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Sample records for abnormal bone scan

  1. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you're nursing. A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

  2. Association between number and sites of new bone scan abnormalities and presence of skeletal metastases in patients with breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.F.; Stomper, P.C.; Jochelson, M.S.; Ascoli, D.M.; Henderson, I.C.; Kaplan, W.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Review of 1,441 bone scans performed on 242 breast cancer patients without known skeletal metastases identified 239 scans with new abnormalities. Findings on 54 of these 239 scans (23%) represented bone metastases. The proportion of scans reflecting metastases, grouped by the number of new abnormalities, was: (1) 20/182 (11%); (2) 9/26 (35%); (3) 4/9 (45%); (4) 1/2 (50%); greater than or equal to 5-20/20 (100%). When metastatic disease presented as a bone scan with 1-4 new abnormalities, the spine was the most common site of involvement (18 of 34 (53%)), followed by the skull (5/34; 15%), extremities and sternum (each 4/34; 12%). Rib lesions were the most common new findings on scans with less than 5 new abnormalities (seen on 76 of 219 scans (35%)) but only infrequently represented metastases (n = 2). Considering as indicative of malignancy only, those bone scans which demonstrated either (a) greater than or equal to 5 new abnormalities, (b) initial radiographic correlation suggestive of metastases, or (c) thoracic spine lesions with normal correlative radiographs, the presence of skeletal metastatic disease could be predicted with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.94.

  3. Bone scan appearances following bone and bone marrow biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow and bone biopsies are performed not infrequently in patients referred for bone scans and represent a potential cause of a ''false positive'' focal abnormality on the bone scan. The authors have therefore examined the scan appearances in a series of patients who had undergone either sternal marrow biopsy, (Salah needle, diameter 1.2 mm) trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy (Jamshidi 11 gauge needle, diameter 3.5 mm) or a transiliac bone biopsy (needle diameter 8 mm). Of 18 patients studied 1 to 45 days after sternal marrow 17 had normal scan appearances at the biopsy site and 1 had a possible abnormality. None of 9 patients studied 4 to 19 days after trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy had a hot spot at the biopsy site. A focal scan abnormality was present at the biopsy site in 9/11 patients studied 5 to 59 days after a trans iliac bone biopsy. No resultant scan abnormality was seen in 4 patients imaged within 3 days of the bone biopsy or in 3 patients imaged 79 to 138 days after the procedure. Bone marrow biopsy of the sternum or iliac crest does not usually cause bone scan abnormalities. A focal abnormality at the biopsy site is common in patients imaged 5 days to 2 months after bone biopsy. The gauge of the needle employed in the biopsy and thus the degree of bone trauma inflicted, is likely to be main factor determining the appearance of bone scan abnormalities at the biopsy site.

  4. Bone scan in metabolic bone diseases. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata

    2012-08-25

    Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.

  5. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  6. Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

  7. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  8. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  9. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and display the bone density measurements on a computer monitor. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... passed over the area, generating images on a computer monitor. You must hold very still and may be ...

  10. Bone and gallium scans in mastocytosis: correlation with count rates, radiography, and microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslen, R.D.; Jackson, F.I.; Reid, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) was proven in a patient suffering from severe back pain. A bone scan showed diffusely increased bone activity. Count rates were also abnormally elevated over several areas of the skeleton. Radiographs were consistent with mastocytosis in bone.

  11. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  12. [Differential diagnosis of reduced uptake images revealed by bone scan: about a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bahadi, Nisrine; Biyi, Abdelhamid; Oueriagli, Salah Nabih; Doudouh, Abderrahim

    2016-01-01

    If increased uptake during bone scan usually bring to light many bone pathologies, reduced uptakes are a rare occurrence and they require careful analysis to avoid erroneous interpretations. We report the case of a 17-year old admitted with diffuse bone pain, hypercalcemia and thrombopenia. Bone scan showed areas of low uptakes. Bone marrow tests allowed the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case report aims to discuss the main differential diagnoses based on such bone scan abnormalities.

  13. Review of congenital inner ear abnormalities on CT temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y

    2011-09-01

    The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation with developmental arrest during embryology.

  14. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  15. [Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionucleides. IV. The dynamics of uptake in normal and abnormal bone (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Creutzig, H; Gerdts, K G; Creutzig, A

    1977-03-01

    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scanning are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases.

  16. Role of bone and liver scans in surveying patients with breast cancer for metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.M.; Wright, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate the presence of bone and liver metastases in patients with breast cancer with respect to the results of bone and liver scans, axillary nodal status, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. One hundred ninety-seven patients with breast cancer treated by modified radical mastectomy between the years 1978 and 1981 were studied. Fifty-nine (30%) of the total group had distant metastases during the course of observation of 60 to 96 months; of 35 patients in whom bone metastases developed, 30 had normal preoperative bone scan results. Of 21 patients who had liver metastases, 19 had normal preoperative liver scans. Nineteen (70%) of the 27 patients with abnormal bone scans had normal alkaline phosphatase levels. Seven (63%) of the 11 patients who had abnormal liver scans had a normal alkaline phosphatase. The study supports the concept that preoperative bone and liver scans are ineffective indicators of metastatic involvement. Selection of patients for screening by bone and liver scans according to alkaline phosphatase determinations was not supported by this study. The appropriate use of bone scans for screening in patients with breast carcinoma is suggested as a follow-up device in patients with positive lymph nodes.

  17. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  18. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  19. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  20. Abnormal bone marrow histopathology in paediatric mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melody C; Metcalfe, Dean D; Clark, Alicia S; Wayne, Alan S; Maric, Irina

    2015-03-01

    The diagnostic criteria for paediatric mastocytosis are largely based on adult studies and bone marrow findings are not well described in children. We evaluated use of the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of systemic disease in paediatric mastocytosis. In addition, we identified unique clinico-histopathological features within the biopsies. One hundred and thirteen children with paediatric mastocytosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health between 1986 and 2013. Complete bone marrow evaluations were performed in 50 cases. Seven children had repeat procedures. Bone marrows were analysed by histopathology, flow cytometry and for KIT D816V. Bone marrow biopsies displayed mild atypical haematopoietic maturation, increased haematogones and hypocellularity in a sub-set of patients with urticaria pigmentosa, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis and indolent systemic mastocytosis. Hypocellularity was most pronounced in those with urticaria pigmentosa. Haematogones were highest, on average, in patients with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis or mastocytomas. There was no evidence of peripheral blood cytopenias, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasm or leukaemia within this cohort. The WHO criteria are applicable for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis in paediatrics. Although unsuspected bone marrow findings typically seen in myeloproliferative disorders are frequent in paediatric mastocytosis, patients within this study remained clinically stable without progression to a more aggressive variant.

  1. Bone scan alterations in aromatase inhibitor-treated patients.

    PubMed

    De Geeter, Frank; Van den Bruel, Annick; De Cuypere, Eveline; Langlois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We report bone scan changes in 3 patients receiving aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Compared with bone scans before treatment, repeated scans after at least 10 months of aromatase inhibitor treatment showed increased activity in the peripheral skeleton and the skull. In 2 patients, these alterations could be correlated with increased markers of bone turnover. They probably result from high bone turnover induced by estrogen depletion caused by aromatase inhibitors. This effect should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a bone scan pattern suggestive of hyperparathyroidism, which was ruled out.

  2. Use of serial bone scans in assessing response of bone metastases to systemic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, D.L.; Hougen, C.; Zweibel, W.; Schlise, S.; Pruitt, B.; Ershler, W.; Davis, T.E.; Harberg, J.; Cohen, A.I.

    1981-02-15

    The accuracy levels of serial radioisotope bone scans and conventional bone radiographs in assessing the response of bone metastases to systemic therapy were compared in 34 women with metastatic breast cancer. Each patient had measurable or evaluable nonosseous metastases, which were assessed independently of skeletal disease. The bone scan was found to be more accurate and sensitive indicator of the status of bone metastases than the radiograph. The bone scan correlated well with response of soft tissue or visceral disease, while the results of repeated bone radiographs were frequently misleading. With use of a digital model, it was possible to accurately measure the area of skeletal involvement of the bone scan, and from this derive quantitative criteria for response in bone metastases analogous to response criteria currently in use for soft tissue and visceral disease. It is suggested that serial quantitative bone scans be done, in preference to radiographs, to assess the response of bone metastases to systemic therapy.

  3. Two unusual causes of peripatellar nonmetastatic positive bone scans in patients with malignancies: case reports.

    PubMed

    Turner, J W; Syed, I B; Spencer, R P

    1976-08-01

    Bone scans performed with 99mTc-polyphosphate in two patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the lung each showed activity in one knee area. In the first case, radiographs of the area revealed Pellegrini-Stieda calcification over the internal femoral condyle. Uptake corresponded to this process, rather than to a lesion deep in the bone. In the second case, the activity accumulation in the right tibia was the only abnormality noted in the scan. An open biopsy revealed Paget's disease, and no radiographic evidence of Paget's disease was found in any other bone. These cases again illustrate that localized accumulation of a bone-scanning agent, in patients with known primary tumors, does not necessarily denote malignancy in bone.

  4. Detection of ureteral obstruction on radionuclide bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Pollen, J.J.; Gerber, K.; Heil, B.J.; Talner, L.B.

    1983-09-01

    The kidneys are nearly always visible on a routine radionuclide bone scan. To assess the reliability of the bone scan in detecting ureteral obstruction, 220 bone scans and excretory urograms were compared in 53 patients followed serially for prostatic cancer. There were 15 kidneys obstructed on excretory urograms. Only nine were diagnosed as obstructed on the bone scans. Seven of the nine cases of unilaterally obstructed kidneys were detected, whereas only two of the six kidneys in three patients with bilateral obstruction were correctly diagnosed. The results indicate that unilateral obstruction is more likely to be detected, whereas bilateral obstruction is more likely to be missed, on bone scans. Therefore, the routine radionuclide bone scan is an unreliable test for ureteral obstruction.

  5. Bone scanning in the detection of occult fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Batillas, J.; Vasilas, A.; Pizzi, W.F.; Gokcebay, T.

    1981-07-01

    The potential role of bone scanning in the early detection of occult fractures following acute trauma was investigated. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained in patients with major clinical findings and negative or equivocal roentgenograms following trauma. Bone scanning facilitated the prompt diagnosis of occult fractures in the hip, knee, wrist, ribs and costochondral junctions, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx. Several illustrative cases are presented. Roentgenographic confirmation occurred following a delay of days to weeks and, in some instances, the roentgenographic findings were subtle and could be easily overlooked. This study demonstrates bone scanning to be invaluable and definitive in the prompt detection of occult fractures.

  6. Radionuclide bone scanning in females with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, R S; Davis, P; Lentle, B C

    1981-01-01

    Sixty female patients with chronic low back pain have been studied clinically, radiographically, and by radionuclide bone scanning for evidence of sacroiliac disease. Twenty-four patients had quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy (QSS) results suggesting sacroiliitis. In only one of these patients was the radiograph abnormal. Clinical and laboratory examinations failed to reveal any possible associated aetiological factors. Six-month follow-up of 18 patients showed that subjective improvement of pain is associated with a return to normal of QSS results, often secondary to anti-inflammatory medication. It is concluded that sacroiliac disease may be a common cause for chronic low back pain in women and that its presence may be missed if radiographs are relied upon to confirm the diagnosis. Its aetiology remains obscure. PMID:6451204

  7. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  8. Computer-aided quantitative bone scan assessment of prostate cancer treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew S.; Chu, Gregory H.; Kim, Hyun J.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin; Poon, Cheryce; Bridges, Juliette; Vidovic, Adria; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Ho, Judy; Morris, Michael J.; Larson, Steven M.; Scher, Howard I.; Goldin, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The development and evaluation of a computer-aided bone scan analysis technique to quantify changes in tumor burden and assess treatment effects in prostate cancer clinical trials. Methods We have developed and report on a commercial fully automated computer-aided detection system. Using this system, scan images were intensity normalized, then lesions identified and segmented by anatomic region-specific intensity thresholding. Detected lesions were compared against expert markings to assess the accuracy of the computer-aided detection system. The metrics Bone Scan Lesion Area, Bone Scan Lesion Intensity, and Bone Scan Lesion Count were calculated from identified lesions, and their utility in assessing treatment effects was evaluated by analyzing before and after scans from metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: 10 treated and 10 untreated. In this study, patients were treated with cabozantinib, a MET/VEGF inhibitor resulting in high rates of resolution of bone scan abnormalities. Results Our automated computer-aided detection system identified bone lesion pixels with 94% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and 89% accuracy. Significant differences in changes from baseline were found between treated and untreated groups in all assessed measurements derived by our system. The most significant measure, Bone Scan Lesion Area, showed a median (interquartile range) change from baseline at week 6 of 7.13% (27.61) in the untreated group compared with −73.76% (45.38) in the cabozantinib-treated group (P = 0.0003). Conclusions Our system accurately and objectively identified and quantified metastases in bone scans, allowing for interpatient and intrapatient comparison. It demonstrates potential as an objective measurement of treatment effects, laying the foundation for validation against other clinically relevant outcome measures. PMID:22367858

  9. Incidental detection of pericardial effusion on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Unal, Kemal; Unlu, Mustafa; Guner, Levent

    2013-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old man with lung cancer. He was referred to nuclear medicine department for the evaluation of bone metastases. Bone scintigraphy was performed with 99mTc-labeled HDP. An abnormal photopenic area around the heart was seen on blood pool images. Delayed image of the thorax was normal. Chest x-ray study and echocardiography were performed to reveal the abnormality. Asymptomatic pericardial effusion was diagnosed in the corresponding area.

  10. Incidence and Evaluation of Incidental Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gunjan L.; Rosenberg, Aaron S.; Jarboe, Jamie; Klein, Andreas; Cossor, Furha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The increased use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has resulted in reports of incidental abnormal bone marrow (BM) signal. Our goal was to determine the evaluation of an incidental abnormal BM signal on MRI and the prevalence of a subsequent oncologic diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients over age 18 undergoing MRI between May 2005 and October 2010 at Tufts Medical Center (TMC) with follow-up through November 2013. The electronic medical record was queried to determine imaging site, reason for scan, evaluation following radiology report, and final diagnosis. Results. 49,678 MRIs were done with 110 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Twenty two percent underwent some evaluation, most commonly a complete blood count, serum protein electrophoresis, or bone scan. With median follow-up of 41 months, 6% of patients were diagnosed with malignancies including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. One patient who had not undergone evaluation developed breast cancer 24 months after the MRI. Conclusions. Incidentally noted abnormal or heterogeneous bone marrow signal on MRI was not inconsequential and should prompt further evaluation. PMID:25374938

  11. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges.

  12. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with controls, SD significantly increased serum ACTH, indicating that the SD model was successful. In the SD group, H&E staining revealed greater vessel hyperplasia in the synovial membrane and thicker hypertrophic layers in condylar cartilages. Compared with controls, RNA and protein expression of the inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α and the bone metabolism-related factor RANKL increased in condylar cartilage in the SD group, whereas OPG and the OPG/RANKL ratio decreased. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that OPG/RANKL immunopositive cells were mainly located in hypertrophic layers. Conclusions: These results suggest that sleep deprivation might play an important role in the occurrence and development of temporomandibular disorders, which may occur through abnormal secretion of inflammatory and bone metabolism-related factors. PMID:25785010

  13. Asymmetric (99m)Tc-MDP uptake in mineralized tendons might mimic bone lesions: heterotopic tendon mineralization on a (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and a (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Shen, Yeh-You; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-05-01

    A 55-year-old man was a hepatocellular carcinoma patient, diagnosed by sonography and a biopsy. Because of his musculoskeletal tenderness, a bone scan was performed to exclude skeletal metastasis. A subsequent F-FDG PET/CT scan revealed that the unilateral abnormal uptake seen on the bone scan was actually a mineralized tendon. A mineralized tendon is easily detectable using Tc-MDP; therefore, it is imperative to differentiate between bone lesions and mineralized tendons. In addition, few studies have reported F-FDG uptake in a calcified tendon.

  14. Detection of unsuspected malignant pleural effusion by bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Gefter, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Technetium-99m phosphate compounds may occasionally accumulate in malignant pleural effusions. A case of metastatic pleural effusion first diagnosed by bone scan, prior to its clinical or roentgenographic detection, is reported.

  15. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  16. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  17. [Scanning electron microscopy of heat-damaged bone tissue].

    PubMed

    Harsanyl, L

    1977-02-01

    Parts of diaphyses of bones were exposed to high temperature of 200-1300 degrees C. Damage to the bone tissue caused by the heat was investigated. The scanning electron microscopic picture seems to be characteristic of the temperature applied. When the bones heated to the high temperature of 700 degrees C characteristic changes appear on the periostal surface, higher temperatura on the other hand causes damage to the compact bone tissue and can be observed on the fracture-surface. Author stresses the importance of this technique in the legal medicine and anthropology.

  18. MRI findings of new uptake in the femoral head detected on follow-up bone scans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to suggest clinical indications for MRI in patients with breast cancer who have new uptake lesions in the femoral head on follow-up bone scans, by evaluating the incidence and causes of new uptake lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Between January 2002 and July 2013, a total of 145 patients with breast cancer who showed new uptake in the femoral head on follow-up bone scans were included in our study. They were classified into two groups: group 1 consisted of 125 patients without known bone metastases, and group 2 consisted of 20 patients who already had bone metastases other than that in the femoral head. The Fisher exact test was performed for the statistical analysis. Thereafter, we reviewed MR images for characterization of the new abnormal uptake in the femoral head. RESULTS. New uptake lesions in the femoral head were metastatic in only 4.8% (6/125) of group 1 patients but in 75% (15/20) of group 2 patients (p < 0.0001). In both groups, no patient with a single uptake lesion in the femoral head had bone metastasis, whereas all patients with more than five new uptake lesions, including those of the femoral head, showed bone metastasis. Most MRI diagnoses for new uptake in the femoral head were fibrocystic change (15/30, 50%) and subchondral fracture (11/30, 36.7%). CONCLUSION. Most of the new uptake lesions in the femoral head detected on the follow-up bone scans in patients with breast cancer were benign. However, MRI could be considered in patients with known bone metastasis or with multiple new uptake lesions on bone scans.

  19. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy for evaluation of order/disorder in bone structure.

    PubMed

    Suvorova, Elena I; Petrenko, Pavel P; Buffat, Philippe A

    2007-01-01

    A comparative characterization of the structure of normal and abnormal (osteoporotic) human lumbar and thoracic vertebrae samples was carried out to reveal the type of possible disorder. Samples from the bone fragments extracted during the surgery due to vertebra fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Contrary to what might be expected in accordance with possible processes of dissolution, formation and remineralization of hard tissues, no changes in phase composition of mineral part, crystal sizes (length, width, and thickness), and arrangement of crystals on collagen fibers were detected in abnormal bones compared to the normal ones. The following sizes were determined by HRTEM for all bone samples: bones. EDS showed that this organic tissue was not mineralized. Penetration of such organic fibers inside bones can result in bone dilatation and lower the mineral density, deteriorating the mechanical properties and finally terminating in fracture.

  20. Reversal of drug-induced rhabdomyolysis on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joseph; Tiu, Serafin

    2011-08-01

    A 75-year-old man with prostate cancer was referred for metastatic workup. A Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan was performed which revealed diffusely increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the muscles of the arms and thighs. The patient was taking simvastatin 80 mg per day and gemfibrozil 600 mg twice a day for high cholesterol. The patient reported myalgias, and laboratory evaluation was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. After discontinuation of the anticholesterol medications, the clinical and laboratory evaluations normalized. Bone scan performed 1 year later demonstrated complete resolution of muscle uptake.

  1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  2. Role of bone scan in the assessment of polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    An, Young-Sil; Suh, Chang-Hee; Jung, Ju-Yang; Kim, Hyoun-Ah

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the significance of bone scan findings in Korean polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) patients. The participants in this study were 26 PM/DM patients who fulfilled the proposed criteria for definite or probable PM/DM. All patients had been examined by bone scan. The results were analyzed visually and quantitatively using the uptake ratios. Correlations between the bone scan parameters of six proximal muscle groups (trapezius, deltoid, biceps, iliopsoas, quadriceps, and gluteus medius and maximus) and clinical parameters (laboratory values and manual muscle test) representing disease activities were assessed. Based on visual analyses of their bone scans, 10 of 14 (71.4 %) patients with active PM/DM had abnormal muscle uptake. Visual grading of the bone scans had a sensitivity and specificity of 74 and 90.9 %, respectively, for the assessment of muscle inflammation. Maximal proximal muscle uptake ratios, as determined on the bone scans, were significantly higher in patients with active PM/DM than in those with inactive disease (median 1.97 vs. 1.02, p = 0.046). Maximal proximal uptake ratios correlated significantly with creatine kinase (r = 0.394, p = 0.046), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, r = 0.473, p = 0.015), aldolase (r = 0.428, p = 0.029), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.412, p = 0.036), C-reactive protein (r = 0.454, p = 0.002), and manual muscle test results (r = -0.399, p = 0.044). Mean proximal muscle uptake ratios correlated significantly with LDH (r = 0.438, p = 0.025) and aldolase (r = 0.572, p = 0.002). Visually assessed proximal muscle uptake grades and maximal proximal muscle uptake ratios as determined by bone scan correlated significantly with the levels of known PM/DM disease activity markers. The findings of this study suggest that bone scan is a useful imaging technique for the evaluation of PM/DM patients.

  3. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  4. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R(2)=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R(2)=0.67) and BV/TV (R(2)=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R(2)=0.92 for BV/TV and R(2)=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  5. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  6. Multifocal adamantinoma simulating traumatic pathology on bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad Babar; Naeem, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    This is a case report of a young physically active patient who presented with pain in the right leg. Plain radiograph and bone scan showed lesions mimicking stress fracture. Follow-up investigations (repeated plain radiography and three phase bone scan) and histopathological examination proved it as a case of multifocal adamantinoma. This report signifies that physicians should not lock their mind only to one entity and keep the differential diagnosis list flexible especially if patient does not respond to a specific treatment. Tibial adamantinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of stress fracture. Further, second lesion can occur in the rib cage defying the common belief that second lesion will be in the adjacent bone, fibula.

  7. Clinical predictors of abnormal head computed tomography scan in patients who are conscious after head injury

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Prathyusha, Vasuki; Shukla, Dhaval P.; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indication of a head computed tomography (CT) scan in a patient who remains conscious after head injury is controversial. We aimed to determine the clinical features that are most likely to be associated with abnormal CT scan in patients with a history of head injury, and who are conscious at the time of presentation to casualty. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observation study of patients presented to casualty with history of head injury, and who were conscious, i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15 at the time of evaluation. All patients underwent head CT scan. The CT scan was reported as abnormal if it showed any pathology ascribed to trauma. The following variables were used: age, gender, mode of injury (road traffic accident, fall, assault, and others), duration since injury, and history of transient loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting, ear/nose bleeding, and seizures. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical features that predicted an abnormal CT scan. Results: During the observation period, a total of 1629 patients with head injury were evaluated, out of which 453 were in GCS 15. Abnormal CT scan was present in 195 (43%) patients. Among all the variables, the following were found significantly associated with abnormal CT scan: duration since injury (>12 h) P < 0.001; vomiting odds, ratio (OR) 1.89 (1.23, 2.80), P < 0.001; and presence of any symptom, OR 2.36 (1.52, 3.71), P < 0.001. Conclusion: A patient with GCS 15 presenting after 12 hours of injury with vomiting or combination of symptoms has a significant risk of abnormal head CT scan. PMID:28149084

  8. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone’s mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young’s modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young’s modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone’s structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  9. [Paget's disease mimicking metastatic prostate cancer on bone scan image : a case report].

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Ken; Koie, Takuya; Yamamoto, Hayato; Okamoto, Akiko; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

    2013-04-01

    A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (5.1 ng/ml). Histopathologic diagnosis with trans-rectal prostate biopsy specimen was adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 4+5 = 9. Bone scintigraphy revealed an abnormal uptake on left coxal bone. The patient was diagnosed with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. He received androgen deprivation therapy for two years. Serum PSA decreased to an undetected level. However, the abnormal activity of left coxal bone lesion was not changed on bone scintigraphy. Coxal bone biopsy was performed. The bone lesion was histopathologically diagnosed as Paget's disease of bone.

  10. A Preanalytic Validation Study of Automated Bone Scan Index: Effect on Accuracy and Reproducibility Due to the Procedural Variabilities in Bone Scan Image Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J; Kaboteh, Reza; Reza, Mariana; Trägårdh, Elin; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Edenbrandt, Lars; Bjartell, Anders; Larson, Steven M; Minarik, David

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the procedural variability in image acquisition on the quantitative assessment of bone scan is unknown. Here, we have developed and performed preanalytical studies to assess the impact of the variability in scanning speed and in vendor-specific γ-camera on reproducibility and accuracy of the automated bone scan index (BSI).

  11. Visualizing bone porosities using a tabletop scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, D.; DaPonte, J.; Broadbridge, C. C.; Daniel, D.; Alter, L.

    2010-04-01

    Pores are naturally occurring entities in bone. Changes in pore size and number are often associated with diseases such as Osteoporosis and even microgravity during spaceflight. Studying bone perforations may yield great insight into bone's material properties, including bone density and may contribute to identifying therapies to halt or potentially reverse bone loss. Current technologies used in this field include nuclear magnetic resonance, micro-computed tomography and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) 2, 5. However, limitations in each method limit further advancement. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a new generation of analytical instruments, the TM-1000 tabletop, SEM with back-scatter electron (BSE) detector, to analyze cortical bone porosities. Hind limb unloaded and age-based controlled mouse femurs were extracted and tested in vitro for changes in pores on the periosteal surface. An important advantage of using the tabletop is the simplified sample preparation that excludes extra coatings, dehydration and fixation steps that are otherwise required for conventional SEM. For quantitative data, pores were treated as particles in order to use an analyze particles feature in the NIH ImageJ software. Several image-processing techniques for background smoothing, thresholding and filtering were employed to produce a binary image suitable for particle analysis. It was hypothesized that the unloaded bones would show an increase in pore area, as the lack of mechanical loading would affect bone-remodeling processes taking place in and around pores. Preliminary results suggest only a slight different in frequency but not in size of pores between unloaded and control femurs.

  12. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  13. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  14. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  15. Minimizing bone abnormalities in children with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Ziólkowska, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), a metabolic bone disease accompanying chronic renal failure (CRF), is a major clinical problem in pediatric nephrology. Growing and rapidly remodeling skeletal systems are particularly susceptible to the metabolic and endocrine disturbances in CRF. The pathogenesis of ROD is complex and multifactorial. Hypocalcemia, phosphate retention, and low levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) related to CRF result in disturbances of bone metabolism and ROD. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of bone lesions might result in severe disability. Based on microscopic findings, renal bone disease is classified into two main categories: high- and low-turnover bone disease. High-turnover bone disease is associated with moderate and severe hyperparathyroidism. Low-turnover bone disease includes osteomalacia and adynamic bone disease. The treatment of ROD involves controlling serum calcium and phosphate levels, and preventing parathyroid gland hyperplasia and extraskeletal calcifications. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels should be kept within the normal range. The calcium-phosphorus product has to be <5 mmol(2)/L(2) (60 mg(2)/dL(2)). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in children with CRF should be within the normal range, but in children with end-stage renal disease PTH levels should be two to three times the upper limit of the normal range. Drug treatment includes intestinal phosphate binding agents and active vitamin D metabolites. Phosphate binders should be administered with each meal. Calcium carbonate is the most widely used intestinal phosphate binder. In children with hypercalcemic episodes, sevelamer, a synthetic phosphate binder, should be introduced. In children with CRF, ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), colecalciferol (vitamin D(3)), and calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) should be used as vitamin D analogs. In children undergoing dialysis, active vitamin D metabolites alfacalcidol (1alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin

  16. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

  17. Abnormal Visual Scanning of Emotionally Evocative Natural Scenes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kordsachia, Catarina C.; Labuschagne, Izelle; Stout, Julie C.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder associated with deficits in the processing of emotional stimuli, including alterations in the self-reported subjective experience of emotion when presented with pictures of emotional scenes. The aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with HD, compared to unaffected controls, display abnormal visual scanning of emotionally evocative natural scenes. Using eye-tracking, we recorded eye-movements of 25 HD participants (advanced pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic) and 25 age-matched unaffected control participants during a picture viewing task. Participants viewed pictures of natural scenes associated with different emotions: anger, fear, disgust, happiness, or neutral, and evaluated those pictures on a valence rating scale. Individuals with HD displayed abnormal visual scanning patterns, but did not differ from controls with respect to their valence ratings. Specifically, compared to controls, HD participants spent less time fixating on the pictures and made longer scan paths. This finding highlights the importance of taking visual scanning behavior into account when investigating emotion processing in HD. The visual scanning patterns displayed by HD participants could reflect a heightened, but possibly unfocussed, search for information, and might be linked to attentional deficits or to altered subjective emotional experiences in HD. Another possibility is that HD participants may have found it more difficult than controls to evaluate the emotional valence of the scenes, and the heightened search for information was employed as a compensatory strategy.

  18. Staging of renal cell carcinoma: cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.J.; Broaddus, S.B.; Leadbetter, G.W. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The use of bone scans in the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma has become routine in many centers. In a retrospective analysis of 42 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, the authors analyzed the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans. Although these scans accurately predict metastatic disease to bone, they are not cost-effective as a routine preoperative tool because they do not alter outcome. In selected patients with bone pain and no other positive staging studies, preoperative bone scans may be of value in the decision to perform extirpative surgery.

  19. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  20. [Primary study on origination of bone marrow abnormal clones in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Xia; Li, Xiao; He, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng

    2011-08-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the origination of abnormal clones in hematopoietic cells of MDS patients. That is to say if there are abnormal clones in CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+) cells and their proportions in MDS patients. Immuno-magnetic bead technique was used to sort CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+) in bone marrow mononuclear cells of 9 MDS patients with chromosome abnormalities (four cases with trisomy 8, 1 case with trisomy 8 complex karyotype, 2 cases with 5q(-), 1 case with 5q(-)complex karyotype, 1 case with 5q(-) accompanying trisomy 8) and smears were made respectively. Then the percentage of abnormal clones in CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+) cells were compared by using FISH. The results indicated that abnormal clones were involved in the two population cells in 9 patients. The percentage of abnormal clones in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells (41.8 ± 8.4%)was obviously lower than that in CD34(+)CD38(+) cells(72.4 ± 7.7%) (p < 0.001), and the percentage of abnormal clones in karyocytes was 70.8 ± 9.2%. It is concluded the abnormal clones of bone marrow hematopoietic cells may originate from stem cell stage in MDS patients with 5q(-) and +8, and the abnormal clones are predominant at stage of progenitors.

  1. Three phase bone scan interpretation based upon vascular endothelial response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kush

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A new method of interpretation of Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) scan based upon the normal physiological vascular endothelial related response. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of TPBS were evaluated. Thirteen were normal. In remaining 37 positive studies, 20 showed localized hyperemic response. All localized hyperemic responses except one with vascular endothelial dysfunction were without infection (95.0%). Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 17 cases with generalized massive hyperemic response had infection, consistent with infection or CRPS/RSD. Micro-bacterial or histological confirmation of infection was obtained in 11 cases. All 11 cases with confirmed infection showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Two were CRPS/RSD and 2 cases were of cellulitis (100.0%). Among remaining 2, one refused surgery and other was lost to follow-up. Additionally, 20 published cases in the literature of osteomyelitis were also analyzed. Nineteen cases of bone and joint infection, (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) except one with endothelial dysfunction showed generalized massive increased flow and pool response (95.0%). All published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Results: The data clearly indicated that 100% of the cases of bone infection (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) and cases of CRPS/RSD showed generalized massive flow and pool pattern. Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 100% published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed positive vascular endothelial response. Conclusion: By incorporating the concept of vascular endothelial related response causing massive vasodilatation in infection, the interpretation of the TPBS can be more précised as it is based upon the normal physiology. Larger studies are recommended. PMID:25829726

  2. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Falchook, Aaron D.; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system.

  4. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  5. Bone scans after total knee arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients. Cemented versus cementless

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, A.A.; Wyatt, R.W.; Daniels, A.U.; Armstrong, L.; Alazraki, N.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-02-01

    The natural history of bone scans after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was studied in 26 patients with 28 cemented TKAs and 29 patients with 31 cementless TKAs. The bone scans were examined at specified postoperative intervals. Radionuclide activity of the femoral, tibial, and patellar regions was measured. Six patients who developed pain postoperatively were excluded. Bone scans immediately postoperative and at three months demonstrated increased uptake, which gradually decreased to baseline levels at ten to 12 months. Radioisotope uptake was comparable in the cemented and cementless groups, but was highly variable in individual patients and in each of the follow-up periods. A single postoperative bone scan cannot differentiate component loosening from early bone remodeling. Sequential bone scans, as a supplement to the clinical examination and conventional radiography, may prove useful in the diagnosis of TKA failure.

  6. Co-registration of isotope bone scan with CT scan and MRI in the investigation of spinal pathology.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Graeme A; Malham, Gregory M; Ballok, Zita E

    2014-09-01

    Image fusion software enables technetium(99m)-methylene diphosphonate (Tc(99m)-MDP) bone scan images to be co-registered with CT scan or MRI, allowing greater anatomical discrimination. We examined the role of bone scan images co-registered with CT scan or MRI in the investigation of patients presenting with axial spinal pain and/or limb pain. One hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients were examined, and thereafter investigated with CT scan, MRI, and/or dynamic plain films. At this point diagnosis (pathology type and anatomical site) and treatment intention were declared. The co-registered Tc(99m)-MDP bone scan images were then studied, after which diagnosis (pathology type and anatomical site) and treatment intention were re-declared. This data were then analysed to determine whether the addition of co-registered bone scan images resulted in any change in diagnosis or treatment intention. The most significant change in diagnosis was pathology type (10%). Anatomical site changed markedly without overlap of the pre and post-isotope fields in 5%, and with overlap in 10%. Treatment intention had a major change in 3.6% and minor change in 8.6%. In the two groups where there was (i) no obvious pathology after full pre-isotope investigation, or (ii) a spinal fusion under suspicion, addition of the bone scan information led to a major change in the pathology and/or anatomical localisation in 18% and 19%, respectively. The addition of co-registered Tc(99m)-MDP bone scan images offers significant diagnostic assistance, particularly in the difficult diagnostic groups where a failed spinal fusion may be the suspected pain generator, or when no pain generator can otherwise be found.

  7. Appearance of extraosseous pelvic Ewing sarcoma on triphasic bone scan.

    PubMed

    Muckle, Marianne; Habibi, Elham; Simon, Birgit; Zipfel, Matthias; Biersack, Hans Jürgen; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2014-04-01

    A 24-year-old man with extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the pelvis underwent a triphasic bone scintigraphy to rule out bone metastases and local bone infiltration before chemotherapy. The bone scintigraphy showed tracer uptake in the tumor in all 3 phases.

  8. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  9. Prostate Cancer With Metastatic Lytic Bone Lesions: Positive Bone Scan Post Docetaxel Chemotherapy in the Setting of Clinically Successful Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Victoria Yvonne; Domino, Paula M.; Sutkowski, Raymond; Stillings, Stephanie A.; Trejo-Lopez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of metastatic bone prostate cancer with Docetaxel chemotherapy per CHAARTED trial is standard of care. Timing of CT and bone scintigraphy for evaluation of successful treatment of lytic lesions is not available in the literature. We present a case of a 70 year old male with PSA of 586 and wide spread metastatic bone lytic lesions, who underwent androgen deprivation therapy and six cycles of Docetaxel chemotherapy. The patient had clinically successful treatment. Contrast enhanced CT scan demonstrated sclerotic bone lesions with PSA 2.5 at this point in treatment; however, 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy remained positive for metastatic lesions. PMID:27169018

  10. Technetium phosphate bone scan in the diagnosis of septic arthritis in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, S.B.; Savage, J.P.; Foster, B.K. )

    1989-09-01

    The technetium phosphate bone scans of 106 children with suspected septic arthritis were reviewed to determine whether the bone scan can accurately differentiate septic from nonseptic arthropathy. Only 13% of children with proved septic arthritis had correct blind scan interpretation. The clinically adjusted interpretation did not identify septic arthritis in 30%. Septic arthritis was incorrectly identified in 32% of children with no evidence of septic arthritis. No statistically significant differences were noted between the scan findings in the septic and nonseptic groups and no scan findings correlated specifically with the presence or absence of joint sepsis.

  11. [Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone].

    PubMed

    Czerny, C; Gstöttner, W; Imhof, H

    2003-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone are mostly accompanied by conductive or sensori-neural hearing loss. Before any therapeutic procedures are done high resolution CT (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed to establish the correct diagnosis and to plan the potentially surgical intervention. HRCT best depicts osseous changes especially those of the external auditory canal and the middle ear containing the ossicles and the osseous structures of the temporal bone and the petrous bone containing the inner ear. MRI excellently shows soft tissue changes of the inner ear especially on the high resolution 3DT2-weighted sequences which give a superb contrast between the nerves and the cerebro-spinal fluid. Malformations of the external auditory canal consists of aplasia or hypoplasia and those of the middle ear range form extreme hypoplasia or aplasia to very mild deformations of the ossicles. Malformations of the inner ear also range form complete aplasia to very mild hypoplasia of the organs of the inner ear as well as malformations concerning the nerves in the internal auditory canal range from aplasia to hypoplasia. Malformations of the temporal bone can either occur isolated or in combination in which malformations of the external and middle ear may be accompanied by those of the inner ear. Furthermore, malformations of the temporal bone may also occur in otofacial, otocervical or otoskeletal syndromes. These syndromes may be accompanied by certain malformations of the temporal bone. HRCT and MRI are both excellent methods to depict congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone and of the inner ear and should be used as complementary methods because HRCT best depicts osseous changes and MRI superbly depicts soft tissue changes. Both methods are important to establish the correct diagnosis to plan the therapeutic procedures.

  12. A rare variant of Caffey's disease - X-rays, bone scan and FDG PET findings.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2011-04-01

    An 18-month-old boy with history of fever of 4 months duration and with swelling of the limbs was referred for a bone scan. There were multiple swellings over his upper and lower limbs, with bowing of the lower limbs. His radiological skeletal survey revealed marked periosteal new bone formation surrounding the diaphysis of long bones. A bone scan done with 99m Tc-MDP showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in all the long bones. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan done to assess the metabolic activity showed patchy FDG uptake in the long bones, ankle joint and anterior ends of few ribs. His clinical and imaging findings led to the diagnosis of Caffey's disease.

  13. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  14. The lateral distal femoral DEXA scan in children: a chronology of growing bone?

    PubMed

    Tryon, Elyce; Szalay, Elizabeth A

    2008-11-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the current standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in children. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends scanning the total body and spine in children. However, in orthopedics, the total-body and spine DEXA scans are often rendered useless by the presence of metallic hardware and/or contractures. The lateral distal femoral DEXA scan was developed as a scan mode for children such as those with cerebral palsy who have contractures or metallic implants, which make it impossible to do total-body or spine scans. Unlike other DEXA scans, a single scan of the lateral distal femoral illustrates the density of the metaphyseal cancellous (newer) bone, the transitional, and the cortical (older) bone in 1 image. Because of this, we hypothesized that an individual lateral distal femoral scan could provide a map of bone health over time. The lateral distal femoral scans of 40 children whose bone growth was tainted by distant chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) were compared to the lateral distal femoral scans of 40 children whose bone environment had remained relatively stable over time (control group). The hypothesis was not confirmed by the data. The "Z-score difference," the difference between the Z-scores of the cancellous and cortical bone, for the chemotherapy group (0.16) and the control group (0.32) were not statistically different. While these results did not confirm the hypothesis, the lateral distal femoral scan remains a reproducible and useful DEXA scan in pediatric orthopedic clinical practice.

  15. Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

  16. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  17. Resolution recovery in planar bone scans: diagnostic value in metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thomas; Brogsitter, Claudia; Jones, Ivor W; Heales, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    Recovery of spatial resolution lost through increasing lesion-to-detector distance can improve the spatial resolution of planar images. We compare two commercial solutions, HiScan (http://www.scivis.de) and Xact.bone (http://www.ultraspect.com), with unprocessed planar whole-body bone scans. Thirty-five patients with suspected bone metastases were scanned 3 h after injection of 600 MBq (99m)Tc-HMDP at 12 cm/min. Two patients with more than 20 lesions were used for reporter training and were excluded from the analysis. Two blinded reporters categorized each scan as benign, indeterminate or malignant and assigned individual lesions to those same categories. Image quality was first graded on a 1 (worst) to 10 (best) scale for each individual scan, and then all three scans of each patient were ranked according to image quality. Reporter A detected 65, 90 and 83 malignant lesions with the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone and 23, 24 and 17 indeterminate lesions, respectively. Reporter B detected 60, 80 and 75 malignant lesions with the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone and 17, 16 and 14 indeterminate lesions, respectively. To summarize, reporters A/B detected 38/33% and 28/25% more malignant lesions with HiScan and Xact.bone than with the unprocessed scan, respectively (Friedman's test, P<0.05). The number of indeterminate lesions did not increase, but the percentage of unclear lesions decreased. Mean image quality for the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone was 6.5, 9.1 and 7.9 for reporter A and 5.6, 7.5 and 6.7 for reporter B, respectively (P<0.0001). HiScan was ranked best for image quality in 82% of patients and Xact.bone in 18%. Resolution recovery in planar whole-body bone scans significantly increases the absolute number of detectable malignant lesions, decreases the percentage of indeterminate lesions, significantly increases image quality and is an easy-to-implement addition to routine clinical practice.

  18. Abnormalities in Cortical Bone, Trabecular Plates, and Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women Treated With Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Stephanie; Nishiyama, Kyle K.; Kepley, Anna; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; McMahon, Donald J.; Guo, X. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Context: The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids (GCs) increase skeletal fragility are not well understood. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the microarchitecture, trabecular morphology, and biomechanical properties of bone in postmenopausal women treated with GCs. Design: This was a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital outpatient facility. Patients: Postmenopausal women treated with oral GCs for longer than 3 months (n = 30) and age/race-matched controls (n = 60) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Areal bone mineral density aBMD (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was measured. Trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia were also measured. Whole-bone stiffness was estimated by finite element analysis. A novel technique, individual trabecula segmentation, was used to evaluate trabecular type (as plate or rod), orientation, and connectivity. Results: DXA T-scores did not differ significantly at any site. GC subjects had significantly lower total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD and thinner cortices, fewer, thinner, more widely, and irregularly spaced trabeculae. They had fewer trabecular plates, fewer axially aligned trabeculae, and lower trabecular connectivity. Differences ranged from 4% to 65% for these trabecular measures and 5% to 17% for the cortical measures. Whole-bone stiffness was significantly lower (11%–16%) in GC subjects. Markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen) and resorption (C-telopeptide) were lower in the GC subjects. Conclusions: Despite similar areal BMD by DXA, GC-treated women had abnormal cortical and trabecular vBMD and microarchitecture at both the radius and tibia, including fewer trabecular plates, a less axially aligned trabecular network, lower trabecular connectivity, thinner cortices, and

  19. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  20. Craniofacial abnormalities induced by retinoic acid: a preliminary histological and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study.

    PubMed

    Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, E N; Goret-Nicaise, M; Foroglou, C H; Katsarma, E; Dhem, A; Dourov, N; Persaud, T V; Thliveris, J A

    2000-10-01

    Exogenous retinoic acid has been found to be teratogenic in animals and man. Craniofacial defects induced by retinoic acid have stimulated considerable research interest. The present report deals with scanning electron microscopical observations of the craniofacial region concurrent with histological examination of craniofacial dysmorphism induced in rat embryos following maternal treatment treated with varying dosages of all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin). Two groups of pregnant rats were treated with rat embryos exposed to retinoic acid suspended in corn oil (100 mg/kg b.w. on gestational day 11.5 and 50 mg/kg b.w. on gestational day 10, 11 and 12 respectively). A third group was treated with corn oil (vehicle) while a fourth group remained untreated. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities, including exophthalmos, microphthalmia and anophthalmia, maxillo-mandibular dysostosis, micrognathia of both maxilla and mandible, cleft palate, subdevelopment of ear lobe, preauricular tags and macroglossia, were observed in the offspring of retinoic acid treated animals. The abnormalities were both time and dosage dependent, and characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome when retinoic-acid was administered on gestational day 11.5. In contrast, when retinoic acid was administered were on gestational days 10-12, the defects were similar to those seen in the first and second pharyngeal arch syndrome, as well as in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum. Whereas our data support the hypothesis that all-trans retinoic-acid disturbs growth and differentiation of several embryonic cell types essential for normal craniofacial development, its mechanism of action remains unclear.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features.

  2. Reversible bone pain and symmetric bone scan uptake in a dialysis patient treated with cinacalcet: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease involves a combination of dietary restrictions, phosphate binders, active vitamin D analogs, and calcimimetics. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Hispanic dialysis patient, originally from Cuba and now residing in the USA, who developed severe bone pain and muscle twitching after starting low dose cinacalcet, despite normal pre-dialysis ionized calcium and elevated parathyroid hormone. The clinical symptoms correlated with increased symmetrical uptake on bone scan that resolved rapidly upon discontinuation of cinacalcet. Conclusion Cinacalcet may induce severe bone pain and a unique bone scan uptake pattern in hemodialysis patients. PMID:20576153

  3. Radionuclide bone scan, radiographic bone survey, and alkaline phosphatase: studies of limited value in asymptomatic patients with ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Metler, F.A. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Crow, N.E. Jr.; Garcia, J.F.; Wicks, J.D.; Bartow, S.A.

    1982-10-15

    Bone scans or skeletal surveys were obtained in 104 patients with ovarian carcinoma. No metastases were identified at staging in the 43 patients with Stage I or II disease. Four patients in the entire series had osseous metastases. Three of the 40 patients with Stage III epithelian ovarian carcinoma has osseous metastases at the time of staging. All of these were Grade III lesions. One Stage I, Grade III patient demonstrated osseous metastases two years after initial diagnosis. None of the four patients with osseous metastases had an elevated alkaline phosphatase; three of the four had bone pain. Based on these results, it is suggested that radiographic bone survey and radionuclide bone scans are not indicated as screening procedures in asymptomatic patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  4. Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

    2014-03-01

    Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

  5. Computer-assisted quantitative evaluation of bisphosphonate treatment for Paget's disease of bone using the bone scan index

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hirofumi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Setoguchi, Takao; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Hiromi; Komiya, Setsuro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of treatment of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) with bone scintigraphy using a computer-assisted diagnosis system (BONENAVI) that quantitatively evaluates bone metabolism. Seven patients with PDB (three male, four female; average age, 60 years; age range, 33–80 years) underwent bone scintigraphy and measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific ALP (BAP), serum cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) of type I collagen, urinary NTx, and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) before and after bisphosphonate treatment. Bone scan index (BSI), artificial neural network (ANN) value, and hotspot number (HSn) were calculated using BONENAVI software. Mean follow-up period was 22 months (range, 11–35 months). Among three BONENAVI parameters (ANN, BSI, and HSn), only BSI was significantly lower after bisphosphonate treatment as compared with before. All bone metabolic markers excluding DPD were significantly lower following bisphosphonate treatment than before. Bone formation markers (ALP and BAP) were significantly lower than bone resorption markers (U-NTx and S-NTx). The correlation of BONENAVI parameters with four bone metabolic markers was analyzed before and after bisphosphonate treatment. Before treatment, the majority of the four markers did not correlate with the BONENAVI parameters. In contrast, post-treatment ALP, BAP, and U-NTx were significantly correlated with BSI and HSn. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the treatment of PDB by bone scintigraphy using a computer-assisted diagnosis system that quantitatively evaluates bone metabolism. The findings demonstrated that, using BONENAVI software, bone scintigraphy is able to quantitatively and spatially evaluate the bisphosphonate treatment effect, particularly in patients with polyostotic PDB. PMID:28105116

  6. The effect of iron on the biodistribution of bone scanning agents in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.; Hoschl, R.

    1981-07-01

    Nine patients with chronic iron overload, resulting from either repeated transfusions or hemochromatosis, had bone scans that were characterized by a reduction of bony uptake, marked increase in renal activity, and a significant increase in soft-tissue accumulation of 99mTc-labeled bone-seeking agents. These findings were supported by semiquantitative computer analysis. The probable mechanisms of altered biodistribution and the possible role of serum ferritin are discussed. The importance of realizing the effect of excess iron on skeletal scintigraphy is further emphasized by the results of bone scanning in another patient in whom acute iron overload following infusion of iron-dextran resulted in excessive blood pool labeling.

  7. Effectiveness of bone scans in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J-H; Kim, Y-K; Kim, S-G; Yun, P-Y; Kim, J-D; Min, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of bone scan procedures for the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Methods From February 2009 to June 2009, 22 patients (4 males and 18 females) from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Republic of Korea, were diagnosed with TMJ disorder. They were examined by clinical examination, plain radiograph and bone scan and were categorized into three groups: normal, internal derangement and osteoarthritis. TMJ uptake ratios and asymmetrical indices were calculated. Results There were no significant differences in uptake ratios associated with pain and bone change. However, significant results were obtained when comparing uptake ratios between the osteoarthritis and non-osteoarthritis groups. Conclusion It was concluded from this study that bone scans may help to diagnose osteoarthritis when increased uptake ratios are observed. PMID:22116124

  8. Macular Cone Abnormalities in Retinitis Pigmentosa with Preserved Central Vision Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Makiyama, Yukiko; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Uji, Akihito; Oishi, Akio; Ogino, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess macular photoreceptor abnormalities in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with preserved central vision using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). Methods Fourteen eyes of 14 patients with RP (best-corrected visual acuity 20/20 or better) and 12 eyes of 12 volunteers underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and imaging with a prototype AO-SLO system. Cone density and spatial organization of the cone mosaic were assessed using AO-SLO images. Results In 3 eyes with RP and preserved central vision, cones formed a mostly regular mosaic pattern with small patchy dark areas, and in 10 eyes, the cone mosaic patterns were less regular, and large dark regions with missing cones were apparent. Only one eye with RP demonstrated a normal, regular cone mosaic pattern. In eyes with RP, cone density was significantly lower at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm from the center of the fovea compared to normal eyes (P<0.001 and 0.021, respectively). At 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm from the center of the fovea, a decreased number of cones had 6 neighbors in eyes with RP (P = 0.002 for both). Greater decrease in cone density was related to disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment (IS) ellipsoid band on SD-OCT images (P = 0.044); however, dark regions were seen on AO-SLO even in areas of continuous IS ellipsoid on SD-OCT. Decreased cone density correlated thinner outer nuclear layer (P = 0.029) and thinner inner segment and outer segment thickness (P = 0.011) on SD-OCT. Conclusions Cone density is decreased and the regularity of the cone mosaic spatial arrangement is disrupted in eyes with RP, even when visual acuity and foveal sensitivity are good. AO-SLO imaging is a sensitive quantitative tool for detecting photoreceptor abnormalities in eyes with RP. PMID:24260224

  9. Elevated soft tissue activity in early but not delayed phase of bone scan in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-03-01

    Triple-phase bone scan is commonly used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Elevated bone tracer activity in early but not delayed phase of the study favors cellulitis over osteomyelitis. We reported that Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by malformations of the capillary, venous, and lymphatic systems, can have images similar to cellulitis on triple-phase bone scan.

  10. The use of dynamic bone scanning in the evaluation of wrist and hand pain

    SciTech Connect

    Gandsman, E.J.; Deutsch, S.D.; Catalozzi, K.; Herndon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complaints of wrist and/or hand pain were evaluated using a quantitative technique of dynamic (blood flow analysis) and static bone scan. The patients were divided in two groups according to their clinical history. Group A included 13 patients with a history of trauma. Seven patients had scaphoid fracture and 6 of them were scanned to determine non-union and/or avascular necrosis of the joint. One patient was scanned to determine the viability of a graft for non-union fracture. In all cases the scan gave a correct diagnosis as confirmed by later x-ray changes. Six patients in this group had negative x-rays. The scan demonstrated 4 cases of occult fractures, 4 had early Kienbock's Disease (KD) and 1 a soft tissue tumor. Group B included 14 patients with no known history of trauma. Nine had positive x-rays including 3 with KD that were scanned to determine their viability for surgical replacement of the lunate. The scan could distinguish between isolated involvement of the lunate and secondary degenerative changes of the surrounding carpal bones and radiocarpal joint. Two patients with tumor were correctly diagnosed by the scan, one as benign and one malignant. Four other patients with nonspecific changes on x-ray showed early arthritis (3 cases) and a cyst of the triquetrum ( 1 case) on the bone scan. Four patients in Group B had negative x-rays and the scan showed degenerative changes (3 cases) and an occult fracture of the hamate (1 case). The use of dynamic and static bone scanning appears to be a very valuable technique in the evaluation of patients with wrist and hand pain.

  11. From bone abnormalities to mineral metabolism dysregulation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bacchetta, Justine

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of kidney failure. It is a systemic disorder, not only affecting the kidneys, but also associated with cyst formation in other organs such as the liver, spleen, pancreas, and seminal vesicles. Other extra-renal symptoms may consist of intracranial arterial aneurysms, cardiac valvular defects, abdominal and inguinal hernias and colonic diverticulosis. Very little is known regarding bone involvement in ADPKD; however, recent evidence has revealed the potential role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is an endocrine fibroblast growth factor acting in the kidney as a phosphaturic hormone and a suppressor of active vitamin D with key effects on the bone/kidney/parathyroid axis, and has been shown to increase in patients with ADPKD, even with normal renal function. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of bone and mineral abnormalities found in experimental models and in patients with ADPKD, and to discuss the possible role of FGF23 in this disease.

  12. Bone and gallium scanning in the pre-op evaluation of the infected dysvascular foot

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Dillon, A.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of bone and gallium scans in predicting healing levels in the dysvascular foot with an infection requiring amputation. Healing requires amputation at a level both free of infection and with adequate blood flow. Forty-one such patients had bone and gallium scans and Doppler studies prior to amputation at a level selected by the surgeon. Eight patients required multiple surgeries before healing was obtained. Bone and soft tissue infections were determined from scans and healing levels predicted (SPHL) as the most distal amputation level free from infection: toectomy, Reye's, transmetatarsal, calcanectomy, Syme's, below knee. Doppler healing levels (DPHL) were predicted using a standard ischemic index. Doppler alone predicted the final healing level (FHL) in 41% with 59% needing more proximal amputation. Scans alone predicted FHL in 64% with 26% needing more proximal amputation. Ten percent were distal to the SPHL and all healed. These scans showed infection at transition sites between amputation levels, and the more proximal level had been predicted. Using the more proximal of the DPHL and SPHL the FHL was predicted in 78% with another 12% having more proximal amputation for nursing reasons. In 10% amputation was performed between DPHL and SPHL or at the more distal level. In no case was successful surgery performed distal to the more distal SPHL or DPHL. Bone and gallium scans used with Doppler studies are useful in optimizing the choice of amputation level in the infected, dysvascular foot.

  13. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  14. Osteoid osteoma - the role of bone scans in diagnosis and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Matiets, M.

    1986-09-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor which is most often seen in young males. Several imaging techniques have been used for the detection of osteoid osteoma lesions. Conventional x-ray was found to detect only two-thirds of lesions. Computerized tomography has been used to determine the extent of the osteoid osteoma's progress, particularly the soft tissue involvement. In this study, the radionuclide three-phase bone scan was positive in all six patients with surgically proven osteoid osteoma. In addition, nuclear medicine scans of bone specimens may be used to predict whether all of the tumor has been removed. Incomplete excision will likely result in recurrence. Since /sup 99m/Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) is blood borne, it reflects blood flow to the tumor site. It also adsorbs onto the hydroxyapatite crystal. Its concentration is proportional to osteoblastic activity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the use of the three-phase bone scan in patient's referred with possible osteoid osteoma. In addition, scans of bone samples were used during the surgical procedures to evaluate complete tumor renewal.

  15. Incidental detection of superior sternal cleft on Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Nusrat IJ; Pawar, Shwetal Uday; Tilve, Gundu Hari

    2013-01-01

    A sternal cleft is an extremely rare developmental anomaly, which results from failure of fusion of sternal bars which contribute to the formation of the sternum. Most cases are diagnosed in early childhood, where it is associated with serious other midline defects. A sternal cleft is seen as a photopenic area on technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan and can be confused with other conditions. We report an extremely rare case of isolated upper sternal cleft in a 45-years-old male, found incidentally on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. PMID:24163521

  16. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, C.; Siliqi, D.; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon resolution. This favorable combination has been applied for the first time to biopsies of dwarfism syndrome and Paget's disease to shed light onto the cortical structure of natural bone in healthy and pathologic sections. PMID:22666538

  17. The Effect of Changing Scan Mode on Trabecular Bone Score Using Lunar Prodigy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwen; Slattery, Anthony; Center, Jacqueline; Pocock, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a measure of gray scale homogeneity that correlates with trabecular microarchitecture and is an independent predictor of fracture risk. TBS is being increasingly used in the assessment of patients at risk of osteoporosis and has recently been incorporated into FRAX(®). GE Lunar machines acquire spine scans using 1 of 3 acquisition modes depending on abdominal tissue thickness (thin, standard, and thick). From a database review, 30 patients (mean body mass index: 30.8, range 26.2-34.1) were identified who had undergone lumbar spine DXA scans (GE Lunar Prodigy, software 14.10; Lunar Radiation Corporation, Madison, WI) in both standard mode and thick mode, on the same day with no repositioning. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (L1-L4) and TBS were derived from the 30 paired spine scans. There was no significant difference in lumbar spine bone mineral density between the 2 scanning modes. There were, however, significant higher TBS values from the spine scans acquired in thick mode compared to the TBS values derived from spine acquisitions in standard mode (mean TBS difference: 0.24 [20%], standard deviation ±0.10). In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that TBS values acquired in the GE Lunar Prodigy are dependent on the scanning mode used. Further evaluation is required to confirm the cause and develop appropriate protocols.

  18. Study of fossil bones by synchrotron radiation micro-spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Pinakidou, F; Paloura, E C; Papadopoulou, L; Tsoukala, E

    2014-01-01

    Earlymost Villafranchian fossil bones of an artiodactyl and a perissodactyl from the Milia excavation site in Grevena, Greece, were studied in order to evaluate diagenetic effects. Optical microscopy revealed the different bone types (fibro-lamellar and Haversian, respectively) of the two fragments and their good preservation state. The spatial distribution of bone apatite and soil-originating elements was studied using micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) mapping and scanning electron microscopy. The approximate value of the Ca/P ratio was 2.2, as determined from scanning electron microscopy measurements. Bacterial boring was detected close to the periosteal region and Fe bearing oxides were found to fill bone cavities, e.g. Haversian canals and osteocyte lacunae. In the perissodactyl bone considerable amounts of Mn were detected close to cracks (the Mn/Fe weight ratio takes values up to 3.5). Goethite and pyrite were detected in both samples by means of metallographic microscopy. The local Ca/P ratio determined with µ-XRF varied significantly in metal-poor spots indicating spatial inhomogeneities in the ionic substitutions. XRF line scans that span the bone cross sections revealed that Fe and Mn contaminate the bones from both the periosteum and medullar cavity and aggregate around local maxima. The formation of goethite, irrespective of the local Fe concentration, was verified by the Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Finally, Sr K-edge extended XAFS (EXAFS) revealed that Sr substitutes for Ca in bone apatite without obvious preference to the Ca1 or Ca2 unit-cell site occupation.

  19. [Importance of bone scanning and osteoscintimetry for assessing development of acute haematogenic childhood osteomyelitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fotter, R; Höllwarth, M

    1980-01-01

    Bone scanning with 99m-Tc-MDP is generally used for the early diagnosis of acute haematogenic childhood osteomyelitis. The combination of this method with radionuclide osteoscintimetry and the evaluation of the relative uptake ratio supply objective criteria for assessing the development of the disease. They permit statements as to the morphological and functional aspects of the disease and thus facilitate clinical assessment.

  20. Effect of iron on the biodistribution of bone scanning agents in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.C.; Hoschl, R.

    1981-07-01

    Nine patients with chronic iron overload, resulting from either repeated transfusions or hemochromatosis, had bone scans that were characterized by a reduction of bony uptake, marked increase in renal activity, and a significant increase in soft-tissue accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled bone-seeking agents. These findings were supported by semiquantitative computer analysis. The probable mechanisms of altered biodistribution and the possible role of serum ferritin are discussed. The importance of realizing the effect of excess iron on skeletal scintigraphy is further emphasized by the results of bone scanning in another patient in whom acute iron overload following infusion of iron-dextran resulted in excessive blood pool labeling.

  1. Few CT Scan Abnormalities Found Even in Neurologically Impaired Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denckla, Martha Bridge; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Most of 32 learning disabled children (seven to 14 years old) with neurological lateralization characteristics marked by right and left hemispheres had a normal CT (computerized tomography) scan. (CL)

  2. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  3. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  4. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduces mineral and bone abnormalities in rats with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen; Secker, Roger; Shen, Victor; Lorenzo, Victor; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background. Lanthanum carbonate (FOSRENOL®, Shire Pharmaceuticals) is an effective non-calcium, non-resin phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we used a rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) to examine the long-term effects of controlling serum phosphorus with lanthanum carbonate treatment on the biochemical and bone abnormalities associated with CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD). Methods. Rats were fed a normal diet (normal renal function, NRF), or a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 3 weeks to induce CRF. NRF rats continued to receive normal diet plus vehicle or normal diet supplemented with 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate for 22 weeks. CRF rats received a diet containing 0.1% adenine, with or without 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate. Blood and urine biochemistry were assessed, and bone histomorphometry was performed at study completion. Results. Treatment with 0.75% adenine induced severe CRF, as demonstrated by elevated serum creatinine. Hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, elevated calcium × phosphorus product and secondary hyperparathyroidism were evident in CRF + vehicle animals. Treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in CRF animals (P < 0.05), and had little effect in NRF animals. Bone histomorphometry revealed a severe form of bone disease with fibrosis in CRF + vehicle animals; lanthanum carbonate treatment reduced the severity of the bone abnormalities observed, particularly woven bone formation and fibrosis. Conclusions. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced the biochemical and bone abnormalities of CKD–MBD in a rat model of CRF. PMID:21098011

  5. Craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in individuals with sickle cell anemia: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; de Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Sousa, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion PMID:23049386

  6. Incidental abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate on 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil Moon; Seo, Won Ik; Lee, Sun Seong; Bae, Sang Kyun; Kwak, Ho Sup; Min, Kweonsik; Kim, Wansuk; Kang, Dong Il

    2014-01-01

    18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans are commonly used for the staging and restaging of various malignancies, such as head and neck, breast, colorectal and gynecological cancers. However, the value of FDG PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of incidental prostate 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed 18F-FDG PET/CT scan reports from September 2009 to September 2013, and selected cases that reported focal/diffuse FDG uptake in the prostate. We analyzed the correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT scan findings and data collected during evaluations such as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and/or biopsy to confirm prostate cancer. Of a total of 18,393 cases, 106 (0.6%) exhibited abnormal hypermetabolism in the prostate. Additional evaluations were performed in 66 patients. Serum PSA levels were not significantly correlated with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in all patients (rho 0.483, p=0.132). Prostate biopsies were performed in 15 patients, and prostate cancer was confirmed in 11. The median serum PSA level was 4.8 (0.55-7.06) ng/mL and 127.4 (1.06-495) ng/mL in the benign and prostate cancer groups, respectively. The median SUVmax was higher in the prostate cancer group (mean 10.1, range 3.8-24.5) than in the benign group (mean 4.3, range 3.1-8.8), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.078). There was no significant correlation between SUVmax and serum PSA, prostatic volume, or Gleason score. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans did not reliably differentiate malignant or benign from abnormal uptake lesions in the prostate, and routine prostate biopsy was not usually recommended in patients with abnormal FDG uptake. Nevertheless, patients with incidental prostate uptake on 18F-FDG PET/ CT scans should not be ignored and should be undergo

  7. Scoring systems of quantitative bone scanning in prostate cancer: historical overview, current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zafeirakis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) is the most widely used radionuclide imaging modality applied in patients with prostate cancer. With this technique, the choice of methods to estimate the extend of the metastatic disease on the skeletal system includes various different approaches, classified in two main categories: First, the quantitative measurements of tracer uptake, defined either as the percentage of the injected dose of tracer, or as the more complicated plasma clearance techniques and second, the various semi-quantitative scoring systems of the bone scan images. These scoring systems can be based either on visual counting of bone lesions, or on the estimation of a numerical index that expresses the fractional involvement of each bone by tumour, called "Bone Scan Index" (BSI); the latter can be produced either visually (manually) or by the more sophisticated techniques of fully- or semi-automated (computerized) forms. In this review, a brief chronological overview of the aforementioned methods is presented, along with the main advantages, drawbacks and the prognostic implications of each method. There remains, however, the challenge of defining, developing and validating the optimal measurement methodology in order these scoring systems to obtain a wider clinical use.

  8. CD87-positive tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates identified by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Noack, F; Helmecke, D; Rosenberg, R; Thorban, S; Nekarda, H; Fink, U; Lewald, J; Stich, M; Schutze, K; Harbeck, N; Magdolen, V; Graeff, H; Schmitt, M

    1999-10-01

    Dissemination of single tumor cells to the bone marrow is a common event in cancer. The clinical significance of cytokeratin-positive cells detected in the bone marrow of cancer patients is still a matter of debate. In gastric cancer, overexpression of the receptor (uPAR or CD87) for the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in disseminated cancer cells indicates shorter survival of cancer patients. A new immunofluorescence approach, applying confocal laser scanning microscopy, is introduced to locate CD87 antigen in cytokeratin-positive tumor cells and to quantify the CD87 antigen by consecutive scanning. At first, cytokeratin 8/18/19-positive carcinoma cells are identified at excitation wavelength 488 nm using monoclonal antibody A45B/B3 to the cytokeratins and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with the fluorochrome Alexa488. Next, CD87 in tumor cells is identified by chicken antibody HU277 to the uPA-receptor and goat anti-chicken IgY labeled with fluorochrome Alexa568 (excitation wavelength 568 nm) and the fluorescence signal quantified on a single cell basis using fluorescently labeled latex beads as the fluorescence reference. From 16 patients with gastric or esophageal carcinoma, bone marrow aspirates were obtained, stained for cytokeratins and CD87 and then subjected to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Three of six gastric cancer patients had tumor cells present in the bone marrow of which 2 stained for CD87. Three of ten esophageal carcinoma patients had tumor cells in the bone marrow, all three samples stained for CD87. CD87-positive tumor cells were also dissected from stained bone marrow aspirates by laser microdissection microscope to allow analysis of single cells at the gene level.

  9. The utilization of Gleason grade as the primary criterion for ordering nuclear bone scan in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Chad W M; Abbott, John T; Goodman, Michael; Alazraki, Naomi; Marshall, Fray F; Issa, Muta M

    2009-10-02

    Utilization of nuclear bone scans for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer has decreased dramatically due to PSA-driven stage migration. The current criteria for performing bone scans are based on limited historical data. This study evaluates serum PSA and Gleason grade in predicting positive scans in a contemporary large series of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Eight hundred consecutive cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a 64-month period underwent a staging nuclear scan. All subjects had histologically confirmed cancer. The relationship between PSA, Gleason grade, and bone scan was examined by calculating series of crude, stratified, and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Four percent (32/800) of all bone scans were positive. This proportion was significantly lower in patients with Gleason score or=8 (18.8%, p < 0.001). Among patients with Gleason score bones scans was 70-fold higher when the PSA was >30 ng/ml compared to or=8, the rate was significantly higher (27.9 vs. 0%) when PSA was >10 ng/ml compared to bone scans in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The PSA threshold for ordering bone scans should be adjusted according to Gleason score. For patients with Gleason scores bone scan if the PSA is >30 ng/ml. However, for patients with a high Gleason score (8-10), we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >10 ng/ml.

  10. Paraneoplastic syndrome demonstrated on (99m)Tc-HMDP bone scan.

    PubMed

    Lancelot, Sophie; Giammarile, Francesco; Tescaru, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    A 23-year-old man, with no relevant medical history, presented with inflammatory peripheral and axial polyarthritis, wrist pain, and persistent low-grade fever for the past 4 months. A bone scintigraphy showed intense periosteal early and delayed uptake in long bones, with normal uptake in the spine, pelvis, and rib cage, and no clear focus of hypermetabolism. CT scan revealed a mediastinal mass. A biopsy of the mass demonstrated Hodgkin lymphoma with bulky disease. This paraneoplastic syndrome as the first sign of intrathoracic Hodgkin's disease is rare.

  11. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information.

  12. The technetium phosphate bone scan in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Howie, D.W.; Savage, J.P.; Wilson, T.G.; Paterson, D.

    1983-04-01

    We reviewed the technetium phosphate scans of 280 patients who had been referred with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in order to establish the diagnostic accuracy of this procedure. Strict criteria were established to define two subgroups: one of patients with proved osteomyelitis and one of patients who definitely did not have osteomyelitis. The scan correctly identified osteomyelitis at fifty-five of sixty-two sites, and was correctly negative in seventy-four of seventy-nine patients without osteomyelitis. The scan correctly distinguished all cases of cellulitis or soft-tissue abscess from osteomyelitis, but identified osteomyelitis in eight of thirty-nine patients with septic arthritis. The phosphate bone scan maintained this accuracy through any duration of symptoms, and performed almost equally well at all skeletal sites and in all age groups.

  13. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the test will last about 1 hour. The scanner's camera may move above and around you. You may need to change positions. You will probably be asked to drink extra water after you receive the radiotracer to keep the material from collecting in your bladder.

  14. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  15. Characterizing the composition of bone formed during fracture healing using scanning electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Perdikouri, Christina; Tägil, Magnus; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    About 5-10% of all bone fractures suffer from delayed healing, which may lead to non-union. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can be used to induce differentiation of osteoblasts and enhance the formation of the bony callus, and bisphosphonates help to retain the newly formed callus. The aim of this study was to investigate if scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify differences in the mineral composition of the newly formed bone compared to cortical bone from a non-fractured control. Moreover, we investigate whether the use of BMPs and bisphosphonates-alone or combined-may have an effect on bone mineralization and composition. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats at 9 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups and treated with (A) saline, (B) BMP-7, (C) bisphosphonates (Zoledronate), and (D) BMP-7 + Zoledronate. The rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks. All samples were imaged using SEM and chemically analyzed with EDS to quantify the amount of C, N, Ca, P, O, Na, and Mg. The Ca/P ratio was the primary outcome. In the fractured samples, two areas of interest were chosen for chemical analysis with EDS: the callus and the cortical bone. In the non-fractured samples, only the cortex was analyzed. Our results showed that the element composition varied to a small extent between the callus and the cortical bone in the fractured bones. However, the Ca/P ratio did not differ significantly, suggesting that the mineralization at all sites is similar 6 weeks post-fracture in this rat model.

  16. Technetium-99m-alendronate: a new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Arteaga de Murphy, C; Meléndez-Alafort, L; Montoya-Molina, C; Sepúlveda-Méndez, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the preparation of a new technetium-99m-radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. The chelating agent for 99mTc is a new bisphosphonate, alendronate, 4-amino-1-hydroxy-butylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (ABP) used as a treatment for osteoporosis. ABP, because of its amino group, seems to be better suited to form a strong and stable complex with technetium-99m and therefore might be better than 99mTc-etidronate (HEDP) or 99mTc-medronate (MDP) for bone scanning. A sterile dry kit containing APB, a reducing agent and a stabilizer was prepared. The parameters studied were molar concentrations, pH, shelf life, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity. The oven dried sterile kit was formulated with 5 mg ABP, 0.25 mg stannous fluoride and 0.025 mg gentisic acid at pH 2.5-3.5. The labeling efficiency with 20-1500 MBq of pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) was over 95% at room temperature and was stable for 5 h. Technetium-99m-alendronate was tested in two rabbits and it proved to be a promising new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. Work is underway to study 99mTc-ABP biodistribution in a statistically significant number of laboratory animals and, later on, to determine radiopharmacokinetic parameters in normal volunteers.

  17. Bone scan findings in Kienböck's disease. A case report with atypical findings and literature review.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, S L; Kalff, V; Hoy, G

    1997-07-01

    The authors present an 18-year-old man who had a 5-month history of a painful left wrist. Despite the prolonged history, discrete photopenia on the blood-pool phase and photopenia relative to the remainder of the ipsilateral carpus on the delayed phase of a bone scan in the region of the lunate was shown. When Kienböck's disease is seen in its late phase, the bone scan findings may be atypical in that they may not show the usual three-phase bone scintigraphic evidence of bone remodeling expected in delayed diagnosis avascular necrosis. A review of the previous literature is presented.

  18. Imaging microfractures and other abnormalities of bone using a supercontinuum laser source with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Leproux, Philippe; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-02-01

    Many areas of the body such as the tibia have minimal tissue thickness overlying bone. Near-infrared (NIR) optical windows may be used to image more deeply to reveal abnormalities hidden beneath tissue. We report on the potential application of a compact Leukos supercontinuum laser source (model STM-2000-IR) with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows (from 650 nm to 950 nm, 1,100 nm to 1,350 nm, 1,600 to 1,870, and 2,100 nm to 2,300 nm, respectively) and between 200 - 500 microwatt/nm power, with InGaAs (Goodrich Sensors Inc. SU320- 1.7RT) and InSb detectors (Teledyne Technologies) to image microfractures and abnormalities of bone hidden beneath tissue.

  19. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.

  20. Bone Scan Index: A Quantitative Treatment Response Biomarker for Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Jia, Xiaoyu; Mezheritskiy, Irina S.; Stephenson, Ryan D.; Schoder, Heiko; Fox, Josef J.; Heller, Glenn; Scher, Howard I.; Larson, Steven M.; Morris, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is currently no imaging biomarker for metastatic prostate cancer. The bone scan index (BSI) is a promising candidate, being a reproducible, quantitative expression of tumor burden seen on bone scintigraphy. Prior studies have shown the prognostic value of a baseline BSI. This study tested whether treatment-related changes in BSI are prognostic for survival and compared BSI to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as an outcome measure. Patients and Methods We retrospectively examined serial bone scans from patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRMPC) enrolled in four clinical trials. We calculated BSI at baseline and at 3 and 6 months on treatment and performed univariate and bivariate analyses of PSA, BSI, and survival. Results Eighty-eight patients were scanned, 81 of whom have died. In the univariate analysis, the log percent change in BSI from baseline to 3 and 6 months on treatment prognosticated for survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.44; P = .0089 and HR, 2.54; P < .001, respectively). A doubling in BSI resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in risk of death. Log percent change in PSA at 6 months on treatment was also associated with survival (HR, 1.298; P = .013). In the bivariate analysis, change in BSI while adjusting for PSA was prognostic at 3 and 6 months on treatment (HR, 2.368; P = .012 and HR, 2.226; P = .002, respectively), but while adjusting for BSI, PSA was not prognostic. Conclusion These data furnish early evidence that on-treatment changes in BSI are a response indicator and support further exploration of bone scintigraphy as an imaging biomarker in CRMPC. PMID:22231045

  1. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  2. Camurati-Engelmann disease in a family from Croatian Island: an old bone scan confirmed pattern of inheritance.

    PubMed

    Baretić, Maja; Korsić, Mirko; Potocki, Kristina; Horvatić, Gordana Herceg; Orlić, Zeljka Crncević

    2014-06-01

    34-year old patient had history of muscular wasting, easy fatigability, pain in extremities and waddling gait since age of four. During the time, neuromuscular disease was suspected, but not confirmed. Elevated bone alkaline phosphatase as well as other bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, procollagen, telopeptide) indicated further skeletal evaluation. Symmetrical enhanced uptake on technetium methylene diphosphonate [99mTc]MPD bone scintigraphy at diaphyses of longitudinal bones and scull matched cortical thickening of long bones and sclerosis of the scull seen at radiograms. Those findings pointed to Camurati-Engelmann disease misdiagnosed for the long time. This rare genetic autosomal dominant disorder was retrospectively diagnosed in asymptomatic father too on the basis of bone scans done long time ago. Old family member scans confirmed heredity pattern of the disease.

  3. Microwave bone imaging: a preliminary scanning system for proof-of-concept

    PubMed Central

    Cuccaro, Antonio; Solimene, Raffaele; Brancaccio, Adriana; Basile, Bruno; Ammann, Max J.

    2016-01-01

    This Letter introduces a feasibility study of a scanning system for applications in biomedical bone imaging operating in the microwave range 0.5–4 GHz. Mechanical uncertainties and data acquisition time are minimised by using a fully automated scanner that controls two antipodal Vivaldi antennas. Accurate antenna positioning and synchronisation with data acquisition enables a rigorous proof-of-concept for the microwave imaging procedure of a multi-layer phantom including skin, fat, muscle and bone tissues. The presence of a suitable coupling medium enables antenna miniaturisation and mitigates the impedance mismatch between antennas and phantom. The three-dimensional image of tibia and fibula is successfully reconstructed by scanning the multi-layer phantom due to the distinctive dielectric contrast between target and surrounding tissues. These results show the viability of a microwave bone imaging technology which is low cost, portable, non-ionising, and does not require specially trained personnel. In fact, as no a-priori characterisation of the antenna is required, the image formation procedure is very conveniently simplified. PMID:27733930

  4. Multimodal imaging of the human temporal bone: A comparison of CT and optical scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voie, Arne H.; Whiting, Bruce; Skinner, Margaret; Neely, J. Gail; Lee, Kenneth; Holden, Tim; Brunsden, Barry

    2003-10-01

    A collaborative effort between Washington University in St. Louis and Spencer Technologies in Seattle, WA has been undertaken to create a multimodal 3D reconstruction of the human cochlea and vestibular system. The goal of this project is to improve the accuracy of in vivo CT reconstructions of implanted cochleae, and to expand the knowledge of high-resolution anatomical detail provided by orthogonal-plane optical sectioning (OPFOS). At WUSL, computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea are used to determine the position of cochlear implant electrodes relative to target auditory neurons. The cochlear implant position is determined using pre- and post-operative CT scans. The CT volumes are cross-registered to align the semicircular canals and internal auditory canal, which have a unique configuration in 3-D space. The head of a human body donor was scanned with a clinical CT device, after which the temporal bones were removed, fixed in formalin and trimmed prior to scanning with a laboratory Micro CT scanner. Following CT, the temporal bones were sent to the OPFOS Imaging Lab at Spencer Technologies for a further analysis. 3-D reconstructions of CT and OPFOS imaging modalities were compared, and results are presented. [Work supported by NIDCD Grants R44-03623-5 and R01-00581-13.

  5. Incidental detection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Idakoji, Ibrahim A; Pampaloni, Miguel H

    2012-02-01

    This case demonstrates extraosseous 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) accumulation from a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 75-year-old woman underwent a temporal bone CT for conductive hearing loss that showed sclerosis in the right occipital condyle. Follow-up Tc-99m MDP bone scan for osseous metastases instead showed a mass-like extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in the anterior left upper quadrant. Differential diagnoses included gastric cancer, lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, systemic hypercalcemia, or heterotopic mesenteric ossification. Contrast CT showed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the stomach, and subsequent pathology confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor. These tumors rarely can contain osteoclast-like giant cells and should be considered for extraosseous Tc-99m MDP accumulation.

  6. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  7. Diffuse liver uptake on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan secondary to severe hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Marentis, Theodore; Brown, Richard K J

    2014-07-01

    Hepatic uptake on an MDP bone scan is a non-specific finding. When present, the etiology needs to be determined. The differential diagnosis depends on the pattern of uptake. Metastatic breast and colon cancer are frequent causes of focal faint uptake. Diffuse uptake is rare, but can be seen with hepatitis, amyloid, and IV gadolinium administration. In addition, aluminum breakthrough from the molybdenum generator can cause colloid formation and subsequent diffuse hepatic uptake. We present a case of diffuse uptake in a patient with acute hepatic failure. The etiology of the failure was extensive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC).

  8. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  9. Noninvasive Ultrasound Imaging for Bone Quality Assessment Using Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnosis, μCT, DXA Measurements, and Mechanical Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Rubin, Clint; Gruber, Barry

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by decreased bone mass and progressive deterioration of the microstructure, affecting both mineral density and bone's fragility. Current diagnoses are only measuring apparent bone mineral density (AppBMD). Using our newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, we evaluated the ability of quantitative ultrasound in noninvasively predicting bone's quantity and quality on 19 human cadaver calcanei. Results show that ultrasound attenuation image on intact calcaneus represents bone mass distribution. High correlation (R=0.82) exists between SCAD determined broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and DXA determined AppBMD at the calcaneus, as well as in the AppBMD result at femoral neck (R=0.81). SCAD determined BUA and ultrasound velocity (UV) are highly correlated with the micro-CT and mechanical testing determined bone quantity and quality parameters. These results suggest that image-based quantitative ultrasound is able to identify ROI and predict both bone mass and strength.

  10. Numerical investigation of ultrasonic attenuation through 2D trabecular bone structures reconstructed from CT scans and random realizations.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert P; Guyenne, Philippe; Li, Jing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare ultrasound interrogations of actual CT-scanned images of trabecular bone with artificial randomly constructed bone. Even though it is known that actual bone does not have randomly distributed trabeculae, we find that the ultrasound attenuations are close enough to cast doubt on any microstructural information, such as trabeculae width and distance between trabeculae, being gleaned from such experiments. More precisely, we perform numerical simulations of ultrasound interrogation on cancellous bone to investigate the phenomenon of ultrasound attenuation as a function of excitation frequency and bone porosity. The theoretical model is based on acoustic propagation equations for a composite fluid-solid material and is solved by a staggered-grid finite-difference scheme in the time domain. Numerical experiments are performed on two-dimensional bone samples reconstructed from CT-scanned images of real human calcaneus and from random distributions of fluid-solid particles generated via the turning bands method. A detailed comparison is performed on various parameters such as the attenuation rate and speed of sound through the bone samples as well as the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation coefficient. Comparing results from these two types of bone samples allows us to assess the role of bone microstructure in ultrasound attenuation. It is found that the random model provides suitable bone samples for ultrasound interrogation in the transverse direction of the trabecular network.

  11. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and {sup 111}In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  12. Novel, near-infrared spectroscopic, label-free, techniques to assess bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis and bone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-02-01

    Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.

  13. Relationship between architectural parameters and sample volume of human cancellous bone in micro-CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ya-Bo; Qi, Wei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Lin-Feng; Teo, Ee-Chon; Tianxia, Qiu; Ba, Jing-jing; Lei, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Truly representative architectural parameters of trabeculea can be extremely difficult to achieve based on scanning images because of variable porosity and distribution of trabeculae within the specific overall scanned volume of bone. Accordingly, in present study different selective volume of interests, measured from centroid of μ-CT scanned human vertebral body, were analyzed to determine the architectural parameters (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp) of trabeculae within these volumes and to suggest an optimal volume for representative architectural parameters of the overall scanned volume. Nonlinear curve fitting method was also applied to obtain the correlation between the parameters and the volume of interests. The results show different volumes of interests give different morphological indices of BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N and Tb.Sp within a specific scanned vertebral body. Tb.Th shows relatively small variation (0.8%) even with sample volume of less than (2mm)(3). Statistical analysis shows that with sample volume of less than (6mm)(3), significant different in the measured BV/TV comparing against the control group. Tb.N and Tb.Sp show significant different values against the control group for volume of interest less than (4mm)(3) and (5mm)(3), respectively. However, no significant differences were observed in the indices of BS/BV and Tb.Th. Present study shows that an optimal volume of interests of greater than (6mm)(3) be selected to predict the architectural parameters of trabeculae of human vertebral bodies.

  14. An Abnormal Bone Lesion of the Scapula in a Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Matthew S.; Donnell, Allison; Miller, Jason; Iven, Val Gene; Pascale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a bone lesion of the scapula in a collegiate basketball player. Background: A 19-year-old National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male basketball player presented with pain in the posterior region of the right shoulder. During practice, he was performing a layup when his arm was forced into hyperflexion by a defender. Evaluation revealed a bone lesion involving the scapular spine and base of the acromion. Differential Diagnosis: Acromioclavicular joint sprain, subacromial bursitis, subscapular bursitis, humeral head contusion, acromial fracture. Treatment: The patient was treated for 2 months with therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation exercises. Because of persistent pain and the risk of a pathologic fracture, open surgical biopsy and bone grafting were then undertaken. Uniqueness: Most simple bone cysts affect the proximal humerus and femur, whereas our patient's lesion was in the acromial complex. Conclusions: Athletic trainers should be alert to the unusual possibility of bone cysts, which are usually identified incidentally when radiographs are obtained for other reasons. Most simple bone cysts are asymptomatic, but a pathologic fracture can occur with trauma. PMID:23725460

  15. Stochastic predictors from the DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae are correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Tvinnereim, Amy; Lowe, Timothy; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to provide a novel stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) from the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans of human lumbar vertebrae and identify the stochastic predictors that were correlated with the microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone. Eighteen human lumbar vertebrae with intact posterior elements from 5 cadaveric spines were scanned in the posterior-anterior projection using a Hologic densitometer. The BMD map of human vertebrae was obtained from the raw data of DXA scans by directly operating on the transmission measurements of low- and high-energy X-ray beams. Stochastic predictors were calculated by fitting theoretical models onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map, rather than grayscale images, from DXA scans. In addition, microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone were measured from the 3D images of human vertebrae acquired using a Micro-CT scanner. Significant correlations were observed between stochastic predictors and microarchitecture parameters. The sill variance, representing the standard deviation of the BMD map to some extent, had significantly positive correlations with bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and connectivity density. The sill variance was also negatively associated with bone surface to volume ratio and trabecular separation. This study demonstrates that the stochastic assessment of the inhomogeneous distribution of BMD from DXA scans of human lumbar vertebrae can reveal microarchitecture information of trabecular bone. However, future studies are needed to examine the potential of stochastic predictors from routine clinical DXA scans in providing bone fragility information complementary to BMD.

  16. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  17. Three-dimensional model of the skull and the cranial bones reconstructed from CT scans designed for rapid prototyping process.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of building mesh models of the human skull and the cranial bones from a series of CT-scans. With the aid of computer so ware, 3D reconstructions of the whole skull and segmented cranial bones were performed and visualized by surface rendering techniques. The article briefly discusses clinical and educational applications of 3D cranial models created using stereolitographic reproduction.

  18. Metastatic mimics on bone scan: “All that glitters is not metastatic”

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    In this pictorial review, cases where benign diseases caused a diagnostic dilemma on bone scan are illustrated. This review highlights the value of correlative imaging- single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging in solving the diagnostic problem by exact localization and characterization of the lesions. All these eventually lead to increased diagnostic confidence, better and more accurate reporting and avoidance of delay in initiation of treatment due to equivocal results. The imaging features of these benign pathologies – which are “mimics of metastatic disease,” are elaborated so that the reader can incorporate them while reporting so as to avoid mis-interpretations. PMID:27385887

  19. Silver methenamine staining for scanning electron microscopy of bone sections containing biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, P; Hanker, J S; Rouquet, N; Primout, I; Giammara, B

    1999-01-01

    Sections of tissue containing orthopedic materials are currently used to study the compatibility of those materials and to perform electron probe microanalysis at the material-tissue interface. Identification of the cells in contact with the material by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is of interest. We have developed a method for staining cells and tissue structures embedded in polymethyl methacrylate with silver methenamine once the sections have been obtained. Sections were prepared by grinding, and the silver methenamine was applied after oxidation with periodic acid. The procedure was carried out in a microwave oven. Backscatter SEM showed staining of the cell nucleus membrane, chromatin, the nuclear organizers, and the chromosomes of dividing cells. The cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane were also stained. Collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix and the mineralized matrix of bone were labeled. Material particles in the macrophages were easily recognizable and Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer were not impaired by the presence of silver in the preparation.

  20. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    SciTech Connect

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

    2012-07-31

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  1. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  2. Spinal uptake mimicking metastasis in SPECT/CT bone scan in a patient with superior vena cava obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rager, Olivier; Nkoulou, René; Garibotto, Valentina; Boudabbous, Sana; Arditi, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A 46-year-old female patient with a mediastinal neuroendocrine carcinoma complicated by superior vena cava syndrome was referred for a bone metastatic workup. Bone scan with SPECT/CT showed several vertebral fixations without alterations on the unenhanced CT, but a CT scan with injection of contrast media showed vertebral densities matched to the lesions described on the SPECT/CT. This pattern confirmed presence of collateral paths through vertebral veins due to superior vena cava syndrome. Lack of metastases was confirmed by MRI.

  3. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  4. Prevalence of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities and Factors Affecting Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sathish Kumar; Gopal, Gopinath Kango; Rangasami, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease of wasting with airflow limitation, associated with a variety of systemic manifestations such as reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD). There is a paucity of Indian studies on the effects of COPD on BMD. Aim This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in COPD patients and the correlation between bone density and severity of COPD classified according to GOLD Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD). Materials and Methods A prospective study of 60 patients diagnosed to have COPD, was conducted in the outpatient department of Respiratory Medicine, at a tertiary care hospital in Southern India, between September 2012 and September 2013. BMD was measured using ultrasound bone densitometer (ACHILLES GE HEALTH CARE). Patients with a T-score between -1 and -2.5 were considered to be osteopenic while patients with a T score less than -2.5 were considered to be osteoporotic (WHO criteria). Results Overall, 40 (67%) patients had an abnormal bone mineral density. A total of 21 (35%) patients were osteoporotic while 19 (33%) were osteopenic. BMD levels correlated with severity of obstruction (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.02), age (p=0.05) and number of pack years (p=0.001). Conclusion Patients with COPD are at an increased risk for lower BMD and osteoporotic fractures and the risk appears to increase with disease severity. Further studies are required to assess whether routine BMD measurements in COPD patients is beneficial to diagnose osteoporosis and reduce morbidity. PMID:27790490

  5. [Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Heumüller, I

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure.

  6. Effect of View, Scan Orientation and Analysis Volume on Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) Based Textural Analysis of Bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Oravec, Daniel; Divine, George W; Flynn, Michael J; Yeni, Yener N

    2017-01-12

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) derived textural parameters of human vertebral cancellous bone have been previously correlated to the finite element (FE) stiffness and 3D microstructure. The objective of this study was to optimize scanning configuration and use of multiple image slices in the analysis, so that FE stiffness prediction using DTS could be maximized. Forty vertebrae (T6, T8, T11, and L3) from ten cadavers (63-90 years) were scanned using microCT to obtain trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and FE stiffness. The vertebrae were then scanned using DTS anteroposteriorly (AP) and laterally (LM) while aligned axially (0°), transversely (90°) or obliquely (23°) to the superior-inferior axis of the vertebrae. From the serial DTS images, fractal dimension (FD), mean intercept length (MIL) and line fraction deviation (LFD) parameters were obtained from a 2D-single mid-stack location and 3D-multi-image stack. The DTS derived textural parameters were then correlated with FE stiffness using linear regression models within each scanning orientation. 3D-multi-image stack models obtained from Transverse-LM scanning orientation (90°) were most explanatory regardless of accounting for the effects of BV/TV. Therefore, DTS scanning perpendicular to the axis of the spine in an LM view is the preferred configuration for prediction of vertebral cancellous bone stiffness.

  7. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies.

  8. Differences in acoustic impedance of fresh and embedded human trabecular bone samples-Scanning acoustic microscopy and numerical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Xiaowei; Töyräs, Juha; Inkinen, Satu I; Malo, Markus K H; Isaksson, Hanna; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2016-09-01

    Trabecular bone samples are traditionally embedded and polished for scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The effect of sample processing, including dehydration, on the acoustic impedance of bone is unknown. In this study, acoustic impedance of human trabecular bone samples (n = 8) was experimentally assessed before (fresh) and after embedding using SAM and two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time domain simulations. Fresh samples were polished with sandpapers of different grit (P1000, P2500, and P4000). Experimental results indicated that acoustic impedance of samples increased significantly after embedding [mean values 3.7 MRayl (fresh), 6.1 MRayl (embedded), p < 0.001]. After polishing with different papers, no significant changes in acoustic impedance were found, even though higher mean values were detected after polishing with finer (P2500 and P4000) papers. A linear correlation (r = 0.854, p < 0.05) was found between the acoustic impedance values of embedded and fresh bone samples polished using P2500 SiC paper. In numerical simulations dehydration increased the acoustic impedance of trabecular bone (38%), whereas changes in surface roughness of bone had a minor effect on the acoustic impedance (-1.56%/0.1 μm). Thereby, the numerical simulations corroborated the experimental findings. In conclusion, acoustic impedance measurement of fresh trabecular bone is possible and may provide realistic material values similar to those of living bone.

  9. CT scan evaluation of glenoid bone and pectoralis major tendon: interest in shoulder prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Peyron, Christelle; Boyer, Etienne; Menu, Gauthier; Loisel, François; Aubry, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The shoulder arthroplasty brings satisfaction to patients in terms of quality of life and indolence. However whether anatomic implant or reverse, it does not escape from the loosening of the glenoid component. Moreover, optimal implantation is required to ensure the functional outcome without shortening of the arm. The purpose of this study is obtain CT scan evaluation of the glenoid bone stock in order to optimize glenoid component implantation and obtain a reference to determine optimal humeral component placement in case of humeral proximal fracture. Materials and methods: Between 2010 and 2011 we have analyzed 200 intact shoulder’s CT. We measured maximal and minimal width in the transverse plane of the glenoid, the distance from the pectoralis major (PM) tendon to the humeral head, the greater tubercle, change of curvature and the anatomical neck. Results: Mean maximum width was 27.4 ± 3.4 mm and mean minimum width was 15.5 ± 2.8 mm. Distances between upper edge of PM tendon to: humeral head, greater tubercle, change of curvature and anatomical neck were respectively: 67.6 ± 9.98 mm, 57.8 ± 10.3 mm, 28.7 ± 9 mm, and 34.2 ± 9.7 mm. Conclusion: Our study has produced an assessment of glenoid bone stock for optimal positioning of the glenoid implant but also to obtain a reference to determine the ideal location of the humeral component in the case of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:27716461

  10. FGFR2 abnormalities underlie a spectrum of bone, skin, and cancer pathologies.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 is regulated on the basis of the balance of FGFs, heparan-sulfate proteoglycans, FGFR2 isoforms, endogenous inhibitors, and microRNAs. FGFR2 signals cross-talk with hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, and other regulatory networks. Some cases of congenital skeletal disorders with an FGFR2 mutation show skin phenotypes, including acne, cutis gyrata, and acanthosis nigricans. Gain-of-function mutations or variations of human FGFR2 occur in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and endometrial uterine cancer. Oral administration of AZD2171 or Ki23057 inhibits in vivo proliferation of cancer cells with aberrant FGFR2 activation in rodent therapeutic models. However, loss-of-function mutations of FGFR2 are reported in human melanoma. Conditional Fgfr2b knockout in the rodent epidermis leads to increased macrophage infiltration to the dermis and adipose tissue, epidermal thickening accompanied by basal-layer dysplasia and parakeratosis, and the promotion of chemically induced squamous-cell carcinoma. Dysregulation of FGFR2 results in a spectrum of bone and skin pathologies and several types of cancer.

  11. Iron-induced epigenetic abnormalities of mouse bone marrow through aberrant activation of aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayo; Tanaka, Hiroki; Toki, Yasumichi; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Addo, Lynda; Shindo, Motohiro; Sasaki, Katsunori; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) thus plays an integral role in the management of these patients. Moreover, ICT has been shown to prolong leukemia-free survival in MDS patients; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are unclear. Iron is a key molecule for regulating cytosolic aconitase 1 (ACO1). Additionally, the mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), the enzyme downstream of ACO1 in the TCA cycle, is associated with epigenetic abnormalities secondary to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and DNA methylation. However, epigenetic abnormalities observed in many MDS patients occur without IDH mutation. We hypothesized that iron itself activates the ACO1-IDH pathway, which may increase 2-HG and DNA methylation, and eventually contribute to leukemogenesis without IDH mutation. Using whole RNA sequencing of bone marrow cells in iron-overloaded mice, we observed that the enzymes, phosphoglucomutase 1, glycogen debranching enzyme, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (Idh1), which are involved in glycogen and glucose metabolism, were increased. Digital PCR further showed that Idh1 and Aco1, enzymes involved in the TCA cycle, were also elevated. Additionally, enzymatic activities of TCA cycle and methylated DNA were increased. Iron chelation reversed these phenomena. In conclusion, iron activation of glucose metabolism causes an increase of 2-HG and DNA methylation.

  12. Mapping dynamical mechanical properties of osteonal bone by scanning acoustic microscopy in time-of-flight mode.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Stéphane; Puchegger, Stephan; Roschger, Andreas; Berzlanovich, Andrea; Fratzl, Peter; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2014-06-01

    An important determinant of mechanical properties of bone is Young's modulus and its variation in individual osteons of cortical bone tissue. Its mechanical behavior also depends on deformation rate owing to its visco- or poroelastic properties. We developed a method to measure dynamical mechanical properties of bulk bone tissue at osteonal level based on scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) using time-of-flight (TOF) measurements in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI). SAM-TOF yields local sound velocities and qBEI corresponding material densities together providing elastic properties. Osteons (n=55) were measured in three human femoral diaphyseal ground bone sections (∼ 30 µm in thickness). In addition, subchondral bone and mineralized articular cartilage were investigated. The mean mineral contents, the mean sound velocities, and the mean elastic modulus of the osteons ranged from 20 to 26 wt%, from 3,819 to 5,260 m/s, and from 21 to 44 GPa, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between material density and sound velocity (Pearson's r=0.701; p<0.0001) of the osteons. Sound velocities between cartilage and bone was similar, though material density was higher in cartilage (+4.46%, p<0.0001). These results demonstrate the power of SAM-TOF to estimate dynamic mechanical properties of the bone materials at the osteonal level.

  13. Comparison of DXA Scans and Conventional X-rays for Spine Morphometry and Bone Age Determination in Children.

    PubMed

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Knoop, Kai; Semler, Oliver; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hellmich, Martin; Schoenau, Eckhard; Koerber, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Conventional lateral spine and hand radiographs are the standard tools to evaluate vertebral morphometry and bone age in children. Beside bone mineral density analyses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements with lower radiation exposure provide high-resolution scans which are not approved for diagnostic purposes. Data about the comparability of conventional radiographs and DXA in children are missing yet. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate whether conventional hand and spine radiographs can be replaced by DXA scans to diminish radiation exposure. Thirty-eight children with osteogenesis imperfecta or secondary osteoporosis or short stature (male, n=20; age, 5.0-17.0 yr) were included and assessed once by additional DXA (GE iDXA) of the spine or the left hand. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to express agreement between X-ray and iDXA assessment. Evaluation of the spine morphometry showed reasonable agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC for fish-shape, 0.75; for wedge-shape, 0.65; and for compression fractures, 0.70). Bone age determination showed excellent agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC, 0.97). IDXA-scans of the spine in a pediatric population should be used not only to assess bone mineral density but also to evaluate anatomic structures and vertebral morphometry. Therefore, iDXA can replace some radiographs in children with skeletal diseases.

  14. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  15. Mandibular coronoid process in parathyroid hormone-related protein-deficient mice shows ectopic cartilage formation accompanied by abnormal bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shunichi; Suda, Naoto; Fukada, Kenji; Ohyama, Kimie; Yamashita, Yasuo; Hammond, Vicki E

    2003-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) null mutant mice were analyzed to investigate an additional role for PTHrP in cell differentiation. We found ectopic cartilage formation in the mandibular coronoid process in newborn mice. While many previous studies involving PTHrP gene knockout mouse have shown that the cartilage in various regions becomes smaller, this is the first report showing an "increase" of cartilage volume. Investigations of mandibular growth using normal mice indicated that coronoid secondary cartilage never formed from E 15 to d 4, but small amount of cartilage temporally formed at d 7, and this also applies to PTHrP-wild type mice. Therefore, PTHrP deficiency consequently advanced the secondary cartilage formation, which is a novel role of PTHrP in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix proteins showed that this coronoid cartilage had characteristics of the lower hypertrophic cell zone usually present at the site of endochondral bone formation and/or "chondroid bone" occasionally found in distraction osteogenesis. In addition, the coronoid process in the PTHrP-deficient mouse also showed abnormal expansion of bone marrow and an increase in the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, an indication of abnormal bone modeling. These results indicate that PTHrP is involved in bone modeling as well as in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix protein mRNAs in the abnormal mandibular condylar cartilage revealed that this cartilage was proportionally smaller, supporting previous immunohistochemical results.

  16. Extraosseous myocardial uptake incidentally detected during bone scan: report of three cases and a systematic literature review of extraosseous uptake.

    PubMed

    Caobelli, Federico; Paghera, Barbara; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is widely considered as an important technique able to investigate various pathological conditions of the skeletal system. Many unexpected extraosseous uptakes have been reported in literature. We present here three cases of unexpected 99mTc-oxidronate (HDP) myocardial extraosseous uptakes in patients undergoing bone scan for staging purposes. In particular, we present the first reported case ofa myocardial uptake in a patient with IgM-related amyloidosis. Subsequently, we perform a review of the existing literature about extraosseous uptakes.

  17. The nanometre-scale physiology of bone: steric modelling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of collagen–mineral structure

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Benjamin; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Genin, Guy M.; Lipner, Justin; Pasteris, Jill D.; Wopenka, Brigitte; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    The nanometre-scale structure of collagen and bioapatite within bone establishes bone's physical properties, including strength and toughness. However, the nanostructural organization within bone is not well known and is debated. Widely accepted models hypothesize that apatite mineral (‘bioapatite’) is present predominantly inside collagen fibrils: in ‘gap channels’ between abutting collagen molecules, and in ‘intermolecular spaces’ between adjacent collagen molecules. However, recent studies report evidence of substantial extrafibrillar bioapatite, challenging this hypothesis. We studied the nanostructure of bioapatite and collagen in mouse bones by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Additionally, we developed a steric model to estimate the packing density of bioapatite within gap channels. Our steric model and STEM results constrain the fraction of total bioapatite in bone that is distributed within fibrils at less than or equal to 0.42 inside gap channels and less than or equal to 0.28 inside intermolecular overlap regions. Therefore, a significant fraction of bone's bioapatite (greater than or equal to 0.3) must be external to the fibrils. Furthermore, we observe extrafibrillar bioapatite between non-mineralized collagen fibrils, suggesting that initial bioapatite nucleation and growth are not confined to the gap channels as hypothesized in some models. These results have important implications for the mechanics of partially mineralized and developing tissues. PMID:22345156

  18. The nanometre-scale physiology of bone: steric modelling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of collagen-mineral structure.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Benjamin; Daulton, Tyrone L; Genin, Guy M; Lipner, Justin; Pasteris, Jill D; Wopenka, Brigitte; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-08-07

    The nanometre-scale structure of collagen and bioapatite within bone establishes bone's physical properties, including strength and toughness. However, the nanostructural organization within bone is not well known and is debated. Widely accepted models hypothesize that apatite mineral ('bioapatite') is present predominantly inside collagen fibrils: in 'gap channels' between abutting collagen molecules, and in 'intermolecular spaces' between adjacent collagen molecules. However, recent studies report evidence of substantial extrafibrillar bioapatite, challenging this hypothesis. We studied the nanostructure of bioapatite and collagen in mouse bones by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Additionally, we developed a steric model to estimate the packing density of bioapatite within gap channels. Our steric model and STEM results constrain the fraction of total bioapatite in bone that is distributed within fibrils at less than or equal to 0.42 inside gap channels and less than or equal to 0.28 inside intermolecular overlap regions. Therefore, a significant fraction of bone's bioapatite (greater than or equal to 0.3) must be external to the fibrils. Furthermore, we observe extrafibrillar bioapatite between non-mineralized collagen fibrils, suggesting that initial bioapatite nucleation and growth are not confined to the gap channels as hypothesized in some models. These results have important implications for the mechanics of partially mineralized and developing tissues.

  19. [Total body MRI in early detection of bone metastasis and its indication in comparison to bone scan and other imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Luna, Antonio; Vilanova, Joan C; Alcalá Mata, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases are a recognized prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer. Currently, Tc99 bone scan is the most frequently used imaging technique for their detection, showing a high sensitivity but a limited specificity. Thus, new morphological and mainly functional imaging techniques based on PET and MRI, or hybrid techniques such as PET-CT or PET-MRI have been introduced to improve metastases detection, estimation of total tumor load and for therapeutic monitoring. In this clinical scenario, total body MRI has arisen as a very promising technique in detection and therapeutic monitoring of bone metastases of prostate cancer, because it neither uses ionizing radiation nor needs the administration of contrast media. The incorporation of MR diffusion to the morphologic total body MRI protocols provides functional information, improving the sensitivity in oncological lesions detection in general and osteolytic bone metastases of PCa in particular. Its integration in protocols with morphological sequences and its quantification through ADC maps enables us to better understand metastatic bone disease patterns and their changes with different therapies. Total body D MRI enables the early classification of the response to treatment with evident advantages over other imaging techniques and the purely morphological approach with MRI. In any case, prospective and cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to establish the role of total-body D MRI in the management of patients with PCa.

  20. Disruption of Axonal Transport Perturbs Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) - Signaling and Contributes to Synaptic Abnormalities in Two Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478

  1. Hyaluronic acid reverses the abnormal synthetic activity of human osteoarthritic subchondral bone osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lajeunesse, Daniel; Delalandre, Aline; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean Pierre

    2003-10-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for both cartilage loss and subchondral bone changes in osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. It is becoming recognized that the extracellular matrix influences the metabolism of cells both in vivo and in vitro and can modify their responses to external stimuli. Indeed, the glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan matrix is of major importance for the proliferation and/or differentiation of a number of cells. Here, we determined the potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA) of increasing molecular weight (MW) to alter the expression of metabolic markers and cytokine production by human osteoarthritic (OA) subchondral osteoblasts (Ob). Both 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase) and osteocalcin release were increased in OA Ob when compared to normal. HA reduced osteocalcin release in OA Ob at MW of 300 and above, whereas HA failed to significantly modify ALPase. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation by OA Ob. HA had a biphasic effect on this PTH-dependent activity, totally inhibiting cAMP formation at MW of 300 and 800. HA of increasing MW progressively reduced the levels of Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by OA Ob. Interestingly, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and and PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were not significantly affected by HA of increasing MW; however, the PAI-1 to uPA ratio showed a slight, yet nonsignificant increase. Surprisingly, uPA activity was increased in OA Ob under the same conditions. Last, HA had no effect on the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 by these cells. Our data suggest that high MW HA can modify cellular parameters in OA Ob that are increased when compared to normal. The effect of HA on inflammatory mediators, such as PGE(2) and IL-6, and on uPA activity is more striking at higher MW as well. Taken together, these results could suggest that HA of increasing MW has positive effects on OA Ob by modifying their

  2. Bone scan usefulness in patients with painful hip or knee prosthesis: 10 situations that can cause pain, other than loosening and infection.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sofia; Ferreira, Teresa C; Salgado, Lucília; Paycha, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, with the higher median life expectancy, the number of hip and knee replacements has increased. Clinical examination and morphological studies are essential to evaluate patients with a painful arthroplasty. Nuclear medicine examinations also play an important role, their main usefulness being the exclusion of prosthesis complications. Nevertheless, conventional examinations, namely bone scan and white blood cell scintigraphy, can also identify complications, such as loosening and infection. This study describes the normal and pathologic patterns of a bone scan and exemplifies ten common situations that can cause pain in patients with hip or knee arthroplasty, other than loosening and infection, which can be disclosed on a bone scintigraphy. The ten situations that should be considered and looked for when analysing a bone scan are: referred pain, patellofemoral pain syndrome, fractures, fissures, abscess/haematoma, bone insert behaviour, heterotopic ossification, greater trochanter pseudarthrosis, osteoarthritis extension in a knee with an unicompartmental prosthesis, and systemic disease with bone involvement.

  3. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  4. A mutagenesis-derived Lrp5 mouse mutant with abnormal retinal vasculature and low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Jeremy R.; Earp, Sarah E.; Bell, Brent A.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Godfrey, Dana A.; Rao, Sujata; Anand-Apte, Bela; Nishina, Patsy M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is caused by mutations in the genes encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP5) or its interacting partners, namely frizzled class receptor 4 (FZD4) and norrin cystine knot growth factor (NDP). Mouse models for Lrp5, Fzd4, and Ndp have proven to be important for understanding the retinal pathophysiology underlying FEVR and systemic abnormalities related to defective Wnt signaling. Here, we report a new mouse mutant, tvrm111B, which was identified by electroretinogram (ERG) screening of mice generated in the Jackson Laboratory Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) mutagenesis program. Methods ERGs were used to examine outer retinal physiology. The retinal vasculature was examined by in vivo retinal imaging, as well as by histology and immunohistochemistry. The tvrm111B locus was identified by genetic mapping of mice generated in a cross to DBA/2J, and subsequent sequencing analysis. Gene expression was examined by real-time PCR of retinal RNA. Bone mineral density (BMD) was examined by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The tvrm111B allele is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Genetic mapping of the decreased ERG b-wave phenotype of tvrm111B mice localized the mutation to a region on chromosome 19 that included Lrp5. Sequencing of Lrp5 identified the insertion of a cytosine (c.4724_4725insC), which is predicted to cause a frameshift that disrupts the last three of five conserved PPPSPxS motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of LRP5, culminating in a premature termination. In addition to a reduced ERG b-wave, Lrp5tvrm111B homozygotes have low BMD and abnormal features of the retinal vasculature that have been reported previously in Lrp5 mutant mice, including persistent hyaloid vessels, leakage on fluorescein angiography, and an absence of the deep retinal capillary bed. Conclusions The phenotype of the Lrp5tvrm111B mutant includes abnormalities of the retinal

  5. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (P<0.001). Event-free survival was significantly shorter in Group B (hazard ratio: 8.31, 95% CI: 1.33-12.14, log-rank test; P<0.05). The groups were also divided by the results of 2 radiologists' visual scan interpretations, and no significant differences were shown in the number of SRE (P=0.82, P=0.10). When correlation analyses were performed between aBSI and bone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, P<0.05). In conclusion, aBSI is proposed as a useful and objective imaging biomarker in the detection of breast-cancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  6. Protocol of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound, and triple phase bone scans in the evaluation of the painful pediatric hip

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.E.; Seibert, J.J.; Aronson, J.; Williamson, S.L.; Glasier, C.M.; Rodgers, A.B.; Corbitt, S.L.

    1988-04-01

    A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography. If an effusion was present, the joint was aspirated for diagnosis. If no effusion was present by US or if no diagnosis was reached by aspiration, triple phase radionuclide bone scans were performed. Fifty patients were evaluated by this prospective protocol, and the diagnosis was reached in 48 of the 50 cases (10 by plain radiographs, 16 by US, and aspiration of the joint, and 22 by triple phase bone scans). Hip effusions were found in 20 patients by US, with no false positives or false negatives. Previous studies for detecting effusions by US have emphasized absolute measurements of the capsular width, but we report a typical appearance of the hip capsule when fluid is present (a bulging convex capsule). When no effusion is present, the capsule is concave and parallels the long axis of the femoral neck.

  7. The Role of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT Bone Scans in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Bone Disease from Breast and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Randeep Kumar; Vinjamuri, Sobhan; England, Andrew; Nightingale, Julie; Hogg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    We describe the role of (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT bone scanning in the staging of breast and prostate cancer. (18)F-NaF PET was initially utilized as a bone scanning agent in the 1960s and early 1970s, however, its use was restricted by the then-available γ-cameras. The advent of hybrid PET/CT cameras in the late 1990s has shown a resurgence of interest in its use and role. After a brief introduction, this paper describes the radiopharmaceutical properties, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of uptake of (18)F-NaF. The performance of (18)F-NaF PET/CT is then compared with that of conventional bone scintigraphy using current evidence from the literature. Strengths and weaknesses of (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging are highlighted. Clinical examples of improved accuracy of diagnosis and impact on patient management are illustrated. Limitations of (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging are outlined.

  8. [The diagnostic value of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and computed tomography for bone metastases of breast cancer: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxia; Kuang, Anren

    2014-06-01

    According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we searched for relevant original articles in some big Chinese and English databases. The qualities of the studies were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool. A software program, Meta-disc, was used to obtain the pooled estimates and heterogeneity test for sensitivity, specificity, SROC curve, and so on. Finally the 17 article were included. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), Q*, SROC area under curve for 99mTc-MDP bone scan and computed tomography (CT) were 0. 87 and 0.99, 0.81 and 0.98, 3.88 and 13.86, 0.2 and 0.03, 27.73 and 612.17, 0.8418 and 0.9732, 0.9097 and 0.9952, respectively. On a per-focus basis, the pooled SEN, SPE, LR+, LR-, DOR, Q*, SROC area under curve for 99mTc-MDP bone scan was 0.86, 0.97, 13.32, 0.16, 102.4, 0.8944, 0.9528, respectively. For CT, only 1 article were included. This paper demonstrate: whether 99mTc-MDP or CT both have high diagnostic efficiency for bone metastase of breast cancer.

  9. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  10. Normalized volume of interest selection and measurement of bone volume in microCT scans.

    PubMed

    Snoeks, T J A; Kaijzel, E L; Que, I; Mol, I M; Löwik, C W G M; Dijkstra, J

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of osteolytic lesions in bone is pivotal in the research of metastatic bone disease in small animal models. Osteolytic lesions are quantified using 2D X-ray photographs, which often neglects to take into account any changes in 3D structure. Furthermore, measurement errors are inadvertently introduced when a region of interest with predefined dimensions is used during MicroCT analysis. To study osteolytic processes, a normalized method of selecting a region of interest is required. Here we describe a new method to select volumes of interest in a normalized way regardless of curvature, fractures or dislocations within the bone. In addition, this method enables the user to visualize normalized cross sections in an exact 90° angle or along the longitudinal axis of bone, at any given point. As a result, the user can compare measurements of diameter, volume and structure between different bones in a normalized manner.

  11. Comparison of macroscopic and microscopic (stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) features of bone lesions due to hatchet hacking trauma.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Luísa; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Bertrand, Marie-France; Rallon, Christophe; Ceinos, Romain; du Jardin, Philippe; Adalian, Pascal; Alunni, Véronique

    2017-03-01

    This experimental study examined the lesions produced by a hatchet on human bones (tibiae). A total of 30 lesions were produced and examined macroscopically (naked eye) and by stereomicroscopy. 13 of them were also analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The general shape of the lesion, both edges, both walls, the kerf floor and the extremities were described. The length and maximum width of the lesions were also recorded. The microscopic analysis of the lesions led to the description of a sharp-blunt mechanism. Specific criteria were identified (lateral pushing back, fragmentation of the upraising, fossa dug laterally to the edge and vertical striae) enabling the forensic expert to conclude that a hacking instrument was used. These criteria are easily identifiable using scanning electron microscopy, but can also be observed with stereomicroscopy. Overall, lateral pushing back and vertical striae visible using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy signal the use of a hacking tool.

  12. Diffuse bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT in a patient with prostate cancer and normal bone scan.

    PubMed

    Lavalaye, J; Kaldeway, P; van Melick, H H E

    2016-07-01

    A 75-year-old patient was diagnosed with a Gleason 9 prostate carcinoma. His PSA level was 50.4 ng/ml. Routine bone scintigraphy was negative for metastasis (a). Due to the high tumour grading and relatively high PSA level, (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT was ordered to rule out distant metastases. This scan showed numerous skeletal lesions with high tracer accumulation as sign of diffuse osseous metastases (b). On low-dose CT there were no signs of sclerosis (c). (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT also showed high uptake in the prostate and in para-iliac and para-aortal lymph nodes, without lymph node enlargement. No bone biopsy was obtained to confirm the metastases. Due to this result, the treatment plan was changed to systemic therapy, instead of local therapy.

  13. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  14. Association between bone indices assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT and QCT scans in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Jakobsen, Niels Frederik Breum; Moser, Emil; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are commonly used when assessing bone mass and structure in patients with osteoporosis. Depending on the imaging technique and measuring site, different information on bone quality is obtained. How well these techniques correlate when assessing central as well as distal skeletal sites has not been carefully assessed to date. One hundred and twenty-five post-menopausal women aged 56-82 (mean 63) years were studied using DXA scans (spine, hip, whole body and forearm), including trabecular bone score (TBS), QCT scans (spine and hip) and HR-pQCT scans (distal radius and tibia). Central site measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by QCT correlated significantly at the hip (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Distal site measurements of density at the radius as assessed by DXA and HR-pQCT were also associated (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Correlations between distal and central site measurements of the hip and of the tibia and radius showed weak to moderate correlation between vBMD by HR-pQCT and QCT (r = -0.27 to 0.54). TBS correlated with QCT at the lumbar spine (r = 0.35) and to trabecular indices of HR-pQCT at the radius and tibia (r = -0.16 to 0.31, p < 0.01). There was moderate to strong agreement between measuring techniques when assessing the same skeletal site. However, when assessing correlations between central and distal sites, the associations were only weak to moderate. Our data suggest that the various techniques measure different characteristics of the bone, and may therefore be used in addition to rather than as a replacment for imaging in clinical practice.

  15. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  16. Shared clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in aberrant mast cells and leukemic myeloid blasts detected by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based whole-genome scanning.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, John K; Shao, Lina; Bixby, Dale L; Ross, Charles W

    2016-04-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by a clonal proliferation of aberrant mast cells within extracutaneous sites. In a subset of SM cases, a second associated hematologic non-mast cell disease (AHNMD) is also present, usually of myeloid origin. Polymerase chain reaction and targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization studies have provided evidence that, in at least some cases, the aberrant mast cells are related clonally to the neoplastic cells of the AHNMD. In this work, a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-A) was used to characterize the cytogenetics of the aberrant mast cells from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and concomitant mast cell leukemia associated with a KIT D816A mutation. The results demonstrate the presence of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the mast cells and myeloid blasts, as well as additional abnormalities within mast cells (copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) not detectable by routine karyotypic analysis. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of SNP-A whole-genome scanning to the detection of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the two components of a case of SM-AHNMD. The findings provide additional evidence of a frequent clonal link between aberrant mast cells and cells of myeloid AHNMDs, and also highlight the importance of direct sequencing for identifying uncommon activating KIT mutations.

  17. Extensive visceral calcification demonstrated on Tc-99m MDP bone scan in patient with sphenoidal sinus carcinoma and hypercalcaemia of malignancy: a bad prognostic sign.

    PubMed

    Usmani, S; Khan, H A; Abu Huda, F; Al Nafisi, N; Al Mohannadi, S

    2011-01-01

    Sphenoidal sinus carcinoma is a rare cause of hypercalcemia of malignancy. We report on a 37-year-old male with sphenoidal sinus carcinoma with intracranial extension who developed hypercalcemia of malignancy with progressing disease and demonstrated diffuse metastatic visceral calcifications of lungs, myocardium, stomach, kidneys and thyroid on follow-up 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan. In the absence of extensive skeletal metastases, bone scan help confirm humoral nature of hypercalcaeimia.

  18. Thymic abnormalities and enhanced apoptosis of thymocytes and bone marrow cells in transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase: implications for Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Peled-Kamar, M; Lotem, J; Okon, E; Sachs, L; Groner, Y

    1995-01-01

    The copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) gene resides on chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome (DS) patients. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice with elevated levels of CuZnSOD were used to determine whether, as in DS, overexpression of CuZnSOD was also associated with thymus and bone marrow abnormalities. Three independently derived transgenic CuZnSOD strains had abnormal thymi showing diminution of the cortex and loss of corticomedullary demarcation, resembling thymic defects in children with DS. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice were also more sensitive than control mice to in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), reflected by an earlier onset and enhanced apoptotic cell death in the thymus. This higher susceptibility to LPS-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased production of hydrogen peroxide and a higher degree of lipid peroxidation. When cultured under suboptimal concentrations of interleukin 3 or in the presence of tumour necrosis factor, bone marrow cells from transgenic CuZnSOD mice produced 2- to 3-fold less granulocyte and macrophage colonies than control. The results indicate that transgenic CuZnSOD mice have certain thymus and bone marrow abnormalities which are similar to those found in DS patients, and that the defects are presumably due to an increased oxidative damage resulting in enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7588627

  19. Biomechanical Role of Bone Anisotropy Estimated on Clinical CT Scans by Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Elham; Reyes, Mauricio; Zysset, Philippe; Latypova, Adeliya; Terrier, Alexandre; Büchler, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Image-based modeling is a popular approach to perform patient-specific biomechanical simulations. Accurate modeling is critical for orthopedic application to evaluate implant design and surgical planning. It has been shown that bone strength can be estimated from the bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone architecture. However, these findings cannot be directly and fully transferred to patient-specific modeling since only BMD can be derived from clinical CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose a method to predict the trabecular bone structure using a µCT atlas and an image registration technique. The approach has been evaluated on femurs and patellae under physiological loading. The displacement and ultimate force for femurs loaded in stance position were predicted with an error of 2.5% and 3.7%, respectively, while predictions obtained with an isotropic material resulted in errors of 7.3% and 6.9%. Similar results were obtained for the patella, where the strain predicted using the registration approach resulted in an improved mean squared error compared to the isotropic model. We conclude that the registration of anisotropic information from of a single template bone enables more accurate patient-specific simulations from clinical image datasets than isotropic model.

  20. Role of (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-07-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The (99m)technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times.

  1. Distal metacarpal bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Methodological investigation and application in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Florescu, A; Pødenphant, J; Thamsborg, G; Hansen, M; Leffers, A M; Andersen, V

    1993-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed along the axis of the third metacarpal bone of the non-dominant hand and including metacarpal bones 2, 3, 4 and 5. The Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was calculated for the distal 1/4 of each metacarpal bone. Ten patients with seropositive, erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 10 healthy, sex- and age-matched persons were investigated twice. The average BMD in RA patients was 73.6% of the value found in normals. The coefficient of variation on double determinations (in patients and controls) was 0.9-3.0%. We suggest that dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning with the scanning procedure proposed here may be an important instrument for the quantification of disease progression.

  2. Diagnostic value of routine bone scintigraphy renal imaging in renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chancellor, M.B.; Konnak, J.W.; Grossman, H.B.

    1989-05-01

    Technetium-99m-phosphate compounds used in bone scanning are excreted by the kidney, and excellent renal images can be obtained on routine bone scintigrams. The preoperative bone scans of 49 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma between 1981 and 1985 were reviewed for renal imaging. Ninety-four percent of the patients had abnormal bone scan renal images (82% had focal decreased uptake, and 12% had focal increased uptake). Six percent of the renal images were symmetrical bilaterally. When bone scans are employed in the postoperative follow-up of patients with renal cancer, they can be used to assess the status of the remaining kidney.

  3. Discordance between MRI and bone scan findings in a child with acute complicated osteomyelitis: scintigraphic features that contribute to the early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Arsos, G; Iakovou, I; Dalpa, E; Karatzas, N

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute osteomyelitis are of paramount importance in children because they can prevent irreversible bone damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior spatial resolution and lack of ionizing radiation is routinely preferred over bone scan for this purpose. Increased blood flow, hyperemia and focally increased tracer uptake shown by "three phase" bone scan are the typical scintigraphic findings of acute osteomyelitis. In addition, diffuse uptake along the shaft of long bones and focal "cold" lesions are two special features that may be highly suggestive of infective periostitis, soft tissue sepsis and subperiosteal abscess formation, due to the loose attachment of periosteum to bone during childhood. We present a case of complicated osteomyelitis in a child with inconclusive MRI correctly diagnosed on the basis of these special scintigraphic findings resulting in treatment change from double i.v. Vancomycin--Ceftriaxone scheme to surgical intervention.

  4. Diffuse pulmonary ossification detected by bone scanning with Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Saks, D.A.; McClees, E.C.; Fajman, W.A.; Hollinger, W.M.; Gilman, M.J.

    1984-10-01

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare pathologic finding of heterotropic bone formation within the lungs. It has been associated with mitral stenosis, chronic left ventricular failure, interstitial fibrosis, metastatic breast cancer, pulmonary amyloidosis, histoplasmosis, and chronic busulfan therapy. This patient represents a case associated with Placidyl use.

  5. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D; Allen, Matthew R; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2015-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43(ΔCT/fl)) were studied. Cx43(ΔCT/fl) mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43(fl/fl) controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43(ΔCT) is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43(ΔCT) mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43(ΔCT) were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions.

  6. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  7. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  8. Now & Then: From Cashier to Scan Coordinator; From Stones to Bones to PC Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the changes in the scanning of food and the current use of computer technology and UPC bar codes in a grocery store and traces the history of calculating tools from the use of fingers, abacus, slide rule, calculators, and computers. Includes reproducible student activity sheets. (MKR)

  9. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in density. The mean osteon total area, osteon bone area and vascular space area of both classes A and B were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all three parameters) in the endosteal than in the periosteal half-cortex. The significant differences between the two layers of the cortex suggest that the osteoclast activity is distributed throughout the whole cortical thickness, with more numerous excavations in the external layer, but larger resorption lacunae closer to the marrow canal. A randomly selected population of 109 intact

  10. Comparative study on reduction of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovariectomized rats by soy isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, T; Toda, T; Tsuji, K; Ishida, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of the soy isoflavone glycoside, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin on bone loss and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (ovx) rats were compared with those of estrone. Thirty-six 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups, sham-operated, ovx, ovx+glycitin, ovx+daidzin, ovx+genistin, and ovx+estrone and fed matched amounts of a commercial calcium-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Throughout this period, daidzin, genistin or glycitin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/d) was given orally using a stomach tube, or estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) was administered subcutaneously. Daidzin, genistin and glycitin significantly prevented bone loss in ovx rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, like estrone. At this dose glycitin and daidzin also prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy and increases in body weight gain, abdominal fat, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, and urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline with statistical significance, like estrone. On the other hand, genistin prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy only at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but did not block any other change of ovx rats at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. These findings indicate that daidzin, glycitin, and genistin are effective in preventing bone loss and the former two compounds are effective in reversing the unfavorable changes of lipid metabolism in this model. It is suggested that the preventive effect of daidzin or glycitin on bone loss in ovx rats is due to suppression of bone turnover, as in the case of estrone, but genistin has a different mechanism of action from the other compounds. Soy isoflavone glycosides may represent a potential alternative therapy in the treatment of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovarian hormone-deficient women.

  11. A long femur scan field does not alter proximal femur bone mineral density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus Eoin; Hocking, Jane; Cournoyer, Susan; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James

    2011-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) femur scan field might be useful for the detection of atypical, subtrochanteric femur fractures (ASFF). Thirty adult subjects underwent triplicate measures of femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA using a conventional (i.e., short) and a longer femur scan field. Differences in measured BMD between the 2 scan field lengths were small and less than the precision error inherent in DXA testing. A longer proximal femur scan field does not substantially alter BMD measurements made at the FN and TH and may be useful for the detection of ASFF in clinical practice.

  12. Abnormal bone composition in female juvenile American alligators from a pesticide-polluted lake (Lake Apopka, Florida).

    PubMed

    Lind, P Monica; Milnes, Matthew R; Lundberg, Rebecca; Bermudez, Dieldrich; Orberg, Jan A; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive disorders have been found in pesticide-exposed alligators living in Lake Apopka, Florida (USA). These disorders have been hypothesized to be caused by exposure to endocrine- disruptive estrogen-like contaminants. The aim of this study was to expand our analysis beyond previous studies by investigating whether bone tissue, known to be affected by sex steroid hormones, is a potential target of endocrine disruptors. Long bones from 16 juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka (pesticide-contaminated lake) and Lake Woodruff (control lake) were evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We observed significant differences in bone composition, with female alligators from the contaminated lake having greater trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), total BMD, and trabecular mineral content compared with females from the control lake (p < 0.05). Increased trabecular and total BMD measurements suggest that juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka were exposed to contaminants that created an internal environment more estrogenic than that normally observed. This estrogenic environment could be caused by both natural and anthropogenic compounds. Effects on BMD indicate interference with bone homeostasis. We hypothesize that contaminants present in the lake inhibit the natural and continuous resorption of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone mass. Although this is the only study performed to date examining effects of environmental estrogenic compounds on alligator bones, it supports previous laboratory-based studies in rodents. Further, this study is important in demonstrating that the alterations in morphology and physiology induced in free-ranging individuals living in environments contaminated with endocrine-active compounds are not limited to a few systems or tissues; rather, effects can be observed in many tissues affected by these hormones.

  13. Scanning electron image analysis to monitor of implant degradation and host healing following implantation of a drug-eluting bone graft void filler - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Lawson, Scott T; Grainger, David W; Brooks, Amanda E

    2013-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and often sourced during orthopedic surgical intervention. Successful treatment or prevention of this bone penetrating infection requires antibiotics be delivered in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration to prohibit the growth of the causative organism for sufficient duration. Unfortunately, current standard-of-care antibiotic therapies, administered via intravenous or oral delivery, suffer not only from systemic toxicity and low patient compliance but also provide insufficient local concentrations for therapy. To overcome these clinical inadequacies, a synthetic bone graft material was coated with an antibiotic (tobramycin)-releasing polymer (polycaprolactone) matrix to create a polymer-controlled antibiotic- releasing combination therapy for use as a bone void filler in orthopedic surgeries. Even though this local delivery strategy allows antibiotic delivery over a clinically relevant time frame to prevent infection, complete healing requires the host bone to infiltrate and reabsorb the bone void filler, ultimately replacing the defect with healthy tissue. Unfortunately, the same polymer matrix that allows for controlled local antibiotic delivery may also discourage host bone healing. Efficient orthopedic healing requires the rate of polymer degradation to match the rate of host-bone infiltration. Current imaging techniques, such as histological staining and x-ray imaging, are insufficient to simultaneously assess polymer degradation and host bone integration. Alternative techniques relying on backscatter electron detection during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging may allow a visual differentiation between host bone, synthetic bone, and polymer. Analysis of backscattered SEM images was automated using a custom MATLAB program to determine the ratio of bone to polymer based upon the contrast between the bone (white) and polymer (dark grey). By collecting images of the implant over time

  14. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

  15. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma.

  16. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model.

    PubMed

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R; Hoffman, Michael D; Vella, Joseph B; Benoit, Danielle S W; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-07-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing.

  17. Modulatory effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet on bone homeostasis abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Mehana, Noha Ali

    2015-03-05

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex syndrome which is responsible for numerous complications affecting the whole body. Osteoporosis is regarded as one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus that results from reduced bone formation and increased resorption. In this context, we searched for dietary supplements that preserve diabetic bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been suggested as a possible mechanism affecting bone homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The osteoprotective effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet were also investigated. Male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups; normal control, untreated STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats treated with either l-arginine (10mg/kg/day) or fed soy enriched diet (200 g/kg diet) for 12 weeks. l-Arginine and soy enriched diet normalized serum PTH level and increased serum osteocalcin level; bone osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and runt-related transcription factor2 mRNA levels compared to diabetic rats. A decrease in serum pyridinoline, C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, cathepsin k levels and bone cathepsin k mRNA level was observed in both treated groups. Both treatments increased serum insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, l-arginine and soy enriched diet are effective in prevention of osteoporosis associated with diabetes mellitus.

  18. NF1 frameshift mutation (c.6520_6523delGAGA) association with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Su, S Y; Zhou, X; Pang, X M; Chen, C Y; Li, S H; Liu, J L

    2016-04-07

    Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body and multiple dermatofibromas. A brain glioma and multiple nerve sheath tumors inside and outside the vertebral canal were identified by magnetic resonance imaging, which also showed multiple intercostal nerve schwannomas and hydrocephalies above the cerebellar tentorium. Talipes equinus was also apparent. A mutation analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 43, consisting of a heterozygous deletion of four nucleotides (GAGA) between positions 6520 and 6523. No NF1 mutations were detected in the patient's parents or younger brother. These results extend the list of known mutations in this gene. The absence of the NF1 mutation in the healthy family members suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this frameshift mutation represents a novel NF1 case, and may be associated with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities.

  19. Bone mineral content measured by DEXA scan in preterm neonates receiving total parentral nutrition with and without phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Awad, H A; Farid, T M; Khafagy, S M; Nofal, R I

    2010-09-15

    Intravenous phosphorus preparation was not available in Egypt till recently. So we aimed to prove the positive effect of adding intravenous phosphorus to total parentral nutrition (TPN) on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (PO4) metabolism ofpreterm neonates by measuring bone mineral content (BMC) using DEXA scan. A case-control study was conducted in NICU of Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital of Ain Shams University which is a tertiary care unit in Cairo. Thirty preterm infants were prospectively enrolled in the study divided into 2 groups; 15 preterm infants received TPN with phosphorus supplementation (group 1) and 15 preterm received TPN without phosphorus supplementation (group 2). Serum Ca, PO4 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were done together with urinary calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio, abdominal ultrasound and DEXA scan. There were no significant difference regarding serum Ca and PO4 between group 1 and 2. Yet there were highly significant increase in serum ALP and urinary Ca/Cr ratio in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.001). Also group 1 had significantly higher BMC compared to group 2 even with TPN duration less than 15 days (p = 0.001). BMC was significantly positively correlated with G.A and B.W in both groups and was significantly negatively correlated with serum ALP in group 2 and with urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in group 1. Duration of TPN as short as 2 weeks can affect negatively the BMC as documented by DEXA scan in preterm infants receiving TPN without phosphorus supplementation.

  20. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? There are two types of DEXA equipment: a central device and a peripheral device. Central ... within 10 to 30 minutes, depending on the equipment used and the parts of the body being ...

  1. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production.

  3. Induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in bone-marrow cells and abnormalities in sperm of Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium, lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Tapisso, Joaquim Torres; Marques, Carla Cristina; Mathias, Maria da Luz; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça

    2009-08-01

    As a consequence of human activities, large amounts of cadmium, lead and zinc are released in the environment, often simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate under experimental conditions the DNA damage induced in Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) separately, or in selected combinations. Three cytogenetic end points were considered: the frequencies of micronucleated cells (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in the bone marrow and the frequency of sperm abnormalities. Mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with 5 or 10 doses of aqueous solutions of cadmium acetate, lead acetate and zinc acetate in concentrations corresponding to 1/10 of the LD50, respectively, 21.5, 0.46 and 1.5 mg/kg bw. The control groups were injected in the same way with distilled water. With only one exception (Cd + Zn group treated with 5 doses), the results show a significant increase of MN in all groups for both treatments (5 and 10 doses). Similarly, the results concerning the SCE revealed a statistically significant increase in all treated animals, with the exception of the Zn group treated with 5 doses. The number of sperm abnormalities was significantly higher in animals treated with 5 doses, except in the group Pb + Zn. In animals treated with 10 doses the number of sperm abnormalities was always statistically higher compared with controls. This study indicates that cadmium, lead and zinc can induce MN, SCEs and sperm abnormalities in Algerian mice and that the clastogenic potential is dependent on the time of exposure and the interaction between the three elements, confirming the environmental damage that may result from the simultaneous action of several metals. Most relevant is the toxic potential for Zn, related with the dose, which may compromise its protective effect against other metal contaminations, such as cadmium.

  4. Association between Body Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Ajman, UAE.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Tarek; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ahmed, Amal; Alshamsi, Salma Obaid Saeed; Al Ali, Mariyam Saif Salim Humaid Bin Bader; Al Balsooshi, Khawla Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a good indicator for measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) which measures the density of minerals present in the bones using a special scan. This study was conducted to assess the association between BMI and status of BMD among 101 individuals who underwent Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. 39 subjects had normal and 62 had low bone mineral density. BMD was low in 82.4% of people with normal BMI, 78.1% among overweight, and 44.2% among obese. There was a statistically significant association between these two variables (P < .001). Low BMD was recorded in 59.1% of females and 76.9% of males. Association between advancing age and lower BMI is an important risk factor in the occurrence of low BMD.

  5. Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human cadaver calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yixian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Rubin, Clinton; Gruber, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Microgravity and aging induced bone loss is a critical skeleton complication, occurring particularly in the weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provide a unique method for evaluating bone strength and density. Using a newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, QUS assessment for bone quality in the real body region was evaluated. A total of 19 human cadaver calcanei, age 66 to 97 years old, were tested by both SCAD and nonscan mode. The scanning region covered an approximate 40×40 mm2 with 0.5 mm resolution. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), energy attenuation (ATT, dB), and ultrasound velocity (UV, m/s) were measured. The QUS properties were then correlated to the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA. Correlations between BMD and QUS parameters were significantly improved by using SCAD as compared to nonscan mode, yielding correlations between BMD and SCAD QUS parameters as R=0.82 (BUA), and R=0.86 (est. BMD). It is suggested that SCAD is feasible for in vivo bone quality mapping. It can be potentially used for monitoring instant changes of bone strength and density. [Work supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (TD00207), and New York Center for Biotechnology.

  6. Splenic concentration of bone imaging agents in functional asplenia

    SciTech Connect

    Dhekne, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    Three cases of sickle cell disease associated with functional asplenia are described. The spleen was not visualized on routine Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scan. The bone scan performed with Tc-99m-phosphate compounds revealed abnormal splenic activity in all three cases. The previous case reports and the literature on this subject are reviewed.

  7. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group.

    PubMed

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2016-05-03

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.60.

  8. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-04-13

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements.

  9. Predictive value of excretory urography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and liver and bone scan in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanash, K.A.; Bissada, N.K.; Abla, A.; Esmail, D.; Dowling, A.

    1984-07-01

    The role of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and radioisotopic scanning in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer has not been reported previously. Forty patients with invasive bladder cancer seen at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between January 1978 and June 1981 underwent complete preoperative workup for staging of their tumors prior to radical cystectomy. The preoperative radiologic investigations included excretory urography (IVP), ultrasonography (US), CT of the pelvis, and liver and bone scans. The results of these investigations were compared with the operative and pathologic staging. Ninety-three percent of the patients with bilharzial cancer had evidence of ureteric obstruction on IVP compared with 22% of the nonbilharzial cancer patients. The presence of ureteric obstruction in these patients did not correlate with the stage of the disease with 83% of the patients with superficial tumors (T1 and T2) having hydroureteronephrosis. Ultrasonography and CT had an 83% accuracy in the staging of superficial tumors. Stage T3 tumors were understaged in 14% of the cases. Ultrasonography did not differentiate Stages T3 and T4 tumors while CT scan differentiated these two stages in 57% of the cases. Bone scan failed to reveal evidence of metastatic disease in any of the bilharzial cancer patients. Liver scan was suspicious for liver metastases in two patients with bilharzial cancers in whom open liver biopsy revealed only hepatic bilharziasis. Of all the radiographic studies, US or preferably CT scan seem to be of some value in the staging of bilharzial tumors localized to the bladder. Bone and liver scans are probably of no cost effective benefit.

  10. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na18F− PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUVm(t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUVm(ti) − SUVm(tj))/(ti − tj), for pairs of time values ti and tj. A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOIp(ti)/VOIe(ti))−(VOIp(tj)/VOIe(tj)))/(ti − tj), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUVm slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, rs = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and rs = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min−1 or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of −0.06 min−1 usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  11. Dual colour FISH in paraffin wax embedded bone trephines for identification of numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, C L; Byers, R; Liu, Y; Hoyland, J; Freemont, A

    2001-01-01

    Aims/Background—The advent of new treatments for haematological malignancies has led to the need for a correlation between cytogenetic and morphological abnormalities. This study aimed to achieve this by the application of interphase cytogenetics to marrow trephine sections, a technique not previously reported for formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded trephine biopsies. Methods—Dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to detect numerical and structural abnormalities in routinely processed paraffin wax embedded trephine biopsies. Three cases with t(8;21) and three with t(15;17) were analysed, together with a case of trisomy 8. Chromosome specific probes were hybridised with sections and disclosed by fluorescein isothiocyanate and rhodamine/Texas red labelled antidigoxigenin and antibiotin amplification; translocations were identified by colocalisation of probes using a double wavelength bypass filter. Results—A translocation signal was present in 12% and 11.5% of the cells counted in the t(8;21) and t(15;17) cases, respectively, but in none of the normal controls (p < 0.001). In the case of trisomy 8, 9% of the cells counted contained three hybridisation signals for chromosome 8, whereas no cell contained more than two in the normal control (p < 0.001). Conclusions—This technique is useful for archived routinely processed material, enabling it to be used as a research tool but also, and perhaps more importantly, in clinical practice. Key Words: acute myeloid leukaemia • paraffin wax embedded bone trephines • cytogenetic abnormalities • myelodysplasia • fluorescence in situ hybridisation PMID:11533086

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  13. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeeding. Discuss whether you have recently taken a bismuth-containing medicine such as Pepto-Bismol or had ... inform the physician if you have taken a bismuth-containing medicine like Pepto-Bismol or if you ...

  14. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and medications you’re taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ... any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements and if you have allergies, have recently been ...

  15. Automated assessment of exclusion criteria for DXA lumbar spine scans.

    PubMed

    Barden, Howard S; Markwardt, Paul; Payne, Randy; Hawkins, Brent; Frank, Matt; Faulkner, Kenneth G

    2003-01-01

    Modern bone densitometry systems using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) automatically analyze lumbar spine scans and provide clinically important information concerning spine bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Lumbar spine BMD accurately reflects skeletal health and fracture risk in most cases, but degenerative diseases associated with aging may lead to the formation of reactive bone (osteophytes) and other confounding conditions that elevate BMD without a concomitant increase in bone strength or decrease in fracture risk. Automated densitometry software known as computer-aided densitometry (CAD) (GE Medical Systems Lunar) assists the user in identifying scans with common acquisition and analysis irregularities known to influence BMD values. Visual examination of 231 female spine scans measured with DXA found abnormal conditions that could influence BMD results in 29% of scans. The sensitivity and specificity of several criteria for identifying scans with conditions that could influence BMD were determined. A good criterion for identifying scans with abnormal conditions was a T-score difference of greater than 0.9 or 1.0 between L1-L4 mean and individual vertebrae. Criteria for excluding affected vertebrae were determined. Exclusion of affected vertebrae resulted in a mean BMD decrease of nearly 0.6 SD (T-score) among affected scans.

  16. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  17. [Linear scanning analysis of prehistoric human bones in Xigongqiao Site, Tengzhou, Shandong Province by use of SEM-EDS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao-wu; He, De-liang; Dong, Yu; Wang, Chang-sui; Gao, Ming-kui; Lan, Yu-fu

    2006-06-01

    Ancient human bones in Xigongqiao Site, Tengzhou, Shandong Province, were analyzed by use of SEM-EDS. SEM indicated that the microstructure of Haversian system was destroyed under the impact of bone diagenesis. The apparent difference in elemental distribution in the bone cross section showed that the enrichment or loss of elements can occur not only in the inner and outer surface, but also in the middle. This study will have great influence on how to deal with the ancient human bones before any palaeodietary research in the future.

  18. Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Luigi; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Guarnieri, Simone; Viciano, Joan; Mariggiò, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores. However, primary natural fluorescence (or autofluorescence) caused by enigmatic endogenous fluorophores is also present as a micro-phenomenon, whose nature is still obscure. Here, we show that the endogenous fluorophores are mucopolysaccharides of the Rouget-Neumann sheath and, more relevant, that the intensity of the natural fluorescence in human bone decreases in a relationship to the antiquity of the samples. These results suggest that the autofluorescence of bone is a promising technique for the assessment of skeletal remains that may be potentially of medico-legal interest. A larger study is proposed to confirm these findings and to create a predictive model between the autofluorescence intensity and the time since death.

  19. Prostatic specific antigen and bone scan in the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer. Can diagnostic significance of PSA be increased?

    PubMed

    Bantis, Athanasios; Grammaticos, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is currently the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males and constitutes a major health issue in developed countries. On the other hand, the majority of PC cases are considered clinically not significant and certainly not lethal. These discrepancies highlight the need for the early detection of especially those cases that have aggressive features and call for early and radical intervention. The clinical use of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) towards this end is recognized as inadequate since PSA is prostate specific, but not a PC specific marker, as it is known to increase in other prostate diseases such as benign hyperplasia, inflammations, transrectal ultrasound examination, biopsy and after transurethral prostatectomy. However due to lack of other more specific markers, digital rectal examination combined with serum PSA are suggested for PC screening and diagnosis. With regard to advanced disease where bone involvement is the rule, nuclear medicine bone scan using radioactive bisphosphonates such as technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate is quite common and reliable technique for detecting and monitoring bone metastases. The major advantage of nuclear scintigraphy is its ability to reveal bone metastases significantly earlier than the conventional X-ray imaging techniques. PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio increase the significance of serum PSA in diagnosing PC. The combination of an increased PSA (>20ng/mL) and a high biopsy Gleason score (>8) enhances the possibility of bone metastases (P<0001) and mandates a bone scan. In conclusion, serum PSA testing is currently recommended in symptomatic PC patients for disease staging and treatment monitoring and in asymptomatic selected population groups aged more than 50 years. It is reasonable to suggest that PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio or combining PSA with Gleason score shall greatly increase PSA specificity in detecting PC

  20. Achondrogenesis type I in three sibling fetuses. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, A; Sekeles, E; Smith, P; Simkin, A; Kohn, G

    1976-01-01

    Three spontaneously aborted fetuses with Type I achondrogenesis in a family with a first cousin marriage are described. Studies by light microscopy revealed abnormal cartilage, enchondral, and periosteal bone, and normal tooth development with abnormal alveolar bone. Electron microscopic studies of cultured skin fibroblasts manifested structurally normal cells. Scanning electron microscopy studies had shown deficient intercartilaginous septa in the metaphysis, with abnormally large calcifying globules. In the diaphysis, the orientation of bone trabeculae and collagen fibers within the trabeculae was disturbed. The numerous osteocytic lucunae were wide and irregular in arrangement and shape. Type 2 achondrogenesis, as studied in these fetuses, is probably a widespread mesenchymal defect, manifested by abnormal calcification and ossification of enchondral and periosteal bone.

  1. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaws in advanced stage breast cancer was detected from bone scan: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Thongjood, Thanaporn; Aroonroch, Rangsima

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are indicated to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) for cancer patients with bone metastasis. We report a 79-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer with bone metastasis who was prescribed BPs (zoledronate), then developed osteonecrosis of jaw. We provide a brief review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:28210558

  2. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na(18)F(-) PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUV m (t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUV m (t i ) - SUV m (t j ))/(t i - t j ), for pairs of time values t i and t j . A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOI p (t i )/VOI e (t i ))-(VOI p (t j )/VOI e (t j )))/(t i - t j ), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUV m slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, r s = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and r s = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min(-1) or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of -0.06 min(-1) usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort.

  3. Hypothyroidism in McCune-Albright Syndrome and Role of Bone Scan in Management of Fibrous Dysplasia: An Unusual Case Scenario with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narvesh; Kheruka, Subhash Chand; Singh, Rani Kunti R; Ravina, Mudalsha; Dutta, Deepanksha; Gambhir, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a triad of café-au-lait skin pigmentation, precocious puberty (PP), and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD). In general, FD seems to be the most common component of MAS but very rarely precocious puberty can be found in association with café-au-lait skin pigmentation in the absence of FD (about 1% of the cases). Therefore, a more clinically relevant definition of MAS is fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) and at least one of the typical hyperfunctioning endocrinopathy and/or café-au-lait spots, with almost any combination possible. Bone scan can be the modality of choice to look for bone disease burden of fibrous dysplasia in most patients of MAS and may change the management accordingly. Most of the cases of MAS reported worldwide are associated with hyperthyroidism, up to best of our knowledge on the basis of literature search in pubmed and Google; no case was reported with hypothyroidism. Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl diagnosed with MAS and associated hypothyroidism. We have also reviewed the MAS related literature.

  4. Hypothyroidism in McCune–Albright Syndrome and Role of Bone Scan in Management of Fibrous Dysplasia: An Unusual Case Scenario with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narvesh; Kheruka, Subhash Chand; Singh, Rani Kunti R.; Ravina, Mudalsha; Dutta, Deepanksha; Gambhir, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is a triad of café-au-lait skin pigmentation, precocious puberty (PP), and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD). In general, FD seems to be the most common component of MAS but very rarely precocious puberty can be found in association with café-au-lait skin pigmentation in the absence of FD (about 1% of the cases). Therefore, a more clinically relevant definition of MAS is fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) and at least one of the typical hyperfunctioning endocrinopathy and/or café-au-lait spots, with almost any combination possible. Bone scan can be the modality of choice to look for bone disease burden of fibrous dysplasia in most patients of MAS and may change the management accordingly. Most of the cases of MAS reported worldwide are associated with hyperthyroidism, up to best of our knowledge on the basis of literature search in pubmed and Google; no case was reported with hypothyroidism. Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl diagnosed with MAS and associated hypothyroidism. We have also reviewed the MAS related literature. PMID:28242980

  5. Accuracy and benefits of 3D bone surface modelling: a comparison of two methods of surface data acquisition reconstructed by laser scanning and computed tomography outputs.

    PubMed

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Prokop, Josef; Horák, Martin; Jancárek, Alexandr; Velemínská, Jana

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two different methods of frontal bone surface model acquisition. Three dimensional models acquired by laser scanning were compared with models of the same bones acquired by virtual replicas reconstructed from a sequence of computed tomography (CT) images. The influence of volumetric CT data processing (namely thresholding), which immediately preceded the generation of the three-dimensional surface model, was also considered and explored in detail in one sample. Despite identifying certain areas where both models showed deviations across all samples, their conformity can be generally classified as satisfactory, and the differences can be regarded as minimal. The average deviation of registered surface models was 0.27 mm for 90% of the data, and its value was therefore very close to the resolution of the laser scanner used.

  6. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND OXIDE ETHYLENE STERILIZATION ON CORTICAL AND CANCELLOUS RAT BONE: A LIGHT AND ELECTRON SCANNING MICROSCOPY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; da Silva, Juliano Voltarelli F.; Frezarim Thomazini, José Armendir; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, under microscopic examination, the structural changes displayed by the trabecular and cortical bones after being processed chemically and sterilized by ethylene oxide. Methods: Samples of cancellous and cortical bones obtained from young female albinus rats (Wistar) were assigned to four groups according to the type of treatment: Group I- drying; Group II- drying and ethylene oxide sterilization; III- chemical treatment; IV- chemical treatment and ethylene oxide sterilization. Half of this material was analyzed under ordinary light microscope and the other half using scanning electron microscopy. Results: In all the samples, regardless the group, there was good preservation of the general morphology. For samples submitted to the chemical processing there was better preservation of the cellular content, whereas there was amalgamation of the fibres when ethylene oxide was used. Conclusion: Treatment with ethylene oxide caused amalgamation of the fibers, possibly because of heating and the chemical treatment contributed to a better cellular preservation of the osseous structure. PMID:26998450

  7. Imaging Non-Specific Wrist Pain: Interobserver Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of SPECT/CT, MRI, CT, Bone Scan and Plain Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Huellner, Martin W.; Bürkert, Alexander; Strobel, Klaus; Pérez Lago, María del Sol; Werner, Lennart; Hug, Urs; von Wartburg, Urs; Seifert, Burkhardt; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hand and wrist pain is a common clinical issue for orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. The purpose of this study was 1. To analyze the interobserver agreement of SPECT/CT, MRI, CT, bone scan and plain radiographs in patients with non-specific pain of the hand and wrist, and 2. to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging methods in this selected patient population. Materials and Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients with non-specific pain of the hand or wrist were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had been imaged by plain radiographs, planar early-phase imaging (bone scan), late-phase imaging (SPECT/CT including bone scan and CT), and MRI. Two experienced and two inexperienced readers analyzed the images with a standardized read-out protocol. Reading criteria were lesion detection and localisation, type and etiology of the underlying pathology. Diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement were determined for all readers and imaging modalities. Results The most accurate modality for experienced readers was SPECT/CT (accuracy 77%), followed by MRI (56%). The best performing, though little accurate modality for inexperienced readers was also SPECT/CT (44%), followed by MRI and bone scan (38% each). The interobserver agreement of experienced readers was generally high in SPECT/CT concerning lesion detection (kappa 0.93, MRI 0.72), localisation (kappa 0.91, MRI 0.75) and etiology (kappa 0.85, MRI 0.74), while MRI yielded better results on typification of lesions (kappa 0.75, SPECT/CT 0.69). There was poor agreement between experienced and inexperienced readers in SPECT/CT and MRI. Conclusions SPECT/CT proved to be the most helpful imaging modality in patients with non-specific wrist pain. The method was found reliable, providing high interobserver agreement, being outperformed by MRI only concerning the typification of lesions. We believe it is beneficial to integrate SPECT/CT into the diagnostic imaging algorithm of chronic wrist

  8. Impaired proliferative potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes is associated with abnormal WNT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlaki, Konstantia; Pontikoglou, Charalampos G; Demetriadou, Anthi; Batsali, Aristea K; Damianaki, Athina; Simantirakis, Emmanouil; Kontakis, Michail; Galanopoulos, Athanasios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Kastrinaki, Maria-Christina; Papadaki, Helen A

    2014-07-15

    It has been shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) display defective proliferative potential. We have probed the impaired replicative capacity of culture-expanded MSCs in MDS patients (n=30) compared with healthy subjects (n=32) by studying senescence characteristics and gene expression associated with WNT/transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) signaling pathways. We have also explored the consequences of the impaired patient MSC proliferative potential by investigating their differentiation potential and the capacity to support normal CD34(+) cell growth under coculture conditions. Patient MSCs displayed decreased gene expression of the senescence-associated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN1A, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B, along with PARG1, whereas the mean telomere length was upregulated in patient MSCs. MDS-derived MSCs exhibited impaired capacity to support normal CD34(+) myeloid and erythroid colony formation. No significant changes were observed between patients and controls in gene expression related to TGFB1 pathway. Patient MSCs displayed upregulated non-canonical WNT expression, combined with downregulated canonical WNT expression and upregulated canonical WNT inhibitors. MDS-derived MSCs displayed defective osteogenic and adipogenic lineage priming under non-differentiating culture conditions. Pharmacological activation of canonical WNT signaling in patient MDSs led to an increase in cell proliferation and upregulation in the expression of early osteogenesis-related genes. This study indicates abnormal WNT signaling in MSCs of MDS patients and supports the concept of a primary MSC defect that might have a contributory effect in MDS natural history.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow disease in children

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.D.; Klatte, E.C.; Baehner, R.; Smith, J.A.; Martin-Simmerman, P.; Carr, B.E.; Provisor, A.J.; Weetman, R.M.; Coates, T.; Siddiqui, A.

    1984-06-01

    Seven children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow: results showed that it is technically feasible to obtain good MR images of marrow in children. MR has detected abnormality in the bone marrow of a child who had metastatic neuroblastoma. The extent of abnormality in the femur correlated well with findings of a bone marrow isotope scan. In one child who had idiopathic aplastic anemia, diseased marrow could not be distinguished from normal marrow on MR images. MRI identified abnormality of the marrow in osteogenic sarcoma, and demonstrated change in response to chemotherapy. It displayed marrow spread of tumors as well as CT. MRI showed marrow abnormality in four children who had leukemia.

  10. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

  11. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  12. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  13. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  14. Menopause and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You reach your highest bone mass (size and density) at about age 30. Then, sometime between age ... your bones, your doctor may do a bone density test (DEXA scan). This test gives exact measurements ...

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of collagen fiber orientation in the bone lamellar system in non-decalcified human samples.

    PubMed

    Pannarale, L; Braidotti, P; d'Alba, L; Gaudio, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies on collagen fiber orientation have led to different interpretations and theories about the fiber arrangement in the lamellar compact bone. The purpose of this investigation was to provide new and more in-depth data on fiber arrangement in the lamellar bone system in order to explain the orientation of the fiber bundles. This was carried out by applying a simple method of preparation which permitted observation of non-decalcified samples. A previously isolated Haversian system was subjected to slow bending up to reaching the fracture point. Hence, the fracture surface was observed by SEM. The same samples were also observed by polarized light microscopy. A significant alternation of fiber orientation in the adjacent lamellae was observed. Different domains of differently oriented fibers were present within the same lamella; conjugating fibers connecting adjacent lamellae were also shown. This method avoided most of the artifacts due to chemical treatment of bone samples. The results can be easily interpreted by means of the same criteria applied in mechanics for the studying of composite materials.

  16. A comparison of 111In with 52Fe and 99mTc-sulfur colloid for bone marrow scanning.

    PubMed

    Merrick, M V; Gordon-Smith, E C; Lavender, J P; Szur, L

    1975-01-01

    Under most circumstances 52Fe, 111In, and colloid show a similar distribution of marrow. The lesser uptake of 111In by liver and spleen may occasionally be of value in permitting visualization of that portion of the spinal marrow obscured by these organs in the colloid scan. However, in red cell aplasia, when there is dissociation between phagocytic and erythropoietic functions, scanning with 111In gives no information about erythropoietic tissue distribution. Therefore, indium cannot be used as an analog for iron in the study of the hematopoietic system.

  17. Indications for and limitations of bone scintigraphy in osteogenic sarcoma: a review of 55 patients

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Etcubanas, E.; Goris, M.L.

    1981-09-01

    The value of radioisotope bone scanning at the time of presentation and serially during follow-up has been evaluated in 55 patients with biopsy-proven osteogenic sarcoma. Many of the patients studied were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Bone metastases were detected at presentation in only one patient and in a second patient, proximal extension of the primary tumor not evident on radiographs was demonstrated by the radioisotope technique. During fellow-up, 20 patients experienced bone metastases and each had an abnormal bone scan. Eleven of these patients were asymptomatic for bone metastases at the time the scan became abnormal. Seven patients experienced bone metastases as their first site of tumor recurrence. The detection rate for soft tissue metastases was low, but the scan indicated stump recurrence in three patients. Although the yield is small, bone scanning is justified at presentation be cause the results may profoundly after the management. During follow-up, routine bone cans are indicated in all patients, whether they have symptoms or not.

  18. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  19. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  20. Exceptional case of bone resorption in an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, S.; Falcinelli, G.; Pintucci, S. )

    1990-01-01

    This article reports the findings of investigations on an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis in an eye that was enucleated owing to severe complications 12 years after implantation. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed extensive resorption of the bone that was used as a supporting element in the kind of transcorneal prosthesis developed by Strampelli. The destructive process, in addition to surgical trauma, has been associated with the early and recurrent bacterial infections relating to the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The need to control the occurrence of primary bacterial infections in traumatized tissues during operations as well as further infectious situations, given the enhanced antibiotic-resistence of bacteria, is emphasized.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone graft (Ostim®) and synthetic microcrystalline hydroxyapatite bone graft (Osteogen®) in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects: A clinical and denta scan study

    PubMed Central

    Kamboj, Monika; Arora, Ruchika; Gupta, Harinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the relative efficacy of synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) (Ostim®) and microcrystalline HA (Osteogen®) bone grafts in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects clinically and radiographically through denta scan. Materials and Methods: Ten chronic periodontitis patients with bilateral intrabony periodontal defects of ≥2 mm radiographic defect depth below 55 years of age were selected randomly and treated with synthetic nanocrystalline HA (Ostim®) or synthetic microcrystalline HA (Osteogen®) bone graft. Clinical parameters including probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 and 6 months for each of the defects using an occlusal acrylic stent. Radiographic parameters were measured with the help of denta scan preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 months. Results: At 6 months following therapy, the Osteogen® group showed a reduction in mean PD from 11.10 ± 1.663 to 8.50 ± 0.850 mm and a change in mean CAL from 6.30 ± 1.160 to 3.40 ± 0.516 mm, whereas in the Ostim® group, the mean PD decreased from 11.20 ± 0.919 to 8.30 ± 0.823 mm and mean CAL decreased from 6.10 ± 0.738 to 3.30 ± 0.483 mm. At 6 months following therapy, denta scan showed a reduction in mean intrabony defect depth in the Osteogen® group from 2.54 ± 0.786 to 1.01 ± 0.448 mm, whereas in the Ostim® group, it was 2.71 ± 0.650 mm to 1.12 ± 0.563 mm. Conclusion: It was concluded that both the HA bone grafts produced statistically significant reduction in pocket depth, in the depth of osseous lesion, and a statistically significant gain in attachment level, irrespective of their physico-chemical properties. PMID:28298825

  2. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.

  3. The effect of a cartilage bone marrow extract on experimentally induced osteoarthrosis in the knee joints of rabbits. A scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Neumüller, J; Partsch, G; Adamiker, D; Eberl, R

    1981-03-01

    The development of osteoarthrosis following a partial meniscectomy on the knee cartilage of rabbits (Chinchilla hybrids) was monitored with a scanning electron microscope. Simultaneously, a study was made of the effect of the cartilage bone marrow extract Rumalon trademark on the development of the osteoarthrotic changes. Twelve days after the operation, osteoarthrotic changes were evident in the untreated operated joints. After 36 days the damage caused to the cartilage was already radical. The immobility of the operated joint also gave rise to obvious changes in the cartilage of the knee joints which had not undergone an operation. The irregular weight distribution due to the fixation of one joint was apparently enough to provoke degenerative processes on the other side. When the cartilage bone marrow extract Rumalon trademark was administered three times weekly (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.m.) a distinct retardation of the osteoarthrotic development in the early stages was observed. Where the changes had penetrated to the inner cartilage layers, no difference could be established compared to the untreated animals.

  4. Unexplained high BMD in DXA-scanned patients is generalized throughout the skeleton and characterized by thicker cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, S; Amstrup, A K; Moser, E; Jakobsen, N F B; Mosekilde, L; Vestergaard, P; Rejnmark, L

    2015-04-01

    Unexplained high bone mineral density (BMD) is a rare condition and the mechanisms responsible are yet to be described in detail. The aim of the study was to identify patients with unexplained high BMD from a local DXA database and compare their radiological phenotype with an age- and a gender-matched group of population-based controls. We defined high BMD as a DXA Z-score ≥ + 2.5 at the total hip and lumbar spine. We characterized the findings as "unexplained" if no osteodegenerative changes, bone metabolic disease, or arthritis at the hip or lumbar spine was observed. All participants were investigated with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), QCT, DXA, fasting blood samples, a 24-h urine sample, and questionnaires. The DXA database contained data on 25,118 patients. Initially, 138 (0.55%) potential participants with high BMD were identified, and during the study ten additional cases were identified from new DXA scans. Sixty-seven patients accepted to participate in the study, and among these we identified 15 women and one man with unexplained high BMD. These 15 women had higher BMD throughout the skeleton relative to controls, similar area/volume at the hip and the distal extremities, a higher number of trabeculae, which was thicker than in the controls, and a higher finite element estimated bone strength. The 15 women were heavier and had a higher fat mass then controls. We conclude that patients with unexplained high BMD have a generalized high BMD phenotype throughout their skeleton, which is characterized with a denser microarchitecture.

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N.; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J.; Wee, Natalie K.; Croucher, Peter I.; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA’s (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease

  7. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease.

  8. Exposure of veterinary personnel to ionising radiation during bone scanning of horses by nuclear scintigraphy with 99mtechnetium methylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Gatherer, M E; Faulkner, J; Voûte, L C

    2007-06-16

    The aim of this study was to compare the radiation doses received by the personnel drawing up and injecting the radiopharmaceutical and operating the nuclear scintigraphy equipment, and those restraining nine horses while they were being scanned during scintigraphic investigations of lameness. Sensitive electronic dosimeters were worn by the personnel and the doses they received during the administration of the radiopharmaceutical and during the period of image acquisition were recorded at intervals. On average, 90 per cent of the total doses were received during the period of image acquisition. There was no significant difference between the total dose received by the person who drew up and injected the radiopharmaceutical, and the person restraining the horse during its administration. However, the person holding the horse received approximately twice the dose received by the person operating the equipment during the period of image acquisition.

  9. A novel NF1 mutation in a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait macule in neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tong, H-X; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, J; Lu, W-Q

    2012-08-29

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; OMIM#162200) is a common neurocutaneous disorder that is characterized by multiple café-au-lait, skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas. Mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the neurofibromin protein, have been identified as the pathogenic gene of NF1. In this study, we present a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait in NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body, axillary freckling, and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas. He also had a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormalities. The germline mutational analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 13. It is a novel heterozygous nucleotide G>A transition at position 2241 of the NF1 gene. We found no mutation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor DNA from this patient. This expands the database for NF1 gene mutations in NF1. Its absence in the normal chromosomes suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first case of giant café-au-lait macule in NF1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

  10. Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

  11. Intraosseous fat necrosis and metaphyseal osteonecrosis in a patient with chronic pancreatitis: MR imaging and CT scanning.

    PubMed

    L'Hirondel, J L; Fournier, L; Fretille, A; Denizet, D; Loyau, G

    1994-01-01

    Necrosis of fatty bone marrow is an unusual complication of several pancreatic disorders. We describe a patient with polyarthritis, sterile subcutaneous abscess and osteolysis arising during the course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. MR images of one knee showed multiple foci of abnormal signal intensity within the marrow of the distal femur and proximal tibia, consistent with intraosseous fat necrosis. CT scans showed significant changes in the cancellous bone in these areas compatible with metaphyseal osteonecrosis.

  12. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, E; Christoulas, D; Kastritis, E; Bagratuni, T; Gavriatopoulou, M; Roussou, M; Papatheodorou, A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, E; Kanellias, N; Liakou, C; Panagiotidis, I; Migkou, M; Kokkoris, P; Moulopoulos, L A; Dimopoulos, M A

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. PMID:27716740

  13. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  14. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  15. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  16. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  17. TU-C-12A-12: Differentiating Bone Lesions and Degenerative Joint Disease in NaF PET/CT Scans Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Perk, T; Bradshaw, T; Muzahir, S; Jeraj, R; Meyer, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]NaF PET can be used to image bone metastases; however, tracer uptake in degenerative joint disease (DJD) often appears similar to metastases. This study aims to develop and compare different machine learning algorithms to automatically identify regions of [F-18]NaF scans that correspond to DJD. Methods: 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients received whole body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans prior to treatment. Image segmentation resulted in 852 ROIs, 69 of which were identified by a nuclear medicine physician as DJD. For all ROIs, various PET and CT textural features were computed. ROIs were divided into training and testing sets used to train eight different machine learning classifiers. Classifiers were evaluated based on receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). We also assessed the added value of including CT features in addition to PET features for training classifiers. Results: The training set consisted of 37 DJD ROIs with 475 non-DJD ROIs, and the testing set consisted of 32 DJD ROIs with 308 non-DJD ROIs. Of all classifiers, generalized linear models (GLM), decision forests (DF), and support vector machines (SVM) had the best performance. AUCs of GLM (0.929), DF (0.921), and SVM (0.889) were significantly higher than the other models (p<0.001). GLM and DF, overall, had the best sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, and gave a significantly better performance (p<0.01) than all other models. PET/CT GLM classifiers had higher AUC than just PET or just CT. GLMs built using PET/CT information had superior or comparable sensitivities, specificities and PPVs to just PET or just CT. Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms trained with PET/CT features were able to identify some cases of DJD. GLM outperformed the other classification algorithms. Using PET and CT information together was shown to be superior to using PET or CT features alone. Research supported by the Prostate

  18. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zefeng; Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Ge, Zhaogang; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-11-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid‑related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of β-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the β-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin pathway.

  19. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer.

  20. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

  1. Skeletal assessment in neuroblastoma--the pitfalls of iodine-123-MIBG scans

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.; Gutman, A.; Morony, S.; Dicks-Mireaux, C.; Pritchard, J. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((I123I)MIBG) and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) in the detection of skeletal involvement by neuroblastoma. Forty-four children with neuroblastoma underwent both ({sup 123}I) MIBG and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scans within a 4-wk period; bone marrow examination also was performed; all these investigations were done both at diagnosis and at follow-up. At diagnosis, four children with Stage 4 disease had normal ({sup 123}I)MIBG scans but abnormal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scans, while at follow-up there were four children with negative ({sup 123}I)MIBG studies who later died from disseminated neuroblastoma. All eight scans are considered false-negative. In 24 children, the ({sup 123}I)MIBG revealed more extensive disease with 161 positive sites while the {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan showed only 100 positive sites; 34 of these sites were common to both studies. This study shows that underassessment of skeletal involvement by neuroblastoma occurred using ({sup 123}I)MIBG scans and that one cannot therefore substitute ({sup 123}I)MIBG for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scans in the staging of neuroblastoma.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy study of new bone formation following small and large defects preserved with xenografts supplemented with pamidronate-A pilot study in Fox-Hound dogs at 4 and 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Carrascal, Naroa; Satorres-Nieto, Marta; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Gargallo-Albiol, Jorge; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of SEM and EDX microanalysis on evaluating the effect of porcine xenografts (MP3(®)) supplemented with pamidronate during socket healing. Mandibular second premolars (P2) and first molars (M1) were extracted from six Beagle dogs. P2 were categorized as small defects (SD) and M1 as large defects (LD). Four random groups were created: SC (small control defects with MP3(®)), ST (small test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate), LC (large control defects with MP3(®)), and LT (large test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate). At four and eight weeks of healing the samples were evaluated fisically through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical element mapping was carried out by Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). After four weeks of healing, SEM and EDX analysis revealed more mineralized bone in ST and LT groups compared with control groups (p<0.05). After eight weeks, Ca/P ratios were slightly higher for small defects (groups SC and ST); in SEM description, in both control and test groups, trabecular bone density was similar to the adjacent mineralized cortical bone. Within the limitations of this experimental study, SEM description and EDX elemental microanalysis have demonstrated to be useful techniques to assess bone remodelling of small and large defects. Both techniques show increased bone formation in test groups (MP3(®) modified with pamidronate) after four and eight weeks of healing.

  3. Growth Arrest Line Mimicking Lymphoma Involvement: The Findings of (99m)Tc-MDP Bone SPECT/CT and Serial Bone Scan in a Child with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanwoo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth.

  4. Advances in noninvasive bone measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Vetter, J.; Ettinger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Several noninvasive measurement methods are used for evaluation of metabolic disease. Single-photon (/sup 125/I) scans of the peripheral skeleton are useful in some diseases but are ineffective in osteoporosis (even on the distal radius or os calcis) because they cannot predict spinal or femoral density. Also, peripheral measurements show high percentages of false negatives, that is many patients with fractures have normal peripheral density. Dual-photon (/sup 153/Gd) scans of the spine, femur, and total skeleton are precise and accurate (2% error) and provide direct measurements of bone strength at fracture sites. This gives the best discrimination of abnormality and the most sensitive monitoring. Quantitative computed computed tomography (QCT) allows measurement of the spine but not the critical proximal femur area. QCT has a large accuracy error because (a) the limited area measured (under 5 cm3) fails to represent the total vertebral body, (b) technical errors, and (c) variable fat and osteoid influence the results. 25 references.

  5. [A case of Burkitt lymphoma with multifocal bone invasion].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Chie; Nozawa, Kazue; Sano, Akiko; Uchikawa, Kaori; Nakajima, Atsuko; Manabe, Atushi; Takeda, Kyoko

    2013-03-01

    A 12-year-old boy admitted to a local hospital with fever, migratory arthralgia, and periosteal reaction on X Ray. He was transferred to our hospital because magnetic resonance imaging scan of his whole body showed multiple abnormal signals in bones. Laboratory findings on admission showed the increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin G, hemolytic complement activity and soluble interleukin-2 receptor. Peripheral blood and bone marrow examination did not show any abnormality. The clinical appearance of his condition suggested the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). He was treated with steroid, however his fever and bone pain continued. A bone and bone marrow biopsy was performed and the results of histopathology showed precursor-B acute leukemia/lymphoma. His bone pain relapsed after the chemotherapy for ALL. Finally, blast cells resembling L3 morphology were detected in the peripheral blood. The reevaluated bone marrow was predominantly replaced with Burkitt like lymphoblasts. He was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma by further specific examination.

  6. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation from mutant lpr/lpr mice. Functional abnormalities rather than alloantigenic differences appear to determine the development of a graft-vs.-host-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allen, R D; Marshall, J D; Roths, J B; Sidman, C L

    1990-09-01

    Transfer of bone marrow (BM) from autoimmunity-prone mice homozygous for the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation to irradiated congenic +/+ recipients has previously been shown to result in a syndrome similar to chronic graft-vs.-host (GVH) disease. It has been suggested that this syndrome may be due to an antigenic difference caused by the lpr mutation itself or to antigenic differences at loci closely linked to the lpr locus (Theofilopoulos, A. N. et al., J. Exp. Med. 1985. 162:1; Mosbach-Ozmen, L. and Loor, F., Thymus 1987. 9:197). However, the results presented here indicate that alloantigenic differences do not play a role in this syndrome. Instead, the chronic disease observed in lpr/lpr----(+/+) BM chimeras appears to develop as a result of a functional defect associated with the lpr mutation which is expressed shortly after transfer of lpr/lpr BM to irradiated recipients. This defect causes an increase in the levels of serum IgG1 and IgG2, which peak at 4-5 weeks post-transfer and then decline to normal levels by 9-10 weeks post-transfer. Inflammation similar to that observed in classic GVH reactions accompanies excess IgG production in congenic +/+ recipients but not in lpr/lpr recipients of lpr/lpr BM. We demonstrate that the GVH-like response occurring in lpr/lpr----(+/+) chimeras is dependent on mature T cells, but that either lpr/lpr or (+/+) T cells can support this reaction. These results suggest that transfer of lpr/lpr BM to normal mice causes immunoregulatory disturbances which lead to nonspecific activation of T cells. We speculate that lpr/lpr BM causes a GVH-like reaction in +/+ recipients but a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in lpr/lpr recipients because of intrinsic differences in the +/+ and lpr/lpr host environments. Considering these findings, the lpr/lpr----+/+ GVH model may be useful for analysis of factors capable of inducing undesirable reactions in clinical BM transplantation between nominally histocompatible donors and

  8. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  9. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  10. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... myelodysplastic syndrome; MDS) A nerve tissue tumor called neuroblastoma Bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal ... Hairy cell leukemia Hodgkin lymphoma Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Neuroblastoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Platelet count Polycythemia vera Primary ...

  11. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  12. Bone densitometry.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang J

    2011-05-01

    Conventional radiographic methods allow physicians to visualize bone structure. However, they do not offer information on the bone mineral density (BMD), which can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone densitometry, by contrast, helps to detect bone mineral loss at an early stage because it provides accurate quantitative measurement of BMD. With an emphasis on quantification, shorter scanning time and precision, scientists have been developing BMD measurement devices that use absorption technique. They first developed single-energy absorptiometry (single-photon absorptiometry) by using I-125, which could measure BMD of peripheral bones. Single-photon absorptiometry was replaced by dual-energy absorptiometry (dual photon absorptiometry [DPA]) that used gadolinium-153. DPA had greater accuracy in measuring the BMD of central skeletal bones. Single-energy x-ray absorptiometry was also developed but it had limitations in measuring central skeletal BMD. In the mid-1980s, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was introduced and widely accepted for the early detection, treatment, and follow-up study of osteoporosis. There are several reasons for the popularity. DXA can measure BMD of posteroanterior spine and hip in a much shorter time than DPA while being capable of measuring BMD of peripheral bones. Other advantages include very low radiation doses to the patients, high image resolution, precision, and stable calibration of the instruments. In recent years, DXA has also been applied to lateral spine for the density of trabecular bone, to the whole body for the measurement of total body bone density and for the body composition, and to the spine for the vertebral fracture assessment. Still, posteroanterior spine and hip scans remain the most common applications of DXA because data on the normal range of BMD of the skeletal sites for different age, sex, and ethnic groups are compiled and made available with the devices, which gives the physician

  13. OSTEOBLAST ADHESION OF BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaki Miyasaka; Robyn R. Mercer; Andrea M. Mastro; Ken L. Telschow

    2005-03-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone. Upon colonizing bone tissue, the cancer cells stimulate osteoclasts (cells that break bone down), resulting in large lesions in the bone. The breast cancer cells also affect osteoblasts (cells that build new bone). Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adherer in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cell adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days, and then assayed with a mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope (SAM). The SAM indicated that in normal medium the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were firmly attached to their plastic substrate. However, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium displayed both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The cells were fixed and stained to visualize cytoskeletal components using optical microscopic techniques. We were not able to observe these differences until the cells were quite confluent after 7 days of culture. However, using the SAM, we were able to detect these changes within 2 days of culture with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium

  14. Microstructural and Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Human Cortical Bone with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunju; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in OI bone have been of significant research interest. To further investigate the mechanism of OI disease and bone mineralization, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) are used in the present study to describe the structural and compositional differences between OI and healthy bone. OI bone exhibits more porous, fibrous features, abnormal collagen fibrils, and abnormal mineral deposits. Likewise, photoacoustic-FTIR experiments indicate an aberrant collagen structure and an altered mineral structure in OI. In contrast, there is neither significant difference in the non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) composition observed nor apparent change in the crystal structure between OI and healthy bone minerals as shown in XRD and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results. This observation indicates that the biomineralization process is more controlled by the bone cells and non-collagenous phosphorylated proteins. The present study also confirms that there is an orientational influence on the stoichiometry of the mineral in OI bone. Also, a larger volume of the hydrated layer in the transverse plane than the longitudinal plane of the mineral crystal structure is proposed. The appearance of a new C-S band in the FTIR spectra in OI bone suggests the substitution of glycine by cysteine in collagen molecules or/and an increased amount of cysteine-rich osteonectin that relates to mineral nucleation and mineral crystal formation.

  15. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging.

  16. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  17. Usefulness of bone marrow imaging in childhood malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Oseas, R.S.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Wellman, H.N.; Baehner, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    Two hundred six /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scans in 110 pediatrics patients were reviewed. The normal distribution of sulfur colloid in the lower extremities in various age groups was established. There was progressive loss of uptake with increasing age from less than two years to greater than ten years. Tumor replacement was seen as regions of decreased radioactivity, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the response of the disease to therapy. Both chemotherapy and irradiation resulted in an extension of the /sup 99m/Tc SC to peripheral marrow sites. In irradiated areas, marrow scan defects were demonstrated and generally recovered normal activity by six months after the completion of therapy. Marrow scan abnormalities caused by tumor replacement were present in four patients despite normal bone scans and radiographs. Ultimate confirmation of tumor involvement was by needle aspiration or biopsy. Persistent marrow defects were seen in two patients with neuroblastoma who had remission of their disease: biopsy revealed myelofibrosis. /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scanning is a sensitive monitor of altered marrow activity associated with pediatric hematologic or oncologic diseases.

  18. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  19. [Ultrasound scanning of the distraction regenerate in case of multilocus elongation of the fragments in patients with defects of long bones].

    PubMed

    Menshikova, T I; Borzunov, D Iu; Dolganova, T I

    2014-01-01

    It was done ultrasound examination of distraction regenerates in patients with defect of bone tissue. The first group included 4 patients who had the size of congenital bone tissue defect 15.8±8.1 cm; the second group (3 patients) included posttraumatic defects with defect size 11.75±3.6 cm; the third group (4 patients) included posttraumatic defects with defect size 11±5.3 cm. It was discovered the particularities of distraction regenerate structural condition in case of low level of reparative osteogenesis. In the first group "ischemic" regenerate was characterized by slow formation of bone trabecules. In the second group "ischemic" regenerate had one or two hypo-echogenic cystic-like formations in the intermediate regenerate area. All patients of the third group had organotypic remodeling of the regenerate according to terms of distraction and fixation.

  20. Paget disease of the bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may indicate Paget disease include: Bone scan Bone x-ray Elevated markers of bone breakdown (for example, N-telopeptide) This disease may ... of Paget disease. Alternative Names Osteitis deformans Images ... X-ray References Ralston SH. Paget disease of bone. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  1. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid. The cancer can also appear as a hole in the bone. Sometimes doctors can see a ... the bone scan image as dense, gray to black areas, called “hot spots.” These areas suggest metastatic ...

  2. Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Bone Scan 骨扫描 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Bone Scan 骨骼掃描 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - ...

  3. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  4. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. It is a type of nuclear scan . How the Test is Performed Blood will ... radiation. Due to the slight radiation exposure, most nuclear scans (including WBC scan) are not recommended for ...

  5. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen Images Liver scan References Lidofsky S. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have an allergic reaction to the tracer material. Some people have pain, redness, or swelling at ... with diabetes. Most PET scans are now performed along with a CT scan. This combination scan ...

  7. Benign incidental findings of osteopoikilosis on Tc-99m MDP bone SPECT/CT: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Szu-Ying; Wang, Shan-Ying; Shiau, Yu-Chien; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Osteopoikilosis is a benign but rare condition characterized by bone islands throughout the osseous tissue, which could be easily confused with bone metastasis. We present a case of a 37-year-old man presented to orthopedic outpatient clinic with right hip pain for 2 weeks. There were multiple, small punctate lesions scattered throughout the skeleton on radiograph. Subsequent Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan with pelvic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) showed multiple enostoses without abnormal focal MDP uptake. Therefore, clinical diagnosis was compatible with osteopoikilosis while bone metastasis was unlikely. The symptoms then improved by conservative treatments. Osteopoikilosis is usually an incidental finding on radiograph or CT, and a normal MDP confirmed the diagnosis by excluding bone metastasis. It is important for clinicians to recognize the specific image features to prevent further unnecessary interventions. In addition, bone SPECT/CT could also make the diagnosis in one step.

  8. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  9. Floating-Harbor syndrome associated with middle ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Desprechins, Brigitte; Casselman, Jan; Gordts, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, which was first described in 1973. A triad of main features characterizes Floating-Harbor syndrome: short stature, characteristic face, and an expressive speech delay. We present a patient in whom the hearing thresholds improved insufficiently after placement of grommets. High-resolution CT scan of the temporal bone showed a prominent soft-tissue thickening suspected of causing fixation of the malleus, and fusion of the malleus head with the body of the incus. To our knowledge this is the first reported abnormal middle ear anatomy in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. A conservative treatment with hearing aids was preferred as an initial treatment in favor of a surgical exploration.

  10. The role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan as compared to 99mTc-MDP and CT scans in imaging the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Zanglis, Antonios; Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Baziotis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The oncophilic complex of technetium-99m labeled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) has been successfully used for the detection of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid cancer and for imaging various soft tissue tumors like lung, brain and prostate cancer. In this article, the role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma patients as compared to the 99mTc-MDP scan and the CT scan was studied. Twenty-eight patients with bone disease were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Saint Savas Oncology Hospital in Athens from the Orthopedics Department of the same Hospital. From them, 18 (Group A) had osteosarcoma, 7 (Group B) osteomyelitis and 3 (Group C) bone fractures. The final diagnosis was made after fine needle aspiration biopsy. All patients were subjected to the 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan, the standard bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and CT scan. Group A patients showed a selective uptake of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the primary tumor region. No abnormal 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake was observed in the patients of Groups B and C. The 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan was found to be superior to the 99mTc-MDP and the CT scans in identifying metastases of osteosarcoma. Sensitivity was 100%, 86% and 98% respectively.

  11. Identification of trabecular excrescences, novel microanatomical structures, present in bone in osteoarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A M; Boyde, A; Davidson, J S; Jarvis, J C; Ranganath, L R; Gallagher, J A

    2012-04-21

    It is widely held that bone architecture is finely regulated in accordance with homeostatic requirements. Aberrant remodelling (hyperdensification and/or cyst formation in the immediately subchondral region) has previously been described in bone underlying cartilage in arthropathies. The present study examined the trabecular architecture of samples of bone, initially in the severe osteoarthropathy of alkaptonuria, but subsequently in osteoarthritis using a combination of light microscopy, 3D scanning electron microscopy and quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy. We report an extraordinary and previously unrecognised bone phenotype in both disorders, including novel microanatomical structures. The underlying subchondral trabecular bone contained idiosyncratic architecture. Trabecular surfaces had numerous outgrowths that we have termed "trabecular excrescences", of which three distinct types were recognised. The first type arose from incomplete resorption of branching secondary trabeculae arising from the deposition of immature (woven) bone in prior marrow space. These were characterised by very deeply scalloped surfaces and rugged edges. The second type had arisen in a similar way but been smoothed over by new bone deposition. The third type, which resembled coarse stucco, probably arises from resting surfaces that had been focally reactivated. These were poorly integrated with the prior trabecular wall. We propose that these distinctive microanatomical structures are indicative of abnormal osteoclast/osteoblast modelling in osteoarthropathies, possibly secondary to altered mechanical loading or other aberrant signalling. Identification of the mechanisms underlying the formation of trabecular excrescences will contribute to a better understanding of the role of aberrant bone remodelling in arthropathies and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Duncker, C.M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Estorch, M.; Alonso, C.; Ojeda, B.; Blanco, R.; Germa, J.R.; Ortega, V. )

    1990-09-01

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases.

  13. Imaging of the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Abele, Travis A; Wiggins, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    A variety of congenital, infectious, inflammatory, vascular, and benign and malignant neoplastic pathology affects the temporal bone. Knowledge of normal temporal bone anatomy and space-specific differential diagnoses is key to imaging interpretation of temporal bone. Correlation with clinical history and physical examination is vital to making the correct diagnosis or providing an appropriate differential. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are complementary imaging modalities in the evaluation of temporal bone abnormalities.

  14. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  15. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  16. Bone x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... not being scanned. Alternative Names X-ray - bone Images Skeleton Skeletal spine Osteogenic sarcoma - x-ray References ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  19. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-01

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm3, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm2. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm3 which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  1. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  2. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  3. An evaluation of serial bone imaging in carcinoma of the breast: Prognostic indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.P.; Garg, A.; Pinch, P.; Mathur, B.; Karimeddini, M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies have appeared on the use of bone imaging for initial staging of patients with carcinoma of the breast (COB). Less well evaluated has been the role played by bone scans in serially following those with COB, and in determining which findings have prognostic significance. The authors have had the opportunity to follow a population of patients with COB, by means of Tc-99m-phosphate images. Of 134 patients who died of their disease, 105 (78.4%) had a positive bone scan just prior to the terminal event. A more detailed study was made of those who had been studied at intervals of about 6 months and met 3 criteria. 1) Histologically diagnosed carcinoma of the breast. 2) No unrelated malignancy (second primary) known. 3) Two or more bone scans at least one year apart. Of 102 women in this group and still living, 33 had an abnormal bone scan, while 69 presented with an initially normal study. Of these, 47 stayed normal, while 22 showed lesions at a later date. A Kaplan-Meier type plot was made, comparing the living group with those who died. The most noticeable difference was that many of those who died had the bone scan turn positive within 6 months, while none of the survivors had such a finding (follow-up for 5 years in some cases). A plot of percent positive versus time suggests that some patients bear a metastatic burden that is initially undetected, but shortly becomes positive. The analysis has been extended to which bones are involved (vertebrae most frequent) and the presence of ancillary findings such as lymphedema.

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  5. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  6. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility.

  7. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Renal scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urinate often to help remove the radioactive material from the body. How to Prepare for the Test Tell your health care provider if you take ... drink additional fluids before the scan. How the Test will ... into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. ...

  9. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  10. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  11. Miscellaneous indications in bone scintigraphy: metabolic bone diseases and malignant bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gary J R; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Chua, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The diphosphonate bone scan is ideally suited to assess many global, focal or multifocal metabolic bone disorders and there remains a role for conventional bone scintigraphy in metabolic bone disorders at diagnosis, investigation of complications, and treatment response assessment. In contrast, the role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of primary malignant bone tumors has reduced with the improvement of morphologic imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, an increasing role for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography is emerging as a functional assessment at diagnosis, staging, and neoadjuvant treatment response assessment.

  12. Sacro-iliac joint scanning with technetium-99 diphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Lugon, M; Torode, A S; Travers, R L; Amaral, H; Lavender, J P; Hughes, G R

    1979-08-01

    Quantitative sacro-iliac (SI) joint scanning with methylene diphosphonate labelled with technetium-99 (99TcMDP) was performed in 25 control patients, in 16 patients with definite ankylosing spondylitis, in 23 patients with mechanical low back pain, and in 12 patients with seronegative arthritis. The mean radio-isotope index in the control group was 1.2 +/- 0.15. The highest value was 1.5. Values in excess of 1.5 were seen in patients with clinically active ankylosing spondylitis but not those with inactive disease. Three of the 12 seronegative arthritis patients (without clinical or radiological evidence of sacro-iliitis) had elevated values: all of these were positive for HL-A B27. An important finding was that six of the 23 patients with mechanical or non-specific low back pain had values above 1.5, unassociated with B27. These data emphasize the need for caution in the interpretation of abnormal sacro-iliac scans. Radio-isotope bone scanning can provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of inflammatory activity in joints with minimal radiation exposure. Various authors have shown its value in providing early evidence of sacro-iliitis (Russell et al., 1975; Namey et al., 1977). In this study, methylene diphosphonate labelled with technetium-99 (99TcMMDP) has been used to produce quantitative sacro-iliac scans in order to evaluate sacro-iliac disease in four groups of patients presenting with or without low back pain.

  13. Access to bone densitometry increases general practitioners' prescribing for osteoporosis in steroid treated patients

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, A; Koshy, E; Waker, M; Goble, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Availability of access to bone densitometry in the UK varies widely and there are concerns as to appropriate prescribing. Studies suggest inadequate use of osteoporosis prophylaxis in steroid users, despite recent guidelines. Objective: To examine in a case-control study whether access to bone densitometry affects GPs' osteoporosis prescribing in high risk steroid users. Method: 10 general practices were included, five from primary care trusts (PCTs) with access to bone densitometry and five with limited access. Patients receiving prednisolone for >3 months were identified by database search. Patients receiving no prophylaxis other than calcium and vitamin D (Ca/D) were subsequently included. Appropriate patients in five practices were offered DXA scan (cases) and review. Patients in practices without access to scans (controls) were reviewed. GPs' opinions leading to treatment were sought by structured questionnaire. Results: 132 (0.12%) patients were receiving prednisolone for ⩾3 months, but no osteoporosis prophylaxis other than Ca/D. Pre-study prophylaxis ranged from 18 to 36%. Of 48 patients scanned, 21 (44%) were abnormal and 18 (38%) received new treatment. 13/44 (30%) controls received new treatment. 10/21 (48%) with abnormal scans started a bisphosphonate, compared with 7/44 (16%) controls (RR = 3, p = 0.004). No difference in risk factors for fracture was found in treated and untreated controls. Conclusions: GPs were three times more likely to start potent osteoporosis treatment after abnormal scans than GPs relying on clinical information. In practice, risk factors were not adequately assessed. Database searches may identify patients needing osteoporosis prophylaxis; however, DXA enables more appropriate patient treatment. PMID:14722208

  14. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  15. Bone Surface Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bone shape is an important factor to determine the bone's structural function. For the asymmetrically shaped and anisotropically distributed bone in vivo, a surface mapping method is proposed on the bases of its geometric transformation invariance and its uniqueness of the principal axes of inertia. Using spiral CT scanning, we can make precise measurements to bone in vivo. The coordinate transformations lead to the principal axes of inertia, with which the prime meridian and the contour can be set. Methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping method can reflect the shape features and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. This method can be applied to research into the surface characteristics and changes of organ, tissue or cell whenever its digitalized surface is obtained. PMID:22412952

  16. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  17. CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposing your baby to radiation. Reactions to contrast material In certain cases, your doctor may recommend you ... for a few hours before your scan Contrast material A special dye called a contrast material is ...

  18. Juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P

    1999-07-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth.

  19. Immersion ultrasonography: simultaneous A-scan and B-scan.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D J; Dallow, R L; Smith, M E

    1979-01-01

    In eyes with opaque media, ophthalmic ultrasound provides a unique source of information that can dramatically affect the course of patient management. In addition, when an ocular abnormality can be visualized, ultrasonography provides information that supplements and complements other diagnostic testing. It provides documentation and differentiation of abnormal states, such as vitreous hemorrhage and intraocular tumor, as well as differentiation of orbital tumors from inflammatory causes of exophthalmos. Additional capabilities of ultrasound are biometric determinations for calculation of intraocular lens implant powers and drug-effectiveness studies. Maximal information is derived from ultrasonography when A-scan and B-scan techniques are employed simultaneously. Flexibility of electronics, variable-frequency transducers, and the use of several different manual scanning patterns aid in detection and interpretation of results. The immersion system of ultrasonography provides these features optimally.

  20. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  3. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in a case of Kaposi sarcoma with an unexpected bone lesion.

    PubMed

    Morooka, Miyako; Ito, Kimiteru; Kubota, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Teruya, Katsuji; Hasuo, Kahehiro; Shida, Yoshitaka; Minamimoto, Rhogo; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Bone lesions of Kaposi sarcoma are rare. A 56-year-old man who was HIV positive and was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma on the basis of the results of a biopsy of skin lesions, underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for detecting Kaposi sarcoma lesions and other AIDS-related diseases. An abnormal uptake was observed in the lumbar spine. MRI showed a diffuse enhanced spine lesion, and Ga-67 and ²⁰¹Tl scanning were negative. As a result, the lesion was considered to be a Kaposi sarcoma, and the shrinkage of the lesion was noted after the therapy for Kaposi sarcoma.

  4. Lung Perfusion Scanning in Hepatic Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, N. N.; Ackrill, P.; Wood, J.

    1972-01-01

    Abnormal lung perfusion scans using radioactive particles were found in five out of six cases of hepatic cirrhosis with arterial hypoxaemia. None had clinical evidence of cardiopulmonary disease or signs of pulmonary embolism on arteriography. The scan defects are probably caused by a disorder of the pulmonary microvasculature, which may show regional variation in severity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4645896

  5. Automated trabecular bone histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides and the relationship between bone tumor incidence and the local dosimetry of radionuclides in bone are investigated. The microdistributions of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the trabecular bone from the proximal humerus, distal humerus, proximal ulna, proximal femur, and distal femur of six young adult beagles injected with Am-241 (three with 2.8 micro-Ci/kg and three with 0.9 micro-Ci/kg) are estimated using a computer-controlled microscope photometer system; the components of the University of Utah Optical Track Scanner are described. The morphometric parameters for the beagles are calculated and analyzed. It is observed that the beagles injected with 0.9 micro-Ci of Am-241/kg showed an increase in the percentage of bone and trabecular bone thickness, and a reduction in the width of the bone marrow space and surface/volume ratio. The data reveal that radiation damage causes abnormal bone structure.

  6. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  7. Congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S

    1992-11-01

    This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy.

  8. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  9. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  10. Microdistribution and local dosimetry of /sup 226/Ra in trabecular bone of the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Polig, E.; Jee, W.S.; Dell, R.B.; Johnson, F.

    1988-11-01

    Sections of lumbar vertebral bodies of young adult beagle dogs have been analyzed autoradiographically to characterize and quantify the local distribution of 226Ra by means of a scanning microscope photometer. The animals received a single injection of 355 kBq/kg body weight and were serially sacrificed at 5 to 1381 days postinjection. Hotspot concentrations decreased from about 51 kBq/g bone at 5 days to 20 kBq/g at 1381 days postinjection. The diffuse concentration changed from 8.3 to 1.9 kBq/g. The mean 226Ra concentration in the trabecular areas scanned was initially higher and at the end of the observation period lower than the average calculated for the whole lumbar vertebral column. Density and area of, and fraction of bone activity in, hotspots virtually remained constant. With time hotspots tended to become translocated into bone volume. Mean dose rates to lining cells from both hotspots and diffuse labels decreased from about 210 mGy/d at early postinjection times to 105 mGy/d. This corresponds to 2.5 to 1.1 times the average skeletal dose rate. A discussion of the level of irradiation in terms of hit frequencies shows that osteoblasts in the initial phase of hotspot formation receive about 60 hits to their nucleus for the duration of bone formation. After about 6 months, however, the 226Ra concentration in new bone and the corresponding hit frequency appears to be low enough that interference with bone formation is unlikely. Morphometric measurements showed that abnormal bone accretion and thickening of trabeculae occurred. This was interpreted as an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Both formation and resorption seem to be substantially lowered compared to control animals.

  11. Bone mineral density response to long-term bisphosphonate therapy in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Parisi, M S; Oliveri, M B; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare disease related to a genetic mutation in which bone formation at osseous sites is altered. In the last few years, bisphosphonates have become one of the choice drugs to treat this disease. A 26-yr-old woman presented after 6 wk of spontaneous right leg pain owing to a fissure fracture of the right femoral neck. She reported precocious puberty at the age of 2, with diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome. Radioisotope bone scanning, radiographic, biochemical, and densitometric studies were performed. Treatment with bisphosphonates was started because bone turnover biochemical markers were abnormal. Oral olpadronate followed by iv pamidronate substantially decreased bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total skeleton and subareas was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) throughout the 5 yr of treatment. At the end of this period, BMD of the total skeleton had increased 6.2%. However, BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia, the legs and pelvis, had increased 12.7 and 11%, respectively. Region of interest analysis of individual bones of the legs performed with the total skeleton scan revealed that BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia was lower than that of the less affected contralateral bones. During the first 3 yr, treatment with bisphosphonates substantially increased BMD of the right femur and tibia (22 and 28%, respectively). After that, values seemed to stabilize. DXA evaluation of the total skeleton and its subareas was useful to evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the plateau observed in BMD values after 3 yr of treatment suggests that treatment could have been discontinued when the densitometric values stabilized.

  12. Bone turnover predicts change in volumetric bone density and bone geometry at the radius in men.

    PubMed

    Pye, S R; Ward, K A; Cook, M J; Laurent, M R; Gielen, E; Borghs, H; Adams, J E; Boonen, S; Vanderschueren, D; Wu, F C; O'Neill, T W

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the distal and midshaft radius were performed in 514 European men aged 40-79 years at baseline and a median of 4.3 years later. Age-related changes in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone geometry were greater in men with higher biochemical markers of bone turnover at baseline.

  13. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  14. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Maxillary Sinuses Abnormalities through Spiral Computed Tomography (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, João Paulo Nunes; Allegro, Bruna Bianca; Novo, Neil Ferreira; de Miranda, Sérgio Luís; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maxillary sinus disease is common and numerous disorders can affect this anatomical area. Abnormalities can be classified as: non-neoplastic, neoplastic benign, and neoplastic malignant. Objective Evaluate through CT the prevalence of diseases in maxillary sinuses, using the Radiology Department's database of a hospital in São Paulo city. Methods The sample consisted of 762 facial CT scans that we divided into three groups: Group A (12–19 years old); Group B (20–49 years old); Group C (above 50 years old); and male or female. We considered the following pathological processes: I - Mucoperiosteal Thickening; II - Chronic Sinusitis; III - Chronic Odontogenic Sinusitis; IV - Rhinosinusitis; V - Polypoid Lesions; VI - Bone Lesions; VII - Neoplasms; VIII - Antrolith; IX - Foreign Bodies; X - Oroantral Fistula. Results Our study found that 305 exams (40.02%) were normal and 457 exams (59.97%) were abnormal. We found the following disease frequencies: focal mucoperiosteal thickening (21.25%); polypoid lesions (10.76%); chronic sinusitis (7.48%); chronic odontogenic sinusitis (2.29%); neoplasms (2.03%); rhinosinusitis (1.77%); bone lesions, foreign bodies and oroantral fistula in 0.65%; 0.13% and 0.06% respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female, and Groups A, B, or C when relating the frequencies of abnormalities found. There was no significant difference between male and female and the age group for the side of the altered maxillary sinus. Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of sinus maxillary diseases. Mucoperiosteal thickening; acute, chronic, and odontogenic sinusitis; polypoid lesions and neoplasms have high prevalence in maxillary sinuses. Thus, facial CT exam was effective for the evaluation of diseases in maxillary sinuses. PMID:28382118

  15. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  16. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  17. Bone Metastasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... metastasis, surgeons can stabilize the bone using metal plates, screws and nails (orthopedic fixation). Orthopedic fixation can ... that can't be easily reinforced with metal plates or screws, such as pelvic bones and bones ...

  18. Scintigraphy of aneurysmal bone cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1984-04-01

    Bone scintigrams with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals of 25 aneurysmal bone cysts showed abnormal activity in every case. In 22 cases, the activity was correlated with the true pathologic extent of the lesions; only three exhibited a false-positive extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor margins. Sixteen scintigrams (64%) revealed increased uptake, chiefly around the periphery of the lesions, with less activity in their centers. This feature could not be explained simply by the cystic nature of the lesions, since aneurysmal bone cysts may contain considerable fibrous tissue septa containing trabeculae of reactive new bone. However, there was no correlation between any specific anatomic or histologic pattern and the intensity and pattern of abnormal scintigraphic activity.

  19. [Bone lesion in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Ise, Mikiko; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma(MM). Almost all MM patients develop osteolytic bone lesions that can cause pathologic fractures and severe bone pain. Osteolytic lesions result from increased bone resorption due to osteoclast stimulation and decreased bone formation due to osteoblast inhibition. Plain radiography, CT, and MRI are established imaging techniques in MM. FDG-PET imaging is promising newer scanning technique under current evaluation. The aggressive features of MM bone lesions have significantly contributed to poor prognosis. Therefore, a systemic approach to analgesia, which includes radiotherapy and orthopedic intervention, must be applied as a part of the comprehensive care plan of MM patient. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce vertebral fractures and bone pain.

  20. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy.

  1. Paget's Disease of Bone: Approach to Its Historical Origins.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Bueyes, Luis R; Soler Fernández, María Del Carmen

    Paget's disease of bone is the second most common bone disease after osteoporosis. It is characterized by focal regions of highly exaggerated bone remodeling, with abnormalities in all phases of the remodeling process. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis of a possible British origin of Paget's disease of bone by studying the worldwide geographic distribution of cases identified in ancient skeletons excavated from archaeological sites. The methodology consists in reviewing cases of Paget's disease of bone described in the literature.

  2. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  3. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  4. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  5. BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Doube, Michael; Kłosowski, Michał M; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Dougherty, Robert P; Jackson, Jonathan S; Schmid, Benjamin; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2010-12-01

    Bone geometry is commonly measured on computed tomographic (CT) and X-ray microtomographic (μCT) images. We obtained hundreds of CT, μCT and synchrotron μCT images of bones from diverse species that needed to be analysed remote from scanning hardware, but found that available software solutions were expensive, inflexible or methodologically opaque. We implemented standard bone measurements in a novel ImageJ plugin, BoneJ, with which we analysed trabecular bone, whole bones and osteocyte lacunae. BoneJ is open source and free for anyone to download, use, modify and distribute.

  6. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  7. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  8. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  9. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  10. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long...

  11. CT Findings in Temporal Bone Osteoradionecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salmaan; Gupta, Nakul; Hamilton, Jackson D.; Garden, Adam S.; Gidley, Paul W.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study is to describe CT findings in patients with clinically proven temporal bone osteoradionecrosis (TB-ORN). Methods and materials CT scans of twenty patients were retrospectively evaluated for bony and soft tissue abnormalities. Clinical severity was graded based on level of therapy administered: mild (observation), moderate (antibiotics/hyperbaric oxygen), or severe (surgery). Results Radiation dose to the primary tumor ranged from 30 to 75.6 Gy. Time to onset of ORN from completion of radiation therapy was 2 to 22 years (median=7yrs). Clinical findings: Exposed bone=20/20, otorrhea=17/20, hearing loss=11/20, otalgia=10/20, facial nerve paralysis=2/20, gait imbalance=2/20. CT findings: EAC erosions=18/20, mastoid effusion=18/20, mastoid bony coalescence=5/20, enhancing soft tissue=6/20, soft tissue gas=6/20, temporomandibular joint/condylar erosion=3/20. 3 patients developed an abscess. Conclusion Mastoid effusion and EAC erosions are commonly seen with TB-ORN. Clinically moderate or severe cases of TB-ORN are more likely to demonstrate enhancing soft tissue (p=0.002), soft tissue gas (p=0.002), and temporomandibular joint involvement (p=0.07). PMID:24834883

  12. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  13. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  14. The abnormal nucleus as a cause of congenital facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Jemec, B.; Grobbelaar, A.; Harrison, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Congenital facial palsy (CFP) is clinically defined as facial palsy present at birth. It is associated with considerable disfigurement and causes functional and emotional problems for the affected child. The aetiology of the majority of cases however, remains elusive.
AIMS—To investigate the role of a neuroanatomical abnormality as a cause of unilateral CFP.
METHODS—Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed on 21 patients with unilateral CFP. Fifteen patients had unilateral CFP only; six suffered from syndromes which can include unilateral CFP.
RESULTS—Of the 15 patients with unilateral CFP only, four (27%) had an abnormal nucleus or an abnormal weighting of this area on the MRI scan, compared to one (17%) of the remaining six patients.
CONCLUSION—Developmental abnormalities of the facial nucleus itself constitute an important, and previously ignored, cause of monosymptomatic unilateral CFP.

 PMID:10952650

  15. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  16. The role of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in benign and malignant bone disease.

    PubMed

    Horger, Marius; Bares, Roland

    2006-10-01

    Radiological (plain radiographs, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and nuclear medicine methods (bone scan, leukocyte scan) both provide unique information about the status of the skeleton. Both have typical strengths and weaknesses, which often lead to the sequential use of different procedures in daily routine. This use causes the unnecessary loss of time and sometimes money, if redundant information is obtained without establishing a final diagnosis. Recently, new devices for hybrid imaging (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography [SPECT/CT], positron emission tomography/computed tomography [PET/CT]) were introduced, which allow for direct fusion of morphological (CT) and functional (SPECT, PET) data sets. With regard to skeletal abnormalities, this approach appears to be extremely useful because it combines the advantages of both techniques (high-resolution imaging of bone morphology and high sensitivity imaging of bone metabolism). By the accurate correlation of both, a new quality of bone imaging has now become accessible. Although researchers undertaking the initial studies exclusively used low-dose CT equipment, a new generation of SPECT/CT devices has emerged recently. By integrating high-resolution spiral CT, quality of bone imaging may improve once more. Ongoing prospective studies will have to show whether completely new diagnostic algorithms will come up for classification of bone disease as a consequence of this development. Besides, the role of ultrasonography and MRI for bone and soft-tissue imaging also will have to be re-evaluated. Looking at the final aim of all imaging techniques--to achieve correct diagnosis in a fast, noninvasive, comprehensive, and inexpensive way--we are now on the edge of a new era of multimodality imaging that will probably change the paths and structure of medicine in many ways. Presently, hybrid imaging using SPECT/CT has been proven to increase sensitivity and specificity

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. [Effect of a single dose of zoledronic acid in a case of Paget bone disease].

    PubMed

    Saban, Melina; Fidalgo, Silvina; Díaz, Carlos A; Lutfi, Ruben J

    2010-01-01

    Paget's disease is a chronic disorder of bone remodeling characterized by increase of bone resorption by atypical osteoclasts, followed by rapid increase in bone formation resulting in a disorganized mosaic bone. The biochemical marker for early diagnosis and monitoring is serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We report the case of a 90 year old male, with diagnose of Paget's disease. Pamidronate treatment was started orally with partial response, so it was switched to intravenous pamidronate. Pain intensity and FAL levels diminished. The scyntigraphic scan, however, though improved, persisted abnormal. After several years of treatment, with adequate calcium and vitamin D support, the patient presents pain and increase of FAL. We administered intravenous zoledronic acid (4 mg) in a single dose. After this treatment we observed clinical and biochemical remission during four years and a significantly improvement in the scintigraphy. We report a case of Paget's disease, resistant to pamidronate treatment in whom a single dose of zoledronic acid produced clinical and biochemical remission during 4 years and a significant improvement in the scintigraphic scan.

  19. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  20. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  1. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  2. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  3. Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Venema, Henk W.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2004-10-01

    In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose.

  4. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  5. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  6. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ...

  7. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  8. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  9. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  11. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  12. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  13. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  14. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  15. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  16. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  17. Effect of tibial dyschondroplasia on broiler growth and cancellous bone mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Capps, S G

    1998-01-01

    The increased incidence of leg abnormalities, particularly tibial dyschondroplasia, in chickens could be related to changes in tibiotarsal cancellous bone properties. To explore this hypothesis, the relationship between lesion occurrence and various tibiotarsal growth parameters, and subchondral bone strength characteristics was investigated. A higher elastic modulus, meaning the cancellous bone was more rigid, was seen for tibiotarsal cancellous bone with lesions. Microfractures in cancellous bone, particularly in the medial growth plate region, may lead to overall bone conformation changes and therefore to lameness.

  18. [Fetal bone and joint disorders].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2008-12-21

    The article discusses the physiology and pathology of fetal bone and joint development and functions. The bones provide static support for the body. The skull and the bones of spinal column encase the central and part of the peripheral nervous system. The ribs and the sternum shield the heart and the lungs, while the bones of the pelvis protect the intraabdominal organs. Pathological changes of these bony structures may impair the functions of the respective systems or internal organs. Movements of the bones are brought about by muscles. The deriving motions are facilitated by joints. Bony anomalies of the extremities limit their effective functions. Apart from skeletal and joint abnormalities, akinesia may also be caused by neurological, muscular and skin diseases that secondarily affect the functions of bones and joints. Such pathological changes may lead to various degrees of physical disability and even to death. Some of the mentioned anomalies are recognizable in utero by ultrasound. The diagnosis may serve as medical indication for abortion in those instances when the identified abnormality is incompatible with independent life.

  19. Mechanical stimulation of bone marrow in situ induces bone formation in trabecular explants.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Kreipke, T C; Dolan, E B; Coughlin, T R; Owens, P; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L; McHugh, P E

    2015-04-01

    Low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) loading has been shown to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in vivo. However, the precise mechanical signal imposed on the bone marrow cells by LMHF loading, which induces a cellular response, remains unclear. This study investigates the influence of LMHF loading, applied using a custom designed bioreactor, on bone adaptation in an explanted trabecular bone model, which isolated the bone and marrow. Bone adaptation was investigated by performing micro CT scans pre and post experimental LMHF loading, using image registration techniques. Computational fluids dynamic models were generated using the pre-experiment scans to characterise the mechanical stimuli imposed by the loading regime prior to adaptation. Results here demonstrate a significant increase in bone formation in the LMHF loaded group compared to static controls and media flow groups. The calculated shear stress in the marrow was between 0.575 and 0.7 Pa, which is within the range of stimuli known to induce osteogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Interestingly, a correlation was found between the bone formation balance (bone formation/resorption), trabecular number, trabecular spacing, mineral resorption rate, bone resorption rate and mean shear stresses. The results of this study suggest that the magnitude of the shear stresses generated due to LMHF loading in the explanted bone cores has a contributory role in the formation of trabecular bone and improvement in bone architecture parameters.

  20. Endocrine and musculoskeletal abnormalities in patients with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawli, Yousra; Nasrallah, Mona; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2009-06-01

    Down syndrome has a prevalence of one in 500 to one in 1,000 live births and is the most common cause of mental retardation. Most patients are treated in childhood and adolescence for mental or growth retardation. Studies that evaluate bone mass in Down syndrome are limited, and many are small case series in pediatric and adult populations who live either in the community or in residential institutions. Several environmental and hormonal factors contribute to low bone mineral density in such patients. Muscle hypotonia, low amounts of physical activity, poor calcium and vitamin D intakes, hypogonadism, growth retardation and thyroid dysfunction contribute to substantial impairments in skeletal maturation and bone-mass accrual that predispose these patients to fragility fractures. Here, we review indications and limitations of bone-mass measurements in children, summarize the endocrine and skeletal abnormalities in patients presenting with Down syndrome, and review studies that investigate therapeutic strategies for such patients.

  1. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  2. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  3. CT scanning analysis of Megantereon whitei (Carnivora, Machairodontinae) from Monte Argentario (Early Pleistocene, central Italy): evidence of atavistic teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Sardella, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    CT scanning analysis applied to vertebrate palaeontology is providing an increasing number of data of great interest. This method can be used in many branches of palaeontology such as the investigation of all the fossilized elements in a hard matrix and the hidden structures in the bones. A large number of pathologies are "hidden", completely or partially invisible on the external surface of the bones because their development took place within the bones. However, the study of these diseases and abnormalities plays a crucial role in our understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes of extinct taxa. The analysis of a partial skeleton of the sabre-toothed felid Megantereon whitei from the Early Pleistocene karst filling deposits of Monte Argentario (Tuscany, Italy) has been carried out. The CT scanning analysis put in evidence the presence of supernumerary teeth (P2) and the absence of P3 in the mandible. The occurrence of P2 can be considered as an evidence of atavism. Such an archaic feature is recorded for the first time in Megantereon.

  4. Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangiomas of the bone

    SciTech Connect

    Lenane, P.

    1986-09-01

    Labeled red blood cells (RBCs) have already been proven useful in the detection and localization of many vascular abnormalities. One such abnormality is that of a cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangiomas have a distinct circulation and have been found in many areas of the body. The ability to utilize this unique circulation is important to consider when choosing a diagnostic exam. This paper reports a case demonstrating the usefulness of labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangioma of the bone. A 31-yr-old female present with a history of persistent generalized headaches for many years. About 1 yr prior to the exam, she noticed that her headaches had become more localized to the right side of her head. Physical examination revealed a palpable lump developing on the right side of her head which was sensitive to the touch. The patient was then scheduled for a CT scan to be followed by both a bone scan and a /sup 99m/Tc blood-pool scan. A flow study using 15 mCi /sup 99m/Tc labeled RBCs was performed in the right lateral position at 1.5 sec/frame for 32 frames. Immediate blood-pool images 30-min, and 1-hr delayed images were recorded.

  5. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  6. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  7. Micro-CT evaluation of bone defects: applications to osteolytic bone metastases, bone cysts, and fracture.

    PubMed

    Buie, Helen R; Bosma, Nick A; Downey, Charlene M; Jirik, Frank R; Boyd, Steven K

    2013-11-01

    Bone defects can occur in various forms and present challenges to performing a standard micro-CT evaluation of bone quality because most measures are suited to homogeneous structures rather than ones with spatially focal abnormalities. Such defects are commonly associated with pain and fragility. Research involving bone defects requires quantitative approaches to be developed if micro-CT is to be employed. In this study, we demonstrate that measures of inter-microarchitectural bone spacing are sensitive to the presence of focal defects in the proximal tibia of two distinctly different mouse models: a burr-hole model for fracture healing research, and a model of osteolytic bone metastases. In these models, the cortical and trabecular bone compartments were both affected by the defect and were, therefore, evaluated as a single unit to avoid splitting the defects into multiple analysis regions. The burr-hole defect increased mean spacing (Sp) by 27.6%, spacing standard deviation (SpSD) by 113%, and maximum spacing (Spmax) by 72.8%. Regression modeling revealed SpSD (β=0.974, p<0.0001) to be a significant predictor of the defect volume (R(2)=0.949) and Spmax (β=0.712, p<0.0001) and SpSD (β=0.271, p=0.022) to be significant predictors of the defect diameter (R(2)=0.954). In the mice with osteolytic bone metastases, spacing parameters followed similar patterns of change as reflected by other imaging technologies, specifically bioluminescence data which is indicative of tumor burden. These data highlight the sensitivity of spacing measurements to bone architectural abnormalities from 3D micro-CT data and provide a tool for quantitative evaluation of defects within a bone.

  8. Sweet Bones: The Pathogenesis of Bone Alteration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients have increased fracture risk. The pathogenesis underlying the status of bone alterations in diabetes mellitus is not completely understood but is multifactorial. The major deficits appear to be related to a deficit in mineralized surface area, a decrement in the rate of mineral apposition, deceased osteoid surface, depressed osteoblast activity, and decreased numbers of osteoclasts due to abnormal insulin signaling pathway. Other prominent features of diabetes mellitus are an increased urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and oxidative stress leading to sweet bones (altered bone's strength, metabolism, and structure). Every diabetic patient should be assessed for risk factors for fractures and osteoporosis. The pathogenesis of the bone alterations in diabetes mellitus as well as their molecular mechanisms needs further study. PMID:27777961

  9. Bone poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Cowin, S C

    1999-03-01

    Poroelasticity is a well-developed theory for the interaction of fluid and solid phases of a fluid-saturated porous medium. It is widely used in geomechanics and has been applied to bone by many authors in the last 30 years. The purpose of this work is, first, to review the literature related to the application of poroelasticity to the interstitial bone fluid and, second, to describe the specific physical and modeling considerations that establish poroelasticity as an effective and useful model for deformation-driven bone fluid movement in bone tissue. The application of poroelasticity to bone differs from its application to soft tissues in two important ways. First, the deformations of bone are small while those of soft tissues are generally large. Second, the bulk modulus of the mineralized bone matrix is about six times stiffer than that of the fluid in the pores while the bulk moduli of the soft tissue matrix and the pore water are almost the same. Poroelasticity and electrokinetics can be used to explain strain-generated potentials in wet bone. It is noted that strain-generated potentials can be used as an effective tool in the experimental study of local bone fluid flow, and that the knowledge of this technique will contribute to the answers of a number of questions concerning bone mineralization, osteocyte nutrition and the bone mechanosensory system.

  10. The Development of Automated Systems for Metaphase Location in Cytogenetic Preparations of Human Bone Marrow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Neal

    1990-01-01

    Cytogenetic evaluation of human bone marrow cells is one of the principal sources of diagnostic and prognostic information in the evaluation of the myeloid leukemias. In the majority of cases, these diseases are characterized by non-random chromosomal changes in the cells of the malignant clone. The chromosomal abnormalities are present only in the leukemic cells, which are distributed along with normal cells in the bone marrow and throughout the circulation. The objective of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that suitable criteria could be established for automated metaphase detection using human bone marrow preparations. This involved computerized, low resolution scanning of a specimen slide, and the measurement of object features which allowed metaphases to be adequately distinguished from nuclei and debris. Two approaches were investigated. The first used a line-scanning system, in which microscope slides were scanned line by line with a linear CCD detector, and focussing was performed automatically. Eighteen signal features were measured for each detected object. Three group discriminant function analysis was performed on objects from a large number of slides from both types of preparations, in order to distinguish metaphases from nuclei and debris. The second method evaluated the use of a frame scanning system. Objects were detected in a frame-by-frame scan of microscope slides, using a two dimensional CD camera. Feature measurements were performed for all objects within a specified area range, and three group discriminant function analysis was performed on data from a large number of slides. In both approaches, the performance of the discriminant functions was evaluated on independent samples collected from a number of patients, in order to determine the operational error rates of the systems. The sensitivity of the line scan system for metaphase detection was 86%, compared to 92% for the frame scanning system, while the specificity was 84% for the line

  11. Radionuclide studies of bone metabolism: do bone uptake and bone plasma clearance provide equivalent measurements of bone turnover?

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Siddique, Musib; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-09-01

    Quantitative radionuclide imaging using (18)F-fluoride positron emission tomography (18F-PET) or (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scans provides a novel tool for studying regional and whole skeleton bone turnover that complements the information provided by biochemical markers. Radionuclide bone scans can be quantified by measuring either tracer uptake or, if blood sampling is performed, bone plasma clearance. This study examines whether these two methods provide equivalent information about bone turnover. We examined data from two clinical trials of the bone anabolic agent teriparatide. In Study 1 twenty osteoporotic women had 18F-PET scans of the lumbar spine at baseline and after 6 months treatment with teriparatide. Bone uptake in the lumbar spine was expressed as standardised uptake values (SUV) and blood samples taken to evaluate plasma clearance. In Study 2 ten women had (99m)Tc-MDP scans at baseline, 3 and 18 months after starting teriparatide. Blood samples were taken and whole skeleton plasma clearance and bone uptake calculated. In Study 1 spine plasma clearance increased by 23.8% after 6-months treatment (P=0.0003), whilst SUV increased by only 3.0% (P=0.84). In Study 2 whole skeleton plasma clearance increased by 37.1% after 18-months treatment (P=0.0002), whilst the 4-hour whole skeleton uptake increased by only 25.5% (P=0.0001). During treatment the 18F- plasma concentration decrease by 20% and (99m)Tc-MDP concentration by 13%, and these latter changes were sufficient to explain the differences between the uptake and plasma clearance results. Measurements of response to treatment using bone uptake and plasma clearance gave different results because the effects of teriparatide on bone resulted in a sufficiently increased demand for radionuclide tracer from the skeleton that the concentration in the circulation decreased. Similar effects may occur with other therapies that have a large enough effect on bone metabolism. In these

  12. A Boon for Bone Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA studies for astronaut health in long-term space missions led to the development of the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), a research tool for astronaut disuse, osteoporosis and related bone disorders among the general population. Ames Research Center and Stanford University generated a workable device and with Gait Scan, Inc., refined and commercialized it. The MRTA is a portable dsinstrument that measures the bending stiffness of bones using electrically-induced vibration and detects and analyzes the frequencies of the resonating bone. Unlike some other methods, the MRTA uses no radiation and is fast, simple and relatively inexpensive.

  13. Symmetry analysis of talus bone

    PubMed Central

    Islam, K.; Dobbe, A.; Komeili, A.; Duke, K.; El-Rich, M.; Dhillon, S.; Adeeb, S.; Jomha, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Methods Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Results Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. Conclusions We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139–45. PMID:24802391

  14. Osteogenesis imperfecta lethal in infancy: case report and scanning electron microscopic studies of the deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Levin, L S; Rosenbaum, K N; Brady, J M; Dorst, J P

    1982-12-01

    Radiologic evaluation of the skeleton and scanning electron microscopic studies of the teeth were performed on an infant boy with a lethal osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) syndrome who died at 10 mo of pneumonia. The skeletal findings included ribs that were focally expanded by fracture calluses, flat vertebral bodies, and wide limb bones. On fractured tooth surfaces, the enamel and dentin were normal as was the dentin calcification front. Although microscopic abnormalities have been noted in teeth from previously reported infants with lethal OI, a few studies also report infants with normal teeth. These differences in dental findings may indicate heterogeneity in OI lethal in infancy. Results of our study indicate that, until the primary biochemical defects in the OI syndromes are elucidated, examination of teeth from other infants with lethal OI and detailed evaluation of other clinical and skeletal features will aid in delineating heterogeneity and variation in expression in lethal OI.

  15. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    , and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  16. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  17. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer makes several images of the body area. These ...

  18. HIDA Scan (Cholescintigraphy)

    MedlinePlus

    HIDA scan Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A hepatobiliary (HIDA) scan is an imaging procedure used to diagnose ... the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts. For a HIDA scan, also known as cholescintigraphy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy, ...

  19. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  1. Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b in Young Patients With Sickle Cell Disease and Trait Siblings: Relation to Vasculopathy and Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Galila Mohamed; Tantawy, Azza Abdel Gawad; Hamed, Ahmed Al-Saeed; Adly, Amira Abdel Moneam; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; Makkeyah, Sara Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Bone involvement is a frequent cause of acute morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), a bone resorption marker, is produced specifically by activated osteoclasts. We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) in 30 young patients with SCD and 17 asymptomatic patients with sickle cell trait (SCT) compared with 32 healthy controls and determined TRACP 5b levels in relation to vascular complications. Serum ferritin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and TRACP 5b were measured. Echocardiography was performed with assessment of BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD was decreased in patients with SCD compared with SCT and controls (P = .005), with no significant difference between the latter 2 groups. Patients with SCD had higher incidence of bone complications than SCT group and controls (P = .03). The SCD group with abnormal DXA scan had higher ferritin and ALP than normal BMD. Serum TRACP 5b was significantly higher in patients with SCD than SCT and controls (P = .003). The TRACP 5b levels were associated with severe vaso-occlusive crisis (P = .022). Patients treated with hydroxyurea and those on chelation therapy had lower TRACP 5b levels than untreated patients. The TRACP 5b level was positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase, while there was no relation with ferritin, ALP, or BMD. We suggest that bone complications frequently occur in SCD as reflected by low BMD and high ALP and TRACP 5b. Hemolysis and iron overload may be involved in the occurrence of these complications. The lack of correlation between abnormal DXA scan and high TRACP 5b suggests that bone disease in SCD is multifactorial.

  2. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  3. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  4. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  5. Bone cutting.

    PubMed

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  6. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  7. Ultrasonographic appearance of bony abnormalities at the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joint in geriatric cadaver horses.

    PubMed

    Vanderperren, K; Gielen, I; Van Caelenberg, A; Van der Vekens, E; Raes, E V; Hauspie, S; van Bree, H; Saunders, J H

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of bony abnormalities on the dorsal aspect of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone of the equine fetlock in cadavers with radiographic signs of osteoarthrosis. After US, computed tomography was undertaken to better characterise the lesions. Twelve fetlock joints were collected and all had more than one bone abnormality on US. Normal subchondral bone appeared on US as a well-defined and regular hyperechoic line with distal acoustic shadowing. Bone abnormalities detected on US included (1) gaps in the proximal subchondral bone filled with material of heterogeneous echogenicity, (2) bone fragments represented as small straight smoothly delineated hyperechoic lines with distal shadowing located superficial to the surface of the adjacent bone, (3) proximal new bone formation visible as mild to severe cortical protrusions, (4) marginal osteophytoses seen as an elevation of the hyperechoic surface of the subchondral bone at the edges of the joint surfaces, (5) indentations in subchondral bone seen as a concave deviation of the hyperechoic line without interruption, (6) focal or diffuse irregularities of the subchondral bone seen as disruptions of the normal smooth bony contours, and (7) focal hyperechoic spikes originating from the subchondral plate and invading the articular cartilage. These findings are discussed.

  8. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  9. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  10. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-10-26

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  11. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%. PMID:27792181

  12. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  13. Favorable control of advanced colon adenocarcinoma with severe bone marrow metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Fumiyasu; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Miyuki; Oda, Hisanobu; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Esaki, Taito; Baba, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a propensity to metastasize to the liver, lungs and regional abdominal lymph nodes, but rarely to the bone marrow. A 60-year-old man presented to the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center with a 4-week history of persistent lower back pain, anorexia and difficulty defecating. Complete blood count revealed severe thrombocytopenia and erythroblastosis, suggesting a hematological malignancy. However, the bone marrow examination demonstrated involvement by a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, but no hematopoietic abnormalities. A computed tomography scan revealed thickening of the wall of the sigmoid colon, with para-aortic, hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The patient was thus diagnosed with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with lymph node and bone marrow metastasis. Modified FOLFOX6 was promptly initiated, with concurrent therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An increased number of thrombocytes was observed on day 6. After 3 cycles of treatment, the patient recovered from DIC and the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment were decreased. Tumor biopsy during colonoscopy following recovery from DIC demonstrated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with mucin production, without mutations in the RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA genes, and a cytokeratin (CK) 7-negative, CK20-positive phenotype. The patient has been treated with chemotherapy for 150 days without disease progression. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy for rarely encountered bone marrow metastasis from CRC is poor. The present case was favorably maintained on chemotherapy and survived for 10 months. PMID:27900088

  14. Your Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... shoulder blade or scapula (say: SKA-pyuh-luh), a large triangular bone on the upper back corner of each side of the ribcage. The arm is made up of three bones: the humerus (say: HYOO-muh-rus), which is above your elbow, and the radius (say: RAY-dee-us) and ulna (say: UL- ...

  15. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  16. Cherubism with multiple dental abnormalities: a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Satya Ranjan; Mishra, Lora; Mohanty, Neeta; Mohanty, Susant

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a progressive, hereditary fibro-osseous lesion exclusively affecting the jaw bones. It is caused by the abnormal functioning of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to replacement of normal bone by cellular fibrous tissue and immature bone, which produces painless progressive growth of the jaw, with a round facial appearance. It was first described in 1933 by Jones as ‘familial multilocular cystic disease of the jaws’. The term ‘cherubism’ was later coined to describe the rounded facial appearance resulting from jaw hypertrophy that was reminiscent of cherubs depicted throughout Renaissance art. The bony lesions generally occur at an early age, affect one or both jaws symmetrically, and grow progressively until puberty. Spontaneous regression is seen in most cases, although surgical re-contouring may be required for others for aesthetic reasons. PMID:25301429

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  19. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  20. Markers of bone turnover in patients with epilepsy and their relationship to management of bone diseases induced by antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2016-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies revealed that patients with epilepsy and on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk for metabolic bone diseases. Bone diseases were reported in about 50% of patients on AEDs. Low bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, altered concentration of bone turnover markers and fractures were reported with phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. The mechanisms for AEDs-induced bone diseases are heterogeneous and include hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and direct acceleration of bone loss and/or reduction of bone formation. This article reviews the evidence, predictors and mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone abnormalities and its clinical implications. For patients on AEDs, regular monitoring of bone health is recommended. Prophylactic administration of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all patients. Treatment doses of calcium and vitamin D and even anti-resorptive drug therapy are reserved for patients at high risk of pathological fracture.

  1. An optimal set of landmarks for metopic craniosynostosis diagnosis from shape analysis of pediatric CT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos S.; Safdar, Nabile; Myers, Emmarie; Kittisarapong, Tanakorn; Rogers, Gary F.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Craniosynostosis (premature fusion of skull sutures) is a severe condition present in one of every 2000 newborns. Metopic craniosynostosis, accounting for 20-27% of cases, is diagnosed qualitatively in terms of skull shape abnormality, a subjective call of the surgeon. In this paper we introduce a new quantitative diagnostic feature for metopic craniosynostosis derived optimally from shape analysis of CT scans of the skull. We built a robust shape analysis pipeline that is capable of obtaining local shape differences in comparison to normal anatomy. Spatial normalization using 7-degree-of-freedom registration of the base of the skull is followed by a novel bone labeling strategy based on graph-cuts according to labeling priors. The statistical shape model built from 94 normal subjects allows matching a patient's anatomy to its most similar normal subject. Subsequently, the computation of local malformations from a normal subject allows characterization of the points of maximum malformation on each of the frontal bones adjacent to the metopic suture, and on the suture itself. Our results show that the malformations at these locations vary significantly (p<0.001) between abnormal/normal subjects and that an accurate diagnosis can be achieved using linear regression from these automatic measurements with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0.97.

  2. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Paget's Disease of Bone What is Paget's Disease of Bone? Click for more information Enlarged and Misshapen Bones Paget's disease of bone causes affected bones to ...

  3. Cranial base abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta: phenotypic and genotypic determinants.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Arponen, Heidi; Roughley, Peter; Azouz, Michel E; Glorieux, Francis H; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Rauch, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Cranial base abnormalities are an important complication of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a hereditary bone fragility disorder that in most patients is caused by mutations affecting collagen type I. To elucidate which clinical characteristics are associated with the occurrence of cranial base abnormalities in OI, we compared cephalometric results of 187 OI patients (median age 12.0 years, range 3.4 to 47 years; 96 female) with those of 191 healthy subjects and related findings to clinical descriptors of the disease. Overall, 41 patients (22%) had at least one unambiguously abnormal skull base measure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with OI types I, III, and IV (n = 169) revealed that height Z-score [odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.66, p < .001]--but not age, gender, scleral hue, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density, or a history of bisphosphonate treatment--was a significant independent determinant of skull base abnormalities. Among patients with a height Z-score below -3, 48% had a skull base abnormality regardless of whether they had received bisphosphonate treatment in the first year of life or not. Genotype-phenotype correlations were evaluated in patients with detectable mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2, the genes coding for collagen type I (n = 140). Skull base abnormalities were present in 6% of patients with haploinsufficiency (frameshift or nonsense) mutations, in 43% of patients with helical glycine substitutions caused by COL1A1 mutations, in 32% of patients with helical glycine substitutions owing to COL1A2 mutations, and in 17% of patients with splice-site mutations affecting either COL1A1 or COL1A2. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that height Z-score but not the type of collagen type I mutation was independently associated with the prevalence of skull base abnormalities. In conclusion, this study shows that clinical severity of OI, as expressed by the height Z-score, was

  4. Clinical neurological examination, neuropsychology, electroencephalography and computed tomographic head scanning in active amateur boxers.

    PubMed

    McLatchie, G; Brooks, N; Galbraith, S; Hutchison, J S; Wilson, L; Melville, I; Teasdale, E

    1987-01-01

    Twenty active amateur boxers were studied seeking evidence of neurological dysfunction and, if present, the best method for detecting it. Seven of these boxers had an abnormal clinical neurological examination, eight an abnormal EEG and nine of 15 examined had abnormal neuropsychometry. The CT scan was abnormal in only one. An abnormal clinical examination correlated significantly (p less than 0.05) with an increasing number of fights, and an abnormal EEG with decreasing age (p less than 0.05). In several of the neuropsychometric tests, the boxers were significantly worse than controls (p less than 0.05). Neuropsychometry was the best method for detecting neurological dysfunction.

  5. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  6. The role of bone in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lajeunesse, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Bone, and especially the subchondral bone plate, is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). OA bone tissue is sclerotic yet undermineralized indicating abnormal bone cell metabolism. Studies in both human and animal models of OA support the concept that bone sclerosis could precede cartilage degradation and loss. Clinical studies show that the indices of bone resorption and formation are increased in OA patients. A working hypothesis of the sequence of changes leading to OA holds that enhanced bone remodeling is the initiating event triggering cartilage damage. The attempt to repair the damaged cartilage then leads to a number of biochemical adaptations in bone and cartilage. In bone, this repair attempt modifies insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and alters the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasmin system. In the cartilage, it also modifies IGF-1/IGFBP levels and the uPA/plasmin system. However, bone changes may overwhelm the attempts to repair cartilage, and lead to further sclerosis and damage. Some of these specific pathways have been investigated, and indeed are modified in OA subchondral osteoblasts. Thus, subchondral bone sclerosis in OA may be due to abnormal osteoblasts characterized by increased metabolic activities that result in an increase in osteoid matrix that is undermineralized. The exact role played by cytokines and prostaglandins remains controversial. However, restraining collagen deposition and mineral removal, and/or improving mineral deposition, could provide a better, more mineralized, bone matrix in OA patients.

  7. Osteoblast dysfunctions in bone diseases: from cellular and molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierre J

    2015-04-01

    Several metabolic, genetic and oncogenic bone diseases are characterized by defective or excessive bone formation. These abnormalities are caused by dysfunctions in the commitment, differentiation or survival of cells of the osteoblast lineage. During the recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the osteoblast dysfunctions in osteoporosis, skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors. This led to suggest novel therapeutic approaches to correct these abnormalities such as the modulation of WNT signaling, the pharmacological modulation of proteasome-mediated protein degradation, the induction of osteoprogenitor cell differentiation, the repression of cancer cell proliferation and the manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms. This article reviews our current understanding of the major cellular and molecular mechanisms inducing osteoblastic cell abnormalities in age-related bone loss, genetic skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors, and discusses emerging therapeutic strategies to counteract the osteoblast abnormalities in these disorders of bone formation.

  8. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S

    2010-09-01

    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  9. Paget disease of the bone: does it exist in Saudi Arabia?

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Omalkhaire M; Almanea, Hadeel; Alzahrani, Ali S

    2011-01-01

    Paget disease of the bone is a chronic disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover with abnormal repair leading to expansion, pain and deformities. The disease is common in the West, but little if any information is available on its existence in the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia. We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and chest wall pain and foci of uptake in the ribs and skull that were thought to be metastases, indicating the possibility of diagnostic difficulty in a patient with history of malignancy. Bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Paget disease. The second case was a 47-year-old asymptomatic woman with an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 427 U/L, a common presentation but at an unusual age. Plain x-rays and bone scan confirmed the diagnosis. The third case was a 43-year-old man who presented with hearing impairment and right knee osteoarthritis, unusual presentations at a young age leading to a delay in diagnosis. The fourth case was a 45-year-old man who presented with sacroiliac pain and normal biochemical values, including a normal alkaline phosphatase. Bone biopsy unexpectedly revealed features of Paget disease, which evolved over time into a classical form. A common feature in all except the first case was the relatively young age. Paget disease does exist in Saudi Arabia, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  10. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  11. Generalized metabolic bone disease in Neurofibromatosis type I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal abnormalities are a recognized component of Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), but a generalized metabolic bone defect in NF1 has not been fully characterized thus far. The purpose of this study was to characterize at the densitometric, biochemical, and pathological level the bone involvement ...

  12. Physiopathology of Bone Modifications in β-Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Perisano, Carlo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Callà, Cinzia Anna Maria; Graci, Calogero; Maccauro, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    β-thalassemia major (βTM) or Cooley anemia is characterized by significantly reduced or absent synthesis of β-globin chains, which induces important pathologic consequences including hemolytic anemia, altered erythropoiesis, and bone marrow overstimulation. The pathogenesis of bone changes in patients with βTM is not yet completely understood. However, an unbalance in bone mineral turnover resulting from increased resorption and suppression of osteoblast activity has been detected in βTM patients. The abnormal regulation of bone metabolism may be related to hormonal and genetic factors, iron overload and iron chelation therapy, nutritional deficits, and decreased levels of physical activity. Here, we review the most recent findings on the physiopathology of bone abnormalities in βTM. Clinical presentation and radiological features of βTM-related bone changes are also discussed. PMID:22693660

  13. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  14. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  16. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT Scan Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to ... imaging test can help doctors detect or evaluate coronary heart disease, calcium buildup in the coronary arteries, problems with ...

  17. Interpreting Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weymouth, Patricia P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

  18. Bone and bone marrow: the same organ.

    PubMed

    Del Fattore, Andrea; Capannolo, Marta; Rucci, Nadia

    2010-11-01

    Interplays between bone and bone marrow are not limited to merely anatomic and histological connections, but include a tight functional correlation. Bone marrow resides within the medullary cavity of the bones and the process of hematopoiesis is regulated, at least in part, by bone cells. Moreover, osteoclasts and osteoblasts derive from precursors of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin, respectively, both residing within the bone marrow. Alterations in one of these components typically cause impairment in the other, so diseases of the bone marrow compartment often affect the bone and vice versa. All these findings could make us to speculate that bone and bone marrow are not two separate districts, but can be considered as the two elements of the same unique functional unit, the bone-bone marrow organ. Here we will describe histological and functional interplays between bone and bone marrow, and will illustrate some diseases in which this tight correlation is evident.

  19. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  20. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  1. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, C; Mullaney, P; Bosley, T M

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease.

  2. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  3. Value of gallium scans and lymphangiography in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, N.; Kondo, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-12-15

    In 37 patients with seemingly localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring (WR-NHL), lymphangiography (LAG) and/or gallium-67 scans (Ga-67 scans) were done. Before these procedures, 20 patients were diagnosed as Stage I, and 17 as Stage II. LAG was done for 30, and Ga-67 scans for 32, 25 of whom had both. Five patients (16%) were upstaged to Stage III or IV by Ga-67 scans. Only one (3%) had abnormal LAG findings, in whom Ga-67 scans also showed abnormal accumulation in the para-aortic region. Because of this low positive rate, LAG is not recommended for staging of WR-NHL.

  4. Congenital vascular malformation associated with multiple cranial, vertebral and upper limb skeletal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Marsden, N; Shokrollahi, K; Maw, K; Sierakowski, A; Bhat, F A; Mathur, B

    2010-07-01

    The association between congenital vascular malformations and altered bone growth, the so-called vascular bone syndrome, is well documented. Various eponymous syndromes each with their individual traits, such as Klippel-Trenaunay, Parkes-Weber and Servelle-Martorell syndrome have been described, along with variations. We report on a previously undescribed case of congenital vascular malformation associated with multiple skeletal abnormalities affecting the skull, vertebrae and right upper limb, and discuss the literature.

  5. Multiple fluid-filled bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Javier, Rose-Marie; Eichler, Francoise; Zollner, Goerg; Sibilia, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Bone metastases are usually seen on imaging studies as lytic lesions and less often as sclerotic or mixed lesions. We report an exceedingly unusual case of breast cancer identified after magnetic resonance imaging showed bone metastases with fluid-fluid levels in the spine and sacrum. Bone images containing fluid-fluid levels are usually solitary abnormalities produced by aneurismal bone cysts. The fluid-fluid level is due to bleeding within the tumor followed by layering of the blood components based on density differences. Only two other cases of bone metastases with multiple fluid-fluid levels have been reported. Although fluid-fluid levels are exceedingly rare, clinicians should be aware that they might indicate a malignancy, particularly when they are multiple.

  6. Differences in Bone Quality in Low- and High-Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Daniel S.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Mawad, Hanna; Pienkowski, David

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in CKD, but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. We qualitatively screened iliac crest bone specimens from patients on dialysis to identify those patients with low (n=18) or high (n=17) bone turnover. In addition, we obtained control bone specimens from 12 healthy volunteers with normal kidney function. In the patient and control specimens, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation quantified the material and mechanical properties of the specimens, and we used bone histomorphometry to assess parameters of bone microstructure and bone formation and resorption. Compared with high or normal turnover, bone with low turnover had microstructural abnormalities such as lower cancellous bone volume and reduced trabecular thickness. Compared with normal or low turnover, bone with high turnover had material and nanomechanical abnormalities such as reduced mineral to matrix ratio and lower stiffness. These data suggest that turnover-related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD, albeit through different mechanisms. Therapies tailored specifically to low- or high-turnover bone may treat renal osteodystrophy more effectively. PMID:22193385

  7. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  8. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  9. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  10. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  11. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  12. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  13. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  14. Carotid Vascular Abnormalities in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M. D.; Fleischer, J.; Rundek, T.; McMahon, D. J.; Homma, S.; Sacco, R.; Silverberg, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data on the presence, extent, and reversibility of cardiovascular disease in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are conflicting. Objective: This study evaluated carotid structure and function in PHPT patients compared with population-based controls. Design: This is a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital metabolic bone disease unit. Participants: Forty-nine men and women with PHPT and 991 controls without PHPT were studied. Outcome Measures: We measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque presence and thickness, and carotid stiffness, strain, and distensibility. Results: IMT, carotid plaque thickness, carotid stiffness, and distensibility were abnormal in PHPT patients, and IMT was higher in patients than controls (0.959 vs. 0.907 mm, P < 0.0001). In PHPT, PTH levels, but not calcium concentration, predicted carotid stiffness (P = 0.04), strain (P = 0.06), and distensibility (P = 0.07). Patients with increased carotid stiffness had significantly higher PTH levels than did those with normal stiffness (141 ± 48 vs. 94.9 ± 44 pg/ml, P = 0.002), and odds of abnormal stiffness increased 1.91 (confidence interval = 1.09–3.35; P = 0.024) for every 10 pg/ml increase in PTH, adjusted for age, creatinine, and albumin-corrected calcium. Conclusions: Mild PHPT is associated with subclinical carotid vascular manifestations. IMT, a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, is increased. Measures of carotid stiffness are associated with extent of PTH elevation, suggesting that those with more severe PHPT may have impaired vascular compliance and that PTH, rather than calcium, is the mediator. PMID:19755478

  15. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis. PMID:21627784

  16. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  17. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  18. Digital radiographic localization for CT scanning of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.; Rauch, R.F.

    1983-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx is the preferred method for staging laryngeal carcinoma and assessing the extent of injury from trauma. The standard method of examination consists of 5 mm contiguous scans throughout the larynx in quiet respiration. Scans are performed with the patient supine with the neck slightly extended allowing the long axis of the larynx to be perpendicular to the scanning plane. A complete examination requires scanning from the supraglottic region (level of hyoid bone) to the subglottic region (level of cricoid cartlage). In the authors' experience when this method is used, multiple scans are performed cephalad to the level of interest because no upper limit of the examination is established before transaxial scans are done. We have used the lateral digital radiograph of the neck to identify specific landmarks so that the upper and lower limets of the examination can be established before scanning.

  19. Remnant Woven Bone and Calcified Cartilage in Mouse Bone: Differences between Ages/Sex and Effects on Bone Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Victoria; Toth, Zacharie; Chibnall, John; McBride-Gagyi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouse models are used frequently to study effects of bone diseases and genetic determinates of bone strength. Murine bones have an intracortical band of woven bone that is not present in human bones. This band is not obvious under brightfield imaging and not typically analyzed. Due to the band’s morphology and location it has been theorized to be remnant bone from early in life. Furthermore, lamellar and woven bone are well known to have differing mechanical strengths. The purpose of this study was to determine (i) if the band is from early life and (ii) if the woven bone or calcified cartilage contained within the band affect whole bone strength. Woven Bone Origin Studies In twelve to fourteen week old mice, doxycycline was used to label bone formed prior to 3 weeks old. Doxycycline labeling and woven bone patterns on contralateral femora matched well and encompassed an almost identical cross-sectional area. Also, we highlight for the first time in mice the presence of calcified cartilage exclusively within the band. However, calcified cartilage could not be identified on high resolution cone-beam microCT scans when examined visually or by thresholding methods. Mechanical Strength Studies Subsequently, three-point bending was used to analyze the effects of woven bone and calcified cartilage on whole bone mechanics in a cohort of male and female six and 13 week old Balb/C mice. Three-point bending outcomes were correlated with structural and compositional measures using multivariate linear regression. Woven bone composed a higher percent of young bones than older bones. However, calcified cartilage in older bones was twice that of younger bones, which was similar when normalized by area. Area and/or tissue mineral density accounted for >75% of variation for most strength outcomes. Percent calcified cartilage added significant predictive power to maximal force and bending stress. Calcified cartilage and woven bone could have more influence in genetic

  20. Association between Bone Mass and Dental Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, J T; Elfrink, M E C; Vucic, S; Heppe, D H M; Veerkamp, J S J; Jaddoe, V W V; Rivadeneira, F; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Wolvius, E B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) and hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs)/molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 6-y-old children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, starting from fetal life until adulthood in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were used to score the intraoral photographs on the presence or absence of HSPMs and MIH. Bone mass was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Intraoral photographs and DXA scans were available in 6,510 6-y-old children. Binary logistic regression models were used to study the association between the bone mass and HSPMs/MIH. In total, 5,586 children had their second primary molars assessed and a DXA scan made; 507 children were diagnosed with HSPM. Of 2,370 children with data on their permanent first molars, 203 were diagnosed with MIH. In the fully adjusted model, children with lower BMC (corrected for bone area) were more likely to have HSPMs (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.26 per 1-standard deviation decrease). A lower BMC (corrected for bone area) was not associated with MIH (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.20 per 1-standard deviation decrease). We observed a negative association between BMC (corrected for bone area) and HSPMs. No association was found between BMC (corrected for bone area) and MIH. Future research should focus on investigating the mechanism underlying the negative association between the bone mass and HSPMs. Our study, in a large population of 6-y-old children, adds the finding that BMC (corrected for bone size) is associated with HSPMs but not with MIH in childhood.

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  2. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  3. Gallbladder opacification on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced CT scan.

    PubMed

    Karam, Adib R; Scortegagna, Eduardo; Chen, Byron Y; Dupuis, Carolyn S; Coughlin, Dennis D

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the radiologist's ability to identify excreted gadoxetate disodium within the gallbladder on CT scan. Thirty three healthy adults underwent imaging of the liver during work-up for potential liver donation. Three patients had undergone prior cholecystectomy and therefore were excluded. Imaging consisted of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and multiphase contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Two fellowship-trained abdominal imaging radiologists, who were blinded to the MRC images and the contrast agent used during MRC, independently reviewed the CT scans of the 30 patients that were included. The scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormal hyperdensity within the gallbladder. Three patients did not receive intravenous gadoxetate disodium, 4 patients had their MRC after the CT scan, and 1 patient had the CT scans 5 days following the MRC. Twenty two patients had the CT scan within 24 h following the gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRC. Of the 22 patients expected to have gadolinium in the gallbladder, both reviewers identified hyperdensity in the same 20 patients (90%). Both reviewers reported no abnormal hyperdensity within the gallbladder in the remaining 10 patients. CT scan can reveal excreted gadoxetate disodium within the gallbladder lumen and therefore gadoxetate disodium-enhanced CT scan can potentially play a role in the evaluation of cystic duct patency and work-up of acute cholecystitis.

  4. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Warren L; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q; Liu, X Sherry; Guo, X Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-02-23

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a "biomimetic" scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle-in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries-to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions.

  5. Outcome and management of babies with prenatal ultrasonographic renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lam, B C; Wong, S N; Yeung, C Y; Tang, M H; Ghosh, A

    1993-07-01

    Between January 1987 and December 1990, 60 fetuses were found to have renal abnormalities on antenatal ultrasonography. Six fetuses were aborted because of major renal abnormalities with or without associated chromosomal aberrations. Twelve babies with major renal abnormalities died in the immediate neonatal period. Forty-two babies were studied after birth and followed up. Babies who were found to have mild dilation of the renal pelvis of 6 to 10 mm during fetal life revealed either normal renal findings in the postnatal period or complete resolution of the abnormalities within the first year. Significant pelvic dilation of more than 10 mm occurred in 32 babies. A significant proportion (34%) had transitional hydronephrosis that resolved spontaneously during the follow-up period (mean, 2 1/2 years; range, 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years). Extrarenal pelvis, another benign condition, accounted for 15.6%. Most babies with pelviureteral junction obstruction (15%) and vesicoureteral junction obstruction (6.2%) required early neonatal surgery. The technetium-99m diethylenetriamine renal scan with the diuretic renogram half-time was found to be a very useful tool to distinguish between obstructive and nonobstructive hydronephrosis. With early diagnosis and intervention, the prognosis for many of these renal abnormalities is much more favorable and such information is invaluable for antenatal counseling.

  6. Dynamic CT scanning of spinal column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Cann, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Dynamic sequential computed tomographic scanning with automatic table incrementation uses low milliampere-second technique to eliminate tube cooling delays between scanning slices and, thus, markedly shortens examination times. A total of 25 patients with spinal column trauma involving 28 levels were studied with dynamic scans and retrospectively reviewed. Dynamic studies were considerably faster than conventional spine examinations and yielded reliable diagnosis. Bone disruption and subluxation was accurately evaluated, and the use of intrathecal metrizamide in low doses allowed direct visualization of spinal cord or radicular compromise. Multiplanar image reformation was aided by the dynamic incrementation technique, since motion between slices (and the resulting misregistration artifact on image reformation) was minimized. A phantom was devised to test spatial resolution of computed tomography for objects 1-3 mm in size and disclosed minimal differences for dynamic and conventional computed tomographic techniques in resolving medium-to-high-contrast objects.

  7. Processing and characterization of diatom nanoparticles and microparticles as potential source of silicon for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Duy Hanh; Bonani, Walter; Speranza, Giorgio; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Ceccato, Riccardo; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Silicon plays an important role in bone formation and maintenance, improving osteoblast cell function and inducing mineralization. Often, bone deformation and long bone abnormalities have been associated with silica/silicon deficiency. Diatomite, a natural deposit of diatom skeleton, is a cheap and abundant source of biogenic silica. The aim of the present study is to validate the potential of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons as silicon-donor materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Raw diatomite (RD) and calcined diatomite (CD) powders were purified by acid treatments, and diatom microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by fragmentation of purified diatoms under alkaline conditions. The influence of processing on the surface chemical composition of purified diatomites was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diatoms NPs were also characterized in terms of morphology and size distribution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS), while diatom MPs morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface area and microporosity of the diatom particles were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption methods. Release of silicon ions from diatom-derived particles was demonstrated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES); furthermore, silicon release kinetic was found to be influenced by diatomite purification method and particle size. Diatom-derived microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) showed limited or no cytotoxic effect in vitro depending on the administration conditions.

  8. The spectrum of soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Pineda, C; Fonseca, C; Martinez-Lavin, M

    1990-05-01

    We review our radiographic experience with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Soft tissue abnormalities such as finger clubbing, "elephant feet" and cutis verticis gyrata are well appreciated by plain radiography. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is characterized by a bone remodeling process at the tip of the digits. In older patients it is manifested as tuftal hypertrophy whereas in younger individuals acroosteolysis takes place. Radiographic signs of inflammatory arthropathy are conspicuously absent. Periosteal proliferation is an orderly evolving process in 3 dimensions: in the number of affected bones, in the area of involvement of a given bone and in the shape of periostitis.

  9. Routine radiographer screening for fetal abnormalities by ultrasound in an unselected low risk population.

    PubMed

    Shirley, I M; Bottomley, F; Robinson, V P

    1992-07-01

    A screening programme for fetal abnormalities began at The Hillingdon Hospital in July 1986. Second trimester ultrasound scans are performed by radiographers. A combined prospective and retrospective study of the ultrasound findings and outcome in all pregnancies delivered in 1989-1990 was undertaken. 6412 babies were born during this period, of whom 6183 (96%) were examined by ultrasound in the second trimester; 29 pregnancies were terminated for fetal abnormality. Of the 89 fetuses who were abnormal at birth or at induced termination of the pregnancy (1.4%), 84 were scanned in the second trimester. In 51 cases the abnormality was detected before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 60.7%). 56 of these 84 abnormal fetuses scanned had potentially lethal or major handicapping abnormalities of which 41 were detected by ultrasound before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 73%). There was one false positive diagnosis of abnormality which did not affect outcome. 6352 babies were normal at delivery or on discharge from hospital (specificity, 99.98%).

  10. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  11. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  12. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  13. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... amputation. This is called limb-salvage or limb-sparing surgery . In going over treatment options, it is ... 2016 Treating Bone Cancer Surgery for Bone Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer Targeted ...

  14. Facts about Broken Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  15. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  16. Contralateral Cochlear Labyrinthine Concussion without Temporal Bone Fracture: Unusual Posttraumatic Consequence

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, D.; Silva, J. M. Duque; del Álamo, P. Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Labyrinthine concussion is a term used to describe a rare cause of sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular symptoms occurring after head trauma. Isolated damage to the inner ear without involving the vestibular organ would be designated as a cochlear labyrinthine concussion. Hearing loss is not a rare finding in head trauma that involves petrous bone fractures. Nevertheless it generally occurs ipsilateral to the side of the head injury and extraordinarily in the contralateral side and moreover without the presence of a fracture. Case Report. The present case describes a 37-year-old patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus in his right ear after a blunt head trauma of the left-sided temporal bone (contralateral). Otoscopy and radiological images showed no fractures or any abnormalities. A severe sensorineural hearing loss was found in his right ear with a normal hearing of the left side. Conclusion. The temporal bone trauma requires a complete diagnostic battery which includes a neurotologic examination and a high resolution computed tomography scan in the first place. Hearing loss after a head injury extraordinarily occurs in the contralateral side of the trauma as what happened in our case. In addition, the absence of fractures makes this phenomenon even more unusual. PMID:27738540

  17. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  18. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options.

  19. Negative radionuclide scan in osteoid osteoma. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Fehring, T.K.; Green, N.E.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in radionuclide imaging have facilitated the accurate diagnosis and surgical excision of osteoid osteoma. While radionuclide imaging has been inconsistent in the diagnosis of certain problems, its accuracy in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma has been frequently stressed. To date, no case of a negative bone scan in the presence of a histologically proven osteoid osteoma has been reported. The present case report emphasizes that a negative bone scan does not preclude the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Clinical suspicion remains the most sensitive indicator of this lesion.

  20. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  1. Altered Trabecular Bone Structure and Delayed Cartilage Degeneration in the Knees of Collagen VI Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Susan E.; Coles, Jeffrey M.; Zelenski, Nicole A.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Zauscher, Stefan; Bonaldo, Paolo; Guilak, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Mutation or loss of collagen VI has been linked to a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities, particularly muscular dystrophies, tissue ossification and/or fibrosis, and hip osteoarthritis. However, the role of collagen VI in bone and cartilage structure and function in the knee is unknown. In this study, we examined the role of collagen VI in the morphology and physical properties of bone and cartilage in the knee joint of Col6a1−/− mice by micro-computed tomography (microCT), histology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning microphotolysis (SCAMP). Col6a1−/− mice showed significant differences in trabecular bone structure, with lower bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness but higher structure model index and trabecular separation compared to Col6a1+/+ mice. Subchondral bone thickness and mineral content increased significantly with age in Col6a1+/+ mice, but not in Col6a1−/− mice. Col6a1−/− mice had lower cartilage degradation scores, but developed early, severe osteophytes compared to Col6a1+/+mice. In both groups, cartilage roughness increased with age, but neither the frictional coefficient nor compressive modulus of the cartilage changed with age or genotype, as measured by AFM. Cartilage diffusivity, measured via SCAMP, varied minimally with age or genotype. The absence of type VI collagen has profound effects on knee joint structure and morphometry, yet minimal influences on the physical properties of the cartilage. Together with previous studies showing accelerated hip osteoarthritis in Col6a1−/− mice, these findings suggest different roles for collagen VI at different sites in the body, consistent with clinical data. PMID:22448243

  2. Altered biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals used in bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Zuckier, Lionel S; Martineau, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy has remained a mainstay of clinical nuclear medicine for more than 4 decades. Extensive medical literature has developed surrounding the etiology and significance of alterations in distribution of bone radiopharmaceuticals. Altered biodistribution may be of a global nature, reflecting altered partition of radiopharmaceutical between bone and soft tissues, or more focal, reflecting regional abnormalities, including those related to bone or soft tissues. A third category of alterations in the distribution of bone radiopharmaceuticals is those due to errors and blunders, colloquially termed "artifactual" in the medical imaging literature. Being cognizant of these unexpected abnormalities, and understanding their etiology, will prepare the reader to more readily appreciate the significance of these findings when encountered in clinical practice.

  3. Fibrous dysplasia of bone: craniofacial and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Burke, A B; Collins, M T; Boyce, A M

    2016-08-05

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare bone disease caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations in the GNAS gene, which lead to constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase and elevated levels of cyclic AMP, which act on downstream signaling pathways and cause normal bone to be replaced with fibrous tissue and abnormal (woven) bone. The bone disease may occur in one bone (monostotic), multiple bones (polyostotic), or in combination with hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and hyperpigmented skin lesions (in the setting of McCune-Albright Syndrome). FD is common in the craniofacial skeleton, causing significant dysmorphic features, bone pain, and dental anomalies. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical findings, and treatment of FD, with an emphasis on the craniofacial and oral manifestations of the disease.

  4. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored.

  5. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  6. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  7. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  8. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  9. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  10. Glucose metabolic abnormality is associated with defective mineral homeostasis in skeletal disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zou, JiangHuan; Xiong, XiWen; Lai, BeiBei; Sun, Min; Tu, Xin; Gao, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Bone was reported as a crucial organ for regulating glucose homeostasis. In this study, we found that Phex mutant mice (PUG), a model of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), displayed metabolic abnormality in addition to abnormal phosphate homeostasis, skeletal deformity and growth retardation. Glucose tolerance was elevated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in PUG, though circulating insulin level decreased. Interestingly, bone mineral density defects and glucose metabolic abnormality were both rescued by adding phosphorus- and calcium-enriched supplements in daily diet. Serum insulin level, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity showed no differences between PUG and wild-type mice with rescued osteocalcin (OCN) following treatment. Our study suggested that OCN is a potential mediator between mineral homeostasis and glucose metabolism. This investigation brings a new perspective on glucose metabolism regulation through skeleton triggered mineral homeostasis and provides new clues in clinical therapeutics of potential metabolic disorders in XLH patients.

  11. Resonant scanning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  12. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Fränzle, Andrea Giske, Kristina; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  13. Chondromodulin I Is a Bone Remodeling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nakamichi, Yuko; Shukunami, Chisa; Yamada, Takashi; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Kawano, Hirotaka; Sato, Takashi; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Yamamoto, Yoko; Shindo, Masayo; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji; Kato, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    Chondromodulin I (ChM-I) was supposed from its limited expression in cartilage and its functions in cultured chondrocytes as a major regulator in cartilage development. Here, we generated mice deficient in ChM-I by targeted disruption of the ChM-I gene. No overt abnormality was detected in endochondral bone formation during embryogenesis and cartilage development during growth stages of ChM-I−/− mice. However, a significant increase in bone mineral density with lowered bone resorption with respect to formation was unexpectedly found in adult ChM-I−/− mice. Thus, the present study established that ChM-I is a bone remodeling factor. PMID:12509461

  14. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  15. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  16. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  17. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  18. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  19. Synergistic combination of clinical and imaging features predicts abnormal imaging patterns of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Jaster-Miller, Kirsten; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We designed and tested a novel hybrid statistical model that accepts radiologic image features and clinical variables, and integrates this information in order to automatically predict abnormalities in chest computed-tomography (CT) scans and identify potentially important infectious disease biomarkers. In 200 patients, 160 with various pulmonary infections and 40 healthy controls, we extracted 34 clinical variables from laboratory tests and 25 textural features from CT images. From the CT scans, pleural effusion (PE), linear opacity (or thickening) (LT), tree-in-bud (TIB), pulmonary nodules, ground glass opacity (GGO), and consolidation abnormality patterns were analyzed and predicted through clinical, textural (imaging), or combined attributes. The presence and severity of each abnormality pattern was validated by visual analysis of the CT scans. The proposed biomarker identification system included two important steps: (i) a coarse identification of an abnormal imaging pattern by adaptively selected features (AmRMR), and (ii) a fine selection of the most important features from the previous step, and assigning them as biomarkers, depending on the prediction accuracy. Selected biomarkers were used to classify normal and abnormal patterns by using a boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier. For all abnormal imaging patterns, an average prediction accuracy of 76.15% was obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed biomarker identification approach is promising and may advance the data processing in clinical pulmonary infection research and diagnostic techniques. PMID:23930819

  20. A patient with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, David Kyle; Zadeh, Touran; Nugent, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Familial bone marrow failure has been associated with a variety of chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 8 abnormalities have been described in association with neoplastic and hematologic disorders; however, to our knowledge, inversion of the long arm of chromosome 8 has not been described in the context of familial bone marrow failure. We describe a 9-year-old female with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8 [inv (8) (q22, q24.3)]. Given the importance of considering the genetic determinants of familial bone marrow failure, the potential role of chromosome 8 abnormalities in the development of marrow failure is discussed.