is possible to conclude that osteoblastic activity lasts longer in hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, we demonstrated that these bone formation and resorption markers do not seem to be different in hypothyroid patients, even during the treatment, compared
Korać, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kušec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A
The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease. PMID:16311361
Tan, Li Ming; Wang, Lu; Chen, Juan-Juan; Li, Hua; Luo, Wen-Bo
To explore the diagnostic performance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and osteocalcin (OC) in predicting stroke. Methods: This retrospective survey was conducted in The Second Affiliated Hospital to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. involved 121 cerebral infarction patients and 103 cerebral hemorrhage patients as the experimental groups, 100 volunteers as the healthy control group and 80 brain trauma patients as the disease control group. The 25(OH)D, PTH, BALP, and OC levels of all participants were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The serum concentration of 25(OH)D in stroke patients was appreciably lower than that of the control groups (p less than 0.05), and subsequently, the deficiency level of 25(OH)D in the stroke population was considerably higher than that of the control groups (p less than 0.05). The serum concentrations of PTH and OC in stroke patients exceeded those found in the control groups (p less than 0.05), and the abnormal level in the stroke patients was also higher than that of the control. Compared with the control group, BALP concentrations in cerebral infarction patients were increased significantly. Additionally, abnormal levels of BALP in stroke patients were found to be higher than those in the control groups. However, concentrations and abnormal levels of BALP in cerebral hemorrhage patients were not found to be significantly different than those found in cerebral infarction and the control groups, There were no substantial differences between the 2 control groups. Conclusion: Lack of 25(OH)D and excessive PTH, BALP, and OC could indicate a high risk of stroke.
Agarwal, Anil K; Tunison, Katie; Dalal, Jasbir S; Nagamma, Sneha S; Hamra, F Kent; Sankella, Shireesha; Shao, Xinli; Auchus, Richard J; Garg, Abhimanyu
Defects in the biosynthesis of phospholipids and neutral lipids are associated with cell membrane dysfunction, disrupted energy metabolism, and diseases including lipodystrophy. In these pathways, the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) enzymes transfer a fatty acid to the sn-2 carbon of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid) to form sn-1, 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate [phosphatidic acid (PA)]. PA is a precursor for key phospholipids and diacylglycerol. AGPAT1 and AGPAT2 are highly homologous isoenzymes that are both expressed in adipocytes. Genetic defects in AGPAT2 cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy, indicating that AGPAT1 cannot compensate for loss of AGPAT2 in adipocytes. To further explore the physiology of AGPAT1, we characterized a loss-of-function mouse model (Agpat1-/-). The majority of Agpat1-/- mice died before weaning and had low body weight and low plasma glucose levels, independent of plasma insulin and glucagon levels, with reduced percentage of body fat but not generalized lipodystrophy. These mice also had decreased hepatic messenger RNA expression of Igf-1 and Foxo1, suggesting a decrease in gluconeogenesis. In male mice, sperm development was impaired, with a late meiotic arrest near the onset of round spermatid production, and gonadotropins were elevated. Female mice showed oligoanovulation yet retained responsiveness to gonadotropins. Agpat1-/- mice also demonstrated abnormal hippocampal neuron development and developed audiogenic seizures. In summary, Agpat1-/- mice developed widespread disturbances of metabolism, sperm development, and neurologic function resulting from disrupted phospholipid homeostasis. AGPAT1 appears to serve important functions in the physiology of multiple organ systems. The Agpat1-deficient mouse provides an important model in which to study the contribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis to physiology and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
The article discusses the physiology and pathology of fetal bone and joint development and functions. The bones provide static support for the body. The skull and the bones of spinal column encase the central and part of the peripheral nervous system. The ribs and the sternum shield the heart and the lungs, while the bones of the pelvis protect the intraabdominal organs. Pathological changes of these bony structures may impair the functions of the respective systems or internal organs. Movements of the bones are brought about by muscles. The deriving motions are facilitated by joints. Bony anomalies of the extremities limit their effective functions. Apart from skeletal and joint abnormalities, akinesia may also be caused by neurological, muscular and skin diseases that secondarily affect the functions of bones and joints. Such pathological changes may lead to various degrees of physical disability and even to death. Some of the mentioned anomalies are recognizable in utero by ultrasound. The diagnosis may serve as medical indication for abortion in those instances when the identified abnormality is incompatible with independent life.
Schechter, J.P.; Jones, S.E.; Woolfenden, J.M.
The results of bone scanning with the newer technetium-99m complexes were correlated with clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings in 26 patients with malignant lymphoma (10 with Hodgkin's disease and 16 with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas). Abnormalities on bone scan compatible with lymphomatous involvement of the skeleton appeared to occur more commonly in patients with diffuse lymphomas than in patients with nodular lymphomas and were generally observed in the setting of advanced disease (15 of 23 patients). Twenty-seven (73 percent) of the 37 scans obtained were abnormal. Although abnormal scans were observed with the greatest frequency in patients with bone pain (11 ofmore » 11), bone marrow involvement (11 of 12), abnormal skeletal radiographs (11 of 11), and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels (5 of 6), bone scanning also detected lymphomatous involvement in patients free of pain or with normal laboratory tests. Moreover, conventional radiography was entirely normal in six (35 percent) of 17 patients with abnormal scans and revealed only nonspecific osteopenia in another two patients (12 percent). Serial bone scans in nine patients reflected their response to chemotherapy. Of the 37 scans, only one was judged falsely positive and one falsely negative. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc complexes is a safe, simple, and sensitive screening procedure for detecting both extensive and focal lymphomatous involvement of the skeletal system and is a useful means of following such involvement in response to treatment.« less
Nakano, Takafumi; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Horie, Toshiharu
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the most common of the human porphyrias, arises from a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Studies have shown a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with PCT. While these observations implicate HCV infection as a risk factor for PCT pathogenesis, the mechanism of interaction between the virus and porphyrin metabolism is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effect of HCV core protein on intracellular porphyrin metabolism to elucidate the link between HCV infection and PCT. The accumulation and excretion of porphyrins after treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid, a porphyrin precursor, were compared between cells stably expressing HCV core protein and controls. Cells expressing HCV core protein had lower amounts of intracellular protoporphyrin IX and heme and had higher amounts of excreted coproporphyrin III, the oxidized form of coproporphyrinogen III, compared with controls. These observations suggest that HCV core protein affects porphyrin metabolism and facilitates the export of excess coproporphyrinogen III and/or coproporphyrin III, possibly via porphyrin transporters. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the presence of HCV core protein increased the mRNA expression of porphyrin exporters ABCG2 and FLVCR1. Western blot analysis showed a higher expression level of FLVCR1, but not ABCG2, as well as a higher expression level of mature ALAS1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway, in HCV core protein-expressing cells compared with controls. The data indicate that HCV core protein induced abnormal intracellular porphyrin metabolism, with an over-excretion of coproporphyrin III. These findings may partially account for the susceptibility of HCV-infected individuals to PCT development.
Ima-Nirwana, S; Ahmad, S Nazrun; Yee, L J; Loh, H C; Yew, S F; Norazlina, M; Abdul, M T Gapor; Kamsiah, J
The short-term and long- term effects of heated soy oil on bone metabolism in ovariectomised Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Three-month-old female rats, were divided into five groups: normal control (NC); ovariectomised control (OVXC); ovariectomised and fed rat chow with added fresh soybean oil (SOF) or once-heated soy oil (SO1) or five-times-heated soy oil (SO5). Short-term parameters measured after one month were serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin. Long-term parameters measured after six months were the structural bone histomorphometrical parameters. Vitamin E content in the soy oil subjected to the different heating treatments were also measured. Rats in the SO5 group had higher levels of IL-6 after one month compared to the other four groups. Osteocalcin levels in the SO1 and SO5 groups remained high after treatment, while those in the NC and SOF groups declined. After six months, bone mass declined in the SO5 group. Vitamin E assay in the oils showed that levels of alpha-tocopherol decreased after heating the oil once and five times, while levels of gamma- and delta-tocopherols only declined after heating five times. Repeated heating of soy oil destroyed the tocopherols causing raised serum IL-6 and osteocalcin levels, leading to increased bone resorption and osteoporosis in the long term.
Hu, Yang; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Piao, Ying-Shan; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Fang; Chen, Ze-Jie; Du, Yang; Lian, Teng-Hong; Liu, Gai-Fen; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-Di; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei
Objective To investigate potential mechanisms involving abnormal iron metabolism and related inflammation in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (PRBD). Methods Total 210 PD patients and 31 controls were consecutively recruited. PD patients were evaluated by RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) and classified into PRBD and probable no RBD (NPRBD) groups. Demographics information were recorded and clinical symptoms were evaluated by series of rating scales. Levels of iron and related proteins and inflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were detected. Comparisons among control, NPRBD and PRBD groups and correlation analyses between RBDSQ score and levels of above factors were performed. Results (1)The frequency of PRBD in PD patients is 31.90%. (2)PRBD group has longer disease duration, more advanced disease stage, severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms than NPRBD group. (3)In CSF, levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PRBD group are prominently increased. RBDSQ score is positively correlated with the levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PD group. Iron level is positively correlated with the levels of NO and IL–1β in PD group. (4)In serum, transferrin level is prominently decreased in PRBD group. PGE2 level in PRBD group is drastically enhanced. RBDSQ score exhibits a positive correlation with PGE2 level in PD group. Conclusions PRBD is common in PD patients. PRBD group has severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms. Excessive iron in brain resulted from abnormal iron metabolism in central and peripheral systems is correlated with PRBD through neuroinflammation. PMID:26431210
Malluche, Hartmut H.; Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David
Bone of normal quality and quantity can successfully endure physiologically imposed mechanical loads. Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) adversely affects bone quality through alterations in bone turnover and mineralization, whereas bone quantity is affected through changes in bone volume. Changes in bone quality can be associated with altered bone material, structure, or microdamage, which can result in an elevated rate of fracture in patients with CKD–MBD. Fractures cannot always be explained by reduced bone quantity and, therefore, bone quality should be assessed with a variety of techniques from the macro-organ level to the nanoscale level. In this Review, we demonstrate the importance of evaluating bone from multiple perspectives and hierarchical levels to understand CKD–MBD-related abnormalities in bone quality. Understanding the relationships between variations in material, structure, microdamage, and mechanical properties of bone in patients with CKD–MBD should aid in the development of new modalities to prevent, or treat, these abnormalities. PMID:24100399
Frick, Kevin K; Krieger, Nancy S; Nehrke, Keith; Bushinsky, David A
Metabolic acidosis increases urine Ca without increasing intestinal absorption, leading to bone Ca loss. It is unclear how bone cells detect the increase in proton concentration. To determine which G protein-coupled proton sensing receptors are expressed in bone, PCR was performed, and products were detected for OGR1, TDAG8, G2A, and GPR4. We tested the hypothesis that the G protein-coupled proton sensor, OGR1, is an H+-sensing receptor in bone. To determine whether acid-induced bone resorption involves OGR1, we incubated mouse calvariae in neutral pH (NTL) or acidic (MET) medium ± the OGR1 inhibitor CuCl2. CuCl2 decreased MET-induced Ca efflux. We used fluorescent imaging of perfused bone cells to determine whether MET increases Cai. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid, flow-independent, increase in Cai in individual bone cells. To determine whether transfection of OGR1 into a heterologous cell type would increase Cai in response to H+, we perfused Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with mouse OGR1 cDNA. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid increase in Cai in OGR1-transfected CHO cells. These data indicate that OGR1 induces an increase in Cai in response to MET and is a prime candidate for an osteoblast proton sensor. PMID:18847331
Frick, Kevin K; Krieger, Nancy S; Nehrke, Keith; Bushinsky, David A
Metabolic acidosis increases urine Ca without increasing intestinal absorption, leading to bone Ca loss. It is unclear how bone cells detect the increase in proton concentration. To determine which G protein-coupled proton sensing receptors are expressed in bone, PCR was performed, and products were detected for OGR1, TDAG8, G2A, and GPR4. We tested the hypothesis that the G protein-coupled proton sensor, OGR1, is an H(+)-sensing receptor in bone. To determine whether acid-induced bone resorption involves OGR1, we incubated mouse calvariae in neutral pH (NTL) or acidic (MET) medium +/- the OGR1 inhibitor CuCl(2). CuCl(2) decreased MET-induced Ca efflux. We used fluorescent imaging of perfused bone cells to determine whether MET increases Ca(i). Perfusion with MET induced a rapid, flow-independent, increase in Ca(i) in individual bone cells. To determine whether transfection of OGR1 into a heterologous cell type would increase Ca(i) in response to H(+), we perfused Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with mouse OGR1 cDNA. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid increase in Ca(i) in OGR1-transfected CHO cells. These data indicate that OGR1 induces an increase in Ca(i) in response to MET and is a prime candidate for an osteoblast proton sensor.
Csákváry, Violetta; Puskás, Tamás; Bödecs, Tamás; Lôcsei, Zoltán; Oroszlán, György; Kovács, L Gábor; Toldy, Erzsébet
Childhood reference range based on the age is not available in Hungary, therefore the diagnosis and therapy of bone metabolic diseases of childhood are subject to difficulties. The aim of this work is to provide information about the adolescents' results of bone mineral density and bone biomarkers. Measurements were performed in 169 healthy adolescents (98 girls, 71 boys, age: 17.0+/-1.2 years). Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine were measured using Double X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA, LUNAR, GE Health Care, USA) and Z-score values were analyzed using different reference population. In the serum, bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC) and beta-crosslaps (beta-Cl) were measured by a fully automated, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method (Elecsys-2010, Roche). Data were analyzed according to gender and the Tanner stage and grade system. Associations between body mass index (BMI), calcium intake, consumption of soft drinks and coke, and physical exercise were investigated. BMC values for both age groups were significantly elevated in boys of the Tanner stage V. (15-16 years: 62.9+/-14.3 g; 17-19 years: 69.8+/-9.3g) than in girls (58.1+/-10.4; 61.6+/-8.5 g) (p<0.001). BMD values were higher in girls, than in boys (1.17+/-0.12 g/cm 2 vs. 1.13+/-0.11 g/cm 2) (p<0.05). OC and beta-Cl levels showed negative correlation with age in both gender (p<0.01), while OC and beta-Cl levels were higher in boys, than in girls (p<0.001). Elevation of BMC and BMD values were associated with increase of BMI in both gender (p<0.05), but the biomarkers in thin girls were higher, than in overweight girls (p<0.05). Authors obtained excellent correlations between the BMD-Z-score values compared to the German standard and to their own population (girls: r=0.97, boys: 0.88), but the absolute values significantly differed from one another. 80% of adolescents are on a diet with insufficient calcium intake, while 38% of them do not play sport regularly
Naseri, Mitra; Varasteh, Abdol Reza; Alamdaran, Seied Ali
We aimed to identify metabolic and anatomical abnormalities present in children with urinary calculi. Metabolic evaluation was done in 142 pediatric calculus formers. Evaluation included serum biochemistry; measurement of daily excretion of urinary calcium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium (in older children); and measurement of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and creatinine in random urine samples in nontoilet-trained patients. Urinary tests for cystinuria were also performed. All of the patients underwent renal ultrasonography. Sixty-one patients (42.7%) had metabolic abnormalities. Anatomical abnormalities were found in 12 patients (8.4%). Three children (2.1%) had infectious calculi, and 3(2.1%) had a combination of metabolic and anatomic abnormalities. In 66 children (46.2 %) we did not find any reasons for calculus formation (idiopathic). Urinalysis revealed hypercalciuria in 25 (17.6%), hyperuricosuria in 23 (16.1%), hyperoxaluria in 17 (11.9%), cystinuria in 9 (6.3%), hypocitraturia in 3 (2.1%), and low urinary magnesium level in 1 (0.7%) patients. Sixteen patients (11.2%) had mixed metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormalities are common in pediatric patients with urinary calculi. In our study, calcium and uric acid abnormalities were the most common, and vesicoureteral reflux seemed to be the most common urological abnormality which led to urinary stasis and calculus formation.
Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Rao, V Narayan
People with diabetic neuropathy are frequently prone to several bone and joint abnormalities. Simple radiographic findings have been proven to be quite useful in the detection of such abnormalities, which might be helpful not only for early diagnosis but also in following the course of diabetes through stages of reconstruction of the ulcerated foot.The present study was designed to identify the common foot abnormalities in south Indian diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy using radiographic imaging. About 150 (M:F 94:56) subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorised into three groups: Group I (50 diabetic patients), Group II (50 patients with neuropathy), and Group III (50 diabetic patients with both neuropathy and foot ulceration). Demographic details, duration of diabetes and HbA1c values were recorded. Vibration perception threshold was measured for assessment of neuropathy. Bone and joint abnormalities in the feet and legs of the study subjects were identified using standardised dorsi-plantar and lateral weight-bearing radiographs. Radiographic findings of the study subjects revealed that those with both neuropathy and foot ulceration and a longer duration of diabetes had more number of bone and joint abnormalities. Subjects with neuropathy alone also showed presence of several abnormalities, including periosteal reaction, osteopenia, and Charcot changes. The present findings highlight the impact of neuropathy and duration of diabetes on the development of foot abnormalities in subjects with diabetes. Using radiographic imaging can help in early identification of abnormalities and better management of the diabetic foot.
Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Mueske, Nicole M; Mittelman, Steven D; Kremer, Richard K; Ryan, Deirdre D; Wren, Tishya A L
This study examined serum levels in children with myelomeningocele to identify the prevalence of pre-clinical signs of disease. A prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients were actively recruited from multidisciplinary care clinics at tertiary children's hospitals from 2010-2012. The control comparison group was recruited by word-of-mouth. Twenty-eight children with myelomeningocele (93% Hispanic; 17 males; 10.0 ± 2.1 years) and 58 controls (84% Hispanic; 30 males; 10.4 ± 2.4 years) provided ≥ 8-hour fasting blood samples with concomitant dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat. Not applicable. The serum analysis included a lipid panel (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein), insulin, glucose, leptin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, calcium, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Children with myelomeningocele had higher body fat (35.2% versus 29.9%, p=0.01) and altered lipid profiles (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, 43.9 mg/dL versus 51.6 mg/dL, P = 0.03) suggesting elevated risk of metabolic syndrome. They also had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (43% versus 17%, p=0.02) and significantly lower levels of calcium (9.4 mg/dL versus 9.7 mg/dL, P = 0.003) and alkaline phosphatase (187.0 U/L versus 237.0 U/L, P = 0.003). Unexpectedly children with myelomeningocele had lower parathyroid hormone levels (14.5 pg/mL versus 18.4 pg/mL, P = 0.02) than controls despite lower calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase levels. This suggests an alteration in the sensing mechanism or response of the parathyroid gland to normal physiological stimuli in patients with myelomeningocele. Children with myelomeningocele have abnormal biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and bone and mineral metabolism. Early recognition and monitoring of these risk factors in patients with
Metabolic bone diseases (MBDs) are a common presenting complaint in reptiles and amphibians to veterinarians; however, understanding of the causes and diagnostic and treatment options is often extrapolated from human or other mammalian medicine models. Although the roles of UV-B, calcium, phosphorus, and cholecalciferol are better understood in some MBDs, there remain many X factors that are not. Likewise, quantitative diagnosis of MBDs has been difficult not only in terms of staging a disease but also regarding whether or not a condition is present. Treatment options also present challenges in corrective husbandry and diet modifications, medication/modality selection, and dosing/regimen parameters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Baek, Ki Hyun
Studies on the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on bone and bone metabolism have yielded conflicting results. This 1-year prospective study examined whether LT4 in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a risk factor for bone mass loss and the subsequent development of osteoporosis. We examined 93 patients with DTC over 12months after initiating LT4 therapy (early postoperative period). We examined another 33 patients on long-term LT4 therapy for DTC (late postoperative period). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and after 1year. The mean bone losses during the early postoperative period in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, calculated as the percentage change between levels at baseline and 12months, were -0.88, -1.3 and -0.81%, respectively. Bone loss was more evident in postmenopausal women (lumbar spine -2.1%, femoral neck -2.2%, and hip -2.1%; all P<0.05). We compared the changes in annual bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women according to calcium/vitamin D supplementation. Bone loss tended to be higher in the postmenopausal women receiving no supplementation. There was no decrease in BMD among patients during the late postoperative period. The mean bone loss was generally greater in the early than in the late postoperative group, and this was significant at the lumbar spine (P=0.041) and femoral neck (P=0.010). TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy accelerates bone loss, predominantly in postmenopausal women and exclusively during the early post-thyroidectomy period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maïmoun, Laurent; Guillaume, Sébastien; Lefebvre, Patrick; Bertet, Helena; Seneque, Maude; Philibert, Pascal; Picot, Marie-Christine; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Paris, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Courtet, Philippe; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Renard, Eric; Sultan, Charles
This study compared the profiles of the two types of anorexia nervosa (AN; restrictive: AN-R, and binge eating/purging: AN-BP) in terms of body composition, gynaecological status, disease history and the potential effects on bone metabolism. Two hundred and eighty-six women with AN (21.8 ± 6.5 years; 204 AN-R and 82 AN-BP) and 130 age-matched controls (CON; 22.6 ± 6.8 years) were enrolled. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was determined using DXA and resting energy expenditure (REE) was indirectly assessed using calorimetry. Markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide [PINP] and resorption (type I-C telopeptide breakdown products [CTX]) and leptin were concomitantly evaluated. Anorexia nervosa patients presented an alteration in aBMD and bone turnover. When compared according to type, AN-BP were older than AN-R and showed less severe undernutrition, lower CTx levels, longer duration of AN, and higher REE levels and aBMD at radius and lumbar spine. After adjustment for age, weight and hormonal contraceptive use, the aBMD and CTx differences disappeared. In both AN groups, aBMD was positively correlated with anthropometric parameters and negatively correlated with durations of AN and amenorrhoea, the bone formation markers (OC and PINP) and the leptin/fat mass ratio. REE was positively correlated with aBMD in AN-R patients only. This study shows the profiles of AN patients according to AN type. However, the impact of the profile characteristics on bone status, although significant, was minor and disappeared after multiple adjustments. The positive correlation between REE and aBMD reinforces the concept that energy disposal and bone metabolism are strongly interdependent. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Palmer, H. E.
Two techniques were studied for measuring changes in bone mass in rats. One technique measures the Ar-37 produced from calcium during neutron irradiation and the other measures the changes in the Na-22 content which has been incorporated within the rat bone. Both methods are performed in VIVO and cause no significant physiological damage. The Ar-37 leaves the body of a rat within an hour after being produced, and it can be quantitatively collected and measured with a precision of - or + 2% on the same rat. With appropriate irradiation conditions it appears that the absolute quantity of calcuim in any rat can be determined within - or + 3% regardless of animal size. The Na-22 when uniformly distributed in bone, can be used to monitor bone mineral turnover and this has been demonstrated in conditions of calcium deficiency during growth and also pregnancy coupled with calcium deficiency.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Shackelford, L.; Heer, M.
Bone loss is not only a well-documented effect of spaceflight on astronauts, but also a condition that affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures aimed at preventing bone loss during spaceflight have been proposed, and many have been evaluated to some degree. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have targeted dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during spaceflight. The "Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Spaceflight and Recovery" investigation ("Pro K") is one of the first inflight evaluations of a dietary countermeasure to lessen bone loss of astronauts. This protocol will test the hypothesis that the ratio of acid precursors to base precursors (specifically animal protein to potassium) in the diet can predict directional changes in bone mineral during spaceflight and recovery. The ratio of animal protein to potassium in the diet will be controlled for multiple short (4-day) periods before and during flight. Based on multiple sets of bed rest data, we hypothesize that a higher ratio of the intake of animal protein to the intake of potassium will yield higher concentrations of markers of bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion during flight and during recovery from bone mineral loss after long-duration spaceflight.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...
Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...
Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu
Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372 PMID:26655888
Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu
Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly