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Sample records for abnormal bone turnover

  1. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Altered bone turnover during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone turnover. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone turnover was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.

  3. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David; Faugere, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bonemore » with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.« less

  4. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 1,” “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 2,” “Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Bone,” “Bone and Bones,” “Bone diseases,” “Bone turnover,” “Hemoglobin A Glycosylated,” and “HbA1C.” After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link. PMID:23482417

  5. Prospective assessment of bone turnover and clinical bone diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, Anna D; Porcher, Raphael; Herr, Andrée-Laure; Devergie, Agnès; Brentano, Thomas Funck; Ribaud, Patricia; Pinto, Fernando O; Rocha, Vanderson; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Orcel, Philippe; Socié, Gérard; Robin, Marie

    2010-06-15

    Bone complications after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are relatively frequent. Evaluation of biomarkers of bone turnover and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are not known in this context. We prospectively evaluated bone mineral density, biomarkers of bone turnover, and the cumulative incidence of bone complications after allogeneic HSCT. One hundred forty-six patients were included. Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA 2-month and 1-year post-HSCT. The markers of bone turnover were serum C-telopeptide (C-TP), 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (bone resorption), and osteocalcin (bone formation) determined pre-HSCT and 2 months and 1 year thereafter. Potential association between osteoporosis at 2 months, osteoporotic fracture or avascular necrosis and, individual patient's characteristics and biologic markers were tested. C-TP was high before and 2 months after transplant. At 2 months, DEXA detected osteoporosis in more than half the patients tested. Male sex, median age less than or equal to 15 years, and abnormal C-TP before HSCT were risk factors significantly associated with osteoporosis. Three-year cumulative incidences of fractures and avascular necrosis were 8% and 11%, respectively. Children were at higher risk of fracture, whereas corticosteroid treatment duration was a significant risk factor for developing a clinical bone complication post-HSCT. Bone complications and osteoporosis are frequent after HSCT. Bone biologic markers and DEXA showed that subclinical bone abnormalities appeared early post-HSCT. The risk factors, age, gender, and C-TP easily available at the time of transplantation were identified. Biphosphonates should probably be given to patients with those risk factors.

  6. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  7. Vitamin K, bone turnover, and bone mass in girls.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Khoury, Jane C; Bean, Judy; Elliot, James G

    2004-10-01

    Vitamin K has been suggested to have a role in bone metabolism, and low vitamin K intake has been related to low bone density and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. The objective of this study was to determine whether phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) intake and biochemical indicators of vitamin K status are related to bone mineral content (BMC) and markers of bone formation and bone resorption in girls. Vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone concentration and percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC)] was measured at baseline in a study of 245 healthy girls aged 3-16 y. Cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx) breakdown, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were measured to reflect bone resorption and formation. BMC of the total body, lumbar spine, and hip and dietary phylloquinone intake were measured annually for 4 y. Phylloquinone intake (median: 45 microg/d) was not consistently associated with bone turnover markers or BMC. Better vitamin K status (high plasma phylloquinone and low %ucOC) was associated with lower bone resorption and formation. Plasma phylloquinone was inversely associated with NTx and osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05), and %ucOC was positively associated with NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentrations (P < 0.05). Indicators of vitamin K status were not consistently associated with current BMC or gain in BMC over the 4-y study period. Better vitamin K status was associated with decreased bone turnover in healthy girls consuming a typical US diet. Randomized phylloquinone supplementation trials are needed to further understand the potential benefits of phylloquinone on bone acquisition in growing children.

  8. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  9. Age-related changes in bone turnover in men.

    PubMed

    Fatayerji, D; Eastell, R

    1999-07-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover can be used to study the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. So far there have been few such studies in men. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of aging on bone turnover and to identify which hormones might regulate bone turnover in men. We studied 178 healthy Caucasian men, ages 20-79 years (30 per decade). The data for the effect of age on bone turnover was best fit by a quadratic function (nadirs at age 56, 57, 53, 39, and 58 years for intact propeptide of type I procollagen, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, free deoxypyridinoline, and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen, respectively). For most markers, bone turnover tended to be highest in the third decade, lowest in the fifth and sixth decade, with a small increase in some markers in the eighth decade. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, estradiol, and free androgen index all decreased significantly with age (54, 17, 76, 26, 33, and 57%, respectively), while sex hormone binding globulin and parathyroid hormone increased significantly with age (62% and 43%). IGF-I and sex hormones were positively correlated with bone turnover, and this association was stronger in young men than older men. In conclusion, increased IGF-I and sex hormones may be associated with increased bone turnover in young men, with less influence on bone turnover in older men.

  10. Markers of bone turnover in patients with epilepsy and their relationship to management of bone diseases induced by antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2016-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies revealed that patients with epilepsy and on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk for metabolic bone diseases. Bone diseases were reported in about 50% of patients on AEDs. Low bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, altered concentration of bone turnover markers and fractures were reported with phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. The mechanisms for AEDs-induced bone diseases are heterogeneous and include hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and direct acceleration of bone loss and/or reduction of bone formation. This article reviews the evidence, predictors and mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone abnormalities and its clinical implications. For patients on AEDs, regular monitoring of bone health is recommended. Prophylactic administration of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all patients. Treatment doses of calcium and vitamin D and even anti-resorptive drug therapy are reserved for patients at high risk of pathological fracture.

  11. Bone turnover marker reference intervals in young females.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Emma T; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M; Chiang, Cherie Y; Wark, John D

    2017-07-01

    Background The use of bone turnover markers in clinical practice and research in younger people is limited by the lack of normative data and understanding of common causes of variation in bone turnover marker values in this demographic. To appropriately interpret bone turnover markers, robust reference intervals specific to age, development and sex are necessary. This study aimed to determine reference intervals of bone turnover markers in females aged 16-25 years participating in the Safe-D study. Methods Participants were recruited through social networking site Facebook and were asked to complete an extensive, online questionnaire and attend a site visit. Participants were tested for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and total procollagen type 1 N-propeptide using the Roche Elecsys automated analyser. Reference intervals were determined using the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of normalized bone turnover marker values. Results Of 406 participants, 149 were excluded due to medical conditions or medication use (except hormonal contraception) which may affect bone metabolism. In the remaining 257 participants, the reference interval was 230-1000 ng/L for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and 27-131  µg/L for procollagen type 1 N-propeptide. Both marker concentrations were inversely correlated with age and oral contraceptive pill use. Therefore, intervals specific to these variables were calculated. Conclusions We defined robust reference intervals for cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and procollagen type 1 N-propeptide in young females grouped by age and contraceptive pill use. We examined bone turnover markers' relationship with several lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors. Our normative intervals should aid interpretation of bone turnover markers in young females particularly in those aged 16 to 19 years where reference intervals are currently provisional.

  12. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  13. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. In conclusion: (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover

  14. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mice transgenic for HTLV-I LTR-tax exhibit tax expression in bone, skeletal alterations, and high bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Ruddle, N H; Li, C B; Horne, W C; Santiago, P; Troiano, N; Jay, G; Horowitz, M; Baron, R

    1993-11-01

    HTLV-I infection can result in adult T cell leukemia with accompanying hypercalcemia and increased bone resorption. A viral etiology has also been invoked for Paget's disease, a disease of high bone turnover. Delineation of pathogenetic mechanisms of viral-associated bone diseases has been impeded by the complexity of viral and host factors. In order to consider the relationship of HTLV-I infection to skeletal changes we have evaluated the role of a single viral gene in mice transgenic for HTLV-I tax under the control of the viral promoter. Tax mice exhibited severe skeletal abnormalities characterized by high bone turnover, increases in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers and activity, and myelofibrosis. These changes were apparent as early as two months of age. Tax mRNA and protein were highly expressed in bone but not in bone marrow nor in any other tissues except, as previously reported, salivary gland and neurofibromas when they did develop. Within bone, tax protein was detected in only two cell types, mature osteoclasts and spindle-shaped cells within the endosteal myelofibrosis. These observations suggest that local expression of the tax gene, which encodes a viral regulatory protein known to influence host gene expression, can induce within the bone environment marked changes in bone cell activity, resulting in profound skeletal alterations.

  16. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  17. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers—bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)—were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP (p = 0.002) and CTX-I (p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC (p = 0.067) and BMD (p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities. PMID:29414859

  18. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  19. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  20. Bone Turnover with Venlafaxine Treatment in Older Adults with Depression.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Kerri S; Dixon, David; Civitelli, Roberto; Peterson, Tim R; Mulsant, Benoit H; Reynolds, Charles F; Lenze, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest older adults receiving serotonergic antidepressants may have accelerated bone loss. We examined bone turnover marker changes and patient-level variables associated with these changes in older adults receiving protocolized antidepressant treatment. Open-label, protocolized treatment study. Medical centers in Pittsburgh, St Louis, and Toronto. Older adults with major depression (N = 168). Serum levels of the bone resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and the bone formation marker procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP) were assayed before and after 12 weeks of treatment with venlafaxine. Whether CTX and P1NP changes were associated with depression remission and duration of depression and genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) and 1B receptor (HTR1B) were also examined. CTX increased and P1NP decreased during venlafaxine treatment, a profile consistent with accelerated bone loss. Two individual-level clinical variables were correlated with bone turnover; participants whose depression did not go into remission had higher CTX levels, and those with chronic depression had lower P1NP levels. HTR1B genotype predicted P1NP change, whereas 5HTTLPR genotype was unrelated to either biomarker. Bone turnover markers change with antidepressant treatment in a pattern that suggests accelerated bone loss, although the clinical significance of these changes is unclear. These data are preliminary and argue for a larger, controlled study to confirm whether antidepressants are harmful to bone metabolism and whether certain individuals might be at increased risk. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Biochemical bone turnover markers in diabetes mellitus - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Vestergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fractures, which is not explained by bone mineral density. Other markers as bone turnover markers (BTMs) may be useful. To assess the relationship between BTMs, diabetes, and fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted in August 2014. The databases searched were Medline at Pubmed and Embase. Medline at Pubmed was searched by "Diabetes Mellitus" (MESH) and "bone turnover markers" and Embase was searched using the Emtree by "Diabetes Mellitus" and "bone turnover", resulting in 611 studies. The eligibility criteria for the studies were to assess BTM in either type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Of the 611 eligible studies, removal of duplicates and screening by title and abstract lead to 114 potential studies for full-text review. All these studies were full-text screened for eligibility and 45 studies were included. Two additional studies were added from other sources. Among the 47 studies included there were 1 meta-analysis, 29 cross-sectional studies, 13 randomized controlled trials, and 4 longitudinal studies. Both T1D and T2D were studied. Most studies reported fasting BTM and excluded renal disease. Markers of bone resorption and formation seem to be lower in diabetes patients. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase is normal or increased, which suggests that the matrix becomes hypermineralized in diabetes patients. The BTMs: C-terminal cross-link of collagen, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sclerostin may potentially predict fractures, but longitudinal trials are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bonesmore » of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.« less

  3. Bone Turnover Status: Classification Model and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Alexander; Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Smith, Paul N

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To develop a practical model for classification bone turnover status and evaluate its clinical usefulness. Methods: Our classification of bone turnover status is based on internationally recommended biomarkers of both bone formation (N-terminal propeptide of type1 procollagen, P1NP) and bone resorption (beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, bCTX), using the cutoffs proposed as therapeutic targets. The relationships between turnover subtypes and clinical characteristic were assessed in1223 hospitalised orthogeriatric patients (846 women, 377 men; mean age 78.1±9.50 years): 451(36.9%) subjects with hip fracture (HF), 396(32.4%) with other non-vertebral (non-HF) fractures (HF) and 376 (30.7%) patients without fractures. Resalts: Six subtypes of bone turnover status were identified: 1 - normal turnover (P1NP>32 μg/L, bCTX≤0.250 μg/L and P1NP/bCTX>100.0[(median value]); 2- low bone formation (P1NP ≤32 μg/L), normal bone resorption (bCTX≤0.250 μg/L) and P1NP/bCTX>100.0 (subtype2A) or P1NP/bCTX<100.0 (subtype 2B); 3- low bone formation, high bone resorption (bCTX>0.250 μg/L) and P1NP/bCTX<100.0; 4- high bone turnover (both markers elevated ) and P1NP/bCTX>100.0 (subtype 4A) or P1NP/bCTX<100.0 (subtype 4B). Compared to subtypes 1 and 2A, subtype 2B was strongly associated with nonvertebral fractures (odds ratio [OR] 2.0), especially HF (OR 3.2), age>75 years and hyperparathyroidism. Hypoalbuminaemia and not using osteoporotic therapy were two independent indicators common for subtypes 3, 4A and 4B; these three subtypes were associated with in-hospital mortality. Subtype 3 was associated with fractures (OR 1.7, for HF OR 2.4), age>75 years, chronic heart failure (CHF), anaemia, and history of malignancy, and predicted post-operative myocardial injury, high inflammatory response and length of hospital stay (LOS) above10 days. Subtype 4A was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), anaemia, history of malignancy and walking aids

  4. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Are bone turnover markers capable of predicting callus consolidation during bone healing?

    PubMed

    Klein, P; Bail, H J; Schell, H; Michel, R; Amthauer, H; Bragulla, H; Duda, G N

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the following bone turnover markers to monitor the course of callus consolidation during bone healing: Carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP), skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIlINP). Since interfragmentary movements have been proven to possess the ability to document the progression of bone healing in experimental studies, correlations between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements in vivo were investigated. Therefore, two different types of osteosyntheses representing different mechanical situations at the fracture site were compared in an ovine osteotomy model. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and postoperatively in weekly intervals over a nine-week healing period. At the same intervals, interfragmentary movements were measured in all sheep. After nine weeks, animals were sacrificed and the tibiae were evaluated both mechanically and histologically. Wide interindividual ranges were observed for all bone turnover markers. The systemic PICP level did not increase with callus consolidation. The bone-healing model seemed to influence the systemic level of PIIINP and sALP but no general correlation between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements could be detected. No differences between the different types of osteosyntheses and thus the different mechanical situations were observed. All analyzed markers failed as general predictors for the course of callus consolidation during bone healing.

  6. Estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover but bone balance in ovariectomized rats is modulated by prevailing mechanical strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerlind, K. C.; Wronski, T. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Luo, Z. P.; An, K. N.; Bell, N. H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency induced bone loss is associated with increased bone turnover in rats and humans. The respective roles of increased bone turnover and altered balance between bone formation and bone resorption in mediating estrogen deficiency-induced cancellous bone loss was investigated in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy resulted in increased bone turnover in the distal femur. However, cancellous bone was preferentially lost in the metaphysis, a site that normally experiences low strain energy. No bone loss was observed in the epiphysis, a site experiencing higher strain energy. The role of mechanical strain in maintaining bone balance was investigated by altering the strain history. Mechanical strain was increased and decreased in long bones of ovariectomized rats by treadmill exercise and functional unloading, respectively. Functional unloading was achieved during orbital spaceflight and following unilateral sciatic neurotomy. Increasing mechanical loading reduced bone loss in the metaphysis. In contrast, decreasing loading accentuated bone loss in the metaphysis and resulted in bone loss in the epiphysis. Finally, administration of estrogen to ovariectomized rats reduced bone loss in the unloaded and prevented loss in the loaded limb following unilateral sciatic neurotomy in part by reducing indices of bone turnover. These results suggest that estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover, but the overall balance between bone formation and bone resorption is influenced by prevailing levels of mechanical strain.

  7. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption. PMID:22713117

  8. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  9. RANKL/Osteoprotegerin System and Bone Turnover in Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Konca Degertekin, Ceyla; Turhan Iyidir, Ozlem; Aktas Yılmaz, Banu; Elbeg, Sehri; Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Cakır, Nuri; Arslan, Metin

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with changes in bone metabolism. The impact of hypothyroidism and the associated autoimmunity on the mediators of bone turnover in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is not known. In this study, we assessed the levels of OPG, RANKL, and IL-6 along with markers of bone formation as osteocalcin (OC) and markers of bone resorption as type 1 collagen C telopeptide (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAcP 5b) in 30 hypothyroid and 30 euthyroid premenopausal HT patients and 20 healthy premenopausal controls. We found that TRAcP 5b (p = 0.006), CTX (p = 0.01), OC (p = 0.017), and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels were lower in the hypothyroid group compared to euthyroid HT patients and controls. OPG levels were higher (p < 0.001) and RANKL levels were lower (p = 0.021) in hypothyroid and euthyroid HT patients compared to controls. TSH was negatively correlated with IL-6 (rho = -0.434, p < 0.001), OC (rho = -0.313, p = 0.006), TRAcP 5b (rho = -0.335, p = 0.003), and positively correlated with OPG (rho = 0.248, p = 0.029). RANKL/OPG ratio was independently associated with the presence of HT. In conclusion, bone turnover is slowed down by hypothyroidism in premenopausal patients with HT. Thyroid autoimmunity might have a unique impact on OPG/RANKL levels apart from the resultant hypothyroidism.

  10. Effect of zoledronic acid on bone density and markers of bone turnover in a community clinic.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ria; Zailskas, Susan; Goldsby, Tashauna U; Lukens, Carrie; Muravev, Rostislav; Dulipsingh, Latha

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to document the efficacy of zoledronic acid by comparing bone densities and markers of bone turnover, in patients with osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) and urinary N-telopeptide, a marker of bone turnover, were compared before and after treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid. 52 participants had atleast two doses of zoledronic acid over 36 months. Significant increases in BMD were found in the spine (t=4.38, P<0.01) and decrease in bone turnover marker N-telopeptide (t=3.30, P=0.002). Small but significant correlations were determined between prior steroid use and change in BMD in the spine (r=0.35, P<0.05), and family history of osteoporosis and change in BMD in the right femur (r=0.38, P<0.05). Annual infusions of zoledronic acid for at least two years, revealed a significant increase in bone density at the spine and a decrease in urinary N-telopeptide in patients treated at our center.

  11. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  12. [Bone turnover in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1].

    PubMed

    Pater, Agnieszka; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical bone turnover markers are fragments of protein structural elements of the bone created during the synthesis or degradation and enzymes specific for bone cells, released into the circulation during the metabolic activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone turnover markers are used as indicators to evaluate the activity of modeling and remodeling processes. They are the result of the activity of all remodeling processes taking place at the moment in the whole skeleton. The assay allows quick assessment of the rate of bone formation and resorption processes. Among many complications in children with type 1 diabetes increased bone turnover leading to a reduction in bone mass may increase the risk of osteopenia or osteoporosis in adulthood. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent papers about bone turnover in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1.

  13. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause.

  14. Mineral balance and bone turnover in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S A; Silber, T J; Esteban, N V; Vieira, N E; Stuff, J E; Meyers, R; Majd, M; Yergey, A L

    1993-08-01

    We evaluated seven female adolescents with anorexia nervosa to determine whether calcium metabolism was affected by their disorder. We measured calcium absorption, urinary calcium excretion, and calcium kinetics, using a dual-tracer, stable-isotope technique during the first weeks of an inpatient nutritional rehabilitation program. Results were compared with those from a control group of seven healthy adolescent girls of similar ages. The percentage of absorption of calcium was lower in subjects with anorexia nervosa than in control subjects (16.2% +/- 6.3% vs 24.6% +/- 7.2%; p < 0.05). Urinary calcium excretion was greater in subjects with anorexia nervosa than in control subjects (6.4 +/- 2.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1 x day-1; p < 0.01) and was associated with bone resorption rather than calcium hyper-absorption. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrated a decreased rate of bone formation and an increased rate of bone resorption. These results suggest marked abnormalities in mineral metabolism in patients with anorexia nervosa. From these results, we hypothesize that improvement in bone mineralization during recovery from anorexia nervosa will require resolution of hormonal abnormalities, including hypercortisolism, in addition to increased calcium intake.

  15. Assessment of bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in normal short boys.

    PubMed

    Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep Gökçe; Bideci, Aysun; Emeksiz, Hamdi C; Çelik, Nurullah; Döğer, Esra; Bukan, Neslihan; Yildiz, Ummügülsüm; Camurdan, Orhun M; Cinaz, Peyami

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether there is a change in bone turnover-related biochemical markers and bone mineral density of children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) in the prepubertal period. We measured serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, 25-OH vitamin D, osteocalcin, osteoprotogerin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels (D-pyd), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 31 prepubertal boys with CDGP. These children were compared with 22 prepubertal boys with familial short stature (FSS) and 27 normal prepubertal boys. Urinary D-pyd was significantly high in CDGP group as compared to control group (p=0.010). Volumetric BMD did not significantly differ between CDGP, FSS, and control groups (p=0.450). Volumetric BMD and urinary D-pyd levels of FSS and control groups were similar. Mean or median levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and osteoprotegerin did not significantly differ between CDGP, FSS, and control groups. Our data suggest that prepubertal boys with CDPG have normal bone turnover. However, their significantly higher urinary D-pyd levels relative to those of FSS and control groups might be an indicator of later development of osteoporosis. Therefore, long-term follow-up studies monitoring bone mineral status of prepubertal boys with CDPG from prepuberty to adulthood are needed to better understand bone metabolism of these patients.

  16. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    PubMed

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P <0.05). Both markers increased significantly from baseline to 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P <0.05). However, the response to orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical utility of bone turnover markers in the management of common metabolic bone diseases in adults.

    PubMed

    Glendenning, Paul; Chubb, S A Paul; Vasikaran, Samuel

    2018-06-01

    Bone turnover marker (BTMs) concentrations in blood and urine reflect bone-remodelling activity, and may be useful adjuncts in the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone diseases. Newer biomarkers, mainly bone regulatory proteins, are currently being investigated to elucidate their role in bone metabolism and disease and may in future be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disease. BTM concentrations increase around menopause in women, and at a population level the degree of increase in BTMs reflect bone loss. However, lack of adequate data precludes their use in individual patients for fracture risk assessment in clinical practice. The rapid and large changes in BTMs following anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies for osteoporosis treatment indicate they may be useful for monitoring therapy in clinical practice. The offset of drug effect on BTMs could be helpful for adjudicating the duration of bisphosphonate drug holidays. BTMs may offer useful additional data in skeletal diseases that are typically characterised by increased bone remodelling: chronic kidney disease (CKD), primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and Paget's disease. In CKD, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) is currently endorsed for use for the assessment of mineral bone disease. The role of BTMsin predicting the bone mineral density response to successful parathyroidectomy in PHPT shows some utility but the data are not consistent and studies are limited in size and/or duration. In Paget's disease of bone, BTMs are used to confirm diagnosis, evaluate extent of disease or degree of activity and for monitoring the response to bisphosphonate treatment. Whilst BTMs are currently used in specific clinical practice instances when investigating or managing metabolic bone disease, further data are needed to consolidate their clinical use where evidence of utility is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in children with clinical bone fragility.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Sasigarn A; Akusoba, Chiazor I; Hayes, John R; Mahan, John D

    2016-06-01

    The role of biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) in assessing low bone mass and monitoring bisphosphonate treatment in pediatric patients with clinical bone fragility is not well established. The aim of the study was to examine the correlations of BTMs and the bone mineral density (BMD), and evaluate the effects of bisphosphonates therapy on BTMs in children with clinical bone fragility. Clinical data of 115 patients with clinical bone fragility (mean age 9.7±5.8 years), 102 of whom received bisphosphonates, were studied. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), urine pyridinoline (PD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), BMD at baseline and subsequent years were analyzed. There was a significant negative correlation between urine PD and lumbar BMD (slope=-0.29, p<0.001). There were no correlations between BTMs and lumbar BMD Z-score. There was a significant positive correlation between serum OC and serum ALP, urine PD and DPD (p<0.001). Serum OC, urine PD and DPD index, as expressed as measured value/upper limit of normal value for age, decreased during the first 3 years of bisphosphonate therapy. In children with clinical bone fragility, BTMs correlated with each other, but not with lumbar BMD Z-score. While they were not reliable predictors of degree of low BMD, the bone markers showed suppression during bisphosphonate therapy and may be helpful in monitoring the response to therapy.

  19. Bone mineral density and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Eriko; Morakote, Nuntana; Chaovistsaree, Somsak; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2014-03-12

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lifestyle on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 177 young women affiliated with Chiang Mai University hospital were enrolled. Firstly, questionnaires about their lifestyle and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) were examined. The measurement of BMD was assessed by Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Secondly, based on the measurement of BMD, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Low BMD group (L group: less than YAM-1.0SD) and a Normal BMD group (N group: more than YAM-1.0SD). L group (n=23) and N group (n=23) were examined using Osteocalcine (OC), type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) as bone turnover markers, and serum Ca, 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D, Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 (MK-4) as bone turnover related factors. Based on the results, the percentage of Low BMD group was 23.2%. Concerning lifestyle and BMD, the BMD of the low cheese intake group was 99.7± 17.0 and the BMD of the high cheese intake one was 110.0± 23.3 (p<0.05). The BMD of the fracture experience group was 82.5± 11.6 and the BMD of no-fracture group was 103.3± 19.6 (p<0.05). These were significant differences in ucOC and 1,25-(OH)2Vitamin D between L and N groups (p<0.05). It was suggested that BMI, food and fracture experience might affect BMD level and suppression of bone formation might have contributed to the low BMD group among young women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

  20. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future.

  1. Bone marrow lesions in hip osteoarthritis are characterized by increased bone turnover and enhanced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shabestari, M; Vik, J; Reseland, J E; Eriksen, E F

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow lesions (BML), previously denoted bone marrow edema, are detected as water signals by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previous histologic studies were unable to demonstrate any edematous changes at the tissue level. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the underlying biological mechanisms of the water signal in MRI scans of bone affected by BML. Tetracycline labeling in addition to water sensitive MRI scans of 30 patients planned for total hip replacement surgery was undertaken. Twenty-one femoral heads revealed BML on MRI, while nine were negative and used as controls (CON). Guided by the MRI images cylindrical biopsies were extracted from areas with BML in the femoral heads. Tissue sections from the biopsies were subjected to histomorphometric image analyses of the cancellous bone envelope. Patients with BML exhibited an average 40- and 18-fold increase of bone formation rate and mineralizing surface, respectively. Additionally, samples with BML demonstrated 2-fold reduction of marrow fat and 28-fold increase of woven bone. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a 4-fold increase of angiogenesis markers CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in the BML-group compared to CON. This study indicates that BML are characterized by increased bone turnover, vascularity and angiogenesis in keeping with it being a reparatory process. Thus, the water signal, which is the hallmark of BML on MRI, is most probably reflecting increased tissue vascularity accompanying increased remodeling activity. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The short-term effects of cisplatin chemotherapy on bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Young, D R; Virolainen, P; Inoue, N; Frassica, F J; Chao, E Y

    1997-11-01

    Cisplatin is an effective agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma of bone but little is known of its effects on normal bone turnover. Twenty-four dogs divided into three study groups were used to study the effect of cisplatin on normal bone turnover at the distant site of surgery. Group 1 served as the control group, group 2 received four cycles of cisplatin every 3 weeks before the surgery, and group 3 received four cycles postoperatively. The bone turnover rate was evaluated by measuring levels of systemic bone markers, osteocalcin, alkaline phospohatase, urine pyridinoline cross-links, and by determination histomorphometric indices. Histomorphological analysis showed poor correlation on bone formation with systemic bone markers at distant sites of surgery. Histomorphometrically normal bone turnover was affected by administration of cisplatin, but the effect was temporary, late, and less significant than what occurred at the surgical site. Our data showed that significant effects of cisplatin are observed at the site of active cellular induction and proliferation, such as implant-host interface, and less effects are seen at the sites of normal bone turnover.

  3. Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover, and Systemic Inflammation in Non-cirrhotics with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jennifer C; Shoback, Dolores M; Zipperstein, Jacob; Lizaola, Blanca; Tseng, Samuel; Terrault, Norah A

    2015-06-01

    Whether chronic HCV, a disease characterized by systemic inflammation, impacts bone mineral density (BMD) independent of cirrhosis is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between BMD, systemic inflammation, and markers of bone turnover in chronic HCV without cirrhosis. Non-cirrhotics, 40-60 years old, with chronic HCV underwent measurement of: (1) BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and (2) serum markers of systemic inflammation and bone turnover. By Chi-squared or t test, we compared those with normal versus low BMD. Of the 60 non-cirrhotics, 53 % were female and 53 % Caucasian. Mean (SD) age was 53.3 years (5.7), total bilirubin 0.7 mg/dL (0.3), creatinine 0.8 mg/dL (0.2), and body mass index 28.4 kg/m(2) (6.5). Low BMD was observed in 42 %: 30 % had osteopenia, 12 % had osteoporosis. Elevated tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein levels were found in 26, 32, and 5 %, respectively, but did not differ by BMD group (p > 0.05). Patients with low BMD had higher serum phosphorus (4.1 vs. 3.5 mg/dL) and pro-peptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP; 73.1 vs. 47.5 ng/mL) [p < 0.05], but similar bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum C-telopeptide, and parathyroid hormone levels. Low BMD is prevalent in 40- to 60-year-old non-cirrhotics with chronic HCV, but not associated with systemic inflammatory markers. Elevated P1NP levels may help to identify those at increased risk of bone complications in this population. Chronic HCV should be considered a risk factor for bone loss, prompting earlier BMD assessments in both men and women.

  4. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.; Palmer, R. F.; Gillis, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  5. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in diagnosis of myeloma bone disease.

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Omer; Barista, Ibrahim; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer; Hascelik, Gulsen; Cila, Aysenur; Pinar, Asli; Celik, Ismail; Kars, Ayse; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to explore the value of markers of bone turnover, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and osteopontin (OPN) in the diagnosis of myeloma bone disease. Twenty-five patients with newly diagnosed and untreated multiple myeloma (MM), and 22 age-, sex-, and bone mineral density-matched control subjects were enrolled. Levels of MIP-1alpha, OPN, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of Type-1 collagen (C-telopeptide or Ctx), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), Type-1 collagen propeptide (T1Pro), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were assessed in both groups. Twenty-two of the patients had bone involvement documented by skeletal surveys and lumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of serum Ctx, OPN, MIP-1alpha, and urine DPD were significantly higher in MM patients with bone disease than in controls (P<0.01). Serum Ctx levels were elevated in 90.9% of patients with MM and 40.9% of controls (P<0.001). Urine DPD levels were elevated in 90.4% of the patients and 31.8% of the controls (P<0.001). The serum OPN and MIP-1alpha levels of the patients were significantly correlated with beta2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase levels (P<0.05). Our study indicates that Ctx and DPD are sensitive markers of bone disease in MM, and higher than normal values suggest presence of bone disease rather than benign osteoporosis in MM. The utility of OPN and MIP-1alpha needs to be further investigated. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Diverse bone scan abnormalities in shin splints

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.P.; Levinson, E.D.; Baldwin, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Four young patients who presented with pain over the anterior compartment of the legs, gave a recent athletic history suggesting stress fractures. Although radiographs were initially normal in all four cases, the bone scintigrams were positive. The individual findings, however, were quite different. In one there was a single focal area of increased radioactivity in each of the tibias; the second patient had uneven uptake of radiotracer and several foci of accumulation in the fibulas; the third showed diffuse linear tibial uptake suggesting periosteal lesions; and the fourth case revealed uptake in the lateral malleolus and in bones of themore » foot.« less

  7. Hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus have smaller bone size and lower bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Colleluori, Georgia; Aguirre, Lina; Dorin, Richard; Robbins, David; Blevins, Dean; Barnouin, Yoann; Chen, Rui; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T; Armamento-Villareal, Reina

    2017-06-01

    Both hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are associated with increased fracture risk. Emerging data support the negative effect of low testosterone on glucose metabolism, however, there is little information on the bone health of hypogonadal men with diabetes. We evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry and bone turnover of hypogonadal men with T2D compared to hypogonadal men without diabetes. Cross-sectional study, men 40-74years old, with average morning testosterone (done twice) of<300ng/dl. Areal BMD (aBMD) was measured by DXA; volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry by peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography; serum C-telopeptide (CTX), osteocalcin, sclerostin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by ELISA, testosterone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) by automated immunoassay and estradiol by liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Groups were compared by ANOVA adjusted for covariates. One-hundred five men, 49 with and 56 without diabetes were enrolled. Adjusted vBMD at 38% tibia was higher in diabetic than non-diabetic men (857.3±69.0mg/cm 3 vs. 828.7±96.7mg/cm 3 , p=0.02). Endosteal (43.9±5.8mm vs. 47.1±7.8mm, p=0.04) and periosteal (78.4±5.0mm vs. 81.3±6.5mm, p=0.02) circumferences and total area (491.0±61.0mm 2 vs. 527.7±87.2mm 2 , p=0.02) at 38% tibia, were lower in diabetic men even after adjustments for covariates. CTX (0.25±0.14ng/ml vs. 0.40±0.19ng/ml, p<0.001) and osteocalcin (4.8±2.8ng/ml vs. 6.8±3.5ng/ml, p=0.006) were lower in diabetic men; there were no differences in sclerostin and 25OHD. Circulating gonadal hormones were comparable between the groups. Among hypogonadal men, those with T2D have higher BMD, poorer bone geometry and relatively suppressed bone turnover. Studies with larger sample size are needed to verify our findings and possible even greater risk for fractures among hypogonadal diabetic men. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-score<0) women. However, Osteocalcin and CTX were higher in women preferring caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle and alcoholic drinks. Body composition and Calcium intake were significantly higher in high-BMD. Low-BMD women reported significantly higher susceptibility and barriers to exercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  9. High phosphate feeding promotes mineral and bone abnormalities in mice with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wei Ling; Linnes, Michael; Chu, Emily Y; Foster, Brian L; Bartley, Bryan A; Somerman, Martha J; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic syndrome characterized by imbalances in mineral homeostasis, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and ectopic calcification. The mechanisms underlying this syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not yet clear. We examined the effect of normal phosphate (NP) or high phosphate (HP) feeding in the setting of CKD on bone pathology, serum biochemistry and vascular calcification in calcification-prone dilute brown non-agouti (DBA/2) mice. In both NP and HP-fed CKD mice, elevated serum parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were observed, but serum phosphorus levels were equivalent compared with sham controls. CKD mice on NP diet showed trabecular alterations in the long bone consistent with high-turnover ROD, including increased trabecular number with abundant osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Despite trabecular bone and serum biochemical changes, CKD/NP mice did not develop vascular calcification. In contrast, CKD/HP mice developed arterial medial calcification (AMC), more severe trabecular bone alterations and cortical bone abnormalities that included decreased cortical thickness and density, and increased cortical porosity. Cortical bone porosity and trabecular number strongly correlated with the degree of aortic calcification. HP feeding was required to induce the full spectrum of CKD-MBD symptoms in CKD mice.

  10. Bone Turnover Markers and Lean Mass in Pubescent Boys: Comparison Between Elite Soccer Players and Controls.

    PubMed

    Nebigh, Ammar; Abed, Mohamed Elfethi; Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Sellami, Slaheddine; Tabka, Zouhair; Rebai, Haithem

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mass and bone turnover markers with lean mass (LM) in pubescent soccer players. Two groups participated in this study, which included 65 elite young soccer players who trained for 6-8 hours per week and 60 controls. Bone mineral density; bone mineral content in the whole body, lower limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral neck; biochemical markers of osteocalcin; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase; C-telopeptide type I collagen; and total LM were assessed. Young soccer players showed higher bone mineral density and bone mineral content in the whole body and weight-bearing sites (P < .001). Indeed, the total LM correlated with whole-body bone mineral density and bone mineral content (P < .001). There were significant differences within the bone formation markers and osteocalcin (formation)/C-telopeptide type I collagen (resorption) ratio between young soccer players compared with the control group, but no significant difference in C-telopeptide type I collagen was observed between the 2 groups. This study showed a significant positive correlation among bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and total LM (r = .29; r = .31; P < .05) only for the young soccer players. Findings of this study highlight the importance of soccer practice for bone mineral parameters and bone turnover markers during the puberty stage.

  11. The osteocyte: key player in regulating bone turnover

    PubMed Central

    Goldring, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in bone and are distributed throughout the mineralised bone matrix forming an interconnected network that ideally positions them to sense and to respond to local biomechanical and systemic stimuli to regulate bone remodelling and adaptation. The adaptive process is dependent on the coordinated activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts that form a so called bone multicellular unit that remodels cortical and trabecular bone through a process of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, followed by a phase of bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. Osteocytes mediate their effects on bone remodelling via both cell–cell interactions with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, but also via signaling through the release of soluble mediators. The remodelling process provides a mechanism for adapting the skeleton to local biomechanical factors and systemic hormonal influences and for replacing bone that has undergone damage from repetitive mechanical loading. PMID:26557372

  12. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  13. Biochemical Bone Turnover Markers and Osteoporosis in Older Men: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    In men aged less than 60, the association of serum and urinary levels of biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) is weak or not significant. After this age, higher BTM levels are correlated weakly, but significantly, with lower BMD and faster bone loss. Limited data from the cohort studies suggest that BTM measurement does not improve the prediction of fragility fractures in older men in comparison with age, BMD, history of falls and fragility fractures. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) decreases bone resorption. During TRT, bone formation markers slightly increase (direct effect on osteoblasts), then decrease (slowdown of bone turnover). Bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronate) induce a rapid decrease in bone resorption followed by a milder decrease in bone formation. In men receiving antiresorptive therapy for prostate cancer, zoledronate, denosumab and toremifene decrease significantly levels of bone resorption and bone formation markers. Teriparatide induced a rapid increase in serum concentrations of bone formation markers followed by an increase in bone resorption. We need more studies on the utility of BTM measurement for the improvement of the persistence and adherence to the anti-osteoporotic treatment in men. PMID:22220284

  14. Glycemic Control and Bone Turnover in Older Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Lee, MinJae; Pervin, Hannah; Musgrave, Paul; Watt, Gordon P.; Nader, Shahla; Khosla, Sundeep; Ambrose, Catherine G.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2018-01-01

    Altered bone quality, caused by underlying metabolic changes of type 2 diabetes (T2D), has been hypothesized to cause altered bone strength and turnover leading to increased fracture risk in T2D patients. Current understanding about changes in bone turnover markers in T2D patients is mainly based on studies focused on Caucasian men and women. However, Hispanic populations have the highest prevalence of both T2D and osteoporosis in the US. We investigated associations of glycemic control (in terms of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) and bone turnover rate in 69 older (≥50 years) Mexican American Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) participants with T2D. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between HbA1c (%), serum osteocalcin (OC), and serum sclerostin. In agreement with published reports from other racial/ethnic populations, our study found that lower bone turnover (indicated by lower serum OC) occurred in Mexican American men with T2D who had poorer glycemic control. For the women in our study, we found no significant association between glycemic control and OC. In contrast, HbA1c was positively associated with sclerostin for women, with near significance (p = 0.07), while no association was found in men. We recommend screening Mexican American individuals with T2D, specifically those with poor glycemic control, for bone loss and fracture risk. PMID:29862008

  15. Molecular Abnormalities Underlying Bone Fragility in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Kazama, Junichiro James

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of bone fractures is one goal of therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), as indicated by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. CKD patients, including those on hemodialysis, are at higher risk for fractures and fracture-related death compared to people with normal kidney function. However, few clinicians focus on this issue as it is very difficult to estimate bone fragility. Additionally, uremia-related bone fragility has a more complicated pathological process compared to osteoporosis. There are many uremia-associated factors that contribute to bone fragility, including severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone, and bone mineralization disorders. Uremia also aggravates bone volume loss, disarranges microarchitecture, and increases the deterioration of material properties of bone through abnormal bone cells or excess oxidative stress. In this review, we outline the prevalence of fractures, the interaction of CKD-MBD with osteoporosis in CKD patients, and discuss possible factors that exacerbate the mechanical properties of bone. PMID:28421193

  16. [Association between bone turnover markers, bone mineral density and vitamin D in Moroccan postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elmachtani Idrissi, S; Dami, A; Bouhsain, S; Chabraoui, L; Ouzzif, Z

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation between bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in a cohort of Moroccan postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 12 months from October 2008 to November 2009. Five hundred Moroccan postmenopausal women volunteers participated in this study and we included only 185. In this cohort of 185 women, average age 60 years, the percentage of osteoporotic women was 35.7%, they were older 62.09 (9.13) years and they had an average of the body mass index (BMI), the lowest 29.58 (4.45). The values of the bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the lumbar spine correlated positively and significantly with BMI (P<0.001), serum calcium (P=0.026), negatively with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) (P=0.0033). As for the results of BMD measured at the femoral neck, they show a negative and highly significant correlation with age (P<0.001) and osteocalcin. Looking for an association between the biochemical markers of bone remodeling, a weak positive correlation was found between the calcium (Ca) and alkaline phosphatase (PAL) on the one hand and Ca and intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi) in the other hand. And a significant positive correlation was found between PTHi and PAL, and between PTHi and OC. Finally, a significant positive correlation was found between the cross-laps (β-CTX) and Ca and between PAL and OC. Our results are in agree to some international studies and disagree to others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Are levels of bone turnover related to lower bone mass of adolescents previously fed a macrobiotic diet?

    PubMed

    Parsons, T J; van Dusseldorp, M; Seibel, M J; van Staveren, W A

    2001-01-01

    Dutch adolescents who consumed a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet in early life, demonstrate a lower relative bone mass than their omnivorous counterparts. We investigated whether subjects from the macrobiotic group showed signs of catching up with controls in terms of relative bone mass, reflected by higher levels of serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase and lower levels of urinary cross-links. Group differences in calciotropic hormones and mineral excretion were also investigated. Bone measurements, blood, and urine samples were obtained from 69 macrobiotic (34 girls, 35 boys) and 99 control (57 girls, 42 boys) subjects, aged 9-15. Bone turnover markers and 1,25(OH)2D reached maximal levels at pubertal stages 3-4, and decreased thereafter. After adjusting for puberty, age, and lean body mass, no group differences were found in markers of bone turnover, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH, or calcium excretion, but phosphate excretion was 23% lower in macrobiotic girls. After adjustment for puberty, 1,25(OH)2D was positively related to osteocalcin. In summary, we found no evidence for group differences in bone turnover, or catch up in relative bone mass, which might be due to the fact that 60% of subjects were still in early stages of puberty.

  18. High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Koji; Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ohara, Kenji; Eguro, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoichi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with total P1NP >76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia (P<0.01). Our study suggests that denosumab may have a greater impact on serum calcium levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium. PMID:27980413

  19. Influence of Body Weight on Bone Mass, Architecture, and Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. While the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  20. A New Insight to Bone Turnover: Role of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Magdalena; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Ochoa, Julio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence has shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the ω-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial for bone health and turnover. Objectives. This review summarizes findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies and the effects of LC PUFA on bone metabolism, as well as the relationship with the oxidative stress, the inflammatory process, and obesity. Results. Some studies in humans indicate that LCPUFA can increase bone formation, affect peak bone mass in adolescents, and reduce bone loss. However, the cellular mechanisms of action of the LCPUFA are complex and involve modulation of fatty acid metabolites such as prostaglandins, resolvins and protectins, several signaling pathways, cytokines, and growth factors, although in certain aspects there is still some controversy. LCPUFA affect receptor activator of nuclear factor κ β (RANK), a receptor found on the osteoclast, causing bone resorption, which controls osteoclast formation. Conclusions. Since fatty acids are an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species, free radicals alter the process of bone turnover; however, although there are clinical evidences linking bone metabolism and dietary lipids, more clinical trials are necessary to prove whether ω-3 PUFA supplementation plays a major role in bone health. PMID:24302863

  1. Sclerostin Levels and Bone Turnover Markers in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Miller, Karen K.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Mendes, Nara; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-01-01

    Sclerostin, product of the SOST gene, is an important determinant of bone formation and resorption. Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone density and decreased levels of bone turnover markers. However, sclerostin has not been examined in AN as a potential mediator of impaired bone metabolism. Our study objectives were to (i) assess associations of sclerostin with surrogate bone turnover markers in girls with AN and controls and (ii) examine effects of transdermal estradiol on sclerostin in AN. 69 girls (44 with AN and 25 normal-weight controls) 13–18 years old were studied at baseline. 22 AN girls were randomized to transdermal estradiol (plus cyclic medroxyprogesterone) or placebo in a double-blind study for 12 months. Sclerostin correlated positively with P1NP and CTX in controls (r = 0. 67 and 0. 53, p = 0. 0002 and 0. 005, respectively) but not in AN despite comparable levels at baseline. Changes in sclerostin over twelve months did not differ in girls randomized to estradiol or placebo. The relationship between sclerostin and bone turnover markers is disrupted in adolescent girls with AN. Despite an increase in BMD with estradiol administration in AN, estrogen does not impact sclerostin levels in this group. PMID:22728230

  2. Association of adiposity indices with bone density and bone turnover in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yan, D; Hou, X; Chen, P; Sun, Q; Bao, Y; Hu, C; Zhang, Z; Jia, W

    2017-09-01

    Associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were evaluated in Chinese participants. Body mass index, fat mass, and lean mass are positively related to BMD in both genders. Subcutaneous fat area was proved to be negatively associated with BMD and positively correlated with osteocalcin in postmenopausal females. Obesity is highly associated with osteoporosis, but the effect of adipose tissue on bone is contradictory. Our study aimed to assess the associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the Chinese population. Our study recruited 5215 participants from the Shanghai area, evaluated related anthropometric and biochemical traits in all participants, tested serum BTMs, calculated fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and image analysis software, and tested BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. When controlled for age, all adiposity indices were positively correlated with BMD of all sites for both genders. As for the stepwise regression analysis, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and lean mass were protective for BMD in both genders. However, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) was detrimental for BMD of the L1-4 and femoral neck (β ± SE -0.0742 ± 0.0174; p = 2.11E-05; β ± SE -0.0612 ± 0.0147; p = 3.07E-05). Adiposity indices showed a negative correlation with BTMs adjusting for age, especially with osteocalcin. In the stepwise regression analysis, fat mass was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -8.8712 ± 1.4902; p = 4.17E-09) and lean mass showed a negative correlation with N-terminal procollagen of type I collagen (PINP) for males (β ± SE -0.3169 ± 0.0917; p = 0.0006). In females, BMI and visceral fat area (VFA) were all negatively associated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -0.4423 ± 0.0663; p = 2.85E-11; β ± SE -7.1982 ± 1.1094; p = 9.95E-11), while SFA showed a positive correlation

  3. Osteoblast and osteoclast behaviors in the turnover of attachment bones during medaka tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Mantoku, Akiko; Chatani, Masahiro; Aono, Kazushi; Inohaya, Keiji; Kudo, Akira

    2016-01-15

    Tooth replacement in polyphyodont is a well-organized system for maintenance of homeostasis of teeth, containing the dynamic structural change in skeletal tissues such as the attachment bone, which is the supporting element of teeth. Histological analyses have revealed the character of tooth replacement, however, the cellular mechanism of how skeletal tissues are modified during tooth replacement is largely unknown. Here, we showed the important role of osteoblasts for controlling osteoclasts to modify the attachment bone during tooth replacement in medaka pharyngeal teeth, coupled with an osterix-DsRed/TRAP-GFP transgenic line to visualize osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the turnover of the row of attachment bones, these bones were resorbed at the posterior side where most developed functional teeth were located, and generated at the anterior side where teeth were newly erupted, which caused continuous tooth replacement. In the cellular analysis, osteoclasts and osteoblasts were located at attachment bones separately, since mature osteoclasts were localized at the resorbing side and osteoblasts gathered at the generating side. To demonstrate the role of osteoclasts in tooth replacement, we established medaka made deficient in c-fms-a by TALEN. c-fms-a deficient medaka showed hyperplasia of attachment bones along with reduced bone resorption accompanied by a low number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts, indicating an important role of osteoclasts in the turnover of attachment bones. Furthermore, nitroreductase-mediated osteoblast-specific ablation induced disappearance of osteoclasts, indicating that osteoblasts were essential for maintenance of osteoclasts for the proper turnover. Taken together, our results suggested that the medaka attachment bone provides the model to understand the cellular mechanism for tooth replacement, and that osteoblasts act in the coordination of bone morphology by supporting osteoclasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. National Bone Health Alliance Bone Turnover Marker Project: current practices and the need for US harmonization, standardization, and common reference ranges.

    PubMed

    Bauer, D; Krege, J; Lane, N; Leary, E; Libanati, C; Miller, P; Myers, G; Silverman, S; Vesper, H W; Lee, D; Payette, M; Randall, S

    2012-10-01

    This position paper reviews how the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) will execute a project to help assure health professionals of the clinical utility of bone turnover markers; the current clinical approaches concerning osteoporosis and the status and use of bone turnover markers in the USA; the rationale for focusing this effort around two specific bone turnover markers; the need to standardize bone marker sample collection procedures, reference ranges, and bone turnover marker assays in clinical laboratories; and the importance of harmonization for future research of bone turnover markers. Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, with the prevalence and incidence of osteoporosis for at-risk populations estimated to be 44 million Americans. The potential of bone markers as an additional tool for health care professionals to improve patient outcomes and impact morbidity and mortality is crucial in providing better health care and addressing rising health care costs. This need to advance the field of bone turnover markers has been recognized by a number of organizations, including the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), National Osteoporosis Foundation, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), and the NBHA. This position paper elucidates how this project will standardize bone turnover marker sample collection procedures in the USA, establish a USA reference range for one bone formation (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) marker, and standardize bone turnover marker assays used in clinical laboratories. This effort will allow clinicians from the USA to have confidence in their use of bone turnover markers to help monitor osteoporosis treatment and assess future fracture risk. This project builds on the recommendations of the IOF/IFCC Bone Marker Standards Working Group by developing USA reference standards for s

  5. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  6. Changes in Mouse Bone Turnover in Response to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng-Campbell, M.; Blaber, E.; Almeida, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical unloading during spaceflight is known to adversely affect mammalian physiology. Our previous studies using the Animal Enclosure Module on short duration Shuttle missions enabled us to identify a deficit in stem cell based-tissue regeneration as being a significant concern for long-duration spaceflight. Specifically, we found that mechanical unloading in microgravity resulted in inhibition of differentiation of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow compartment. Also, we observed overexpression of a cell cycle arrest molecule, CDKN1a/p21, in osteoprecursor cells on the bone surface, chondroprogenitors in the articular cartilage, and in myofibers attached to bone tissue. Specifically in bone tissue during both short (15-day) and long (30-day) microgravity experiments, we observed significant loss of bone tissue and structure in both the pelvis and the femur. After 15-days of microgravity on STS-131, pelvic ischium displayed a 6.23% decrease in bone fraction (p=0.005) and 11.91% decrease in bone thickness (p=0.002). Furthermore, during long-duration spaceflight we observed onset of an accelerated aging-like phenotype and osteoarthritic disease state indicating that stem cells within the bone tissue fail to repair and regenerate tissues in a normal manner, leading to drastic tissue alterations in response to microgravity. The Rodent Research Hardware System provides the capability to investigate these effects during long-duration experiments on the International Space Station. During the Rodent Research-1 mission 10 16-week-old female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to 37-days of microgravity. All flight animals were euthanized and frozen on orbit for future dissection. Ground (n=10) and vivarium controls (n=10) were housed and processed to match the flight animal timeline. During this study we collected pelvis, femur, and tibia from all animal groups to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based tissue regeneration is significantly altered

  7. Age-related differences in hormonal and nutritional impact on lean anorexia nervosa bone turnover uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Galusca, B; Bossu, C; Germain, N; Kadem, M; Frere, D; Lafage-Proust, M H; Lang, F; Estour, B

    2006-01-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN) patients osteoporosis occurs within a framework of multiple hormonal abnormalities as a result of bone turnover uncoupling, with decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. The aim of study was to evaluate the hormonal and nutritional relationships with both of these bone remodeling compartments and their eventual modifications with age. In a cohort of 115 AN patients (mean BMI:14.6 kg/m2) that included 60 mature adolescents (age: 15.5-20 years) and 55 adult women (age: 20-37 years) and in 28 age-matched controls (12 mature adolescents and 16 adults) we assessed: bone markers [serum osteocalcin, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP 5b)], nutritional markers [ body mass index (BMI, fat and lean mass), hormones (free tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), 17 beta estradiol, free testosterone index (FTI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol], plasma methoxyamines (metanephrine and normetanephrine) and calcium metabolism parameters [parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca, vitamin D3]. Osteocalcin reached similar low levels in both AN age subgroups. sCTX levels were found to be elevated in all AN subjects and higher in mature adolescents than in adult AN (11,567+/-895 vs. 8976+/-805 pmol/l, p<0.05). sALP was significantly lower only in mature adolescent AN patients, while there were no significant differences in the levels of TRAP 5b between AN patients and age-matched control groups. Osteocalcin correlated with sCTX in the control subjects (r=0.65) but not in the AN patients, suggesting the independent regulation of these markers in AN patients. Osteocalcin levels strongly correlated with freeT3, IGF-I, 17 beta estradiol and cortisol, while sCTX correlated with IGF-I, GH and cortisol in both

  8. Vitamin D status and bone turnover in women with acute hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Ranuccio; Martini, Giuseppe; Valenti, Roberto; Gambera, Dario; Gennari, Luigi; Salvadori, Stefania; Avanzati, Annalisa

    2004-05-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is common in elderly women. Few data are available on vitamin D status and bone turnover in women with acute hip fracture. The aims of this study were to determine whether elderly Italian women with an acute hip fracture also had low vitamin D levels and an increase of bone turnover compared with elderly women with osteoporosis but without fractures. Seventy-four women with acute osteoporotic hip fracture and 73 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were studied. All women were self-sufficient and had adequate sunlight exposure. To exclude the effect of trauma on serum 25-hydroxycolecalciferol levels and bone markers (bone alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen as indices of bone formation and bone resorption), blood samples were drawn within 24 hours of the fracture. Current data indicated that in our patients the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is common although to a lesser extent than in women who are housebound. Women with acute hip fractures had a higher prevalence of vitamin deficiency defined as serum 25-hydroxycolecalciferol lower than 12 ng/mL, compared with women with osteoporosis. Moreover, the presence of fracture did not influence the rate of bone formation, whereas the increase in bone resorption could be attributed to an older age of women with acute hip fracture because of similar values of parathyroid hormone levels in the two groups.

  9. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bredella, Miriam A; Gerweck, Anu V; Barber, Lauren A; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21-45 y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (p<0.05). There was a trend toward an increase in CTX and Pref-1. Among all participants, a 6-month increase in IGF-1 correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (p=0.0005), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in IGF-1 experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor of P1NP. GH replacement in

  10. Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2008-01-01

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

  11. Estrogen Inhibits Dlk1/FA1 Production: A Potential Mechanism for Estrogen Effects on Bone Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, B. M.; Bay-Jensen, A.; Srinivasan, B.; Tabassi, N. C.; Garnero, P.; Delaissé, J.; Khosla, S.; Kassem, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified Dlk1/FA1 (Delta-like 1/FA1) as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to mediate bone loss, under estrogen deficiency, in mice. In this report, we investigated the effects of estrogen (E)-deficiency and E replacement on serum (s) levels of Dlk1/FA1 (s-Dlk1FA1) and its correlation with bone turnover markers. s-Dlk1/FA1 and bone turnover markers (s-CTx and s-osteocalcin), were measured in two cohorts: a group of pre- and postmenopausal women (n=100) and a group of postmenopausal women, where half had received estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) (n=166). s-Dlk1/FA1, and s-CTX were elevated in postmenopausal E-deficient compared to premenopausal E-replete women (both; P<0.001). s-Dlk1/FA1 was correlated with s-CTX (r=0.30, P<0.01). ERT, in postmenopausal women, decreased s-Dlk1/FA1, as well as s-CTX and s-osteoclacin (all; P<0.0001). Changes in s-Dlk1 were significantly correlated with those observed in s-CTx (r=0.18, P<0.05) and s-osteocalcin (r=0.28, P<0.001). In conclusion, s-Dlk1/FA1 is influenced by E-deficiency and is correlated with bone turnover. Increased levels of s-Dlk1/FA1 in post-menopausal women may be a mechanism mediating the effects estrogen deficiency on bone turnover. PMID:21681814

  12. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Markers of Bone Turnover in Men.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Hodge, Jason M; Kotowicz, Mark A; Stuart, Amanda L; Chandrasekaran, Vinoomika; Cleminson, Jasmine; Pasco, Julie A

    2018-02-13

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to have a clinically significant impact on bone metabolism. To explore this further, we aimed to determine whether these agents are associated with serum markers of bone turnover utilising a population-based sample of men (n = 1138; 20-96 year) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Blood samples were obtained and the bone resorption marker, C-telopeptide (CTx) and formation marker, type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide (PINP) were measured. Anthropometry and socio-economic status (SES) were determined and information on medication use and lifestyle was obtained via questionnaire. Lifetime mood disorders were assessed using semi-structured clinical interviews. Thirty-seven (3.3%) men reported using SSRIs. Age was an effect modifier in the association between SSRIs and markers of bone turnover. Among younger men (20-60 year; n = 557), adjusted mean CTx and PINP values were 12.4% [16.7 (95% CI 14.6-18.8) vs 19.1 (95% CI 18.7-19.4) pg/ml, p = 0.03] and 13.6% [5.6 (95% CI 4.9-6.3) vs 6.4 (95% CI 6.3-6.6) pg/ml, p = 0.02] lower among SSRI users compared to non-users, respectively. No differences in SSRI use and markers of bone turnover were detected among older men (61-94 year; all p > 0.05). These patterns persisted after further adjustment for activity, alcohol, smoking, SES, depression, bone active medications and other antidepressants. Our data suggest that SSRI use is associated with alterations in bone turnover markers among younger men. The observed decreases in both CTx and PINP are likely to contribute to a low bone turnover state and increased skeletal fragility with this potential imbalance between formation and resorption resulting in subsequent bone loss.

  13. Assessing the effect of dietary calcium intake and 25 OHD status on bone turnover in women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Naureen, Ghazala; Iqbal, Romaina; Dar, Farhan Javed

    2013-01-01

    Bone health assessed in three towns of Karachi, Pakistan in females showed poor calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age from low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. To assess bone health and association of dietary calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D with bone turnover in the community-dwelling females of Karachi. Bone health was assessed in three randomly selected towns of Karachi, Pakistan. One premenopausal female fulfilling the inclusion criteria from each household was included in the study. Dietary calcium was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and biochemical markers including calcium, phosphates, albumin, magnesium, creatinine, and SGPT, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured to assess the bone health. Three hundred and five females were included from three towns. Overall, 90.5% of females had vitamin D deficiency with 42.6 and 23.3% having secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turn over respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover was significantly different among towns. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly low and iPTH levels significantly high in females with high bone turnover. Calcium intake was not significantly different among females with normal, high, and low bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age belonging to low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Compromised bone health is seen in community-dwelling females of Karachi. There is a need to perform large-scale community-based studies in all age groups to understand the interplay of markers in our population to understand the impact of these variables

  14. Gender differences in bone turnover in 2-year-old Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B F; Lonnell, C; Verheyen, K; Wood, J L N; Pfeiffert, D U; Price, J S

    2003-11-01

    Injuries to the skeleton are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in racehorses and age, gender and season have all been shown to influence risk of injury. To use biochemical markers of bone cell activity to establish to whether cellular processes in bone underlie these described effects. Blood samples were collected monthly from 2-year-old horses in race training between November 1998 and September 1999. Mean age at the start of the study was 20 months (range 18-23 months), with no significant difference in average age between colts (n = 84) and fillies (n = 63). Three markers were measured; osteocalcin (OC, bone formation), the carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone resorption) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), which is less 'bone-specific' than the other 2 markers. Colts had, on average, 3.62 ng/ml higher OC concentrations (P = 0.044) and 0.68 mg/l higher ICTP concentrations (P = 0.01) than fillies. The effect of gender was not statistically significant for PICP. However, in May, PICP concentrations were on average 157 mg/l higher in fillies than colts. There was no effect of age or season on marker concentrations. This study has shown that there are gender differences in bone turnover markers in 2-year-old Thoroughbreds; however, age, within the limited range studied, did not have a significant effect on bone cell activity. Lower bone marker concentrations may reflect smaller bone size and/or earlier skeletal maturation in fillies. An increase in concentrations of PICP in fillies in spring and early summer may relect an influence of sex hormones on collagen turnover. Gender differences in bone cell activity in 2-year-old colts and fillies may influence bone's adaptive responses to training and risk of injury.

  15. A hospital based study of biochemical markers of bone turnovers & bone mineral density in north Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Devi, Salam Gyaneshwori; Mittal, Soniya; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The osteoporotic risk for women increases soon after menopause. Bone turnover markers are known to be associated with bone loss and fracture risk. This study was aimed to assess bone turnover using bone markers and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: A total of 255 healthy women (160 pre- and 95 post-menopausal) were enrolled. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) and serum N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were measured to evaluate the bone formation and resorption, respectively. Bone mineral density was determined at lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposteriorly, femoral neck and Ward's triangle using Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. The comparison of years since menopause with respect to BMD and bone markers was also evaluated. Results: NTX and sBAP showed significant negative correlation with BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in postmenopausal women. BMD of all three sides were significant variables for NTX and BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle for sBAP in postmenopausal women. BMD lumbar spine was a significant variable for sBAP in premenopausal women. The mean values of NTX increased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. The BMD of all three sides decreased significantly with increase in the duration of years since menopause. Interpretation & conclusions: Serum NTX and sBAP were inversely correlated to BMD of femur neck and Ward's triangle in post-menopausal women. Simultaneous measurements of NTX and BMD in the north Indian women, suggest that bone resorption in women with low BMD remains high after menopause. PMID:23481051

  16. Factors associated with bone turnover and speed of sound in early and late-pubertal females.

    PubMed

    Klentrou, Panagiota; Ludwa, Izabella A; Falk, Bareket

    2011-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examines whether maturity, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake, and hormonal concentrations are related to markers of bone turnover and tibial speed of sound (tSOS) in premenarcheal (n = 20, 10.1 ± 1.1 years) and postmenarcheal girls (n = 28, aged 15.0 ± 1.4 years). Somatic maturity was evaluated using years from age of peak height velocity (aPHV). Daily dietary intake was assessed with a 24-h recall interview, and moderate to very vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured using accelerometry. Plasma levels of 25-OH vitamin D, serum levels of insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin, and serum levels of bone turnover markers including osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were measured using ELISA. OC, BAP, and NTX were significantly higher while IGF-1 and tSOS were lower in the premenarcheal group. The premenarcheal girls were more active and had higher daily energy intake relative to their body mass but there were no group differences in body mass index percentile. Maturity predicted 40%-57% of the variance in bone turnover markers. Additionally, daily energy intake was a significant predictor of OC, especially in the postmenarcheal group. IGF-1 and MVPA were significant predictors of BAP in the group as a whole. However, examined separately, IGF-1 was a predictor of BAP in the premenarcheal group while MVPA was a predictor in the postmenarcheal group. Adiposity and leptin were both negative predictors of tSOS, with leptin being specifically predictive in the postmenarcheal group. In conclusion, while maturity was the strongest predictor of bone markers and tSOS, dietary intake, physical activity, body composition, and hormonal factors further contribute to the variance in bone turnover and bone SOS in young Caucasian females. Further, the predicting factors of bone turnover and tSOS were different within each maturity group.

  17. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J

    2016-07-01

    The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis.

  18. Feasibility of simultaneous measurement of bone formation and bone resorption markers to assess bone turnover rate in postmenopausal women: an EPOLOS study.

    PubMed

    Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Płudowski, Paweł; Jaworski, Maciej; Czerwiński, Edward; Lewiński, Andrzej; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Milewicz, Andrzej; Spaczyński, Marek; Lorenc, Roman S

    2008-12-01

    One of the most important risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women is elevated bone turnover (EBT), occurring in 25-30% of this population. This study's aim was to find a correlation between bone resorption and bone formation markers to assess bone turnover rate and qualify an individual postmenopausal woman as a possible EBT subject. Three hundred twenty postmenopausal women (> or = one year after the last menstruation, < or = 70 years old) were enrolled at seven clinical sites in this cross-sectional observational study conducted within the EPOLOS. The group was a random sample of the population. The study was performed in a referral center involved in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. The exclusion criteria included pregnancy, cancer, fracture in the last year, and overweight (> 100 kg). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine, total hip, trochanter, and femoral neck regions were performed. Bone resorption and formation rates were evaluated by serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC), respectively. Using logistic regression to correlate the concentrations of CTX and OC it was possible not only to distinguish the EBT subgroup, but also to construct a simple nomogram for easy classification of individual patients as possible EBT subjects. EBT patients showed generally decreased BMD values and increased bone formation and resorption rates. Evaluation of both CTX and OC levels enables a more proper indication for EBT. The proposed nomogram may assist in evaluating outcome from the two markers of bone turnover.

  19. Effects of soy protein isolate and moderate exercise on bone turnover and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ellen M.; Racette, Susan B.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Peterson, Linda R.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the independent and additive effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) and moderate-intensity exercise (EX) on bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD). Design This study used a placebo-controlled, double-blind (soy), randomized 2 (SPI vs milk protein isolate [MPI]) × 2 (EX vs no EX) design. Sixty-one postmenopausal women were randomized, and 43 (62 ± 5 y) completed the 9-month intervention (SPI, n = 10; MPI, n = 12; SPI + EX, n = 11; MPI + EX, n = 10). Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were measured as markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results At 9 months, SPI reduced serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides (−13.3% ± 15.3% vs −1.5% ± 21.0%; P = 0.02) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (−4.7% ± 14.7% vs 6.5% ± 17.7%; P = 0.02) compared to milk protein isolate. EX attenuated the reduction in serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides (−1.9% ± 21.6% vs −12.4% ± 15.3%; P = 0.04); however, no EX effects were apparent in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase at 9 months (2.8% ± 16.1% vs −1.0% ± 18.3%; P = 0.28). Neither SPI nor EX affected BMD at any site; however, change in BMD was related to change in fat mass (r = 0.40, P < 0.05). Conclusions In postmenopausal women (1) SPI reduces bone turnover with no impact on BMD over 9 months; (2) moderate-intensity endurance exercise training did not favorably alter bone turnover and had no impact on BMD; and (3) there were no additive effects of soy and exercise on bone turnover or BMD. PMID:17213752

  20. Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tue H; Madsen, Marie T B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Cohen, Arieh S; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2018-01-23

    A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores. When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P < 0.001) compared to omnivores, whereas CTX (30 [95% CI: -1, 72]%, P = 0.06) and osteocalcin (21.8 [95% CI: -9.3, 63.7]%, P = 0.2) concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P < 0.001) and lower 25(OH)-D serum concentration (-33 [95% CI: -45, -19]%; P < 0.001), but similar serum calcium concentration (-1 [95% CI: -3, 1]%, P = 0.18 compared to omnivores. Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

  1. Association of Glycemic Status with Bone Turnover Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sweta Vilas; Meenatchi, Suruthi; Reeta, R; Ramesh, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, A R; Lenin, C

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has profound implications on the skeleton. Even though bone mineral density is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, they are more prone for fractures. The weakening of bone tissue in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be due to uncontrolled blood sugar levels leading to high levels of bone turnover markers in blood. The aim of this study is to find the association between glycemic status and bone turnover markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This case-control study was carried out in a tertiary health care hospital. Fifty clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the age group between 30 and 50 years were included as cases. Fifty age- and gender-matched healthy nondiabetics were included as controls. Patients with complications and chronic illness were excluded from the study. Depending on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, patients were grouped into uncontrolled (HbA1c >7%, n = 36) and controlled (HbA1c <7%, n = 14) diabetics. Based on duration of diabetes, patients were grouped into newly diagnosed, 1-2 years, 3-5 years, and >5 years. Serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and HbA1c levels were estimated. OC/BAP and OC/ACP ratio was calculated. Student's t -test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done for OC/BAP and OC/ACP ratios. Serum OC, HbA1c, and OC/BAP ratio were increased in cases when compared to controls and were statistically significant ( P < 0.001). OC/ACP ratio was decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and was statistically significant ( P = 0.01). In patients with >5-year duration of diabetes, HbA1c level was high and was statistically significant ( P < 0.042). BAP levels were high in uncontrolled diabetics but statistically not significant. ROC curve showed OC/BAP ratio better marker than OC/ACP ratio. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus affects bone tissue resulting

  2. Impact of Dietary Intake on Bone Turnover in Patients with Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Kathryn E; Felner, Eric I; Tangpricha, Vin; Wilson, Peter W F; Singh, Rani H

    2017-01-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the PAH enzyme. Patients follow a phenylalanine-restricted diet low in intact protein, and must consume synthetic medical food (MF) to supply phenylalanine-free protein. We assessed relationships between dietary intake and nutrient source (food or MF) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in PAH deficiency. Blood from 44 fasted females 11-52 years of age was analyzed for plasma phenylalanine, serum BTM [CTx (resorption), P1NP (formation)], vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). BTM ratios were calculated to assess resorption relative to formation (CTx/P1NP). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total BMD and age-matched Z-scores. Three-day food records were analyzed for total nutrient intake, nutrients by source (food, MF), and compliance with MF prescription. Spearman's partial coefficients (adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, blood phenylalanine) assessed correlations. All had normal BMD for age (Z-score >-2). Sixty-four percent had high resorption and normal formation indicating uncoupled bone turnover. CTx/P1NP was positively associated with food phenylalanine (r 2 = 0.39; p-value = 0.017), energy (r 2 = 0.41; p-value = 0.011) and zinc (r 2 = 0.41; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP was negatively associated with MF fat (r 2 = -0.44; p-value = 0.008), MF compliance (r 2 = -0.34; p-value = 0.056), and positively with food sodium (r 2 = 0.43; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP decreased significantly with age (p-value = 0.002) and higher PTH (p-value = 0.0002). Phenylalanine was not correlated with any bone indicator. Females with PAH deficiency had normal BMD but elevated BTM, particularly resorption. More favorable ratios were associated with nutrients from MF and compliance. Younger females had less favorable BTM ratios. Promoting micronutrient intake through compliance with MF may impact bone metabolism in patients with PAH deficiency. Bone

  3. Evaluation of local bone turnover in painful hip by 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Tezuka, Taro; Ike, Hiroyuki; Kubota, So; Kawamura, Masaki; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of painful hip without remarkable radiographic findings is still challenging. In recent years, femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been recognized as an important cause of painful hip. The hypothesis of this study was that local bone turnover may be accelerated in painful hip, especially in FAI lesions. To test this, patients with unilateral symptomatic hip underwent F-fluoride PET, which directly correlates with osteoblast activity and therefore bone turnover. In total, 27 patients with unilateral symptomatic painful hip were enrolled. The diagnosis included 15 cam-type FAI cases, six labral tear cases, and six early-stage osteoarthritis cases. The region of interest for cam and pincer lesions was identified and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in these regions and the contralateral asymptomatic regions were measured by F-fluoride PET. The SUVmax ratio was defined as symptomatic side SUVmax/asymptomatic side SUVmax. The α angle and center-edge angle were measured by plain radiograph. The SUVmax of both cam and pincer lesions were significantly higher than the SUVmax of the contralateral regions (P<0.0001). The cam SUVmax ratio correlated positively with the α angle (r=0.5, P=0.007). Patients with an α angle of more than or equal to 60° had a significantly higher cam SUVmax ratio than the less than 60° group (P=0.017). This study showed the accelerated local bone turnover in painful hip, partly in FAI cases. Accelerated bone turnover may play a significant role in FAI pathophysiology; therefore, its recognition by imaging modality may contribute toward a more sensitive diagnosis in painful hip.

  4. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alselami, Nada M; Noureldeen, Amani F H; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Khan, Jalaluddin A; Moselhy, Said S

    2015-03-01

    There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese postmenopausal Saudi women, (36 uncontrolled, 29 controlled). The following serum biochemical parameters were evaluated [fasting blood glucose (FBG), total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pi), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-(OH)2 Vitamin D3, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen (PICP) and cathepsin k (Cath K)]. Serum OC levels were significantly decreased in diabetic obese postmenopausal group compared to their respective healthy group (P < 0.004). PICP and Cath K were significantly elevated in diabetic postmenopausal group compared to the healthy group (P < 0.024 & 0.001). A significant elevation in 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3, Ca and Pi levels in diabetic obese postmenopausal patients group compared to the healthy group. However, a non-significant changes was observed in serum PTH level between different groups. In this study, the changes in the biochemical parameters and bone turnover markers in obese women are strong risk factors for diabetes development that may contribute to osteopenia and osteoporosis. The study showed the strong effect of T2DM on biochemical markers of bone turnover in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.

  5. Carbon-14 bomb pulse dating shows that tendinopathy is preceded by years of abnormally high collagen turnover.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Øhlenschlæger, Tommy F; Eismark, Christian; Olsen, Jesper; Kjær, Michael

    2018-03-23

    Tendons are essential weight-bearing structures that are often affected by tendinopathy, which leads to pain and impaired mobility. In healthy Achilles tendons, no significant renewal of the weight-bearing collagen matrix seems to occur during adult life, but tendinopathy may lead to increased turnover. The carbon-14 ([ 14 C]) bomb pulse method was used to measure lifelong replacement rates of collagen in tendinopathic and healthy Achilles tendons (tendinopathic: n = 25, born 1937-72. Healthy: n = 10, born 1929-66). As expected, the healthy tendon collagen had not been replaced during adulthood, but in tendinopathic tendon, a substantial renewal had occurred. Modeling of the [ 14 C] data suggested that one half of the collagen in tendinopathic matrix had undergone continuous slow turnover for years before the presentation of symptoms. This finding allows for a new concept in tendon pathogenesis because it suggests that either the symptoms of tendinopathy represent a late phase of a very prolonged disease process, or an abnormally high collagen exchange could be a risk factor for tendon disorders rather than being a result of disease.-Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Øhlenschlæger, T. F., Eismark, C., Olsen, J., Kjær, M. Carbon-14 bomb pulse dating shows that tendinopathy is preceded by years of abnormally high collagen turnover.

  6. Response of bone turnover markers to three oral bisphosphonate therapies in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the TRIO study.

    PubMed

    Naylor, K E; Jacques, R M; Paggiosi, M; Gossiel, F; Peel, N F A; McCloskey, E V; Walsh, J S; Eastell, R

    2016-01-01

    We used bone turnover markers to identify women who responded to bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. Response was more likely with alendronate and ibandronate than risedronate. There was a greater decrease in bone markers if baseline bone turnover markers were higher and if the patient took more than 80 % of her medication. Biochemical response to bisphosphonate therapy can be assessed using either a decrease in bone turnover marker beyond the least significant change (LSC) or a reduction to within a reference interval (RI). We compared the performance of these target responses and determined whether response was related to the type of bisphosphonate, compliance and baseline bone turnover markers. Biochemical responses to three oral bisphosphonates were assessed in an open, controlled trial comprising 172 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (age 53-84 years), randomised to alendronate, ibandronate or risedronate, plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation for 2 years. The LSC for each marker was derived within the study population, whereas RIs were obtained from a control group of healthy premenopausal women (age 35-40 years). Over 70 % of women achieved a target response for serum CTX and PINP, irrespective of the approach used. The percentage decrease at 12 weeks was greater for women with baseline PINP above the RI -63 % (difference 13 %, 95 % CI 0 to 27.1, P = 0.049) and good compliance -67 % (difference 15.9 %, 95 % CI 6.3 to 25.5, P = 0.001). Responders had a greater increase in spine bone density compared to nonresponders; for example 6.2 vs. 2.3 % (difference 3.9 %, 95 % CI 1.6 to 6.3, P = 0.0011) for PINP LSC. The magnitude of change in bone markers was greater with ibandronate and alendronate than risedronate. Both approaches to response identified similar proportions of women as responders. Nonresponders had smaller increases in BMD, and we suggest that biochemical assessment of response is a useful tool for the management of women with

  7. PTH (1-34) affects bone turnover governed by osteocytes exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuhua; Yu, Haolan; Jiang, Ningning; Zhang, Xiuyun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Xu, Hui

    2018-05-15

    Exposure to fluoride from environmental sources remains an overlooked, but serious public health risk. In this study, we looked into the role osteocytes play on the mechanism underlying fluoride induced osteopathology. We analyzed bone formation and resorption related genes generated by osteocytes that were exposed to varied doses of fluoride with and without PTH in vitro. Correspondingly, osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis related genes were also investigated in rats exposed to fluoride for 8 weeks, and the PTH(1-34)was applied at the last 3 weeks to observe its role in regulating bone turnover upon fluoride treatment. The data in vitro indicated that fluoride treatment inhibited Sost expression of mRNA and protein and stimulated RANKL mRNA protein expression as well as the RANKL/OPG ratio in the primary osteocytes. Single PTH treatment played the similar role on expression of these genes and proteins. The PTH combined administration enhanced the action of fluoride treatment on RNAKL/OPG and SOST/Sclerostin. The up-regulation of RANKL and decreasing of Sost induced by fluoride and/or PTH treatment was validated in vivo and suggests that osteocytes are a major source of RANKL and Sost, both of which play essential roles in fluoride affecting osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Expression of Wnt/β-catenin was up-regulated in both in vitro osteocytes treated with high dose of fluoride and bone tissue of rats in the presence of fluoride and PTH. In vivo, fluoride and single PTH stimulated bone turnover respectively, furthermore, PTH combined with low dose of fluoride treatment reinforced the osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis genes expression, however, co-treatment of PTH reversed the effect of high dose of fluoride on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenensis related factors. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that osteocytes play a key role in fluoride activated bone turnover, and PTH participates in the process of fluoride modulating SOST/Sclerostin and RANKL

  8. High intake of milk, but not meat, decreases bone turnover in prepubertal boys after 7 days.

    PubMed

    Budek, A Z; Hoppe, C; Michaelsen, K F; Mølgaard, C

    2007-08-01

    To compare the short-term effect of a high milk and a high meat intake, identical in protein amount, on bone turnover during prepuberty. A University department. From 28, randomly recruited, 8-year-old boys, first 14 were assigned to the milk group and next 14 to the meat group. In each group, 12 boys finished the dietary intervention. Milk (1.5 l/day) and meat (250 g/d), both containing approximately 53 g of protein, were given together with the habitual diet for 7 days. At baseline and day-7, serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (s-BAP) and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (s-CTX) were measured (immunoassay) and dietary intake was estimated (a 3-day weighted food record). Baseline s-OC, s-BAP and s-CTX were not significantly different between the groups. After 7 days, the average protein intake increased in both groups by 47.5 g; the milk group had higher (P<0.0001) calcium intake; s-OC and s-CTX decreased (P< or =0.04) in the milk group (-30.9%; -18.7%, respectively) compared with the meat group (+6.4%; -1.0%, respectively) and s-BAP decreased (P=0.06) both in the milk (-3.9%) and the meat group (-7.5%). At the equal protein intake, milk, but not meat, decreased bone turnover in prepubertal boys after 7 days. This effect was probably due to some milk-derived compounds, rather than to the total protein intake. Future studies should elucidate the mechanism(s) of milk-related decline of bone turnover and its relevance for peak bone mass during growth. University PhD scholarships.

  9. Associations between genetic variants and the effect of letrozole and exemestane on bone mass and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Oesterreich, Steffi; Henry, N Lynn; Kidwell, Kelley M; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Skaar, Todd C; Dantzer, Jessica; Li, Lang; Hangartner, Thomas N; Peacock, Munro; Nguyen, Anne T; Rae, James M; Desta, Zeruesenay; Philips, Santosh; Storniolo, Anna M; Stearns, Vered; Hayes, Daniel F; Flockhart, David A

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvant therapy for hormone receptor (HR) positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients includes aromatase inhibitors (AI). While both the non-steroidal AI letrozole and the steroidal AI exemestane decrease serum estrogen concentrations, there is evidence that exemestane may be less detrimental to bone. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) predict effects of AIs on bone turnover. Early stage HR-positive breast cancer patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole. Effects of AI on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM), and associations between SNPs in 24 candidate genes and changes in BMD or BTM were determined. Of the 503 enrolled patients, paired BMD data were available for 123 and 101 patients treated with letrozole and exemestane, respectively, and paired BTM data were available for 175 and 173 patients, respectively. The mean change in lumbar spine BMD was significantly greater for letrozole-treated (-3.2 %) compared to exemestane-treated patients (-1.0 %) (p = 0.0016). Urine N-telopeptide was significantly increased in patients treated with exemestane (p = 0.001) but not letrozole. Two SNPs (rs4870061 and rs9322335) in ESR1 and one SNP (rs10140457) in ESR2 were associated with decreased BMD in letrozole-treated patients. In the exemestane-treated patients, SNPs in ESR1 (Rs2813543) and CYP19A1 (Rs6493497) were associated with decreased bone density. Exemestane had a less negative impact on bone density compared to letrozole, and the effects of AI therapy on bone may be impacted by genetic variants in the ER pathway.

  10. ALPHA-CTX is associated with subchondral bone turnover and predicts progression of joint space narrowing and osteophytes in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Janet L; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Huffman, Kim M; He, Yi; Leeming, Diana J; McDaniel, Gary E; Karsdal, Morten A; Kraus, Virginia B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate joint tissue remodeling, with urinary collagen biomarkers, uALPHA CTX and uCTXII, and their association with osteoarthritis (OA) severity, progression, and localized knee bone turnover. Methods Participants (N=149) with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA underwent fixed flexion knee radiography at baseline and 3 years, and late-phase bone scintigraphy of both knees at baseline, scored semi-quantitatively for osteophyte (OST) and joint space narrowing (JSN) severity and uptake intensity with scores summed across knees. Urinary concentrations of ALPHA CTX and CTXII were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry of human OA knees was performed to localize the joint tissue origin of the biomarker epitopes. Results uALPHA CTX correlated strongly with intensity of bone scintigraphic uptake, and JSN and OST progression (risk ratio=13.2 and 3, respectively). uCTXII was strongly associated with intensity of bone scintigraphic uptake, with JSN and OST severity, and OA progression based on OST. uALPHA CTX localized primarily to high bone turnover areas in subchondral bone; CTXII localized to the bone-cartilage interface, the tidemark, and damaged articular cartilage. Conclusion Baseline uALPHA CTX, localized to high turnover areas of subchondral bone, was associated with dynamic bone turnover of knees signified by scintigraphy, and progression of both OST and JSN. uCTXII correlated with JSN and OST severity, and progression of OST. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of serological markers reflecting subchondral bone turnover. These collagen markers may be useful for non-invasive detection and quantification of active subchondral bone turnover and joint remodeling in knee OA. PMID:24909851

  11. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  12. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  13. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  14. Changes in biomarkers of bone turnover in an aripiprazole add-on or switching study.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Rohit J; Masand, Salaj; Malik, Amna; Shivakumar, Kuppuswami; McAllister, Victoria D M; O'Keane, Veronica; Young, Leah C; Heald, Adrian H; Sherwood, Roy A; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    The association between mental illness and osteoporosis and fractures is particularly pronounced in psychotic disorders. Antipsychotic use has previously been described to affect bone density. A 52-week follow-up of patients switched to aripiprazole or with aripiprazole added on, conducting a specific analysis of markers of bone turnover: urinary NTX (a biomarker of bone resorption) and serum BSAP (a biomarker of bone formation). Baseline and serial measurements of bone markers NTX, BSAP and of hormones prolactin, oestrogen and testosterone were done at weeks 0 and 1, 2, 6, 12, 26 and 52, respectively. NTX concentration reduced over time but this did not reach significance in the whole group (log-NTX: β=-0.0012, p=0.142). For BSAP the addition of or replacement with aripiprazole produced a significant reduction (log-BSAP: β=-0.00039, p=0.002). Analysis with prolactin similarly showed a significant reduction (log-prolactin: β=-0.0024, p<0.001); other hormones did not change significantly. Sensitivity analysis to compare the switchers to aripiprazole versus the "add-on" showed that the former group had a significant reduction in NTX. We found that switching to aripiprazole was associated with changes in molecular biomarkers of bone resorption, indicating a more favourable profile for bone health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p < 0.05) compared to controls. No significant differences were detected between the mean values of bone turnover markers (CTX and PINP), 25(OH)D, and PTH of the two groups. Women with vitamin D deficiency (severe and insufficiency) represented 85.9% of the study subjects. Multiple and logistic regression showed that age and BMI significantly affected BMD and vitamin D had a significant association with BMD only at the lumbar spine. BMI was positively correlated with BMD and PTH but negatively correlated with vitamin D. Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio (OR) for having osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were

  16. Blood lead levels and bone turnover with weight reduction in women.

    PubMed

    Riedt, Claudia S; Buckley, Brian T; Brolin, Robert E; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Rhoads, George G; Shapses, Sue A

    2009-01-01

    High bone turnover states are known to raise blood lead levels (BPb). Caloric restriction will increase bone turnover, yet it remains unknown if weight reduction increases BPb due to mobilization of skeletal stores. We measured whole blood Pb levels ((206)Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 73 women (age 24-75 years; BMI 23- 61 kg/m(2)) before and after 6 months of severe weight loss (S-WL), moderate weight loss (M-WL), or weight maintenance (WM). Baseline BPb levels were relatively low at 0.2-6.0 microg/dl, and directly associated with age (r=0.49, P<0.0001). After severe WL (-37.4+/-9.3 kg, n=17), BPb increased by 2.1+/-3.9 microg/dl (P<0.05), resulting in BPb levels of 1.3-12.5 microg/dl. M-WL (-5.6+/-2.7 kg, n=39) and WM (0.3+/-1.3 kg, n=17) did not result in an increase in BPb levels (0.5+/-3.2 and 0.0+/-0.7 microg/dl, M-WL and WM, respectively). BPb levels increased more with greater WL (r=0.24, P<0.05). Bone turnover markers increased only with severe WL and were directly correlated with WL. At baseline, higher calcium intake was associated with lower BPb (r=-0.273, P<0.02), however, this association was no longer present after 6 months. Severe weight reduction in obese women increases skeletal bone mobilization and BPb, but values remain well below levels defined as Pb overexposure.

  17. Changes in Inflammatory and Bone Turnover Markers After Periodontal Disease Treatment in Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Izuora, Kenneth E; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Neubauer, Michael F; Gewelber, Civon L; Allenback, Gayle L; Shan, Guogen; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2016-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms for increased osteopenia and fracture rates in patients with diabetes are not well understood, but may relate to chronic systemic inflammation. We assessed the effect of treating periodontal disease (POD), a cause of chronic inflammation, on inflammatory and bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes. Using an investigator-administered questionnaire, we screened a cross-section of patients presenting for routine outpatient diabetes care. We recruited 22 subjects with POD. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and 3 months following POD treatment (scaling, root planing and subantimicrobial dose doxycycline). There were nonsignificant reductions in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (6.34-5.52mg/L, P = 0.626) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (10.37-10.01pg/mL, P = 0.617). There were nonsignificant increases in urinary C-terminal telopeptide (85.50-90.23pg/mL, P = 0.684) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (7.45-8.79pg/mL, P = 0.074). Patients with >90% adherence with doxycycline were 6.4 times more likely to experience reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P = 0.021) and 2.8 times more likely to experience reductions in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.133). Treatment of POD in patients with diabetes resulted in nonsignificant lowering of inflammatory markers and nonsignificant increase in bone turnover markers. However, adherence to doxycycline therapy resulted in better treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Proteome Analysis of hAT-MSCs Isolated from Chronic Renal Failure Patients with Differences in Their Bone Turnover Status.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Murat; Yeğenağa, Itır; Akpinar, Gurler; Tuncay, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ayça; Karaoz, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the stem cells and the bone turnover in uremic bone disease due to chronic renal failure (CRF) is not described. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bone turnover status on stem cell properties. To search for the presence of such link and shed some light on stem-cell relevant mechanisms of bone turnover, we carried out a study with mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue biopsies were taken from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of a CRF patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism with the high turnover bone disease. This patient underwent parathyroidectomy operation (PTX) and another sample was taken from this patient after PTX. A CRF patient with adynamic bone disease with low turnover and a healthy control were also included. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the subjects were analyzed using proteomic and molecular approaches. Except ALP activity, the bone turnover status did not affect common stem cell properties. However, detailed proteome analysis revealed the presence of regulated protein spots. A total of 32 protein spots were identified following 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyzes. The identified proteins were classified into seven distinct groups and their potential relationship to bone turnover were discussed. Distinct protein expression patterns emerged in relation to the bone turnover status indicate a possible link between the stem cells and bone turnover in uremic bone disease due to CRF.

  19. Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  20. Estrogen Regulates Bone Turnover by Targeting RANKL Expression in Bone Lining Cells.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Carmen; Heyny, Alexandra; Andrukhova, Olena; Haigl, Barbara; Slavic, Svetlana; Schüler, Christiane; Kollmann, Karoline; Kantner, Ingrid; Sexl, Veronika; Kleiter, Miriam; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Kostenuik, Paul J; Erben, Reinhold G

    2017-07-25

    Estrogen is critical for skeletal homeostasis and regulates bone remodeling, in part, by modulating the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for bone resorption by osteoclasts. RANKL can be produced by a variety of hematopoietic (e.g. T and B-cell) and mesenchymal (osteoblast lineage, chondrocyte) cell types. The cellular mechanisms by which estrogen acts on bone are still a matter of controversy. By using murine reconstitution models that allow for selective deletion of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) or selective inhibition of RANKL in hematopoietic vs. mesenchymal cells, in conjunction with in situ expression profiling in bone cells, we identified bone lining cells as important gatekeepers of estrogen-controlled bone resorption. Our data indicate that the increase in bone resorption observed in states of estrogen deficiency in mice is mainly caused by lack of ERα-mediated suppression of RANKL expression in bone lining cells.

  1. Relative value of the lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in men with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Laura; Rojas-Vargas, Marena; Font, Pilar; Simon, Siao-Pin; Rednic, Simona; Schiotis, Ruxandra; Stefan, Simona; Tamas, Maria M; Bolosiu, Horatiu D; Collantes-Estévez, Eduardo

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine their relationship with clinical features and disease activity. Serum carboxi terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC) levels, and BMD of lumbar spine and proximal femur were evaluated in 44 males with AS, 18-60 years of age, and compared with those of 39 age-matched healthy men. Men with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the femoral neck and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p < 0.01). Osteopaenia or osteoporosis was found in 59.5% AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 47.7% at the femoral neck. Mean serum levels of OC and CTX were similar in AS patients and controls. There were no significant differences in BMD and bone turnover markers when comparing subgroups stratified according to disease duration or presence of peripheral arthritis. No correlations were found between disease activity markers and BMD or OC and CTX. In a cohort of relatively young males with AS, we found a high incidence of osteopaenia and osteoporosis. Disease activity and duration did not show any significant influence on BMD or serum levels of OC and CTX.

  2. Effects of endocrine and inflammatory changes on markers of bone turnover following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bariatric surgery is associated with increased bone turnover. The mechanisms involved are unclear but may involve nutrition, mechanical unloading, altered secretion of gastrointestinal and adipose hormones and changes in inflammatory status leading to weight loss induced bone loss. We assessed marke...

  3. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin was positively correlated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (r = 0.391, P < 0.001) and weakly negatively correlated with β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (r = -0.225, P < 0.001; r = -0.091, P = 0.046; r = -0.108, P = 0.018; respectively) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  4. Effects of Curcumin on Bone Loss and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Rahmani, Asghar; Dastjerdi, Masoud Moghadas; Asadollahi, Khairollah

    2018-06-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common problems of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The current study aimed to evaluate the antiosteoporotic effects of curcumin on densitometry parameters and biomarkers of bone turnovers among patients with SCI. The current controlled clinical trial was conducted among 100 patients with SCI referred to an outpatient clinic of rehabilitation in Ilam City, Iran, in 2013-2015. The intervention group received 110/mg/kg/day curcumin for 6 months and the control group received placebo. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients. The level of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphates were compared before and after study. BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and total hip in the control group significantly decreased compared with the beginning of study. However, in the curcumin group, a significant increase was observed in BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and hip at the end of study compared with the beginning. There was also a significant difference between interventional and control groups for the mean BMD of femoral neck and hip at the end of study (0.718 ± 0.002 g/cm 2 vs. 0.712 ± 0.003 g/cm 2 and 0.742 ± 0.031 g/cm 2 vs. 0.692 ± 0.016 g/cm 2 , respectively). Curcumin, via modulation of densitometry indices and bone resorption markers, showed inhibitory effects on the process of osteoporosis. Treatment with curcumin was significantly associated with a decrease in the osteoporosis progression and bone turnover markers of patients with SCI after 6 months. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of vitamin D therapy on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Tanzy, Margaret E; Camacho, Pauline M

    2011-01-01

    To (1) assess the rate of reduction in bone turnover with vitamin D and bisphosphonate therapies and (2) evaluate the clinical utility of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) in monitoring treatment response. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with newly diagnosed osteopenia and osteoporosis from 2002 to 2009 at Loyola University Medical Center. A cohort of postmenopausal women with hip or spine T-scores of less than -1, normal serum creatinine, and no prior vitamin D or bisphosphonate therapy was divided into vitamin D-deficient (n = 29) and vitamin D-sufficient (n = 13) groups. Vitamin D-deficient patients received high-dose vitamin D, whereas vitamin D-sufficient patients received orally administered bisphosphonates. BSAP levels at baseline and 1 year were compared. Vitamin D therapy in the group with vitamin D deficiency led to a 26.7% decrease in BSAP (P<.01). Bisphosphonate therapy in the vitamin D-sufficient group led to a 32.7% decrease in BSAP (P = .01). The magnitude of BSAP change in the 2 study groups (6.74 ± 6.48 μg/L and 8.72 ± 9.94 μg/L) did not differ significantly (P = .45). The results of this study suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis can lead to a decrease in bone turnover as measured by BSAP and that the magnitude of this reduction is similar to that achieved with orally administered bisphosphonates.

  6. Vitamin D supplementation, bone turnover, and inflammation in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Benguella, L; Arbault, A; Fillion, A; Blot, M; Piroth, C; Denimal, D; Duvillard, L; Ornetti, P; Chavanet, P; Maillefert, J-F; Piroth, L

    2018-04-13

    To assess whether vitamin D supplementation could be associated with a modification of inflammatory markers and bone turnover in HIV-1-infected patients. Patients who participated in an initial survey in 2010 and who were followed in the same department were included in a new study in 2012. Between 2010 and 2012, vitamin D supplementation was offered to patients presenting with hypovitaminosis D as per appropriate guidelines. Clinical examinations were performed, and fasting blood samples were taken for inflammation and bone marker evaluations. Of the 263 patients who participated in the 2010 study, 198 were included in the 2012 study. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 47% (36/77) of participants supplemented as per appropriate guidelines, in 78% (75/97) of transiently or incompletely supplemented participants, and in 71% (17/24) of non-supplemented participants (mainly because vitamin D levels in 2010 were normal). No significant correlation between vitamin D supplementation and the 2-year inflammation outcome (IL-6 and hsCRP) or C-terminal telopeptide levels was observed. However, a decrease in IL6 levels over the 2 years significantly correlated with reaching a normal vitamin D level (OR=0.89 per+1pg/mL IL6 increase, 95% CI=0.81-0.97, P=0.015). Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of hypovitaminosis D but does not decrease the risk of inflammation nor bone turnover, unless normal 25-OH vitamin D levels are reached. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of lamotrigine and phenytoin on bone turnover and bone strength: A prospective study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Simko, Julius; Karesova, Iva; Kremlacek, Jan; Fekete, Sona; Zimcikova, Eva; Malakova, Jana; Zivna, Helena; Valis, Martin; Palicka, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    Some data suggest that exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) might be associated with impaired bone health in an orchidectomized rat model. The aim of this study was to determine if LTG poses any significant risk for bone in a gonadally intact animals and to compare the effect of LTG with that of phenytoin (PHT). Twenty-four rats were divided into control and test groups, (n=8 per group). Control rats received a standard laboratory diet (SDL), while rats in the test groups were fed a SLD enriched with LTG or PHT for 12 weeks. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The concentrations of bone turnover markers (BTM) were assayed in bone homogenates. The femurs were measured and biomechanically tested. Treatment with either LTG or PHT had no significant effect on BMD or on the biomechanical strength of the bones. In contrast to the effect of LTG, we did find significant changes in BTM in the PHT group: a highly significant decrease in the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ratio (p<0.01) and highly significant increases in bone alkaline phosphatase and amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (p<0.001, p˂0.01, respectively). In the LTG group, the only significant change was a decrease in sclerostin (p˂0.05). The PHT level was 19.0 (15.6-19.5) μmol/l, which represents the lower end of the therapeutic range used in humans. The level of LTG was 60.7 (58.5-61.8) μmol/l. LTG has no effect on the BMD, BTM or mechanical strength in gonadally intact animals. Although a low dose of PHT was associated with enhanced BTM, it did not affect BMD or the biomechanical properties of the bones, similar to the results observed for LTG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Jill; Mahtouk, Karène; Attal, Michel; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Huynh, Anne; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Danho, Clotaire; Laharrague, Patrick; Klein, Bernard; Rème, Thierry; Bourin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature suggested that cell of the microenvironment of solid tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression with Affymetrix arrays and phenotypic and functional study in 3 groups of individuals: patients with MM and those with monoclonal gamopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), and healthy aged-matched subjects. Gene expression profile independently classified the BMMSCs of these individuals in a normal and in a MM group. MGUS BMMSCs were interspersed between those 2 groups. Among the 145 distinct genes differentially expressed in MM and normal BMMSCs 46% were involved in tumor-microenvironment cross-talk. Known soluble factors involved in MM pathophysiologic features, (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, DKK1 and amphiregulin, were revealed and new ones found. In particular, GDF-15 was found to induce dose-dependant growth of MOLP-6, a stromal cell-dependent myeloma cell line. Functionally, MM BMMSCs induced an over-growth of MOLP-6, and their capacity to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage was impaired. Thus, BMMSCs from MM patients could create a very efficient niche to support the survival and proliferation of the myeloma stem cells. PMID:17344918

  9. Calcium and Bone Turnover Markers in Acromegaly: A Prospective, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Tina; Tangpricha, Vin; Shah, Reshma; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Ioachimescu, Octavian C; Ritchie, James; Ioachimescu, Adriana G

    2017-07-01

    Acromegaly has been associated with calcium-phosphate and bone turnover alterations. Controlled studies of these interactions are sparse. To evaluate calcium and bone metabolism in active and treated acromegaly. We conducted a controlled, prospective study at a tertiary referral center. We studied 22 patients with acromegaly referred for surgical or medical therapy (ACM) and 22 with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas referred for surgery (control). Calcium (serum and urine), phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D, bone turnover markers [serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)], and cytokines [receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANK-L) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] at baseline and 3 to 6 months after treatment. At baseline, the ACM group had lower PTH levels than controls (36.3 ± 13.9 pg/mL vs 56.0 ± 19.9 pg/mL) and higher phosphorus (4.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL vs 3.55 ± 0.50 mg/dL) (P < 0.01). Groups had similar levels of serum and urine calcium and 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. The ACM group had higher bone turnover markers than control; P1NP and CTX were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.82, P < 0.05). CTX was dependent on age and disease group but not on sex or gonadal status. After treatment of acromegaly, serum calcium (9.52 ± 0.43 mg/dL to 9.26 ± 0.28 mg/dL), phosphorus (4.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL to 3.90 ± 0.80 mg/dL), and CTX (0.91 ± 0.75 ng/mL to 0.63 ± 0.68 ng/mL) decreased, while PTH increased (36.3 ± 13.9 pg/mL to 48.9 ± 16.7 pg/mL) (P < 0.01). 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, P1NP, and RANK-L/OPG ratio did not change significantly. Acromegaly patients exhibited PTH-independent calcium-phosphate alterations and enhanced coupled bone formation and resorption. Within 6 months of treatment, bone resorption decreased, whereas RANK-L/OPG changes were inconsistent. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Growth hormone favorably affects bone turnover and bone mineral density in patients with short bowel syndrome undergoing intestinal rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tangpricha, Vin; Luo, Menghua; Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Gu, Li H; Bazargan, Niloofar; Klapproth, Jan-Michael; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Galloway, John R; Leader, Lorraine M; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) have a high prevalence of metabolic bone disease due to nutrient malabsorption and potential effects of parenteral nutrition (PN). Human growth hormone (hGH) has been shown in some studies to have anabolic effects on bone, but hGH effects on bone in patients with SBS are unknown. Adults with PN-dependent SBS underwent a 7-day period of baseline studies while receiving usual oral diet and PN and then began receiving modified diets designed to improve nutrient absorption and daily oral calcium/vitamin D supplements (1500 mg elemental calcium and 600 IU vitamin D, respectively). Subjects were randomized to receive in a double-blind manner either subcutaneous (sc) saline placebo as the control or hGH (0.1 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks, then 0.1 mg/kg 3 days a week for 8 subsequent weeks). Open-label hGH was given from week 13 to week 24 in subjects who required PN after completion of the 12-week double-blind phase. Markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptide [NTX]), vitamin D nutriture (serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OH D] and parathyroid hormone [PTH] concentrations), and intestinal calcium absorption were measured at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and spine was performed to determine bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. The majority of subjects in each group exhibited evidence of vitamin D deficiency at baseline (25-OH D levels<30 ng/mL; 78% and 79% of control and hGH-treated subjects, respectively). Subjects treated with hGH demonstrated a significant increase from baseline in serum osteocalcin levels at 12 weeks (+62%; p<.05). The levels of NTX were increased over time in the hGH-treated group; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Both NTX and osteocalcin remained unchanged in control subjects. BMD of the spine and total hip was unchanged in subjects treated with placebo or hGH at 24 weeks. However, femoral neck BMD

  11. Effect of high dietary sodium on bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Joung, J Y; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Chung, J H; Lee, M K; Min, Y-K

    2015-03-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor of osteoporosis for its modulating effect on calcium metabolism. To understand the effect of dietary sodium on bone turnover, we evaluated the association between urinary sodium excretion and bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A retrospective review of medical records at a single institution identified 537 postmenopausal women who were first diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis between 2008 and 2013. Subjects were stratified by low (<2 g/day, n=77), moderate (2-4.4 g/day, n=354) and high (⩾4.4 g/day, n=106) sodium excretion. A 24-h urine was collected to estimate sodium, calcium and creatinine. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were measured in serum. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium intake was positively associated with urinary sodium excretion (P=0.006, r=0.29). Bone turnover markers were significantly higher in the moderate-to-high urinary sodium excretion group (⩾2 g/day) than in the low urinary sodium excretion group (<2 g/day); CTX-I (C-telopeptides of type I collagen) was 21.3% higher (P=0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) was 15.7% higher (P=0.004). Calciotropic hormones and BMD were not significantly different across the sodium excretion groups. High urinary sodium excretion (⩾2 g/day) increased bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women, suggesting that excessive sodium intake might accelerate bone turnover.

  12. The effect of physical activity on bone turnover in young adults.

    PubMed

    Franck, H; Beuker, F; Gurk, S

    1991-01-01

    Physical activity has been suggested as one of the determinants of bone turnover and to prevent the involutional age related bone loss. However, the degree to which physical exercise is necessary to induce changes in bone turnover and calciotropic hormones have been widely discussed (Williams et al., 1984; Cook et al., 1987; Smith et al., 1985). The aim of this study was to examine the rate of bone formation measured by osteocalcin in 56 healthy volunteers before and after 4 and 8 weeks of physical exercise (PE) and its dependence on various parameters of calcium and phosphate metabolism. The studied group consisting of 44 men and 12 women, mean age 24.8 and 24.3 years, respectively, performed a standardized physical training of 8 weeks. Mean serum osteocalcin levels were significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced after 4 weeks (men: 2.26 +/- 1.8 ng/ml; women: 0.94 +/- 1.6 ng/ml) compared to the values before PE (men: 4.01 +/- 2.18 ng/ml; women: 1.69 +/- 1.7 ng/ml) and returned to normal values after 8 weeks. Similarly, magnesium levels (0.82 mmol/l) decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) after 4 weeks of PE (0.79 mmol/l), returning to normal values after 8 weeks. Concomitantly, there was only a slight, but significant fall of serum calcium from 2.48 +/- 0.07 to 2.45 +/- 0.07 returning to initial values again. Furthermore, serum phosphate increased slightly in men from 1.01 mmol/l to 1.13 and 1.15 mmol/l after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase and serum creatinine remained in the normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The association between bone turnover markers and kyphosis in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    McDaniels-Davidson, Corinne R; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Huang, Mei-Hua; Laughlin, Gail A; Johnson, Sarah; Haapalahti, Jouko; Schneider, Diane L; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kado, Deborah M

    2016-12-01

    Hyperkyphosis, accentuated curvature of the thoracic spine, is often attributed to osteoporosis, yet its underlying pathophysiology is not well understood. Bone turnover markers (BTM) reflect the dynamic process of bone formation and resorption. This study examined the association between serum BTM levels and kyphosis in community-dwelling older adults. Between 2003 and 2006, 760 men and women in the Rancho Bernardo Study age 60 and older had blood drawn and kyphosis measured. Fasting serum was assayed for N-telopeptide (NTX) and procollagen type 1 n-terminal propeptide (P1NP), markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively. Participants requiring two or more 1.7 cm blocks under their head to achieve a neutral supine position were classified as having accentuated kyphosis. Analyses were stratified by sex and use of estrogen therapy (ET). Odds of accentuated kyphosis were calculated for each standard deviation increase in log-transformed BTM. Mean age was 75 years. Overall, 51% of 341 non-ET using women, 41% of 111 ET-using women, and 75% of 308 men had accentuated kyphosis. In adjusted models, higher P1NP and NTX were associated with decreased odds of accentuated kyphosis in non-ET using women (P1NP: OR = 0.78 [95% CI, 0.58-0.92]; NTX: OR = 0.68 [95% CI, 0.54-0.86]), but not in men or ET-using women ( p  > 0.05). The selective association of higher bone turnover with reduced odds of accentuated kyphosis in non-ET using women suggests that elevated BTM were associated with a lower likelihood of hyperkyphosis only in the low estrogen/high BTM environment characteristic of postmenopausal women who are not using ET.

  14. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    PubMed

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, P<0.001), and this positive relation still existed after adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, duration of disease, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, CTX in multi-linear regression analysis (See Model 1-4). In male hyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Osteoporotic Compression Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: kome64@yo.rim.or.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji

    Purpose. To evaluate relationships between biochemical markers of bone turnover, bone mineral density, and new compression fractures following vertebroplasty. Methods. Initially, we enrolled 30 consecutive patients with vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis. Twenty-three of the 30 patients visited our hospital for follow-up examinations for more than 4 weeks after vertebroplasty. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with new fractures (group F) and patients with no new fractures (group N). We analyzed differences in the following parameters between these two groups: serum bone alkaline phosphatase, urinary crosslinked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, urinary deoxypyridinoline, and bone mineral density.more » Next, the patients were divided into another two groups: patients with higher risk (group H: urinary crosslinked N-telopeptide of type I collagen >54.3 nmol BCE/mmol Cr or urinary deoxypyridinoline >7.6 nmol/mmol Cr, and serum bone alkaline phosphatase <29.0 U/l) and patients with lower risk (group L). We analyzed the difference in the rate of new fractures between these two groups. Results. We identified 9 new fractures in 7 patients. There were no significant differences between groups F and N. We identified 5 new fractures in 3 of the 4 patients in group H, and 4 new fractures in 4 of the 19 patients in group L. There was a significant difference in the rate of new fractures between groups H and L. Conclusions. A combination of high levels of bone resorption markers and normal levels of bone formation markers may be associated with increased risk of new recurrent fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty.« less

  16. Finasteride therapy does not alter bone turnover in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia--a Clinical Research Center study.

    PubMed

    Tollin, S R; Rosen, H N; Zurowski, K; Saltzman, B; Zeind, A J; Berg, S; Greenspan, S L

    1996-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is often treated with finasteride, which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Aside from the prostate, other androgen-dependent tissues seem to be unaffected by selective DHT deficiency, but the effect on bone density in humans has not yet been defined. To study this question, we compared indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density in 35 men treated with finasteride with controls. Bone resorption was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen and hydroxyproline, and bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteoncalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Bone density of the spine and hip were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We found that finasteride-treated patients had mean DHT levels 81% lower than controls (P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the markers of bone turnover or measures of bone density. These results suggest that testosterone can maintain bone density in men even in the absence of DHT. Although long term studies are needed, our results suggest that men who take finasteride are not at increased risk for bone loss.

  17. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitorsmore » caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell

  18. Changes in bone turnover markers with HIV seroconversion and ART initiation

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Laurence; Reddy, Susheel; Phair, John; Palella, Frank J.; Brown, Todd T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is common among HIV-infected persons and contributes to risk of fragility fracture. While ART initiation is associated with decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone turnover, the impact of HIV on bone metabolism is unclear. Methods: We identified men at the Chicago site of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who HIV seroconverted while under observation. Concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D, bone turnover markers [procollagen type 1 N terminal propeptide (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), C-telopeptide (CTX)] and sclerostin were measured from stored serum obtained at pre-HIV infection, pre-ART and post-ART initiation timepoints. Mixed models, with each biomarker as an outcome, were fitted. Timepoint, age, CD4 count (cells/mm3), HIV-viral suppression, season and an age by timepoint interaction term were considered as fixed effects. Results: Data from 52 participants revealed that median duration between HIV seroconversion and ART initiation was 8.7 years (IQR 3.7–11.6). Median CD4 and plasma HIV-RNA concentrations were 445 (IQR 298.5–689) and 20 184 copies/mL (IQR 6237–64 340), respectively, at the pre-ART timepoint. Multivariate analyses demonstrated pre-HIV infection levels of OC that were higher than pre-ART levels (6.8 versus 5.7 ng/mL, P = 0.04); and pre-ART levels of sclerostin that were higher than post-ART levels (0.033 versus 0.02 ng/mL, P <0.001). No changes in P1NP, CTX and 25-OH vitamin D levels were detected. Conclusions: HIV seroconversion was associated with decreased OC levels while ART initiation was associated with decreases in sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone formation. Our results suggest that both HIV infection and ART have an impact on bone metabolism in white men. PMID:28175307

  19. Changes in bone turnover markers with HIV seroconversion and ART initiation.

    PubMed

    Slama, Laurence; Reddy, Susheel; Phair, John; Palella, Frank J; Brown, Todd T

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporosis is common among HIV-infected persons and contributes to risk of fragility fracture. While ART initiation is associated with decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone turnover, the impact of HIV on bone metabolism is unclear. We identified men at the Chicago site of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who HIV seroconverted while under observation. Concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D, bone turnover markers [procollagen type 1 N terminal propeptide (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), C-telopeptide (CTX)] and sclerostin were measured from stored serum obtained at pre-HIV infection, pre-ART and post-ART initiation timepoints. Mixed models, with each biomarker as an outcome, were fitted. Timepoint, age, CD4 count (cells/mm 3 ), HIV-viral suppression, season and an age by timepoint interaction term were considered as fixed effects. Data from 52 participants revealed that median duration between HIV seroconversion and ART initiation was 8.7 years (IQR 3.7-11.6). Median CD4 and plasma HIV-RNA concentrations were 445 (IQR 298.5-689) and 20 184 copies/mL (IQR 6237-64 340), respectively, at the pre-ART timepoint. Multivariate analyses demonstrated pre-HIV infection levels of OC that were higher than pre-ART levels (6.8 versus 5.7 ng/mL, P  =   0.04); and pre-ART levels of sclerostin that were higher than post-ART levels (0.033 versus 0.02 ng/mL, P  <0.001). No changes in P1NP, CTX and 25-OH vitamin D levels were detected. HIV seroconversion was associated with decreased OC levels while ART initiation was associated with decreases in sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone formation. Our results suggest that both HIV infection and ART have an impact on bone metabolism in white men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  1. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erik J.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  2. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Carlson, Cathy S

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  3. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Diabetes mellitus, a state of low bone turnover - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hygum, Katrine; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Harsløf, Torben; Vestergaard, Peter; Langdahl, Bente L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the differences in bone turnover between diabetic patients and controls. A systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline at PubMed and EMBASE. The free text search terms 'diabetes mellitus' and 'bone turnover', 'sclerostin', 'RANKL', 'osteoprotegerin', 'tartrate-resistant acid' and 'TRAP' were used. Studies were eligible if they investigated bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Data were extracted by two reviewers. A total of 2881 papers were identified of which 66 studies were included. Serum levels of the bone resorption marker C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (-0.10 ng/mL (-0.12, -0.08)) and the bone formation markers osteocalcin (-2.51 ng/mL (-3.01, -2.01)) and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (-10.80 ng/mL (-12.83, -8.77)) were all lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Furthermore, s-tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes (-0.31 U/L (-0.56, -0.05)) compared with controls. S-sclerostin was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (14.92 pmol/L (3.12, 26.72)) and patients with type 1 diabetes (3.24 pmol/L (1.52, 4.96)) compared with controls. Also, s-osteoprotegerin was increased among patients with diabetes compared with controls (2.67 pmol/L (0.21, 5.14)). Markers of both bone formation and bone resorption are decreased in patients with diabetes. This suggests that diabetes mellitus is a state of low bone turnover, which in turn may lead to more fragile bone. Altered levels of sclerostin and osteoprotegerin may be responsible for this. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Vitamin D receptor genotypes are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis or biochemical parameters of bone turnover in German RA patients.

    PubMed

    Goertz, B; Fassbender, W J; Williams, J C; Marzeion, A M; Bretzel, R G; Stracke, H; Berliner, M N

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D is known to exert immunomodulatory effects. An overrepresentation of the b allele of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been detected in autoimmune diseases as type-1-diabetes and multiple sclerosis. VDR polymorphisms have been shown to influence bone metabolism and bone density. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of VDR alleles in German rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and their relation to bone turnover parameters. 62 German RA patients were included and compared to 40 controls. Three VDR alleles were examined (Bsm I, Taq I and Fok I). In addition, serum intact osteocalcin (OC), parathyroid hormone, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), the carboxyterminal extension peptide of type I procollagen, 25-OH-vitamin D and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion were measured. Furthermore, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and rheumatoid factor were measured. We found a slightly higher frequency of the bB and tT-genotype in RA patients compared to controls, which was not statistically significant. OC and B-ALP were found to be significantly higher in RA patients with positive correlations between bone formation and resorption parameters indicating higher bone turnover in RA patients with maintained coupling. CRP in RA patients correlated with DPD and inversely with PTH. VDR genotype showed no association with bone turnover, family history or the presence of rheumatoid factor. Our results suggest that VDR polymorphisms do not play a major role in RA predisposition in Germans.

  5. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetes patients--a meta-analysis, and a methodological study on the effects of glucose on bone markers.

    PubMed

    Starup-Linde, J; Eriksen, S A; Lykkeboe, S; Handberg, A; Vestergaard, P

    2014-06-01

    This study examined whether markers of bone turnover differ between individuals with and without diabetes. Bone markers showed heterogeneity between studies and were discrepant for markers of bone creation and markers of bone degradation. Bone markers may be of lesser value in diabetes due to heterogeneity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare existing literature regarding changes in bone markers among diabetics compared to healthy controls. To exclude that blood glucose levels among diabetes patients could influence the assays used for determining bone turnover markers, a methodological study was performed. Medline at Pubmed Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, Cochrane library, and Bibliotek.dk was searched in August 2012. The studies should examine biochemical bone turnover among diabetes patients in comparison to controls in an observational design. In the methodological study, fasting blood samples were drawn from two individuals. Glucose was added to the blood samples in different concentrations and OC, CTX, and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide were measured after 0, 1, 2, and 3 h. Twenty-two papers fulfilled the criteria for the meta-analysis. From the pooled data in the meta-analysis, the bone markers osteocalcin (OC) (-1.15 ng/ml [-1.78,-0.52]) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) (-0.14 ng/ml [-0.22, -0.05]) were significantly lower among diabetes patients than non-diabetes patients, however other markers did not differ. All markers displayed very high heterogeneity by I2 statistics. In the methodological study, the addition of glucose did not significantly change the bone markers neither by level of glucose nor with increasing incubation time. The dissociative pattern of biochemical bone markers of bone formation and bone resorption present in diabetes patients is thus not caused by glucose per se but may be modulated by unknown factors associated with diabetes mellitus.

  6. A single measurement of biochemical markers of bone turnover has limited utility in the individual person.

    PubMed

    Beck-Jensen, J E; Kollerup, G; Sørensen, H A; Pors Nielsen, S; Sørensen, O H

    1997-07-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover are used to estimate the rate of bone loss in the individual osteoporotic patient. During recent years it has become increasingly clear that the biological variability of biochemical bone markers has to be taken into consideration in the evaluation of their usefulness in the clinical setting. Eleven premenopausal, 8 perimenopausal and 11 postmenopausal healthy women were included. We assessed the analytical and the biological components of variation for a number of resorptive and formative bone markers: u-hydroxyproline, u-pyridinoline, and u-deoxypyridinoline together with u-calcium and u-creatinine, s-total alkaline phosphatases and s-osteocalcin. Blood and urine samples were collected five times with 7-day intervals. Urinary parameters were expressed as outputs and corrected for creatinine in fasting night urines and second void fasting morning urines. The absolute values differed with a tendency towards increasing values in the postmenopausal women, but the biological variations in relation to menopausal status were not different. The biological variability was much higher for the urinary resorptive markers than for the formative markers in the blood. The critical difference expressing the difference needed between two serial results from the same person to be significant at a 5% level was 15% for s-alkaline phosphatases, 18% for s-osteocalcin, and lowest in the second void fasting morning urines with values of 28% and 34% for u-pyridinoline/creatinine and u-deoxypyridinoline/creatinine, and 50% and 112% for u-hydroxyproline/creatinine and u-calcium/creatinine, respectively. The index of individuality, denoting the individual variation divided by the variation between subjects, was in the range from 0.19 for s-alkaline phosphatases to 1.23 for u-hydroxyproline/minute in second void fasting morning urine making the use of conventional reference intervals difficult. Low indices, however, indicate high test performance and

  7. Characterization of an Ex vivo Femoral Head Model Assessed by Markers of Bone and Cartilage Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Suzi Hoegh; Goettrup, Anne Sofie; Thomsen, Gedske; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Schultz, Nikolaj; Henriksen, Kim; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis involves the whole joint and is characterized by cartilage degradation and altered subchondral bone turnover. At present, there is a need for biological models that allow investigation of the interactions between the key cellular players in bone/cartilage: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes. Methods: Femoral heads from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-week-old female mice were isolated and cultured for 10 days in serum-free media in the absence or presence of IGF-I (100 nM) (anabolic stimulation) or OSM (10 ng/mL) + TNF-α (20 ng/mL) (catabolic stimulation). Histology on femoral heads before and after culture was performed, and the growth plate size was examined to evaluate the effects on cell metabolism. The conditioned medium was examined for biochemical markers of bone and cartilage degradation/formation. Results: Each age group represented a unique system regarding the interest of bone or cartilage metabolism. Stimulation over 10 days with OSM + TNF-α resulted in depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage surface in all ages. Furthermore, OSM + TNF-α decreased growth plate size, whereas IGF-I increased the size. Measurements from the conditioned media showed that OSM + TNF-α increased the number of osteoclasts by approximately 80% and induced bone and cartilage degradation by approximately 1200% and approximately 2600%, respectively. Stimulation with IGF-I decreased the osteoclast number and increased cartilage formation by approximately 30%. Conclusion: Biochemical markers and histology together showed that the catabolic stimulation induced degradation and the anabolic stimulation induced formation in the femoral heads. We propose that we have established an explant whole-tissue model for investigating cell-cell interactions, reflecting parts of the processes in the pathogenesis of joint degenerative diseases. PMID:26069585

  8. Feasibility of measurement of bone turnover markers in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Pludowski, Pawel; Zabek, Jakub; Kowalski, Jan; Lukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wozniacka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of bone turnover markers (BTMs) for the assessment of bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to the guidelines of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The study included 43 female SLE patients. Serum procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin, PTH, 25(OH)D, anti-cardiolipin, anti-dsDNA, and anti-nucleosome levels were measured. PINP and CTX levels were elevated in SLE patients aged > 45 in comparison to those aged < 45, although with borderline significance (p = 0.05, respectively). Correlations were found between BTMs: the strongest being between PINP and osteocalcin (τ = 0.69, p < 0.05). PINP and osteocalcin were found to be associated with PTH (τ = 0.3, τ = 0.29, respectively, p < 0.05). Age correlated with PINP (τ = 0.23, p < 0.05). Elevated PINP was found more frequently than elevated osteocalcin or CTX, both in patients aged < 45 (p = 0.001) and > 45 (p < 0.001). No significant difference in PINP, osteocalcin or CTX levels was found with respect to season, neither in the entire SLE group, nor in the under-45 or over-45 groups. Previous glucocorticoid treatment was not associated with difference in BTMs. Increased BTMs in SLE appear to predominantly reflect the pattern of bone remodeling related to age. Increased PINP is expected to be the most frequent outcome among BTMs. Better diagnoses of bone disturbances with BTMs performed in accordance with international reference standards need to be included in the approach to SLE patients, in addition to bone mineral density assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of modified alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic turnover in rats.

    PubMed

    Chui, D H; Marotta, F; Liu, T; Minelli, E; Yadav, H; Signorelli, P; Lorenzetti, A; Jain, S

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of a high protein diet and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic turnover in rats. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by bone status, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical markers from blood and urine. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated for 8 weeks as follows: baseline control group (n. 10, C), high-protein supplemented diet group (n. 10, chronic acidosis, CA group) and supplemented chronic acidosis (n.10, SCA). Diet-treated rats were fed an acidic high-protein diet and the supplementation consisted in a modified alkaline formula (Basenpulver, NaMed, Italy). At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were drawn and femur and tibia were removed for analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In the CA group, 24-hour urinary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) excretion were increased 2.1-fold (p<0.05 vs normal diet controls) as well as kidney weight. However, serum Ca and P concentration, as well as urinary Dpd excretion were not significantly changed. Femural and tibial BMD was significantly decreased in the CA group (p<0.05), but alkaline supplementation prevented such phenomenon (p<0.05 vs CA). These results suggest that blood Ca and P concentrations in chronic acidosis condition during the 12-week supplementation might be maintained by hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia at the expenses of bone structure. However, modified alkaline supplementation is able to prevent such derangements.

  10. Relationship between bone turnover and left ventricular function in primary hyperparathyroidism: The EPATH trial.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Nicolas; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Belyavskiy, Evgeny; Gruebler, Martin R; Dimai, Hans Peter; Amrein, Karin; Ablasser, Klemens; Martensen, Johann; Catena, Cristiana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Colantonio, Caterina; Voelkl, Jakob; Lang, Florian; Alesutan, Ioana; Meinitzer, Andreas; März, Winfried; Brussee, Helmut; Pieske, Burkert; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies suggested a link between bone disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that may be pronounced in hyperparathyroid conditions. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that circulating markers of bone turnover correlate with LV function in a cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Cross-sectional data of 155 subjects with pHPT were analyzed who participated in the "Eplerenone in Primary Hyperparathyroidism" (EPATH) Trial. Multivariate linear regression analyses with LV ejection fraction (LVEF, systolic function) or peak early transmitral filling velocity (e', diastolic function) as dependent variables and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type 1 (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), or beta-crosslaps (CTX) as the respective independent variable were performed. Analyses were additionally adjusted for plasma parathyroid hormone, plasma calcium, age, sex, HbA1c, body mass index, mean 24-hours systolic blood pressure, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, antihypertensive treatment, osteoporosis treatment, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and N-terminal pro-brain B-type natriuretic peptide. Independent relationships were observed between P1NP and LVEF (adjusted β-coefficient = 0.201, P = 0.035) and e' (β = 0.188, P = 0.042), respectively. OC (β = 0.192, P = 0.039) and BALP (β = 0.198, P = 0.030) were each independently related with e'. CTX showed no correlations with LVEF or e'. In conclusion, high bone formation markers were independently and paradoxically related with better LV diastolic and, partly, better systolic function, in the setting of pHPT. Potentially cardio-protective properties of stimulated bone formation in the context of hyperparathyroidism should be explored in future studies.

  11. Optimizing tamoxifen-inducible Cre/loxp system to reduce tamoxifen effect on bone turnover in long bones of young mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhendong A; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Lay, Yu-An E; Lane, Nancy E; Yao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    For tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase, also known as CreER recombinase, tamoxifen (TAM) is used to activate the Cre to generate time- and tissue-specific mouse mutants. TAM is a potent CreER system inducer; however, TAM is also an active selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that can influence bone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to optimize the TAM dose for Cre recombinase activation while minimizing the effects of TAM on bone turnover in young growing mice. To evaluate the effects of TAM on bone turnover and bone mass, 1-month-old wild-type male and female mice were intraperitoneally injected with TAM at 0, 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for four consecutive days, or 100, 300 mg/kg/day for one day. The distal femurs were analyzed one month after the last TAM injection by microCT, mechanical test, and surface-based bone histomorphometry. Similar doses of TAM were used in Col1 (2.3 kb)-CreERT2; mT/mG reporter male mice to evaluate the dose-dependent efficacy of Cre-ER activation in bone tissue. A TAM dose of 100 mg/kg × 4 days significantly increased trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of the distal femur, femur length, bone strength, and serum bone turnover markers compared to the 0mg control group. In contrast, TAM doses ≤ 10 mg/kg did not significantly change any of these parameters compared to the 0mg group, although a higher bone strength was observed in the 10mg group. Surface-based histomorphometry revealed that the 100mg/kg dose of TAM dose significantly increased trabecular bone formation and decreased periosteal bone formation at 1-week post-TAM treatment. Using the reporter mouse model Col1-CreERT2; mT/mG, we found that 10mg/kg TAM induced Col1-CreERT2 activity in bone at a comparable level to the 100mg/kg dose. TAM treatment at 100mg/kg/day × 4 days significantly affects bone homeostasis, resulting in an anabolic bone effect on trabecular bone in 1-month-old male mice. However, a lower dose of TAM at 10 mg/kg/day × 4 days can

  12. The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone turnover markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small

  13. The effect of weight training on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with bone loss: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waltman, N L; Twiss, J J; Ott, C D; Gross, G J; Lindsey, A M; Moore, T E; Berg, K; Kupzyk, K

    2010-08-01

    This study examined whether 24 months of weight training exercises enhanced the effectiveness of risedronate, calcium, and vitamin D in maintaining or improving bone mineral density (BMD) in 223 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Subjects who were > or =50% adherent to exercise had no improvement in BMD but were less likely to lose BMD. This study examined whether (1) postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCS) with bone loss taking 24 months of risedronate, calcium, and vitamin D had increased bone mineral density (BMD) at the total hip, femoral neck, L1-L4 spine, total radius and 33% radius, and decreased bone turnover; (2) subjects who also participated in strength/weight training (ST) exercises had greater increases in BMD and greater decreases in bone turnover; and (3) subjects who also exercised were more likely to preserve (at least maintain) BMD. Postmenopausal BCS (223) were randomly assigned to exercise plus medication or medication only groups. Both groups received 24 months of 1,200 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D daily and 35 mg of risedronate weekly, and the exercise group additionally had ST exercises twice weekly. After 24 months, women who took medications without exercising had significant improvements in BMD at the total hip (+1.81%) and spine (+2.85%) and significant decreases in Alkphase B (-8.7%) and serum NTx (-16.7%). Women who also exercised had additional increases in BMD at the femoral neck (+0.29%), total hip (+0.34%), spine (+0.23%), total radius (+0.30%), and additional decreases in Alkphase B (-2.4%) and Serum NTx (-6.5%). Additional changes in BMD and bone turnover with exercise were not significant. Subjects who were > or =50% adherent to exercise were less likely to lose BMD at the total hip (chi-square [1] = 4.66, p = 0.03) and femoral neck (chi-square [1] = 4.63, p = 0.03). Strength/weight training exercises may prevent loss of BMD in postmenopausal BCS at risk for bone loss.

  14. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  15. Bone mineral density, body composition and bone turnover in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, E-M; Hero, M; Vaaralahti, K; Tommiska, J; Raivio, T

    2012-08-01

    Patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) may have reduced peak bone mass in early adulthood, and increased risk for osteoporosis despite long-term hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). To investigate the relationship between HRT history and measures of bone health in patients with HH, we recruited 33 subjects (24 men, nine women; mean age 39.8 years, range: 24.0-69.1) with congenital HH (Kallmann syndrome or normosmic HH). They underwent clinical examination, were interviewed and medical charts were reviewed. Twenty-six subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of BMD of lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and whole body; body composition and vertebral morphology were evaluated in 22 and 23 subjects, respectively. Circulating PINP, ICTP and sex hormone levels were measured. HRT history clearly associated to bone health: BMDs of lumbar spine, femoral neck, hip and whole body were lower in subjects (n = 9) who had had long (≥5 years) treatment pauses or low dose testosterone (T) treatment as compared to subjects without such history (n = 17; all p-values < 0.05). In addition, fat mass and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in men with deficient treatment history (median fat mass: 37.5 vs. 23.1%, p = 0.005; BMI: 32.6 vs. 25.2 kg/m(2), p < 0.05). Serum PINP correlated with ICTP (r(s) = 0.61; p < 0.005) in men, but these markers correlated neither with circulating T, nor with serum estradiol levels in women. In conclusion, patients with congenital HH require life-long follow-up to avoid inadequate HRT, long treatment pauses and further morbidity. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  16. WNT1-induced Secreted Protein-1 (WISP1), a Novel Regulator of Bone Turnover and Wnt Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Azusa; Ono, Mitsuaki; Holmbeck, Kenn; Li, Li; Kilts, Tina M.; Kram, Vardit; Noonan, Megan L.; Yoshioka, Yuya; McNerny, Erin M. B.; Tantillo, Margaret A.; Kohn, David H.; Lyons, Karen M.; Robey, Pamela G.; Young, Marian F.

    2015-01-01

    WISP1/CCN4 (hereafter referred to as WISP1), a member of the CCN family, is found in mineralized tissues and is produced by osteoblasts and their precursors. In this study, Wisp1-deficient (Wisp1−/−) mice were generated. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we showed that by 3 months, the total bone mineral density of Wisp1−/− mice was significantly lower than that of WT mice. Further investigation by micro-computed tomography showed that female Wisp1−/− mice had decreased trabecular bone volume/total volume and that both male and female Wisp1−/− mice had decreased cortical bone thickness accompanied by diminished biomechanical strength. The molecular basis for decreased bone mass in Wisp1−/− mice arises from reduced bone formation likely caused by osteogenic progenitors that differentiate poorly compared with WT cells. Osteoclast precursors from Wisp1−/− mice developed more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells in vitro and in transplants, suggesting that WISP1 is also a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. When bone turnover (formation and resorption) was induced by ovariectomy, Wisp1−/− mice had lower bone mineral density compared WT mice, confirming the potential for multiple roles for WISP1 in controlling bone homeostasis. Wisp1−/− bone marrow stromal cells had reduced expression of β-catenin and its target genes, potentially caused by WISP1 inhibition of SOST binding to LRP6. Taken together, our data suggest that the decreased bone mass found in Wisp1−/− mice could potentially be caused by an insufficiency in the osteodifferentiation capacity of bone marrow stromal cells arising from diminished Wnt signaling, ultimately leading to altered bone turnover and weaker biomechanically compromised bones. PMID:25864198

  17. Cat-scratch disease. Subtle vertebral bone marrow abnormalities demonstrated by MR imaging and radionuclide bone scan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D; Castillo, M

    1995-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a benign, self-limited cause of lymphadenitis occurring mainly in children and young adults. Its etiology is a delicate, small gram-negative pleomorphic bacillus. Less common manifestations of CSD are seen in 5% of patients and include Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome (with enlargement of the preauricular nodes), parotid gland enlargement, encephalitis, radiculopathy, pneumonitis, erythema nodosum, thrombocytopenia, and lytic bone lesions. We describe a patient in whom magnetic resonance imaging initially detected subtle vertebral bone marrow abnormalities that correlated with the site of abnormality on a subsequent radionuclide bone scan.

  18. Relationship between serum leptin concentrations and bone mineral density as well as biochemical markers of bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shaarawy, Mohamed; Abassi, Asmaa Farid; Hassan, Hany; Salem, Mahmoud E

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether leptin is involved in bone remodeling in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. Ninety postmenopausal osteoporotic women (37 obese and 53 nonobese) and 30 healthy premenopausal women from the same clinic served as controls. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) of osteoporotic patients was more than 2.5 SD below the normal mean of healthy premenopausal women. Serum levels of leptin, osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPyr), and N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) as well as LS-BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The serum leptin level in obese postmenopausal osteoporotic patients was significantly increased compared with nonobese osteoporotic patients. There were no significant differences of bone formation markers (B-ALP, OC), bone resorption markers (DPyr, NTX), or LS-BMD between the obese and nonobese groups. There were no significant correlations between serum leptin and any biomarkers of bone turnover and BMD. In postmenopausal osteoporotic patients with increased bone turnover, serum leptin concentration is not correlated with BMD or with the biomarkers of bone formation or bone resorption.

  19. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  20. Response of bone turnover markers to raloxifene treatment in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Naylor, K E; Jacques, R M; Peel, N F A; Gossiel, F; Eastell, R

    2016-08-01

    We used two methods of identifying women who reached the target for raloxifene treatment with bone turnover markers. Both approaches identified women that responded to treatment but did not fully agree and may be complementary. The change in bone turnover markers (BTMs) in response to osteoporosis therapy can be assessed by a decrease beyond the least significant change (LSC) or below the mean of the reference interval (RI). We compared the performance of these two approaches in women treated with raloxifene. Fifty postmenopausal osteopenic women (age 51-72 years) were randomised to raloxifene or no treatment for 2 years. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of BTM. The LSC for each marker was calculated from the untreated women and the RI obtained from healthy premenopausal women (age 35-40 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the spine and hip. There was a decrease in BTM in response to raloxifene treatment, percentage change at 12 weeks: C terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) -39 % (95 % CI -48 to -28) and N terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) -32 % (95 % CI -40 to -23) P < 0.001. The proportion of women classified as responding to treatment using LSC at 12 weeks was as follows: CTX 38 % and PINP 52 % and at 48 weeks CTX 60 % and PINP 65 %. For the RI approach, the proportion of women classified as responding to treatment at 12 weeks was CTX and PINP 38 % and at 48 weeks CTX 40 % and PINP 45 %. There was a significant difference in the change in spine BMD in the raloxifene-treated group compared to the no-treatment group at week 48: difference 0.031 g/cm(2) (95 % CI 0.016 to 0.046, P < 0.001). The two approaches identified women that reached the target for treatment using BTM. Both LSC and RI criteria appear useful in identifying treatment response, but the two approaches do not fully overlap and may be complementary.

  1. Spaceflight and bone turnover - Correlation with a new rat model of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier manned spaceflight studies have revealed that the near-weightless environment of orbital flight produce certain biological effects in humans, including abnormalities in mineral metabolism. The data collected were compatible with bone mineral loss. Cosmos 782 and 936 experiments have shown a decrease in rat bone formation rate. In this paper, a rat model of weightlessness is described, which is unique in that the animal is free to move about a 360-deg arc. The model meets the requirements for an acceptable system. Data from the model and spaceflight are presented. Many of the responses noted in suspended animals indicate that the model closely mimics results from rats and man exposed to near-weightlessness during orbital spaceflight.

  2. Lower bone turnover and relative bone deficits in men with metabolic syndrome: a matter of insulin sensitivity? The European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M R; Cook, M J; Gielen, E; Ward, K A; Antonio, L; Adams, J E; Decallonne, B; Bartfai, G; Casanueva, F F; Forti, G; Giwercman, A; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Lee, D M; Pendleton, N; Punab, M; Claessens, F; Wu, F C W; Vanderschueren, D; Pye, S R; O'Neill, T W

    2016-11-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its components with male bone turnover, density and structure. Greater bone mass in men with metabolic syndrome was related to their greater body mass, whereas hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia or impaired insulin sensitivity were associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass deficits. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass or strength deficits (i.e. not proportionate to body mass index, BMI), but the relative contributions of MetS components related to insulin sensitivity or obesity to male bone health remain unclear. We determined cross-sectional associations of MetS, its components and insulin sensitivity (by homeostatic model assessment-insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S)) using linear regression models adjusted for age, centre, smoking, alcohol, and BMI. Bone turnover markers and heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were measured in 3129 men aged 40-79. Two centres measured total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density ( a BMD, n = 527) and performed radius peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, n = 595). MetS was present in 975 men (31.2 %). Men with MetS had lower β C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (β-CTX), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and osteocalcin (P < 0.0001) and higher total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine a BMD (P ≤ 0.03). Among MetS components, only hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with PINP and β-CTX. Hyperglycaemia was negatively associated with BUA, hypertriglyceridaemia with hip a BMD and radius cross-sectional area (CSA) and stress-strain index. HOMA-S was similarly associated with PINP and β-CTX, BUA, and radius CSA in BMI-adjusted models. Men with MetS have higher a BMD in association with their greater body mass, while their lower bone turnover and relative deficits in heel BUA and

  3. Interruption or deferral of antiretroviral therapy reduces markers of bone turnover compared with continuous therapy: the SMART Body Composition Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Jennifer; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Brar, Indira; Colebunders, Robert; De Castro, Nathalie; Johnson, Margaret; Sharma, Anjali; Carr, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) declines significantly in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous ART on markers of bone turnover in the Body Composition substudy of the Strategies for Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) trial and determined whether early changes in markers predicted subsequent change in BMD. For 202 participants (median age 44 years, 17% female, 74% on ART) randomised to continuous or intermittent ART, plasma markers of inflammation and bone turnover were evaluated at baseline, months 4 and 12; BMD at the spine (dual X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] and computed tomography) and hip (DXA) was evaluated annually. Compared to the continuous ART group, mean bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX), and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (βCTX) decreased significantly in the intermittent ART group, whereas RANKL and the RANKL:osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio increased (all p≤0.002 at month 4 and month 12). Increases in bALP, osteocalcin, P1NP, NTX, and βCTX at month 4 predicted decrease in hip BMD at month 12, while increases in RANKL and the RANKL:OPG ratio at month 4 predicted increase in hip and spine BMD at month 12. This study has shown that compared with continuous ART, interruption of ART results in a reduction in markers of bone turnover and increase in BMD at hip and spine, and that early changes in markers of bone turnover predict BMD changes at 12 months. PMID:23299909

  4. Turnover of bone marrow-derived cells in the irradiated mouse cornea

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Holly R; Humphries, Timothy; Clare, Adam; Dixon, Ariane E; Howes, Kristen; Moran, Caitlin B; Scott, Danielle; Zakrzewski, Marianna; Pearlman, Eric; McMenamin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    In light of an increasing awareness of the presence of bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages in the normal cornea and their uncertain role in corneal diseases, it is important that the turnover rate of these resident immune cells be established. The baseline density and distribution of macrophages in the corneal stroma was investigated in Cx3cr1gfp transgenic mice in which all monocyte-derived cells express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). To quantify turnover, BM-derived cells from transgenic eGFP mice were transplanted into whole-body irradiated wild-type recipients. Additionally, wild-type BM-derived cells were injected into irradiated Cx3cr1+/gfp recipients, creating reverse chimeras. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-reconstitution, the number of eGFP+ cells in each corneal whole mount was calculated using epifluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. The total density of myeloid-derived cells in the normal Cx3cr1+/gfp cornea was 366 cells/mm2. In BM chimeras 2 weeks post-reconstitution, 24% of the myeloid-derived cells had been replenished and were predominantly located in the anterior stroma. By 8 weeks post-reconstitution 75% of the myeloid-derived cells had been replaced and these cells were distributed uniformly throughout the stroma. All donor eGFP+ cells expressed low to moderate levels of CD45 and CD11b, with approximately 25% coexpressing major histocompatibility complex class II, a phenotype characteristic of previous descriptions of corneal stromal macrophages. In conclusion, 75% of the myeloid-derived cells in the mouse corneal stroma are replenished after 8 weeks. These data provide a strong basis for functional investigations of the role of resident stromal macrophages versus non-haematopoietic cells using BM chimeric mice in models of corneal inflammation. PMID:18540963

  5. The Presence of Thyroid-Stimulation Blocking Antibody Prevents High Bone Turnover in Untreated Premenopausal Patients with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Bae, Jae Hyun; Noh, Gyeong Woon; Kim, Ye An; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Chung, June-Key; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures are one of the complications of Graves' disease. This study hypothesized that the different actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antibodies, both stimulating and blocking activities in Graves' disease patients might oppositely impact bone turnover. Newly diagnosed premenopausal Graves' disease patients were enrolled (n = 93) and divided into two groups: patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity (stimulating activity group, n = 83) and patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity combined with blocking activity (blocking activity group, n = 10). From the stimulating activity group, patients who had matched values for free T4 and TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) to the blocking activity group were further classified as stimulating activity-matched control (n = 11). Bone turnover markers BS-ALP, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide were significantly lower in the blocking activity group than in the stimulating activity or stimulating activity-matched control groups. The TBII level showed positive correlations with BS-ALP and osteocalcin levels in the stimulating activity group, while it had a negative correlation with the osteocalcin level in the blocking activity group. In conclusion, the activation of TSHR antibody-activated TSH signaling contributes to high bone turnover, independent of the actions of thyroid hormone, and thyroid-stimulation blocking antibody has protective effects against bone metabolism in Graves' disease.

  6. Decreased bone turnover markers in children on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) for intestinal failure (IF).

    PubMed

    Derepas, Charlène; Kosar, Christina; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is a well-recognized but poorly understood complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Bone histomorphometry in adults has provided useful information but does not provide quantitative measures of bone resorption and is to invasive for children. Measurement of bone turnover markers provides an alternative less invasive approach. We therefore aimed to measure bone turnover markers in children on long-term PN for intestinal failure (IF), and to compare them to age- and gender-matched controls. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and c-telopeptide (CTx) were measured in IF patients treated at a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation and home PN program at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Age- and gender-matched control participants were recruited for comparison. A total of 13 IF patients and 20 control participants were recruited. IF patients had lower serum OC and CTx concentrations when compared with controls: 42.43 ± 11.54 vs 68.39 ± 20.95 µg/L (P < .01) and 7.454 ± 2.17 vs 9.246 ± 1.92 (P < .05; mean ± SD) µg/L for OC and CTx, respectively. In a subgroup of 9 IF patients for whom BMD was available, OC and CTx concentration were negatively correlated to BMD (g/cm(2)) and BMD z score. Bone turnover markers may be useful indicators for identifying children on long-term PN at risk of MBD. Further studies are needed to validate the current results and determine the factors that influence the occurrence and evolution of MBD in children on PN. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Protease inhibitor-associated bone mineral density loss is related to hypothyroidism and related bone turnover acceleration.

    PubMed

    Kinai, Ei; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Mizushima, Daisuke; Nishijima, Takeshi; Aoki, Takahiro; Genka, Ikumi; Teruya, Katsuji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured. The rate of hypothyroidism in PI-users [32/117 (27%)] was double that in non-PI users [8/67 (12%), p = 0.016] and was significantly associated with PI use in multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.358-95.17, p = 0.025]. Spine BMD was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients than euthyroid, for both total population (-1.37 vs. -1.00, p = 0.041) and PI users (-1.56 vs. -1.13, p = 0.029). Multivariate regression analysis identified inverse correlation between hypothyroidism and spine BMD [estimate -0.437, 95% CI -0.858 to -0.024, p = 0.042]. OC, DPD and u-NTx were significantly higher in PI users than in non-PI users (p = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). PI use is associated with hypothyroidism as well as bone turnover acceleration, which worsens PI-associated BMD loss. In PI-treated patients, thyroid function tests are warranted to prevent further progression of PI-associated BMD loss. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily intermittent decreases in serum levels of parathyroid hormone have an anabolic-like action on the bones of uremic rats with low-turnover bone and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, H; Wada, M; Furuya, Y; Nagano, N; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-02-01

    The calcium receptor agonist (calcimimetic) compound NPS R-568 causes rapid decreases in circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in rats and humans. We hypothesized that daily intermittent decreases in serum PTH levels may have different effects on bone than do chronically sustained decreases. To test this hypothesis, we compared two NPS R-568 dosing regimens in rats with chronic renal insufficiency induced by two intravenous injections of adriamycin. Fourteen weeks after the second adriamycin injection, creatinine clearance was reduced by 52%, PTH levels were elevated approximately 2.5-fold, and serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were reduced substantially. Treatment by daily per os gavage, which decreased PTH levels intermittently, or continuous subcutaneous infusion, which resulted in a sustained suppression of serum PTH levels, then began for 8 weeks. Despite the hyperparathyroidism, the adriamycin-injected rats developed a low-turnover bone lesion with osteomalacia (fourfold increase in osteoid volume in the proximal tibial metaphysis) and osteopenia (67% decrease in cancellous bone volume and an 18% reduction in bone mineral density at the distal femur). Daily administered (but not infused) NPS R-568 significantly increased cancellous bone volume solely by normalizing trabecular thickness, and increased femoral bone mineral density by 14%. These results indicate that daily intermittent, but not sustained, decreases in PTH levels have an "anabolic-like" effect on bones with a low-turnover lesion in this animal model of chronic renal insufficiency.

  9. Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Male Mice and Their Effects on Bone Mass, Bone Turnover, and the Wnt Inhibitors Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1.

    PubMed

    Tsourdi, Elena; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are key regulators of bone homeostasis, and Wnt signaling has been implicated in thyroid hormone-associated bone loss. Here we tested whether hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism interfere with dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and sclerostin, two inhibitors of Wnt signaling. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were rendered either hyperthyroid or hypothyroid. Hyperthyroid mice displayed decreased trabecular (-54%, P < .001) and cortical bone density (-5%, P < .05) and reduced cortical thickness (-15%, P < .001), whereas hypothyroid mice showed a higher trabecular bone density (+26%, P < .001) with unchanged cortical bone parameters. Histomorphometry and biochemical markers of bone remodeling indicated high bone turnover in hyperthyroid mice and low bone turnover in hypothyroid mice. In vivo, serum DKK1 concentrations were decreased in hyperthyroid mice (-24%, P < .001) and increased in hypothyroid mice (+18%, P < .01). The increase of the number of DKK1-positive cells in hypothyroid mice was confirmed at the tissue level. Interestingly, sclerostin was increased in both disease models, although to a higher extent in hyperthyroid mice (+50%, P < .001, and +24%, P < .05). Serum sclerostin concentrations adjusted for bone mass were increased by 3.3-fold in hyperthyroid (P < .001) but not in hypothyroid mice. Consistently, sclerostin mRNA expression and the number of sclerostin-positive cells were increased in hyperthyroid but not in hypothyroid mice. Our data show that thyroid hormone-induced changes in bone remodeling are associated with a divergent regulation of DKK1 and sclerostin. Thus, the modulation of Wnt signaling by thyroid hormones may contribute to thyroid hormone-associated bone disease and altered expression of Wnt inhibitors may emerge as potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  11. Thyroid hormone independent associations between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover in cured patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Karen A; van der Deure, Wendy M; Peeters, Robin P; Hamdy, Neveen A; Stokkel, Marcel P; Corssmit, Eleonora P; Romijn, Johannes A; Visser, Theo J; Smit, Johannes W

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that TSH has thyroid hormone-independent effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. This concept is still controversial and has not been studied in human subjects in detail. We addressed this question by studying relationships between serum TSH concentration and indicators of bone turnover, after controlling for triiodothyronine (T(3)), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and non-thyroid factors relevant to BMD and bone metabolism. We also studied the contribution of the TSH receptor (TSHR)-Asp727Glu polymorphism to these relationships. We performed a cross-sectional study with 148 patients, who had been thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We measured BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine. FT(4), T(3), TSH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide levels, C-cross-linking terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and urinary N-telopeptide of collagen cross-links were measured. Genotypes of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism were determined by Taqman assay. We found a significant, inverse correlation between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover, which was independent of serum FT(4) and T(3) levels as well as other parameters influencing bone metabolism. We found that carriers of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism had an 8.1% higher femoral neck BMD, which was, however, no longer significant after adjusting for body mass index. We conclude that in this group of patients, serum TSH was related to indicators of bone remodeling independently of thyroid hormone levels. This may point to a functional role of the TSHR in bone in humans. Further research into this mechanism needs to be performed.

  12. Effect of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy on bone turnover in patients with active Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B M; Russel, M G V M; Schurgers, L; Wichers, M; Sijbrandij, J; Stockbrugger, R W; Schoon, E

    2004-10-15

    Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of osteoporosis. Disease activity and circulating proinflammatory cytokines are thought to play a role in this process. Infliximab, a chimaeric antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment with infliximab on bone turnover in Crohn's disease patients. This was a prospective trial. Twenty-four patients with active Crohn's disease were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg). Bone markers were assayed pre- and post-treatment. Bone formation was measured using serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and total osteocalcin and bone resorption using serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen. Infliximab therapy caused a significant increase in both markers of bone formation in patients with active Crohn's disease. No significant change in the bone resorption marker serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 was found. Infliximab therapy had a significant beneficial effect on bone metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings further support the theory that active ongoing inflammation and high levels of circulating cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

  13. Loss of bone strength in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is characterized by a high bone turnover and is mainly osteoclast-driven.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Martina; Thiele, Sylvia; Fert, Ingrid; Araujo, Luiza M; Layh-Schmitt, Gerlinde; Colbert, Robert A; Hofbauer, Christine; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Bürki, Alexander; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Pietschmann, Peter; Taurog, Joel D; Breban, Maxime; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2015-06-01

    Although osteopenia is frequent in spondyloarthritis (SpA), the underlying cellular mechanisms and association with other symptoms are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize bone loss during disease progression, determine cellular alterations, and assess the contribution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Bones of 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old non-transgenic, disease-free HLA-B7 and disease-associated HLA-B27 transgenic rats were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, μCT, and nanoindentation. Cellular characteristics were determined by histomorphometry and ex vivo cultures. The impact of IBD was determined using [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats, which develop arthritis and spondylitis, but not IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats continuously lost bone mass with increasing age and had impaired bone material properties, leading to a 3-fold decrease in bone strength at 12 months of age. Bone turnover was increased in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, as evidenced by a 3-fold increase in bone formation and a 6-fold increase in bone resorption parameters. Enhanced osteoclastic markers were associated with a larger number of precursors in the bone marrow and a stronger osteoclastogenic response to RANKL or TNFα. Further, IBD-free [21-3 x 283-2]F1 rats also displayed decreased total and trabecular bone density. HLA-B27 transgenic rats lose an increasing amount of bone density and strength with progressing age, which is primarily mediated via increased bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption. Moreover, IBD and bone loss seem to be independent features of SpA in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Denosumab-induced hypocalcaemia in high bone turnover states of malignancy and secondary hyperparathyroidism from renal failure.

    PubMed

    Farinola, N; Kanjanapan, Y

    2013-11-01

    Denosumab, an anti-resorptive treatment for osteoporosis and skeletal metastases from solid tumours, can cause hypocalcaemia. The incidence may be higher than previously reported due to varying serum calcium cut-off and timing of measurement. The following cases illustrate patients at risk of hypocalcaemia despite supplementation. These populations, with underlying high bone turnover from metastatic bone disease or secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure, may require closer monitoring of calcium levels post-denosumab administration. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Nitrates and bone turnover (NABT) - trial to select the best nitrate preparation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organic nitrates uncouple bone turnover, improve bone mineral density, and improve trabecular and cortical components of bone. These changes in turnover, strength and geometry may translate into an important reduction in fractures. However, before proceeding with a large fracture trial, there is a need to identify the nitrate formulation that has both the greatest efficacy (with regards to bone turnover markers) and gives the fewest headaches. Ascertaining which nitrate formulation this may be is the purpose of the current study. Methods and design This will be an open-label randomized, controlled trial conducted at Women’s College Hospital comparing five formulations of nitrates for their effects on bone turnover markers and headache. We will recruit postmenopausal women age 50 years or older with no contraindications to nitroglycerin. Our trial will consist of a run-in phase and a treatment phase. We will enroll 420 women in the run-in phase, each to receive all of the 5 potential treatments in random order for 2 days, each with a 2-day washout period between treatments. Those who tolerate all formulations will enter the 12-week treatment phase and be randomly assigned to one of five groups: 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerin tablet, 0.6 mg of the sublingual tablet, a 20 mg tablet of isosorbide mononitrate, a 160 mg nitroglycerin transdermal patch (used for 8 h), and 15 mg of nitroglycerin ointment as used in a previous trial by our group. We will continue enrolment until we have randomized 210 women or 35 women per group. Concentrations of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide) and bone resorption (C-telopeptides of collagen crosslinks and N-terminal crosslinks of collagen) agents will be measured in samples taken at study entry (the start of the run in phase) and 12 weeks. Subjects will record the frequency and severity of headaches daily during the run-in phase and then monthly after that. We

  16. Nitrates and bone turnover (NABT) - trial to select the best nitrate preparation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Roxana C; Reid, Lauren S; Hamilton, Celeste J; Cummings, Steven R; Jamal, Sophie A

    2013-09-08

    Organic nitrates uncouple bone turnover, improve bone mineral density, and improve trabecular and cortical components of bone. These changes in turnover, strength and geometry may translate into an important reduction in fractures. However, before proceeding with a large fracture trial, there is a need to identify the nitrate formulation that has both the greatest efficacy (with regards to bone turnover markers) and gives the fewest headaches. Ascertaining which nitrate formulation this may be is the purpose of the current study. This will be an open-label randomized, controlled trial conducted at Women's College Hospital comparing five formulations of nitrates for their effects on bone turnover markers and headache. We will recruit postmenopausal women age 50 years or older with no contraindications to nitroglycerin. Our trial will consist of a run-in phase and a treatment phase. We will enroll 420 women in the run-in phase, each to receive all of the 5 potential treatments in random order for 2 days, each with a 2-day washout period between treatments. Those who tolerate all formulations will enter the 12-week treatment phase and be randomly assigned to one of five groups: 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerin tablet, 0.6 mg of the sublingual tablet, a 20 mg tablet of isosorbide mononitrate, a 160 mg nitroglycerin transdermal patch (used for 8 h), and 15 mg of nitroglycerin ointment as used in a previous trial by our group. We will continue enrolment until we have randomized 210 women or 35 women per group. Concentrations of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide) and bone resorption (C-telopeptides of collagen crosslinks and N-terminal crosslinks of collagen) agents will be measured in samples taken at study entry (the start of the run in phase) and 12 weeks. Subjects will record the frequency and severity of headaches daily during the run-in phase and then monthly after that. We will use the 'multiple

  17. Acute Ketamine Administration Corrects Abnormal Inflammatory Bone Markers in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kadriu, Bashkim; Gold, Philip W; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lener, Marc S; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Niciu, Mark J; Henter, Ioline D; Park, Lawrence T; De Sousa, Rafael Teixeira; Yuan, Peixiong; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation—the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)—play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD. OPG is a decoy receptor for RANKL, thereby increasing BMD. OPN is the bone glue that acts as a scaffold between bone tissues matrix composition to bind them together and is an important component of bone strength and fracture resistance. Twenty-eight medication-free inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 16 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Peripheral bone marker levels and their responses to IV ketamine infusion in MDD patients and HCs were measured at four time points: at baseline, and post-infusion at 230 minutes, Day 1, and Day 3. Patients with MDD had significant decreases in baseline OPG/RANKL ratio and in plasma OPN levels. Ketamine significantly increased both the OPG/RANKL ratio and plasma OPN levels and significantly decreased RANKL levels. Bone marker levels in HCs remained unaltered. We conclude that the OPG-RANK-RANKL system and the OPN system play important roles in the serious bone abnormalities associated with MDD. These data suggest that in addition to its antidepressant effects, ketamine also has a salutary effect on a major medical complication of depressive illness. PMID:28555075

  18. Acute ketamine administration corrects abnormal inflammatory bone markers in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kadriu, B; Gold, P W; Luckenbaugh, D A; Lener, M S; Ballard, E D; Niciu, M J; Henter, I D; Park, L T; De Sousa, R T; Yuan, P; Machado-Vieira, R; Zarate, C A

    2017-05-30

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have clinically relevant, significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). We sought to determine if predictive markers of bone inflammation-the osteoprotegerin (OPG)-RANK-RANKL system or osteopontin (OPN)-play a role in the bone abnormalities associated with MDD and, if so, whether ketamine treatment corrected the abnormalities. The OPG-RANK-RANKL system plays the principal role in determining the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. RANKL is the osteoclast differentiating factor and diminishes BMD. OPG is a decoy receptor for RANKL, thereby increasing BMD. OPN is the bone glue that acts as a scaffold between bone tissues matrix composition to bind them together and is an important component of bone strength and fracture resistance. Twenty-eight medication-free inpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 16 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Peripheral bone marker levels and their responses to IV ketamine infusion in MDD patients and HCs were measured at four time points: at baseline, and post-infusion at 230 min, Day 1, and Day 3. Patients with MDD had significant decreases in baseline OPG/RANKL ratio and in plasma OPN levels. Ketamine significantly increased both the OPG/RANKL ratio and plasma OPN levels, and significantly decreased RANKL levels. Bone marker levels in HCs remained unaltered. We conclude that the OPG-RANK-RANKL system and the OPN system play important roles in the serious bone abnormalities associated with MDD. These data suggest that, in addition to its antidepressant effects, ketamine also has a salutary effect on a major medical complication of depressive illness.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 30 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.109.

  19. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Giuliani, Alessandra; Brun, Francesco; Canciani, Barbara; Manescu, Adrian; Marozzi, Katia; Cilli, Michele; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Tasso, Roberta; Tromba, Giuliana; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt) and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg) mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS) during the Mice Drawer System (MDS) mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days) in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN) in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  20. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91) during US Army basic combat training (BCT). Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OH)D levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction < 0.05). Group mean PTH levels increased (P < 0.05) during the first 3 wk of training, remained elevated for the duration of BCT, and were higher in non-whites compared to whites (P-race < 0.05). Biomarkers of both bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase and procollagen I N-terminal peptide) and resorption (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide) increased (P < 0.05) during BCT, indicating increased bone turnover. Estimated daily intakes of vitamin D and calcium were below recommended levels (15 μg and 1000 mg/day, respectively), both before (group mean ± SEM; 3.9 μg/d ± 0.4 and 887 mg/d ± 67) and during BCT (4.1 μg/d ± 0.3 and 882 mg/d ± 51). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training. PMID:22866974

  1. Type 2 Diabetes in Relation to Hip Bone Density, Area, and Bone Turnover in Swedish Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Adam; Fall, Tove; Melhus, Håkan; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl; Byberg, Liisa

    2018-06-26

    Men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher risk of hip fracture, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate how T2DM, glucose, and insulin were associated with femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral area (BMA), and bone turnover markers. We used two cross-sectional cohorts: the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, n = 452, mean age 82 years) and the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical (SMCC, n = 4713, mean age 68 years). We identified men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG), and T2DM. BMD and BMA at the total hip and femoral shaft were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover markers; CrossLaps and osteocalcin were measured in women. Linear regression models were applied. Men and women showed a progressively higher BMD following the clinical cutoffs of fasting glucose from NFG to IFG to T2DM. In contrast, there was a progressively lower BMA. Men and women with T2DM, compared to those with NFG, had lower BMA at the total hip (- 1.7%; 95% CI - 3.2, - 0.2 and - 1.0%; 95% CI - 1.6, - 0.4) and the femoral shaft (- 2.0%; 95% CI - 3.5, - 0.4 and - 0.6%; 95% CI - 1.2, - 0.01), respectively. T2DM was associated with lower concentrations of CrossLaps (- 8.1%; 95% CI - 12.7, - 3.6) and osteocalcin (- 15.2%; 95% CI - 19.0, - 11.2). These cross-sectional results indicate that those with T2DM have smaller bone area and lower bone turnover, which could increase the risk of hip fracture.

  2. Alpha C-telopeptide of type I collagen is associated with subchondral bone turnover and predicts progression of joint space narrowing and osteophytes in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Janet L; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Huffman, Kim M; He, Yi; Leeming, Diana J; McDaniel, Gary E; Karsdal, Morten A; Kraus, Virginia B

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate joint tissue remodeling using the urinary collagen biomarkers urinary α-C-telopeptide of type I collagen (α-CTX) and urinary C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and to determine the association of these biomarkers with osteoarthritis (OA) severity, progression, and localized knee bone turnover. Participants (n = 149) with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA underwent fixed-flexion knee radiography at baseline and 3 years, and late-phase bone scintigraphy of both knees at baseline, which were scored semiquantitatively for osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) severity and uptake intensity, with scores summed across knees. Urinary concentrations of α-CTX and CTX-II were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical analysis of human OA knees was performed to localize the joint tissue origin of the biomarker epitopes. Urinary α-CTX concentrations correlated strongly with the intensity of bone scintigraphic uptake and with JSN progression (risk ratio 13.2) and osteophyte progression (risk ratio 3). Urinary CTX-II concentrations were strongly associated with intensity of bone scintigraphic uptake, with JSN and osteophyte severity, and with OA progression based on osteophyte score. Urinary α-CTX localized primarily to high bone turnover areas in subchondral bone. CTX-II localized to the bone-cartilage interface, the tidemark, and damaged articular cartilage. Baseline urinary α-CTX, which was localized to high turnover areas of subchondral bone, was associated with dynamic bone turnover of knees, as signified by scintigraphy, and progression of both osteophytes and JSN. Urinary CTX-II correlated with JSN and osteophyte severity and progression of osteophytes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of serologic markers reflecting subchondral bone turnover. These collagen markers may be useful for noninvasive detection and quantification of active subchondral bone turnover and joint remodeling in knee OA

  3. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, D; Zhang, X; Li, Z; Bai, H; Chen, L

    2017-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Thus, we systematically reviewed the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids by conducting a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus were searched in December 2016. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. Eight trials were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled findings did not identify significant decreases in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.12, p = 0.429) and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide (WMD 0 ng/ml, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.04, p = 0.899). There was a significant decrease in osteocalcin (WMD -0.86 ng/ml, 95% CI -1.68 to -0.04, p = 0.040) as compared with control. Omega-3 fatty acids reduced postmenopausal women's serum osteocalcin. Further well-designed studies are needed to verify the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone mass density and other bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. CRD42016053219 ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ).

  4. Temporal bone changes in patients with Goldenhar syndrome with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Friese, Natascha; Löwenheim, Hubert; Tropitzsch, Anke; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-06-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder presenting with orofacial and vertebral anomalies, which are also accompanied by abnormalities in other organs. We examined temporal bone changes with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities in these patients. A retrospective review of 7 new cases in addition to a previously published series of 14 cases with clinically diagnosed Goldenhar syndrome was carried out to search for inner ear anomalies. In addition, temporal bone imaging studies from the literature were summarized and compared with our results. Departments of Neuroradiology and Otorhinolaryngology at a university hospital. In addition to the previous series of 14 patients, 7 new patients with Goldenhar syndrome were identified. Patients underwent otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone. Temporal bone changes and specifically inner ear malformations. Nineteen of 21 patients showed changes of the external and middle ear correlating with the literature. Seven of 21 patients showed inner ear abnormalities constituting one-third of all patients. These ranged from mild such as vestibular enlargement to severe defects such as cochlear hypoplasia and common cavity. Inner ear abnormalities were present in one-third of patients. Although in some cases, these might not be of clinical significance, some patients show severe defects of the inner ear requiring more complex hearing loss therapy. Therefore, imaging of the temporal bone structures is important in the care of these patients.

  5. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p < 0.05) and aBMD at TH (p = 0.0019) and FN (p = 0.0057) and TBS (p = 0.0017) showed increasing trends with greater milk intake after adjusting for demographic and behavioral confounding factors. This association was attenuated after further adjusting for nutrient intake, in particular, calcium intake. Greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  6. Could Biomarkers of Bone, Cartilage or Synovium Turnover Be Used for Relapse Prediction in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Dénarié, Delphine; Constant, Elodie; Thomas, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this review is to clarify the usefulness of bone, cartilage, and synovial biomarker in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy in remission. Synovial Biomarkers. High MMP-3 levels are associated with joint progression in RA patients, but there is no data about their utility in clinical remission. IIINys and Glc-Gal-PYD seem to be more specific to synovium, but more studies are required. Cartilage Biomarkers. Unbalance between cartilage break-down biomarkers (urinary CTX II and COMP) and cartilage formation biomarker (PIIANP) was described. This unbalance is also associated with joint destruction and prognosis of destruction. No data are available on patients in remission. Bone Biomarkers. RA activity is correlated with an increase of bone resorption markers such as CTX I, PYD, and TRACP 5b and a decrease of bone formation markers such as OC and BALP. RA therapies seem to improve bone turnover in limiting bone resorption. There is no study about bone marker utility in remission. Conclusion. Biomarkers seem to correlate with RA activity and progression. They also could be used to manage RA therapies, but we need more data on RA remission to predict relapse. PMID:24744505

  7. Association of Blood Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in HIV-1 Infected Individuals Receiving Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART)

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Najib; Butch, Anthony W; Quint, Joshua J; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of bone turnover biomarkers with blood levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and other blood markers in HIV-1 infected men receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Advances in the treatment of HIV-1 infection have extended the life span of HIV-1 infected individuals. However, these advances may come at the price of metabolic side effects and bone disorders, including premature osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Methods Analyses of Ostase BAP, osteocalcin, and TRAP in blood were measured in three groups of MACS participants: 35 HIV-1 infected men on ART (A); 35 HIV-1- infected men not on ART (B); and 34 HIV-1 uninfected men (C). Results The mean and standard deviation results for groups A, B, and C were 19.7 ± 6.56, 17.2 ± 3.96, and 16.9 ± 5.78 for ostase BAP; 7.9 ± 9.53, 8.5 ± 8.30, and 5.5 ± 1.65 for osteocalcin; and 3.9 ± 1.04, 3.1 ± 0.81, and 2.5 ± 0.59 for TRAP, respectively. Simple and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in mean TRAP and BAP concentrations between the three groups. In addition strong correlations between blood levels of Ostase BAP and TRAP (r=0.570, p=0.0004), and between blood levels of Ostase BAP and PTH (r=0.436, P=0.0098) for HIV-1 infected men on ART were observed. Conclusion New strategies for measurement of blood and urine biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption during bone turnover can be useful for clinical monitoring of treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. Recently developed methods for measuring serum levels of TRAP and Ostase BAP represent superior laboratory tools for assessing the hyperactivity of osteoclasts, osteoblasts and bone loss in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving ART. Measurements of TRAP and BAP as bone turnover biomarkers are economical and are important for monitoring bone metabolism during ART and

  8. Malalignment and subchondral bone turnover in contralateral knees of overweight/obese women with unilateral osteoarthritis: implications for bilateral disease.

    PubMed

    Mazzuca, Steven A; Brandt, Kenneth D; Lane, Kathleen A; Chakr, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    To explore whether the risk of incident tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA) in the radiographically normal contralateral knee of overweight/obese women with unilateral knee OA is mediated by malalignment and/or preceded by increased turnover of subchondral bone. We used data of post hoc analyses from a randomized controlled trial. Cross-sectional analyses evaluated the baseline association between frontal plane alignment and bone turnover in the medial TF compartment in 78 radiographically normal contralateral knees. Longitudinal analyses ascertained whether incident radiographic OA (TF osteophyte formation within 30 months) was associated with malalignment and/or increased bone turnover at baseline. Alignment subcategories (varus/neutral/valgus) were based on the anatomic axis angle. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate uptake in a late-phase bone scan was quantified in regions of interest in the medial tibia (MT) and medial femur (MF) and adjusted for uptake in a reference segment of the ipsilateral tibial shaft (TS). MF and MT uptake in varus contralateral knees was 50-55% greater than in the TS. Adjusted MT uptake in varus contralateral knees was significantly greater than that in neutral and valgus contralateral knees (mean 1.55 versus 1.38 and 1.43, respectively; P < 0.05). Among 69 contralateral knees followed longitudinally, 22 (32%) developed TF OA. Varus angulation was associated with a marginally significant increase in the odds of incident OA (adjusted odds ratio 3.98, P = 0.067). While the small sample size limited our ability to detect statistically significant risk factors, these data suggest that the risk of developing bilateral TF OA in overweight/obese women may be mediated by varus malalignment. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  10. Association between Bone Turnover, Micronutrient Intake, and Blood Lead Levels in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women, NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Leila W.; Cromer, Barbara A.; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. Objectives We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20–85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Methods Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log-transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. Results In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%–45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%–43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%–19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%–22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Conclusions Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre-and postmenopausal women. PMID:20688594

  11. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  12. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  13. Depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake alters serum bone turnover markers: a 28-week single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking that support a positive association between the intake of fruits and vegetables and bone health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that elevated fruit and vegetable intake improves serum markers of bone turnover. Twenty-nine s...

  14. The role of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane in the suppression of postprandial inflammatory markers and bone turnover in obese and overweight adults: an exploratory study.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption; the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover has not been explored. Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces inflammation in animal models. This study aimed to measure postprandial changes in bone turnov...

  15. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  16. Acute response of plasma markers of bone turnover to a single bout of resistance training or plyometrics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Dawson, Andrew W; Wang, Ze; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2011-11-01

    The time course of changes in plasma bone turnover markers following an acute bout of resistance training (RT) or plyometrics (PLY) has not been well characterized. This study is the first to compare the acute response of bone formation and resorption markers to a single bout of RT or PLY. Using a partially randomized, cross-over study design, 12 recreationally active men, aged 43 ± 5 yr, each completed four exercise trials: RT (Fed/Fasted) and PLY (Fed/Fasted). In addition to the RT and PLY trials, 5 of the original 12 participants also completed a fasted, no-exercise control trial to examine time-of-day variation. For each trial, blood was drawn immediately before exercise (PRE), immediately following exercise, and 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 24 h following PRE for determination of plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and cortisol. A one-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was performed for each trial to detect changes in bone markers during the 2 h following RT or PLY. TRAP5b transiently decreased during the 2 h following all exercise trials (main effect for time, P < 0.05), but returned to PRE concentrations 2 h postexercise. BAP, CTX, and OC remained unchanged, except for reductions in BAP and CTX following PLY-Fasted and PLY-Fed, respectively. During the control trial, BAP decreased, while TRAP5b, CTX, and OC remained unchanged. In general, plasma hormone concentrations decreased during the 2 h following PLY or RT, and cumulative decreases in TRAP5b during the 2 h following exercise were positively correlated with cumulative decreases in parathyroid hormone. The results of the present study suggest that the timing of the measurement of bone turnover markers relative to the last exercise bout is important for detection of exercise-associated changes in bone turnover markers, as the markers returned

  17. [Clinical heterogeneity of atypical fractures during prolonged use of bisphosphonates--risk factors and bone turnover markers].

    PubMed

    Piazzetta, Giovana; Baracho, Filipe R; Oliveira, Larissa de; Santos, Gustavo R; Kulak, Carolina A M; Borba, Victória Z C

    2014-11-01

    We describe four cases of atypical femoral fractures treated at the Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná (SEMPR) which, although characteristic of this type of fracture, presented clinical peculiarities that should be considered and serve as a warning in these patients, such as: late diagnosis with maintenance of bisphosphonates; absence of co-morbidities with excellent result; failure of fracture healing; use of anabolic medication after the fracture and the use of bone turnover markers at the follow up.

  18. Uremic toxin and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Nii-Kono, Tomoko; Fujieda, Ayako; Uchida, Motoyuki; Hosokawa, Atsuko; Motojima, Masaru; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) develop various kinds of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism, widely known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Although the pathogenesis of ESRD may be similar in many patients, the response of the bone varies widely, ranging from high to low turnover. ROD is classified into several types, depending on the status of bone turnover, by histomorphometric analysis using bone biopsy samples [1,2]. In the mild type, bone metabolism is closest to that of persons with normal renal function. In osteitis fibrosa, bone turnover is abnormally activated. This is a condition of high-turnover bone. A portion of the calcified bone loses its lamellar structure and appears as woven bone. In the cortical bone also, bone resorption by osteoclasts is active, and a general picture of bone marrow tissue infiltration and the formation of cancellous bone can be observed. In osteomalacia, the bone surface is covered with uncalcified osteoid. This condition is induced by aluminum accumulation or vitamin D deficiency. The mixed type possesses characteristics of both osteitis fibrosa and osteomalacia. The bone turnover is so markedly accelerated that calcification of the osteoid cannot keep pace. In the adynamic bone type, bone resorption and bone formation are both lowered. While bone turnover is decreased, there is little osteoid. The existence of these various types probably accounts for the diversity in degree of renal impairment, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, and serum vitamin D level in patients with ROD. However, all patients share a common factor, i.e., the presence of a uremic condition.

  19. Disruption of c-Kit Signaling in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) Growing Mice Increases Bone Turnover.

    PubMed

    Lotinun, Sutada; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2016-08-16

    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor has been identified as a regulator of bone homeostasis. The c-Kit loss-of-function mutations in WBB6F1/J-Kit(W/W-v) mice result in low bone mass. However, these mice are sterile and it is unclear whether the observed skeletal phenotype is secondary to a sex hormone deficiency. In contrast, C57BL/6J-Kit(W-sh)/(W-sh) (W(sh)/W(sh)) mice, which carry an inversion mutation affecting the transcriptional regulatory elements of the c-Kit gene, are fertile. Here, we showed that W(sh)/W(sh) mice exhibited osteopenia with elevated bone resorption and bone formation at 6- and 9-week-old. The c-Kit W(sh) mutation increased osteoclast differentiation, the number of committed osteoprogenitors, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. c-Kit was expressed in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and c-Kit expression was decreased in W(sh)/W(sh)osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts, suggesting an indirect effect of c-Kit on bone formation. Furthermore, the osteoclast-derived coupling factor Wnt10b mRNA was increased in W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts. Conditioned medium from W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts had elevated Wnt10b protein levels and induced increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in osteoblast cultures. Antagonizing Wnt10b signaling with DKK1 or Wnt10b antibody inhibited these effects. Our data suggest that c-Kit negatively regulates bone turnover, and disrupted c-Kit signaling couples increased bone resorption with bone formation through osteoclast-derived Wnt 10 b.

  20. Effect of B Vitamin (Folate, B6, and B12) Supplementation on Osteoporotic Fracture and Bone Turnover Markers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jianwei; Gong, Xiaokang; Kong, Jinsong; Wang, Haibao; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background B vitamins (including folate, B6, and B12) supplementation can effectively and easily modify high plasma homocysteine (Hcy). However, the role of Hcy in the pathogenesis of osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover is still controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of B vitamin supplementation on occurrence of any osteoporotic fracture and bone turnover by pooling the results of previous studies. Material/Methods Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in databases. Data integration and analysis were done by using Review Manager 5.3 (the Cochrane Collaboration). The risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fracture (intervention vs. control) were estimated. Changes in bone turnover indicators (continuous data), weighted mean difference (WMD), and corresponding 95% (CI) were pooled for estimation. Results Based on the results of 4 RCTs, this meta-analysis failed to identify a risk-reducing effect of daily supplementation of B vitamins on osteoporotic fracture in patients with vascular disease and with relatively normal plasma Hcy. In addition, we also did not find any positive effects of B vitamin supplementation on bone turnover. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation might not be effective in preventing fracture and improving bone turnover. However, the possible benefits in selective populations, such as populations with very high plasma Hcy and from regions without B vitamin fortification should be explored in the future. PMID:25805360

  1. The Antioxidant Enzyme GPX1 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Low BMD and Increased Bone Turnover Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Osredkar, Josko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2010-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as participating in the development of osteoporosis. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is one of antioxidant enzymes responsible for the defence of cells against oxidative damage and thus for protection against age related diseases such as osteoporosis. The aim of present study was to associate genetic variances of GPX1 enzyme with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone turnover markers and to show the influence of antioxidative defence system in genetics of osteoporosis. We evaluated 682 Slovenian subjects: 571 elderly women and 111 elderly men. All subjects were genotyped for the presence of GPX1 gene polymorphisms Pro198Leu and polyAla region. BMD and biochemical markers were also measured. General linear model analysis, adjusted to height, and (one-way) analysis of variance were used to assess differences between the genotype.and haplotype subgroups, respectively. The significant or borderline significant associations were found between the polyAla or the Pro198Leu polymorphisms and total hip BMD (0.018; 0.023, respectively), femoral neck BMD (0.117; 0.026, respectively) and lumbar spine BMD (0.032; 0.086, respectively), and with biochemical bone turnover markers such as plasma osteocalcin (0.027; 0.025, respectively) and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations (0.114; 0.012, respectively) in whole group. Haplotype analysis revealed that the 6-T haplotype is associated significantly with low BMD values (p > 0.025) at all measured locations of the skeleton, and with high plasma osteocalcin concentrations (p = 0.008). This study shows for the first time that the polymorphisms polyAla and Pro198Leu of the GPX1 gene, individually and in combination, are associated with BMD and therefore may be useful as genetic markers for bone disease. Moreover, it implies the important contribution of the oxidative stress to pathogenesis of osteoporosis. PMID:21045266

  2. The antioxidant enzyme GPX1 gene polymorphisms are associated with low BMD and increased bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Osredkar, Josko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2010-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as participating in the development of osteoporosis. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is one of antioxidant enzymes responsible for the defence of cells against oxidative damage and thus for protection against age related diseases such as osteoporosis. The aim of present study was to associate genetic variances of GPX1 enzyme with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone turnover markers and to show the influence of antioxidative defence system in genetics of osteoporosis. We evaluated 682 Slovenian subjects: 571 elderly women and 111 elderly men. All subjects were genotyped for the presence of GPX1 gene polymorphisms Pro198Leu and polyAla region. BMD and biochemical markers were also measured. General linear model analysis, adjusted to height, and (one-way) analysis of variance were used to assess differences between the genotype.and haplotype subgroups, respectively. The significant or borderline significant associations were found between the polyAla or the Pro198Leu polymorphisms and total hip BMD (0.018; 0.023, respectively), femoral neck BMD (0.117; 0.026, respectively) and lumbar spine BMD (0.032; 0.086, respectively), and with biochemical bone turnover markers such as plasma osteocalcin (0.027; 0.025, respectively) and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations (0.114; 0.012, respectively) in whole group. Haplotype analysis revealed that the 6-T haplotype is associated significantly with low BMD values (p< 0.025) at all measured locations of the skeleton, and with high plasma osteocalcin concentrations (p=0.008). This study shows for the first time that the polymorphisms polyAla and Pro198Leu of the GPX1 gene, individually and in combination, are associated with BMD and therefore may be useful as genetic markers for bone disease. Moreover, it implies the important contribution of the oxidative stress to pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

  3. Bone turnover and periprosthetic bone loss after cementless total hip arthroplasty can be restored by zoledronic acid: a prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsan-Wen; Wang, Chao-Jan; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Chang, Yuhan; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Peng, Kuo-Ti; Lee, Mel S

    2017-05-22

    Although the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a known problem, it remains unresolved. This study prospectively examined the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone turnover and BMD after cementless THA. Between January 2010 and August 2011, 60 patients who underwent cementless THA were randomly assigned to receive either ZA infusion or placebo (0.9% normal saline only) postoperatively. ZA was administered at 2 day and 1 year postoperatively. Periprosthetic BMD in seven Gruen zones was assessed preoperatively and at given time points for 2 years. Serum markers of bone turnover, functional scales, and adverse events were recorded. Each group contained 27 patients for the final analysis. The loss of BMD across all Gruen zones (significantly in zones 1 and 7) up to 2 years postoperatively was noted in the placebo group. BMD was significantly higher in the ZA group than in the placebo group in Gruen zones 1, 2, 6, and 7 at 1 year and in Gruen zones 1, 6, and 7 at 2 years (p < 0.05). Compared with baseline measures of BMD, the ZA group had increased BMD in zones 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 at 1 year and in zones 1, 4, 6, and 7 at 2 years (p < 0.05). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and N-telopeptide of procollagen I levels were significantly increased at 6 weeks in the placebo group and decreased after 3 months in the ZA group. A transient decrease in osteocalcin level was found at 6 months in the ZA group. Functional scales and adverse events were not different between the two groups. The loss of periprosthetic BMD, especially in the proximal femur (zones 1 and 7), after cementless THA could be effectively reverted using ZA. In addition, bone turnover markers were suppressed until 2 years postoperatively following ZA administration. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Protocol Record 98-1150A3, Prevention of Periprosthetic Bone Loss After Total Hip Replacement by Annual Bisphosphonate Therapy, has been reviewed and

  4. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  5. Short-term response of bone turnover to low-dose oral contraceptives in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D; VanHeest, Jaci L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2008-02-01

    We examined the response of bone turnover markers and indices of energy status after 2 weeks of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy in premenopausal women with exercise-associated menstrual disturbances (EAMD). Six women with EAMD received one 28-day cycle of a triphasic OC containing 180-250 mcg norgestimate/25 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EAMD+OC) and six were controls (EAMD controls). Bone turnover markers amino-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen (PINP and SCTX-I) were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks of OC therapy (EAMD+OC) or after a 30-day monitoring period (EAMD controls). Total triiodothyronine, resting energy expenditure (REE) and dietary intake were assessed as secondary end points. The absolute and percent changes from baseline in the primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated using an analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline values of the corresponding outcome. Compared to EAMD controls, a significant change from baseline was observed in the EAMD+OC group for PINP (mean+/-SEM, 9.9+/-6.1 vs. -33.9+/-9.0 mcg/L; p=.005) and SCTX-I (-0.02+/-0.11 vs. -0.25+/-0.07 ng/mL; p=.017), but not osteoprotegerin (-0.53+/-0.22 vs. 0.20+/-0.44 pmol/L; p=.429) after 2 weeks (14.7+/-0.3 days) of OC therapy. Total triiodothyronine levels were elevated in the EAMD+OC group after therapy compared with EAMD controls (19.7+/-4.1 vs. -8.4+/-4.9 ng/dL; p=.002); however, no differences between groups were observed for the changes in REE or dietary intake. Our data demonstrate that 2 weeks of low-dose OC therapy rapidly reduced markers of bone resorption and formation, without any significant impact on energy status in women with EAMD.

  6. Abnormalities in biomarkers of mineral and bone metabolism in kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Kasiske, Bertram L; Kumar, Rajiv; Kimmel, Paul L; Pesavento, Todd E; Kalil, Roberto S; Kraus, Edward S; Rabb, Hamid; Posselt, Andrew M; Anderson-Haag, Teresa L; Steffes, Michael W; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J; Singh, Ravinder J; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that kidney donors may have abnormalities of mineral and bone metabolism typically seen in chronic kidney disease. This may have important implications for the skeletal health of living kidney donors and for our understanding of the pathogenesis of long-term mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease. In this prospective study, 182 of 203 kidney donors and 173 of 201 paired normal controls had markers of mineral and bone metabolism measured before and at 6 and 36 months after donation (ALTOLD Study). Donors had significantly higher serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (24.6% and 19.5%) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (9.5% and 8.4%) at 6 and 36 months, respectively, as compared to healthy controls, and significantly reduced tubular phosphate reabsorption (-7.0% and -5.0%) and serum phosphate concentrations (-6.4% and -2.3%). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower (-17.1% and -12.6%), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D (21.4% and 19.4%) concentrations were significantly higher in donors compared to controls. Moreover, significantly higher concentrations of the bone resorption markers, carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (30.1% and 13.8%) and aminoterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (14.2% and 13.0%), and the bone formation markers, osteocalcin (26.3% and 2.7%) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (24.3% and 8.9%), were observed in donors. Thus, kidney donation alters serum markers of bone metabolism that could reflect impaired bone health. Additional long-term studies that include assessment of skeletal architecture and integrity are warranted in kidney donors. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyrotropin serum levels are differentially associated with biochemical markers of bone turnover and stiffness in women and men: results from the SHIP cohorts.

    PubMed

    Tsourdi, E; Wallaschofski, H; Rauner, M; Nauck, M; Pietzner, M; Rettig, R; Ittermann, T; Völzke, H; Völker, U; Hofbauer, L C; Hannemann, A

    2016-02-01

    In two large German population-based cohorts, we showed positive associations between serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations and the Fracture Risk Assessment score (FRAX) in men and positive associations between TSH concentrations and bone turnover markers in women. The role of thyroid hormones on bone stiffness and turnover is poorly defined. Existing studies are confounded by differences in design and small sample size. We assessed the association between TSH serum concentrations and bone stiffness and turnover in the SHIP cohorts, which are two population-based cohorts from a region in Northern Germany comprising 2654 men and women and 3261 men and women, respectively. We calculated the bone stiffness index using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus, employed FRAX score for assessment of major osteoporotic fractures, and measured bone turnover markers, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, and type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) in all subjects and sclerostin in a representative subgroup. There was no association between TSH concentrations and the stiffness index in both genders. In men, TSH correlated positively with the FRAX score both over the whole TSH range (p < 0.01) and within the reference TSH range (p < 0.01). There were positive associations between TSH concentrations and P1NP, BAP, osteocalcin, and CTX (p < 0.01) in women but not in men. There was no significant association between TSH and sclerostin levels. TSH serum concentrations are associated with gender-specific changes in bone turnover and stiffness.

  9. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Carrie S; Mercer, Kelly E; Alund, Alexander W; Suva, Larry J; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy protein-associated phytoestrogens such as genistein (GEN). In this study, male mice were pair-fed (PF), a control diet, an ethanol (EtOH) diet, or EtOH diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg of GEN for 8 weeks to test if GEN protects against bone loss associated with chronic drinking. Interestingly, alcohol consumption reduced cortical area and thickness and trabecular bone volume in both EtOH and EtOH/GEN groups when compared to the corresponding PF and PF/GEN controls, P < 0.05. However, in the trabecular bone compartment, we observed a significant increase in overall trabecular bone density in the PF/GEN group compared to the PF controls. Bone loss in the EtOH-treated mice was associated with the inhibition of osteoblastogenesis as indicated by decreased alkaline phosphatase staining in ex vivo bone marrow cultures, P < 0.05. GEN supplementation improved osteoblastogenesis in the EtOH/GEN cultures compared to the EtOH group, P < 0.05. Vertebral expression of bone-formation markers, osteocalcin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was also significantly up-regulated in the PF/GEN and EtOH/GEN groups compared to the PF and EtOH-treated groups. GEN supplementation also increased the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) in the PF/GEN, an increase that persisted in the EtOH/GEN-treated animals (P < 0.05), and increased basal hydrogen peroxide production and RANKL mRNA expression in primary bone marrow cultures in vitro, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that GEN supplementation increases the overall bone remodeling and, in the context of chronic alcohol consumption, does not protect against the oxidative stress

  10. Genetic effects on bone mass and turnover-relevance to black/white differences.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, A M

    1997-08-01

    The mass of a bone is given by its volume and its apparent density--mass per unit external volume. Most measurements of so-called density are of mass incompletely normalized by some index of bone size. Genes control about 60% to 75% of the variance of peak bone mass/density and a much smaller proportion of the variance in rate of loss. Genetic influence on bone mass/density are mediated in large part by body size, bone size, and muscle mass. Most of the fifty-fold increase in bone mass from birth to maturity is due to bone growth, which is linked to muscle growth and bodily growth. Three-D apparent bone density in the vertebrae increases about 15% during the pubertal growth spurt. The genetic potential for bone accumulation can be frustrated by insufficient calcium intake, disruption of the calendar of puberty and inadequate physical activity. The growing skeleton is much more responsive than the mature skeleton to the osteotrophic effect of exercise, which is mediated by the detection of deviations from a target value for strain, and orchestration of cellular responses that restore the target value, processes collectively termed the mechanostat. Production of metaphyseal cancellous bone and growth in length are both linked to endochondral ossification, which is driven by growth plate cartilage cell proliferation. Production of diaphyseal cortical bone and growth in width are both linked to periosteal apposition, which is driven by osteoblast precursor proliferation. During adolescence trabeculae and cortices become thicker by net endosteal apposition, which increases apparent density. Two lines of evidence support a genetic basis for black/white differences in bone mass. First, the magnitude (10% to 40%) is incommensurate with known nongenetic factors. Second, the difference is already evident in the fetus and increases progressively during growth, especially in adolescence; the difference in peak bone mass persists throughout life. The genetic determination of

  11. Sensorineural deafness, distinctive facial features, and abnormal cranial bones: a new variant of Waardenburg syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H

    2008-07-15

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair, and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Serum markers of bone turnover are increased by modest weight loss with or without weight-bearing exercise in overweight premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rector, R Scott; Loethen, Joanne; Ruebel, Meghan; Thomas, Tom R; Hinton, Pamela S

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss improves metabolic fitness and reduces morbidity and mortality; however, weight reduction also reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and increases bone turnover. Weight-bearing aerobic exercise may preserve bone mass and maintain normal bone turnover during weight reduction. We investigated the impact of weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing exercise on serum markers of bone formation and breakdown during short-term, modest weight loss in overweight premenopausal women. Subjects (n = 36) were assigned to 1 of 3 weight-loss interventions designed to produce a 5% reduction in body weight over 6 weeks: (i) energy restriction only (n = 11; DIET); (ii) energy restriction plus nonweight-bearing exercise (n = 12, CYCLE); or (iii) energy restriction plus weight-bearing exercise (n = 13, RUN). Bone turnover markers were measured in serum collected at baseline and after weight loss. All groups achieved a ~5% reduction in body weight (DIET = 5.2%; CYCLE = 5.0%; RUN = 4.7%). Osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) increased with weight loss in all 3 groups (p < 0.05), whereas bone alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by the weight-loss interventions. At baseline, OC and CTX were positively correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), but the strength of this association was diminished (r = 0.30, p = 0.06) after weight loss. Modest weight loss, regardless of method, resulted in a significant increase in both OC and CTX. Low-impact, weight-bearing exercise had no effect on serum markers of bone formation or resorption in premenopausal women during weight loss. Future studies that examine the effects of high-impact, weight-bearing activity on bone turnover and BMD during weight loss are warranted.

  13. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  14. Developmental abnormalities of the occipital bone in human chondrodystrophies (achondroplasia and thanatophoric dwarfism).

    PubMed

    Marin-Padilla, M; Marin-Padilla, T M

    1977-01-01

    Specific developmental malformations have been demonstrated in the occipital bone of two chondrodysplastic disorders (achondroplasia and thanatophoric dwarfism). Analysis of these malformations indicates that the occipital bone is primary affected in these disorders. In both cases, the endochondral-derived components of the occipital bone (the basioccipital, the two lateral parts, and the planum nuchale of the squama occipitalis) have failed to grow properly and are smaller and shorter than normal. On the other hand, the planum occipitalis of the squama, which derives from intramembranous ossification, is unaffected. In addition, the nature of these abnormalities indicates that the occipital synchondroses, together with the epiphyseal plates of other bones, are primarily affected in these two chondrodysplasias. The components of the occipital bone formed between the affected synchondroses failed to grow normally. The resulting malformation of the occipital bone is undoubtedly the cause of the shortening of the posterior cerebral fossa and of the considerable narrowing of the foramen magnum often described in these chondrodysplasias. It is postulated that growth disturbances between the affected occipital bone and the unaffected central nervous system results in the inadequacy of the posterior cerebral fossa and the foramen magnum to accommodate the growing brain. Consequently, compression of the brain at the posterior cerebral fossa or the foramen magnum levels could occur and thus lead to neurologic complications such as hydrocephalus and compression of the brain stem. It is suggested that the surgical removal of the fused posterior border of the lateral parts of the occipital bone (partial nuchalectomy) for the purpose of enlarging the narrow foramen magnum may be indicated in those chondrodysplastic children who develop these types of neurologic complications.

  15. Impact of bone turnover markers and/or educational information on persistence to oral bisphosphonate therapy: a community setting-based trial.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S L; Nasser, K; Nattrass, S; Drinkwater, B

    2012-03-01

    We examined how the use of bone turnover markers and educational information affects persistence of bisphosphonate use in osteoporotic patients. We found that reporting bone turnover results and/or educational information did not affect persistence. Long-term adherence and persistence to osteoporosis medication are poor. We examined whether reporting of bone turnover marker results, education about osteoporosis, or a combination of both would increase persistence to oral bisphosphonates. Two hundred and forty women who were 5 years postmenopausal with BMD at least 2.0 standard deviations below normal were recruited for the study. All women were given a new prescription for alendronate and randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) bone marker results at baseline, 3 and 12 months; (2) educational materials every month and a membership in the National Osteoporosis Foundation; (3) bone marker and educational information; and (4) control, no information other than usual care. Persistence among randomization groups was tested using survival analysis adjusting for the delay between intervention methods. Of those filling their initial prescription, 95.5% refilled their prescription at the end of the first month, 87% at 3 months, 82% at 6 months, and 78% at 10 months. Overall persistence through 12 months was 54%. There was no difference found among the four groups for persistence time using (p > 0.58). Providing bone turnover marker results is not an effective way to enhance early compliance and persistence with drug therapy. While the women in our study felt that bone marker results and educational information were helpful to them, there was no difference in persistence between those who received either bone marker information and/or educational information and those who did not. Because of the unexpected rate of primary nonadherence, this study may be underpowered.

  16. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  17. High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  18. [Diagnostic value of PTH total kit for estimation of bone turnover in children with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Helena; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of total PTH and 1-84 molecule (CAP) assay in clinical practice. 118 children with chronic renal failure aged 13.8 +/- 4.5 years were examined: 69 on conservative treatment with creatinine clearance 40.7 +/- 20 ml/min/1.73 m2, 31 on peritoneal dialysis and 16 on hemodialysis. In all patients the following parameters were assessed: serum levels of calcium (sCa), phosphorus (sP), PTH intact (PTHs) by chemiluminescence method (Immulite analyzer), total PTH (PTHc) and CAP with Duo PTH Assay (Scantibodies Laboratories, USA). The value of CIP as the difference between total PTH and CAP was calculated. For the evaluation of bone turnover the serum level of osteocalcin (OC) with IRMA, (OsteoRiact, CIS, F) and activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) were determined. The correlations between parameters were calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Significant correlation were found between PTHs and PTHc (r=0.84, p=0.0000), CAP (r=0.79, p=0.0000) and CIP. The increase of PTHs, PTHc, CAP, CIP, sP, OC and percentage of CIP were noticed, when parallel increase of creatinine level was found. The negative correlation between creatinine level and CAP/CIP was observed. The similar correlations between level of PTHs, PTHc, CAP and OC level were observed (r=0.55, 0.49 and 0.50 respectively). The assay of total PTH and CAP fragment is not usefull in clinical practice for estimation of bone turnover in children with chronic renal failure.

  19. Kidney transplantation restored uncoupled bone turnover in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kido, Ryo; Nakajima, Ichiro; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Teraoka, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2012-07-01

    While kidney transplantation (KTx) reverses many disorders associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients who have received KTx often have chronic kidney disease and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). However, it is unknown how bone metabolism changes by KTx. Living donor-KTx recipients (n = 34) at Tokyo Women's Medical University were prospectively recruited and the levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type 1 collagen (NTX) were measured before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation. Before KTx, serum BAP was within the reference range in more than half of patients while NTX was high in most patients. Serum NTX was higher in patients with longer dialysis durations compared to that with shorter durations before KTx. However, there was no difference in serum BAP between these patients. After KTx, BAP increased while NTX decreased along with the decline of PTH. In addition, the numbers of patients who showed high BAP and NTX were comparable after KTx. These results suggest that bone formation is suppressed and uncoupled with bone resorption in patients with ESRD and this uncoupling is restored by KTx. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism of bone uncoupling in patients with ESRD.

  20. The role of daily physical activity and nutritional status on bone turnover in cystic fibrosis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Sergio; Cejudo, Pilar; Quintana-Gallego, E; Sañudo, Borja; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, A

    2016-03-18

    Nutritional status and daily physical activity (PA) may be an excellent tool for the maintenance of bone health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, daily physical activity and bone turnover in cystic fibrosis patients. A cross-sectional study of adolescent and adult patients diagnosed with clinically stable cystic fibrosis was conducted. Total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone metabolism markers ALP, P1NP, PICP, and ß-CrossLaps. PA monitoring was assessed for 5 consecutive days using a portable device. Exercise capacity was also determined. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin K were also determined in all participants. Fifty patients (median age: 24.4 years; range: 16-46) were included. BMI had positive correlation with all BMD parameters, with Spearman's coefficients ranging from 0.31 to 0.47. Total hip bone mineral density and femoral neck BMD had positive correlation with the daily time spent on moderate PA (>4.8 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.74, p<0.001 and r=0.72 p<0.001 respectively), daily time spent on vigorous PA (>7.2 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.45 p<0.001), body mass index (r=0.44, p=0.001), and muscle mass in limbs (r=0.41, p=0.004). Levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen were positively associated with the daily time spent on moderate (r=0.33 p=0.023) and vigorous PA (r=0.53, p<0.001). BMI and the daily time spent on moderate PA were found to be correlated with femoral neck BMD in CF patients. The association between daily PA and biochemical markers of bone formation suggests that the level of daily PA may be linked to bone health in this patient group. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Change in Mouse Bone Turnover in Response to Microgravity on RR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng-Campbell, Margareth A.; Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical unloading during spaceflight is known to adversely affect mammalian physiology. Our previous studies using the Animal Enclosure Module on short duration Shuttle missions enabled us to identify a deficit in stem cell based-tissue regeneration as being a significant concern for long-duration spaceflight. Specifically, we found that mechanical unloading in microgravity resulted in inhibition of differentiation of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow compartment. Also, we observed overexpression of a cell cycle arrest molecule, CDKN1ap21, in osteoprecursor cells on the bone surface, chondroprogenitors in the articular cartilage, and in myofibers attached to bone tissue. Specifically in bone tissue during both short (15-day) and long (30-day) microgravity experiments, we observed significant loss of bone tissue and structure in both the pelvis and the femur. After 15-days of microgravity on STS-131, pelvic ischium displayed a 6.23 decrease in bone fraction (p0.005) and 11.91 decrease in bone thickness (p0.002). Furthermore, during long-duration spaceflight we observed onset of an accelerated aging-like phenotype and osteoarthritic disease state indicating that stem cells within the bone tissue fail to repair and regenerate tissues in a normal manner, leading to drastic tissue alterations in response to microgravity. The Rodent Research Hardware System provides the capability to investigate these effects during long-duration experiments on the International Space Station. During the Rodent Research-1 mission 10 16-week-old female C57Bl6J mice were exposed to 37-days of microgravity. All flight animals were euthanized and frozen on orbit for future dissection. Ground (n10) and vivarium controls (n10) were housed and processed to match the flight animal timeline. During this study we collected pelvis, femur, and tibia from all animal groups to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based tissue regeneration is significantly altered after 37

  2. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Hrpt2/Cdc73 results in high bone mass and increased bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Droscha, Casey J; Diegel, Cassandra R; Ethen, Nicole J; Burgers, Travis A; McDonald, Mitchell J; Maupin, Kevin A; Naidu, Agni S; Wang, PengFei; Teh, Bin T; Williams, Bart O

    2017-05-01

    Inactivating mutations that lead to loss of heterozygosity within the HRPT2/Cdc73 gene are directly linked to the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenomas, and ossifying fibromas of the jaw (HPT-JT). The protein product of the Cdc73 gene, parafibromin, is a core member of the polymerase-associated factors (PAF) complex, which coordinates epigenetic modifiers and transcriptional machinery to control gene expression. We conditionally deleted Cdc73 within mesenchymal progenitors or within mature osteoblasts and osteocytes to determine the consequences of parafibromin loss within the mesenchymal lineage. Homozygous deletion of Cdc73 via the Dermo1-Cre driver resulted in embryos which lacked mesenchymal organ development of internal organs, including the heart and fetal liver. Immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3 revealed extensive apoptosis within the progenitor pools of developing organs. Unexpectedly, when Cdc73 was homozygously deleted within mature osteoblasts and osteocytes (via the Ocn-Cre driver), the mice had a normal life span but increased cortical and trabecular bone. OCN-Cre;Cdc73 flox/flox bones displayed large cortical pores actively undergoing bone remodeling. Additionally the cortical bone of OCN-Cre;Cdc73 flox/flox femurs contained osteocytes with marked amounts of cytoplasmic RNA and a high rate of apoptosis. Transcriptional analysis via RNA-seq within OCN-Cre;Cdc73 flox/flox osteoblasts showed that loss of Cdc73 led to a derepression of osteoblast-specific genes, specifically those for collagen and other bone matrix proteins. These results aid in our understanding of the role parafibromin plays within transcriptional regulation, terminal differentiation, and bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harness, Eric T.; Witzke, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Osteoporosis is a severe complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Many exercise modalities are used to slow bone loss, yet their efficacy is equivocal. This study examined the effect of activity-based therapy (ABT) targeting the lower extremities on bone health in individuals with SCI. Methods Thirteen men and women with SCI (age and injury duration = 29.7 ± 7.8 and 1.9 ± 2.7 years) underwent 6 months of ABT. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of training, blood samples were obtained to assess bone formation (serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (PINP) and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to obtain total body and regional estimates of bone mineral density (BMD). Results Results demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in spine BMD (+4.8 %; 1.27 ± 0.22–1.33 ± 0.24 g/cm2) and decreases (p < 0.01) in total hip BMD (−6.1 %; 0.98 ± 0.18–0.91 ± 0.16 g/cm2) from 0 to 6 months of training. BMD at the bilateral distal femur (−7.5 to −11.0 %) and proximal tibia (− 8.0 to −11.2 %) declined but was not different (p > 0.05) versus baseline. Neither PINP nor CTX was altered (p> 0.05) with training. Conclusions Chronic activity-based therapy did not reverse bone loss typically observed soon after injury, yet reductions in BMD were less than the expected magnitude of decline in lower extremity BMD in persons with recent SCI. PMID:24097172

  4. Switching from tenofovir to abacavir in HIV-1-infected patients with low bone mineral density: changes in bone turnover markers and circulating sclerostin levels.

    PubMed

    Negredo, Eugènia; Diez-Pérez, Adolfo; Bonjoch, Anna; Domingo, Pere; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Gutierrez, Mar; Mateo, Gracia; Puig, Jordi; Echeverría, Patricia; Escrig, Roser; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2015-07-01

    Tenofovir is involved in accelerated bone mineral density (BMD) loss. We recently published a hip BMD improvement at week 48 [+2.1% (95% CI: -0.6, 4.7) (P = 0.043)] in HIV-infected patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis randomized to switch from tenofovir to abacavir (n = 26), although without reaching statistical significance compared with those who maintained tenofovir (n = 28). Here, we present changes at week 48 in bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1 (CTX), osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP)] as well as in circulating levels of three proteins involved in bone regulation [osteoprotegerin, receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and sclerostin, a selective regulator of bone formation through the Wnt pathway] in 44 of these patients. χ(2) or Fisher and Student t-tests were performed according to the distribution of the variables. Bone markers decreased only in the abacavir group [mean (SD) CTX changed from 0.543 (0.495) to 0.301 (0.306) ng/mL; mean (SD) osteocalcin changed from 23.72 (22.20) to 13.95 (12.40) ng/mL; and mean (SD) P1NP changed from 54.68 (54.52) to 28.65 (27.48) ng/mL (P < 0.001 in all cases)], reaching statistical significance between the groups at week 48. Osteoprotegerin did not vary, but sclerostin significantly increased in the abacavir group [from 29.53 (27.91) to 35.56 (34.59) pmol/L, P = 0.002]. No significant differences in osteoprotegerin and sclerostin were detected between the groups at week 48. RANKL values were below the limit of detection in all samples. The switch from tenofovir to abacavir seems to induce a positive effect on bone tissue, since bone turnover markers decreased. In addition, circulating sclerostin levels increased, a change associated with improved bone properties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A 7-day continuous infusion of PTH or PTHrP suppresses bone formation and uncouples bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Mara J; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Sereika, Susan M; Prebehala, Linda; Gundberg, Caren M; Hollis, Bruce W; Bisello, Alessandro; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Carneiro, Raquel M; Stewart, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Human in vivo models of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), or lactational bone mobilization for more than 48 hours have not been described previously. We therefore developed 7-day continuous-infusion models using human parathyroid hormone(1-34) [hPTH(1-34)] and human parathyroid hormone-related protein(1-36) [hPTHrP(1-36)] in healthy human adult volunteers. Study subjects developed sustained mild increases in serum calcium (10.0 mg/dL), with marked suppression of endogenous PTH(1-84). The maximal tolerated infused doses over a 7-day period (2 and 4 pmol/kg/h for PTH and PTHrP, respectively) were far lower than in prior, briefer human studies (8 to 28 pmol/kg/h). In contrast to prior reports using higher PTH and PTHrP doses, both 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2) D(3) ] and tubular maximum for phosphorus (TmP/GFR) remained unaltered with these low doses despite achievement of hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. As expected, bone resorption increased rapidly and reversed promptly with cessation of the infusion. However, in contrast to events in primary HPT, bone formation was suppressed by 30% to 40% for the 7 days of the infusions. With cessation of PTH and PTHrP infusion, bone-formation markers abruptly rebounded upward, confirming that bone formation is suppressed by continuous PTH or PTHrP infusion. These studies demonstrate that continuous exposure of the human skeleton to PTH or PTHrP in vivo recruits and activates the bone-resorption program but causes sustained arrest in the osteoblast maturation program. These events would most closely mimic and model events in HHM. Although not a perfect model for lactation, the increase in resorption and the rebound increase in formation with cessation of the infusions are reminiscent of the maternal skeletal calcium mobilization and reversal that occur following lactation. The findings also highlight similarities and differences between the model and HPT. Copyright

  6. Spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities in patients with Waardenburg syndrome and SOX10 mutations.

    PubMed

    Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Baumann, C; Noël-Pétroff, N; Sekkal, A; Couloigner, V; Devriendt, K; Wilson, M; Marlin, S; Sebag, G; Pingault, V

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, characterized by deafness and pigmentation abnormalities, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, consisting of 4 distinct subtypes and involving several genes. SOX10 mutations have been found both in types 2 and 4 Waardenburg syndrome and neurologic variants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the full spectrum and relative frequencies of inner ear malformations in these patients. Fifteen patients with Waardenburg syndrome and different SOX10 mutations were studied retrospectively. Imaging was performed between February 2000 and March 2010 for cochlear implant work-up, diagnosis of hearing loss, and/or evaluation of neurologic impairment. Eleven patients had both CT and MR imaging examinations, 3 had MR imaging only, and 1 had CT only. Temporal bone abnormalities were bilateral. The most frequent pattern associated agenesis or hypoplasia of ≥1 semicircular canal, an enlarged vestibule, and a cochlea with a reduced size and occasionally an abnormal shape, but with normal partition in the 13/15 cases that could be analyzed. Three patients lacked a cochlear nerve, bilaterally in 2 patients. In addition, associated abnormalities were found when adequate MR imaging sequences were available: agenesis of the olfactory bulbs (7/8), hypoplastic or absent lacrimal glands (11/14), hypoplastic parotid glands (12/14), and white matter signal anomalies (7/13). In the appropriate clinical context, bilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the semicircular canals or both, associated with an enlarged vestibule and a cochlear deformity, strongly suggests a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome linked to a SOX10 mutation.

  7. Lower bone turnover markers in metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.

    PubMed

    Lerchbaum, E; Schwetz, V; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; Wallaschofski, H; Hannemann, A

    2015-05-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates an important interaction between bone and energy metabolism. We aimed to study the associations of three bone turnover markers (BTM: osteocalcin, beta-crosslaps, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide) as well as of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a large population-based cohort. This cross-sectional study comprised 2671 adult men and women participating in the first follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess sex-specific associations between the BTMs, 25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone and metabolic disease. All models were adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate and month of blood sampling. The models for women were further adjusted for menopausal status. Higher BTM or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with significantly lower odds for metabolic disease, while there was no association between parathyroid hormone and MetS or T2DM. Our results contribute to the accumulating evidence of a cross-sectional association between high BTM or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a lower prevalence of MetS or T2DM. Further research is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip BMD induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Parimi, Nehu; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R.; Hilton, Tiffany N.; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2011-01-01

    Weight-loss therapy to improve health in obese older adults is controversial because it causes further bone loss. Therefore, it is recommended that weight-loss therapy should include an intervention to minimize bone loss such as exercise training (ET). The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and ET on bone metabolism in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in obese older adults. One-hundred-seven older (age >65 yrs) obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) adults were randomly assigned to a control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Body weight decreased in the diet (−9.6%) and diet-exercise (−9.4%) groups, not in the exercise (−1%) and control (−0.2%) groups (between-group P<.001). However, despite comparable weight loss, bone loss at the total hip was relatively less in the diet-exercise group (−1.1%) than in the diet group (−2.6%), whereas BMD increased in the exercise group (1.5%) (between-group P<.001) Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteocalcin concentrations increased in the diet group (31% and 24%) while they decreased in the exercise group (−13% and −15%) (between-group P<.001). In contrast, similar to the control group, serum CTX and osteocalcin concentrations did not change in the diet-exercise group. Serum procollagen propeptide concentrations decreased in the exercise group (−15%) compared with the diet group (9%) (P=.04). Serum leptin and estradiol concentrations decreased in the diet (−25% and −15%) and diet-exercise (−38% and −13%) groups, not in the exercise and control groups (between-group P=.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in lean body mass (β=.33), serum osteocalcin (β= −.24), and 1-RM strength (β=.23) were independent predictors of changes in hip BMD (all P<.05). In conclusion, the addition of ET to weight-loss therapy among obese older adults prevents weight-loss-induced increase in bone turnover and attenuates

  9. ROS/redox signaling regulates bone turnover in an age-specific manner in female mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. ROS signaling has been suggested to increase RANKL mRNA and protein expression, thus enha...

  10. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  11. Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Rice, Barbara L; Dlouhy, Holly; Shackelford, Linda C; Heer, Martina; Koslovsky, Matthew D; Smith, Scott M

    2018-05-01

    Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake. At the end of each session, blood and urine samples were collected. Calcium, total protein, energy, and sodium were maintained in each crew member's preflight and in-flight controlled diets. Relative to preflight values, N-telopeptide (NTX) and urinary calcium were higher during flight, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was higher toward the end of flight. The High and Low diets did not affect NTX, BSAP, or urinary calcium. Dietary sulfur and age were significantly associated with changes in NTX. Dietary sodium and flight day were significantly associated with urinary calcium during flight. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) estimated from the typical dietary intake at FD30 was associated with loss of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine after the mission. The results were compared with data from a 70-d bed rest study, in which control (but not exercising) subjects' APro:K was associated with higher NTX during bed rest. Long-term lowering of NEAP by increasing vegetable and fruit intake may protect against changes in loss of bone mineral content during spaceflight when adequate calcium is consumed, particularly if resistive exercise is not being performed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01713634.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, (the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E(2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site, the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). Thirty five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups; basal, sham OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE(2)/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20 micrometer thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months POST OVX there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE(2)/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE(2)/kd/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation, without altering bone resportion. Futhermore, After PGE(2) admimnistration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, increased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 Adds Bone to a Cancellous Bone Site with a Closed Growth Plate and Low Bone Turnover in Ovariectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine the responses of a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate (the distal tibial metaphysis, DTM) to ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment, and compare the site's response to previous findings reported for another site (the proximal tibial metaphysis, PTM). Thirty-five 3-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: basal, sham-OVX, and OVX+0, +1, or +6 mg PGE2/kg/d injected subcutaneously for 3 months and given double fluorescent labels before sacrifice. Cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on 20-micron-thick undecalcified DTM sections. Similar to the PTM, the DTM showed age-related decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, but it differed in that at 3 months post-OVX; there was neither bone loss nor changes in formation endpoints. Giving 1 mg PGE2/kg/d to OVX rats prevented most age-related changes and maintained the bone formation histomorphometry near basal levels. Treating OVX rats with 6 mg PGE2/kg/d prevented age-related bone changes, added extra bone, and improved microanatomical structure by stimulating bone formation without altering bone resorption. Furthermore, after PGE2 administration, the DTM, a cancellous bone site with a closed growth plate, inereased bone formation more than did the cancellous bone in the PTM.

  14. The effects of green kiwifruit combined with isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Middlemiss, Catherine; Katsumata, Shinichi; Tousen, Yuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2018-01-01

    Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women. Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Two consecutive 6-week treatment periods had a 2-week lead-in period at intervention commencement and a 2-week washout period between treatments. Treatments prescribed either (1) daily isoflavone supplementation (50 mg/day aglycone daidzein and genistein) alone, or (2) with two green kiwifruit. At treatment baseline and end-point (four time points) the serum bone markers C Telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx), undercarboxylated os-teocalcin (unOC), and serum and urinary daidzein and equol, were measured. Changes in gut microflora were monitored in a subgroup of the women. Equol producers made up 30% of this study population (equol producers n=10; non-equol producers n=23) with serum equol rising significantly in equol producers. Serum ucOC decreased by 15.5% (p<0.05) after the kiwifruit and isoflavone treatment. There were no changes in serum CTx or in the diversity of the gut microflora. 50 mg/day isoflavones did not reduce bone resorption but kiwifruit and isoflavone consumption decreased serum ucOC levels, possibly due to vitamin K1 and/or other bioactive components of green kiwifruit.

  15. The Effects of Pioglitazone on Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in the Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wen-hua; Wang, Yan-rong; Hou, Wen-fang; Xie, Chao; Wang, Hai-ning; Hong, Tian-pei; Gao, Hong-wei

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether pioglitazone had detrimental effects on biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods. Seventy patients with T2DM were included in this study. The patients remained on their previous antihyperglycemic therapies during the trial. Pioglitazone was then added on their regimen for 3 months. Results. After 3 months of treatment with pioglitazone, the levels of fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were significantly decreased (7.9 ± 1.5 mmol/L versus 9.1 ± 1.6 mmol/L and 7.1 ± 1.0% versus 8.2 ± 1.4%, resp., P < 0.01), compared with baseline in the overall patients. Serum concentrations of P1NP and BAP were significantly decreased from baseline (45.0 ± 20.0 μg/L versus 40.6 ± 17.9 μg/L and 13.23 ± 4.7 μg/L versus 12.3 ± 5.0 μg/L, resp., P < 0.01) in female group, but not in male group. The serum levels of OC and CTX were unchanged in both female and male subgroups. In addition, the levels of serum BAP and P1NP were significantly decreased after pioglitazone treatment in postmenopausal subgroup, comparing with baseline. Conclusion. Pioglitazone inhibits bone formation and does not seem to affect bone resorption. Postmenopausal female patients rather than premenopausal or male patients are particularly vulnerable to this side effect of pioglitazone. PMID:23843787

  16. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with spinal metastases after resistance training under radiotherapy--a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rief, Harald; Omlor, Georg; Akbar, Michael; Bruckner, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Förster, Robert; Schlampp, Ingmar; Welzel, Thomas; Bostel, Tilman; Roth, Heinz Jürgen; Debus, Jürgen

    2016-03-17

    To compare the effects of resistance training versus passive physical therapy on bone turnover markers (BTM) in the metastatic bone during radiation therapy (RT) in patients with spinal bone metastases. Secondly, to evaluate an association of BTM to local response, skeletal-related events (SRE), and number of metastases. In this randomized trial, 60 patients were allocated from September 2011 to March 2013 into one of the two arms: resistance training (Arm A) or passive physical therapy (Arm B) with thirty patients in each arm during RT. Biochemical markers such as pyridinoline (PYD), desoxy-pyridinoline (DPD), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), beta-isomer of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were analyzed at baseline, and three months after RT. Mean change values of PYD and CTX-I were significantly lower at 3 months after RT (p = 0.035 and p = 0.043) in Arm A. Importantly, all markers decreased in both arms, except of PYD and CTX-I in arm B, although significance was not reached for some biomarkers. In arm A, the local response was significantly higher (p = 0.003) and PINP could be identified as a predictor for survivors (OR 0.968, 95%CI 0.938-0.999, p = 0.043). BAP (OR 0.974, 95%CI 0.950-0.998, p = 0.034) and PINP (OR 1.025, 95%CI 1.001-1.049, p = 0.044) were related with an avoidance of SRE. In this group of patients with spinal bone metastases, we were able to show that patients with guided resistance training of the paravertebral muscles can influence BTM. PYD and CTX-I decreased significantly in arm A. PINP can be considered as a complementary tool for prediction of local response, and PINP as well as BAP for avoidance of SRE. Clinical trial identifier NCT 01409720. August 2, 2011.

  17. Time-course changes in bone turnover markers and fat-soluble vitamins after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Simal-Antón, Alberto; Salazar-Mosteiro, Javier; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Donoso-Navarro, Encarnación; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belen

    2010-11-01

    The available evidence indicates a progressive increase in the incidence and severity of the deficiency of certain vitamins and related clinical conditions (i.e., metabolic bone disease). Because of the potential role of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in bone metabolism, our aim was to assess the time-course changes of fat-soluble vitamins and serum markers of bone metabolism in candidates for obesity surgery and following two bariatric procedures. Sixty-five candidates for bariatric surgery and 150 serum samples after obesity surgery (i.e., Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, n = 85; biliopancreatic diversion, n = 65) were consecutively analyzed over a period of more than 2 years. Retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol, 25-OH-vitamin D3, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), osteocalcin, beta-crosslaps, and N-terminal peptide of procollagen I (P1NP) were determined using commercial kits. Retinol, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and α- and γ-tocopherol levels were significantly lower in post-surgery samples while osteocalcin, b-crosslaps, and P1NP were significantly increased. Along the time and regardless of the surgical procedure, P1NP, b-crosslaps, and osteocalcin increased during the first 12-24 months but declined afterward. 25-OH-vitamin D increased during the first 12 months and tended to decrease afterward while iPTH remained constant or decreased but increased after 1 year in both groups. Vitamin A remained constant but α- and γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene decreased in both groups. In addition to the nutritional assessment, regular monitoring of bone markers seems necessary in these patients and the early introduction of preventive strategies (i.e., the use of antiresorptive agents) should be evaluated.

  18. Serum ionized calcium, intact PTH and novel markers of bone turnover in bedridden elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Sorva, A; Välimäki, M; Risteli, J; Risteli, L; Elfving, S; Takkunen, H; Tilvis, R

    1994-12-01

    Chronic immobilization could markedly affect calcium and bone metabolism in elderly people. To investigate this, and to test the theory of 'type II' osteoporosis in bedridden elderly patients with low vitamin D status, 55 such subjects were examined. Serum concentrations of ionized calcium (Ca++), intact parathyrin (PTH) and two novel markers of bone collagen formation (carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen; PICP) and resorption (carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen; ICTP) were measured. The effects on these parameters after 40 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D (1000 IU d-1) and/or calcium (1 g d-1) were subsequently prospectively evaluated. Despite low (mean 11.6 nmoll-1) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD), those of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) were mostly normal. Neither correlated with Ca++ or PTH. PTH correlated negatively not only with Ca++ (r = -0.328, P < 0.05) but also with ICTP (r = -0.306, P < 0.05). Mean PICP was normal but ICTP was elevated and tended to correlate positively with Ca++ (r = 0.268, P = 0.06). Vitamin D supplementation did not change PICP or ICTP considerably, despite slightly increased 1,25-(OH)2D and slightly decreased PTH. Ca++ values were normal and remained stable. In conclusion, Ca++ and PTH are poor indicators of vitamin D status in chronically immobilized elderly subjects. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increased bone resorption is not due to 'type II' secondary hyperparathyroidism; rather the resorption is primarily increased. Correction of vitamin D deficiency does not seem to benefit ageing bones unless adequate mechanical loading is provided.

  19. Investigations into Changes in Bone Turnover with Acute, Weight-Bearing Exercise in Healthy, Young Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    four days post-exercise and is unaffected by training status. In physically - active men, who have consumed an appropriate diet, two bouts of... physically - active men, who have consumed an appropriate diet, two bouts of moderate exercise separated by either 23 h or 3 h has no effect on bone...relative intensity would decrease with increased physical fitness. Given the results of Study IV, where β-CTX concentrations were higher, albeit

  20. Association of Insulin Resistance with Bone Strength and Bone Turnover in Menopausal Chinese-Singaporean Women without Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalimeri, Maria; Leek, Francesca; Wang, Nan Xin; Koh, Huann Rong; Roy, Nicole C; Cameron-Smith, David; Kruger, Marlena C; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Totman, John J

    2018-04-30

    Insulin resistance (IR) is accompanied by increased areal or volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD or vBMD), but also higher fracture risk. Meanwhile, imbalances in bone health biomarkers affect insulin production. This study investigates the effect of IR on proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck bending, compressive and impact strength indices (Composite Strength Indices) and circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx-1) and 25(OH) Vitamin D₃, in a cohort of 97 healthy, non-obese, menopausal Chinese-Singaporean women. Lumbar spine aBMD was inversely associated with IR and dependent on lean body mass (LBM) and age. No such associations were found for vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra, aBMD and vBMD of the proximal femur, or circulating levels of PTH, CTx-1 and 25(OH) Vitamin D₃. Composite Strength Indices were inversely associated with IR and independent of LBM, but after adjusting for fat mass and age, this association remained valid only for the impact strength index. Composite Strength Indices were significantly lower in participants with a high degree of IR. Our findings on IR and Composite Strength Indices relationships were in agreement with previous studies on different cohorts, but those on IR and BMD associations were not.

  1. Association of Insulin Resistance with Bone Strength and Bone Turnover in Menopausal Chinese-Singaporean Women without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kalimeri, Maria; Leek, Francesca; Wang, Nan Xin; Koh, Huann Rong; Totman, John J.

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is accompanied by increased areal or volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD or vBMD), but also higher fracture risk. Meanwhile, imbalances in bone health biomarkers affect insulin production. This study investigates the effect of IR on proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck bending, compressive and impact strength indices (Composite Strength Indices) and circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx-1) and 25(OH) Vitamin D3, in a cohort of 97 healthy, non-obese, menopausal Chinese-Singaporean women. Lumbar spine aBMD was inversely associated with IR and dependent on lean body mass (LBM) and age. No such associations were found for vBMD of the third lumbar vertebra, aBMD and vBMD of the proximal femur, or circulating levels of PTH, CTx-1 and 25(OH) Vitamin D3. Composite Strength Indices were inversely associated with IR and independent of LBM, but after adjusting for fat mass and age, this association remained valid only for the impact strength index. Composite Strength Indices were significantly lower in participants with a high degree of IR. Our findings on IR and Composite Strength Indices relationships were in agreement with previous studies on different cohorts, but those on IR and BMD associations were not. PMID:29710852

  2. Peri-implant and systemic effects of high-/low-affinity bisphosphonate-hydroxyapatite composite coatings in a rabbit model with peri-implant high bone turnover

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings composed with bisphosphonates (BPs) which have high mineral-binding affinities have been confirmed to successfully enhance implant stability. However, few previous studies focused on HA coatings composed with low-affinity BPs or on systemic effects of locally released BPs. Methods In this long-term study, we developed two kinds of BP-HA composite coatings using either high-affinity BP (alendronate, ALN) or low-affinity BP (risedronate, RIS). Thirty-six rabbits were divided into three groups according to different coating applications (group I: HA, group II: ALN-HA, and group III: RIS-HA). Implants were inserted into the proximal region of the medullary cavity of the left tibiay. At insertion, 2 × 108 wear particles were injected around implants to induce a peri-implant high bone turnover environment. Both local (left tibias) and systemic (right tibias and lumbar vertebrae) inhibitory effect on bone resorption were compared, including bone-implant integration, bone architecture, bone mineral density (BMD), implant stability, and serum levels of bone turnover markers. Results The results indicated that ALN-HA composite coating, which could induce higher bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio, bone mass augmentation, BMD, and implant stability in the peri-implant region, was more potent on peri-implant bone, while RIS-HA composite coating, which had significant systemic effect, was more potent on non-peri-implant bone, especially lumbar vertebrae. Conclusions It is instructive and meaningful to further clinical studies that we could choose different BP-HA composite coatings according to the patient’s condition. PMID:22686414

  3. Turnover Begets Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between turnover of caregivers and turnover of nursing home top management. The top managers examined were administrators and directors of nursing, and the caregivers examined were registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurse aides. Design and Methods: The data came from a survey of 419…

  4. Bone scan in metabolic bone diseases. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata

    2012-08-25

    Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.

  5. Does microtia predict severity of temporal bone CT abnormalities in children with persistent conductive hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Tekes, Aylin; Ishman, Stacey L; Baugher, Katherine M; Brown, David J; Lin, Sandra Y; Tunkel, David E; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the spectrum of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) abnormalities in children with conductive hearing loss (CHL) with and without microtia. From 1993 to 2008, a total of 3396 pediatric records including CHL were reviewed at our institution and revealed 180 cases of persistent CHL, 46 of whom had diagnostic temporal bone CT examinations. All of these examinations were systematically reviewed by two pediatric neuroradiologists, working in consensus, who had 5 and 18 years, respectively, of dedicated pediatric neuroradiology experience. Of the 46 children, 16 were boys and 30 were girls (age: 0.2-16 years; mean: 5 years). Also, 21 (46%) children had microtia and 25 (54%) children did not, as determined by clinical evaluation. External auditory canal atresia/stenosis (EAC-A/S) was the most common anomaly in both microtia and non-microtia groups. Two or more anomalies were observed in 18/21 children with microtia. The frequency of EAC-A/S was greater in children with microtia versus those without it (86% versus 32%, respectively; P = 0.0003). Syndromic diagnoses were also significantly more frequently made in children with microtia versus those without microtia (76% versus 20%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Temporal bone CT scans were normal in 10 children (22%) with persistent CHL. Microtia is an important finding in children with CHL. EAC and middle ear/ossicle anomalies were significantly more frequently seen in children with microtia, and multiple anomalies and bilateral microtia were more common in children with syndromic associations. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the embryological development of the temporal bone. The presence of one anomaly should raise suspicion of the possibility of other anomalies, especially in the setting of microtia. Bilateral microtia and multiple anomalies should also raise suspicion of genetic syndromes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal vitamin D biomarkers are associated with maternal and fetal bone turnover among pregnant women consuming controlled amounts of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Park, Heyjun; Brannon, Patsy M; West, Allyson A; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Perry, Cydne A; Malysheva, Olga; Mehta, Saurabh; Caudill, Marie A

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D plays a central role in calcium homeostasis; however, its relationship with bone turnover during pregnancy remains unclear due to a lack of studies that have rigorously controlled for vitamin D and other nutrients known to influence bone metabolism. Similarly, prior investigations of the effect of pregnancy on bone turnover relative to the nonpregnant state may have been confounded by varying intakes of these nutrients. Nested within a controlled intake study, the present investigation sought to quantify associations between maternal vitamin D biomarkers and biochemical markers of bone turnover among pregnant (versus nonpregnant) women and their fetuses under conditions of equivalent and adequate intakes of vitamin D and related nutrients. Changes in markers of bone turnover across the third trimester were also examined. Healthy pregnant (26-29 wk gestation; n=26) and nonpregnant (n=21) women consumed 511IU vitamin D/d, 1.6g calcium/d, and 1.9g phosphorus/d for 10weeks while participating in a controlled feeding study featuring two choline doses. Based on linear mixed models adjusted for influential covariates (e.g., BMI, ethnicity, and season), pregnant women had 50-150% higher (P<0.001) concentrations of bone resorption markers than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, increases in maternal 25(OH)D across the study period were associated (P<0.020) with lower osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline at study-end, and higher fetal osteocalcin. In addition, maternal free 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH) 2 D and 24,25(OH) 2 D tended to be negatively associated (P≤0.063) with maternal NTx at study-end, and maternal free 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH) 2 D were positively associated (P≤0.021) with fetal CTx. Similarly, maternal 3-epi-25(OH)D 3 was negatively related (P≤0.037) to maternal NTx and deoxypyridinoline at study-end. These declines in bone resorption markers resulting from higher vitamin D biomarker concentrations among pregnant women coincided with increases in their

  7. Bone matrix, cellularity, and structural changes in a rat model with high-turnover osteoporosis induced by combined ovariectomy and a multiple-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Böcker, Wolfgang; El Khassawna, Thaqif; Kampschulte, Marian; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Huerter, Britta; Sommer, Ursula; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Bauer, Natali; Szalay, Gabor; Wenisch, Sabine; Lips, Katrin S; Schnettler, Reinhard; Langheinrich, Alexander; Heiss, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In estrogen-deficient, postmenopausal women, vitamin D and calcium deficiency increase osteoporotic fracture risk. Therefore, a new rat model of combined ovariectomy and multiple-deficient diet was established to mimic human postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions under nutrient deficiency. Sprague-Dawley rats were untreated (control), laparatomized (sham), or ovariectomized and received a deficient diet (OVX-Diet). Multiple analyses involving structure (micro-computed tomography and biomechanics), cellularity (osteoblasts and osteoclasts), bone matrix (mRNA expression and IHC), and mineralization were investigated for a detailed characterization of osteoporosis. The study involved long-term observation up to 14 months (M14) after laparotomy or after OVX-Diet, with intermediate time points at M3 and M12. OVX-Diet rats showed enhanced osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone matrix markers (biglycan, COL1A1, tenascin C, and fibronectin) and low-density lipoprotein-5 (bone mass marker) were down-regulated at M12 in OVX-Diet rats. However, up-regulation of matrix markers and existence of unmineralized osteoid were seen at M3 and M14. Osteoclast markers (matrix metallopeptidase 9 and cathepsin K) were up-regulated at M14. Micro-computed tomography and biomechanics confirmed bone fragility of OVX-Diet rats, and quantitative RT-PCR revealed a higher turnover rate in the humerus than in lumbar vertebrae, suggesting enhanced bone formation and resorption in OVX-Diet rats. Such bone remodeling caused disturbed bone mineralization and severe bone loss, as reported in patients with high-turnover, postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therefore, this rat model may serve as a suitable tool to evaluate osteoporotic drugs and new biomaterials or fracture implants. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A single nucleotide mutation in Nppc is associated with a long bone abnormality in lbab mice.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan; Yan, Jian; Jiao, Feng; Yang, Hongbin; Donahue, Leah Rae; Li, Xinmin; Roe, Bruce A; Stuart, John; Gu, Weikuan

    2007-04-17

    The long bone abnormality (lbab) mouse is a new autosomal recessive mutant characterized by overall smaller body size with proportionate dwarfing of all organs and shorter long bones. Previous linkage analysis has located the lbab mutation on chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit9 and D1Mit488. A genome-based positional approach was used to identify a mutation associated with lbab disease. A total of 122 genes and expressed sequence tags at the lbab region were screened for possible mutation by using genomic DNA from lbabl/lbab, lbab/+, and +/+ B6 mice and high throughput temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. A sequence difference was identified in one of the amplicons of gene Nppc between lbab/lbab and +/+ mice. One-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate the difference of Nppc in different types of mice at the mRNA level. The mutation of Nppc was unique in lbab/lbab mice among multiple mouse inbred strains. The mutation of Nppc is co-segregated with lbab disease in 200 progenies produced from heterozygous lbab/+ parents. A single nucleotide mutation of Nppc is associated with dwarfism in lbab/lbab mice. Current genome information and technology allow us to efficiently identify single nucleotide mutations from roughly mapped disease loci. The lbab mouse is a useful model for hereditary human achondroplasia.

  9. A single nucleotide mutation in Nppc is associated with a long bone abnormality in lbab mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yan; Yan, Jian; Jiao, Feng; Yang, HongBin; Donahue, Leah Rae; Li, Xinmin; Roe, Bruce A; Stuart, John; Gu, Weikuan

    2007-01-01

    Background The long bone abnormality (lbab) mouse is a new autosomal recessive mutant characterized by overall smaller body size with proportionate dwarfing of all organs and shorter long bones. Previous linkage analysis has located the lbab mutation on chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit9 and D1Mit488. Results A genome-based positional approach was used to identify a mutation associated with lbab disease. A total of 122 genes and expressed sequence tags at the lbab region were screened for possible mutation by using genomic DNA from lbabl/lbab, lbab/+, and +/+ B6 mice and high throughput temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. A sequence difference was identified in one of the amplicons of gene Nppc between lbab/lbab and +/+ mice. One-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate the difference of Nppc in different types of mice at the mRNA level. The mutation of Nppc was unique in lbab/lbab mice among multiple mouse inbred strains. The mutation of Nppc is co-segregated with lbab disease in 200 progenies produced from heterozygous lbab/+ parents. Conclusion A single nucleotide mutation of Nppc is associated with dwarfism in lbab/lbab mice. Current genome information and technology allow us to efficiently identify single nucleotide mutations from roughly mapped disease loci. The lbab mouse is a useful model for hereditary human achondroplasia. PMID:17439653

  10. High-Dietary Alpha-Tocopherol or Mixed Tocotrienols Have No Effect on Bone Mass, Density, or Turnover in Male Rats During Skeletal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Katherine G; Leonard, Scott W; Wong, Carmen P; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T; Traber, Maret G

    2017-07-01

    High levels of alpha-tocopherol, the usual vitamin E supplement, are reported to decrease bone mass in rodents; however, the effects of other vitamin E forms on the skeleton are unknown. To test the hypothesis that high intakes of various vitamin E forms or the vitamin E metabolite, carboxyethyl hydroxy chromanol, were detrimental to bone status, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group, 11-week males) for 18 weeks consumed semipurified diets that contained adequate alpha-tocopherol, high alpha-tocopherol (500 mg/kg diet), or 50% Tocomin (250 mg mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols/kg diet). Vitamin E status was evaluated by measuring plasma, liver, and bone marrow vitamin E concentrations. Bone density, microarchitecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and cancellous bone volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and spacing), and cancellous bone formation were assessed in the tibia using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and histomorphometry, respectively. In addition, serum osteocalcin was assessed as a global marker of bone turnover; gene expression in response to treatment was evaluated in the femur using targeted (osteogenesis related) gene profiling. No significant differences were detected between treatment groups for any of the bone endpoints measured. Vitamin E supplementation, either as alpha-tocopherol or mixed tocotrienols, while increasing vitamin E concentrations both in plasma and tissues, had no effect on the skeleton in rats.

  11. BONE TURNOVER IN OSTEOPOROTIC WOMEN DURING LONG-TERM ORAL BISPHOSPHONATES TREATMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR TREATMENT FAILURE AND "DRUG HOLIDAY" IN THE REAL WORLD.

    PubMed

    Liel, Yair; Plakht, Ygal; Tailakh, Muhammad Abu

    2017-07-01

    Little data exist to support concerns over bone turnover suppression during prolonged oral bisphosphonate treatment and on consequences of the recommended "drug holiday." This study was performed to assess bone resorption rates in postmenopausal osteoporotic women on prolonged oral bisphosphonate treatment and in response to switching to "drug holiday" intravenous bisphosphonate, or continuation of oral bisphosphonates. The frequency distribution of the bone resorption marker urinary deoxypyridinoline crosslinks (uDPD), was obtained retrospectively from 211 osteoporotic women attended at an academic hospital endocrine clinic, treated for >2 years with oral bisphosphonates. In some patients, uDPD was re-assessed following modification or continuation of treatment. The mean duration of oral bisphosphonates treatment was 7.2 ± 3.1 years. uDPD was within reference range for premenopausal women in 61.6% of the patients, below in 7.6% of the patients, and above upper limit in 30.8%. uDPD decreased significantly following intravenous zoledronic acid, increased significantly during "drug holiday," and slightly decreased in those continued on oral bisphosphonate treatment. In this real-world study, the majority of women on prolonged oral bisphosphonates maintained bone resorption rates within the normal reference range for premenopausal women. The likelihood for inadequate suppression was considerably greater than that of over-suppression. Implementing a "drug holiday" resulted in a marked increase in bone resorption rates. Additional studies should explore the potential role of bone turnover markers in the evaluation of patients on prolonged oral bisphosphonates and during "drug holiday" in different settings and using additional markers. BMD = bone mineral density; IQR = interquartile range; uDPD = urinary deoxypyridinoline crosslinks.

  12. Vitamin D status in relation to obesity, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and vitamin D receptor genotypes in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ardawi, M-S M; Qari, M H; Rouzi, A A; Maimani, A A; Raddadi, R M

    2011-02-01

    The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency were examined among healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among studied Saudi women with obesity, poor sunlight exposure, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation and age as the main risk factors. The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in relation to bone health among Saudi women are not known. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the factors influencing vitamin D status in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D receptor genotype (VDR) in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. A total number of 1,172 healthy Saudi women living in the Jeddah area were randomly selected and studied. Anthropometric parameters, socioeconomic status, sun exposure index together with serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcitriol, intact PTH, Ca, PO4, Mg, creatinine, albumin, and biochemical BTMs were measured. BMD was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and VDR genotypes were also determined. About 80.0% of Saudi women studied exhibited vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50.0 nmol/L) with only 11.8% of all women were considered with adequate vitamin D status (serum 25(OH)D>75 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 18.5% and 24.6% in pre- and postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D<50 nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D was lower (P<0.001) and intact PTH higher (P<0.001) in the upper quintiles of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, sun exposure index, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation, WHR, and age were independent positive predictors of serum 25(OH)D values. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among healthy Saudi pre-and postmenopausal women and largely attributed to obesity, poor exposure to sunlight

  13. Translocation (16;20)(p11.2;q13). sole cytogenetic abnormality in a unicameral bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Richkind, Kathleen E; Mortimer, Errol; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Fraire, Armando

    2002-09-01

    We report the results of cytogenetic analysis of a case of unicameral bone cyst with a t(16;20(p11.2;q13) present as the sole abnormality. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a cytogenetically characterized tumor of this type.

  14. Decreased osteoprotegerin and increased bone turnover in young female patients with major depressive disorder and a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Rudolf, Sebastian; Dibbelt, Leif; Stoeckelhuber, Beate M; Gehl, Hans-Björn; Hohagen, Fritz; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent, often persistent complication in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) that increases the risk of pathologic fractures. The pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in MDD and AN is still unclear, although several factors, including a dysbalance of cytokines, are associated with loss of bone mass. Alterations in the serum levels of cytokines have been observed in patients with MDD, AN, and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined serum levels of cytokines, markers of bone turnover, and BMD in 13 patients with MDD and a lifetime history of AN. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin and C-terminal degradation products of type I collagen) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients were significantly increased compared with those of the control group. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients was significantly decreased. Eight of 13 patients (62%) displayed osteopenia at the lumbar spine. TNF-alpha correlated significantly with C-terminal degradation products of type I collagen, an osteoclastic marker, but significantly negatively with OPG. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha and OPG may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  15. Craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in individuals with sickle cell anemia: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; de Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Sousa, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion PMID:23049386

  16. Effect of odanacatib on bone turnover markers, bone density and geometry of the spine and hip of ovariectomized monkeys: a head-to-head comparison with alendronate.

    PubMed

    Williams, Donald S; McCracken, Paul J; Purcell, Mona; Pickarski, Maureen; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Szumiloski, John; Jayakar, Richa Y; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Krause, Stephen; Brown, Keenan; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Scott, Boyd B; Cook, Lynn; Motzel, Sherri L; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Cabal, Antonio; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; Duong, Le T

    2013-10-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible Cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor currently being developed as a once weekly treatment for osteoporosis. Here, effects of ODN compared to alendronate (ALN) on bone turnover, DXA-based areal bone mineral density (aBMD), QCT-based volumetric BMD (vBMD) and geometric parameters were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys. Treatment was initiated 10 days after ovariectomy and continued for 20 months. The study consisted of four groups: L-ODN (2 mg/kg, daily p.o.), H-ODN (8/4 mg/kg daily p.o.), ALN (15 μg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.), and VEH (vehicle, daily, p.o.). L-ODN and ALN doses were selected to approximate the clinical exposures of the ODN 50-mg and ALN 70-mg once-weekly, respectively. L-ODN and ALN effectively reduced bone resorption markers uNTx and sCTx compared to VEH. There was no additional efficacy with these markers achieved with H-ODN. Conversely, ODN displayed inversely dose-dependent reduction of bone formation markers, sP1NP and sBSAP, and L-ODN reduced formation to a lesser degree than ALN. At month 18 post-OVX, L-ODN showed robust increases in lumbar spine aBMD (11.4%, p<0.001), spine trabecular vBMD (13.7%, p<0.001), femoral neck (FN) integral (int) vBMD (9.0%, p<0.001) and sub-trochanteric proximal femur (SubTrPF) int vBMD, (6.4%, p<0.001) compared to baseline. L-ODN significantly increased FN cortical thickness (Ct.Th) and cortical bone mineral content (Ct.BMC) by 22.5% (p<0.001) and 21.8% (p<0.001), respectively, and SubTrPF Ct.Th and Ct.BMC by 10.9% (p<0.001) and 11.3% (p<0.001) respectively. Compared to ALN, L-ODN significantly increased FN Ct. BMC by 8.7% (p<0.05), and SubTrPF Ct.Th by 7.6% (p<0.05) and Ct.BMC by 6.2% (p<0.05). H-ODN showed no additional efficacy compared to L-ODN in OVX-monkeys in prevention mode. Taken together, the results from this study have demonstrated that administration of ODN at levels which approximate clinical exposure in OVX-monkeys had comparable efficacy to ALN in

  17. Primary Hyperparathyroidism is Associated with Abnormal Cortical and Trabecular Microstructure and Reduced Bone Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Emily M; Silva, Barbara C; Boutroy, Stephanie; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Udesky, Julia; Zhang, Chiyuan; McMahon, Donald J; Romano, Megan; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Costa, Aline G.; Cusano, Natalie; Irani, Dinaz; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward; Bilezikian, John P

    2013-01-01

    Typically, in the milder form of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), seen in most countries now, bone density by DXA and detailed analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies by histomorphometry and µCT show detrimental effects in cortical bone, whereas the trabecular site (lumbar spine by DXA) and the trabecular compartment (by bone biopsy) appear to be relatively well preserved. Despite these findings, fracture risk at both vertebral and non-vertebral sites is increased in PHPT. Emerging technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), may provide additional insight into microstructural features at sites such as the forearm and tibia that have heretofore not been easily accessible. Using HRpQCT, we determined cortical and trabecular microstructure at the radius and tibia in 51 postmenopausal women with PHPT and 120 controls. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) and micro finite element (µFE) analyses of the HRpQCT images were also performed to further understand how the abnormalities seen by HRpQCT might translate into effects on bone strength. Women with PHPT showed, at both sites, decreased volumetric densities at trabecular and cortical compartments, thinner cortices, and more widely spaced and heterogeneously distributed trabeculae. At the radius, trabeculae were thinner and fewer in PHPT. The radius was affected to a greater extent in the trabecular compartment than the tibia. ITS analyses revealed, at both sites, that plate-like trabeculae were depleted, with a resultant reduction in the plate/rod ratio. Microarchitectural abnormalities were evident by decreased plate-rod and plate-plate junctions at the radius and tibia, and rod-rod junctions at the radius. These trabecular and cortical abnormalities resulted in decreased whole bone stiffness and trabecular stiffness. These results provide evidence that in PHPT, microstructural abnormalities are pervasive and not limited to the cortical compartment. They may help to

  18. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan A; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged around 50 years. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25419393

  19. Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among Saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Al-Shehri, Eman; Al-Fawaz, Hanan; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Saleh, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged 50 years and above. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:25356143

  20. Abnormal distal renal tubular acidification in patients with low bone mass: prevalence and impact of alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Sromicki, Jerzy Jan; Hess, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    Chronic acid retention is known to promote bone dissolution. In this study, 23 % of patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification (dRTA), a kidney dysfunction leading to chronic acid retention. Treating those patients with alkali-therapy shows improvement in bone density. To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal distal renal tubular acidification in patients with low bone mass (LBM) and the impact of additional alkali treatment on bone density in patients with concomitant LBM and dRTA,183 patients referred for metabolic evaluation of densitometrically proven low bone mass were screened for abnormal distal renal tubular acidification between 2006 and 2013. In all LBM urine pH (U-pH) was measured in the 2nd morning urines after 12 h of fasting. If U-pH was ≥5.80, LBM underwent a 1-day ammonium chloride loading, and U-pH was remeasured the next morning. If U-pH after acid loading did not drop below 5.45, patients were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification. Normal values were obtained from 21 healthy controls. All LBM with dRTA were recommended alkali citrate in addition to conventional therapy of LBM, and follow-up DXAs were obtained until 2014. 85 LBM underwent NH 4 Cl loading. 42 LBM patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA (idRTA; prevalence 23.0 %). During follow-up (1.6-8 years) of idRTA-LBM patients, subjects adhering to alkali treatment tended to improve BMD at all sites measured, whereas BMD of non-adherent idRTA patients worsened/remained unchanged. (1) About one out of four patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis has idRTA. (2) Upon NH 4 Cl loading, idRTA patients do not lower urine pH normally, but show signs of increased acid-buffering by bone dissolution. (3) In idRTA patients with low bone mass on conventional therapy, additional long-term alkali treatment improves bone mass at lumbar spine and potentially at other bone sites. (4) All patients with low bone mass undergoing

  1. Repetitious appearance and disappearance of different kinds of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y W; Hamahata, K; Watanabe, K; Adachi, S; Akiyama, Y; Kubota, M; Nakahata, T

    2001-07-01

    We report a childhood case that showed the repeated appearance and disappearance of various kinds of cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) for 5.5 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The patient underwent allogeneic BMT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor during the second complete remission of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The conditioning regimen for BMT consisted of etoposide, cyclophosphamide, anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin, and total body irradiation. There were no leukemic relapses or secondary acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS) since the BMT. The CA occurred from residual recipient cells, which were damaged by chemotherapy or radiation prior to BMT. Although previous studies about post-BMT CA had reported the continuous emergence of identical clones, the present case showed the appearance of one different type of clone after another. Although the appearance of different types of CA may mean that these clones did not obtain any growth advantages, it may be a sign of genomic instability, which is probably a risk factor for the development of secondary AML/MDS.

  2. The C-terminal fragment of parathyroid hormone-related peptide promotes bone formation in diabetic mice with low-turnover osteopaenia

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, D; Fernández-de-Castro, L; Portal-Núñez, S; López-Herradón, A; Dapía, S; Gómez-Barrena, E; Esbrit, P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Current data suggest that parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) domains other than the N-terminal PTH-like domain contribute to its role as an endogenous bone anabolic factor. PTHrP-107-139 inhibits bone resorption, a fact which has precluded an unequivocal demonstration of its possible anabolic action in vivo. We thus sought to characterize the osteogenic effects of this peptide using a mouse model of diabetic low-turnover osteopaenia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PTHrP-107-139 was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, with or without bone marrow ablation, for 13 days. Osteopaenia was confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microcomputed tomography analysis. Histological analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded bone tissue sections by haematoxylin/eosin and Masson's staining, and tartrate-resistent acid phosphatase immunohistochemistry. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in normal and/or high glucose (HG) medium. Osteogenic and adipogenic markers were assessed by real-time PCR, and PTHrP and the PTH1 receptor protein expression by Western blot analysis. KEY RESULTS PTHrP-107-139 reversed the alterations in bone structure and osteoblast function, and also promoted bone healing after marrow ablation without affecting the number of osteoclast-like cells in diabetic mice. This peptide also reversed the high-glucose-induced changes in osteogenic differentiation in both bone marrow stromal cells and the more differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings demonstrate that PTHrP-107-139 promotes bone formation in diabetic mice. This mouse model and in vitro cell cultures allowed us to identify various anabolic effects of this peptide in this scenario. PMID:21175568

  3. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  4. Effects of soy isoflavone supplements on bone turnover markers in menopausal women: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Taku, Kyoko; Melby, Melissa K; Kurzer, Mindy S; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2010-08-01

    Effects of soy isoflavone supplements on bone turnover markers remain unclear. This up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed primarily to more completely and precisely clarify the effects on urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and secondarily to evaluate the effects on other bone turnover markers, compared with placebo in menopausal women. PubMed, CENTRAL, ICHUSHI, and CNKI were searched in June 2009 for relevant studies of RCTs. Data on study design, participants, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and methodological quality of each included trial was assessed. From 3740 identified relevant articles, 10 (887 participants), 10 (1210 participants), and 8 (380 participants) RCTs were selected for meta-analysis of effects on DPD, BAP, and serum osteocalcin (OC), respectively, using Review Manager 5.0.22. Daily ingestion of an average 56 mg soy isoflavones (aglycone equivalents) for 10 weeks to 12 months significantly decreased DPD by 14.1% (95% CI: -26.8% to -1.5%; P=0.03) compared to baseline (heterogeneity: P<0.00001; I(2)=93%; random effects model). The overall effect of soy isoflavones on DPD compared with placebo was a significant decrease of -18.0% (95% CI: -28.4% to -7.7%, P=0.0007; heterogeneity: P=0.0001; I(2)=73%; random effects model). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions revealed that isoflavone dose and intervention duration did not significantly relate to the variable effects on DPD. Daily supplementation of about 84 mg and 73 mg of soy isoflavones for up to 12 months insignificantly increased BAP by 8.0% (95% CI: -4.2% to 20.2%, P=0.20; heterogeneity: P<0.00001; I(2)=98%) and OC by 10.3% (95% CI: -3.1% to 23.7%, P=0.13; heterogeneity: P=0.002; I(2)=69%) compared with placebo (random effects model), respectively. Soy isoflavone supplements moderately decreased the bone resorption marker DPD, but did not affect bone formation markers BAP and OC in

  5. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in the NF-κB Signalling Pathway Are Associated with Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Turnover in Men

    PubMed Central

    Roshandel, Delnaz; Thomson, Wendy; Pye, Stephen R.; Boonen, Steven; Borghs, Herman; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two genes involved in the NF-κB cascade (GPR177 and MAP3K14) and bone mineral density (BMD) assessed at different skeletal sites, radial geometric parameters and bone turnover. Methods Ten GPR177 SNPs previously associated with BMD with genome-wide significance and twelve tag SNPs (r2≥0.8) within MAP3K14 (±10 kb) were genotyped in 2359 men aged 40–79 years recruited from 8 centres for participation in the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Measurement of bone turnover markers (PINP and CTX-I) in the serum and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus were performed in all centres. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), at the distal and midshaft radius, were performed in a subsample (2 centres). Linear regression was used to test for association between the SNPs and bone measures under an additive genetic model adjusting for study centre. Results We validated the associations between SNPs in GPR177 and BMDa previously reported and also observed evidence of pleiotrophic effects on density and geometry. Rs2772300 in GPR177 was associated with increased total hip and LS BMDa, increased total and cortical vBMD at the radius and increased cortical area, thickness and stress strain index. We also found evidence of association with BMDa, vBMD, geometric parameters and CTX-I for SNPs in MAP3K14. None of the GPR177 and MAP3K14 SNPs were associated with calcaneal estimated BMD measured by QUS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that SNPs in GPR177 and MAP3K14 involved in the NF-κB signalling pathway influence bone mineral density, geometry and turnover in a population-based cohort of middle aged and elderly men. This adds to the understanding of the role of genetic variation in this pathway in determining bone health. PMID:22132199

  6. Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Tina; Faghihimani, Elham; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Fallah, Aziz A; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in type 2 diabetic patients and cause several complications particularly, in postmenopausal women due to their senile and physiological conditions. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, 59 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received fortified yogurt (FY; 2000 IU vitamin D in 100 g/day) or plain yogurt (PY) for 12 weeks. Glycemic markers, anthropometric indexes, inflammatory, and bone turnover markers were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. After intervention, in FY group (vs PY group), were observed: significant increase in serum 25(OH)D and decrease of PTH (stable values in PY); significant improvement in serum fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, and no changes in serum fasting glucose and HbA1c (significant worsening of all indexes in PY); significant improvement in WC, WHR, FM, and no change in weight and BMI (stable values in PY); significant increase of omentin (stable in PY) and decrease of sNTX (significant increase in PY). Final values of glycemic markers (except HbA1c), omentin, and bone turnover markers significantly improved in FY group compared to PY group. Regarding final values of serum 25(OH)D in FY group, subjects were classified in insufficient and sufficient categories. Glycemic status improved more significantly in the insufficient rather than sufficient category; whereas the other parameters had more amelioration in the sufficient category. Daily consumption of 2000 IU vitamin D-fortified yogurt for 12 weeks improved glycemic markers (except HbA1c), anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. www.irct.ir (IRCT2013110515294N1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European

  7. Use of CTX-I and PINP as bone turnover markers: National Bone Health Alliance recommendations to standardize sample handling and patient preparation to reduce pre-analytical variability.

    PubMed

    Szulc, P; Naylor, K; Hoyle, N R; Eastell, R; Leary, E T

    2017-09-01

    The National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) recommends standardized sample handling and patient preparation for C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) measurements to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and uncontrollable patient-related factors are reviewed to facilitate interpretation and minimize pre-analytical variability. The IOF and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Bone Marker Standards Working Group have identified PINP and CTX-I in blood to be the reference markers of bone turnover for the fracture risk prediction and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment. Although used in clinical research for many years, bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been widely adopted in clinical practice primarily due to their poor within-subject and between-lab reproducibility. The NBHA Bone Turnover Marker Project team aim to reduce pre-analytical variability of CTX-I and PINP measurements through standardized sample handling and patient preparation. Recommendations for sample handling and patient preparations were made based on review of available publications and pragmatic considerations to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and un-controllable patient-related factors were reviewed to facilitate interpretation and sample collection. Samples for CTX-I must be collected consistently in the morning hours in the fasted state. EDTA plasma is preferred for CTX-I for its greater sample stability. Sample collection conditions for PINP are less critical as PINP has minimal circadian variability and is not affected by food intake. Sample stability limits should be observed. The uncontrollable aspects (age, sex, pregnancy, immobility, recent fracture, co-morbidities, anti-osteoporotic drugs, other medications) should be considered in BTM interpretation. Adopting standardized sample handling and patient preparation procedures will significantly reduce controllable pre

  8. Comparison of the use of scapular ultrasonography, physical examination, and measurement of serum biomarkers of bone turnover versus scintigraphy for detection of bone fragility syndrome in horses.

    PubMed

    Arens, Amanda M; Puchalski, Sarah M; Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Bell, Robin; Gardner, Ian A; Stover, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    To define scintigraphic, physical examination, and scapular ultrasonographic findings consistent with bone fragility syndrome (BFS) in horses; develop indices of BFS severity; and assess accuracy of physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and serum biomarkers for BFS diagnosis. Prospective case-control study. 48 horses (20 horses with BFS and 28 control horses). Horses underwent forelimb scintigraphic evaluation, physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and serum collection. Scintigraphy was used as a reference standard to which physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and concentrations of serum biomarkers (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen crosslinks and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity) were compared for assessing accuracy in BFS diagnosis. A diagnosis of BFS was strongly supported on scintigraphy by ≥ 2 regions of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake, including 1 region in the scapular spine and 1 region in the scapular body or ribs; on physical examination by lateral bowing of the scapulae; and on ultrasonography by widening of the scapular spine. None of the tests evaluated were accurate enough to replace scintigraphy for mild disease; however, physical examination and scapular ultrasonography were accurate in horses with moderate to severe BFS. Serum biomarkers were not accurate for BFS diagnosis. Scintigraphy remained the most informative diagnostic modality for BFS, providing insight into disease severity and distribution; however, physical examination and scapular ultrasonographic abnormalities were diagnostic in horses with moderate to severe disease. Proposed severity indices classified the spectrum of disease manifestations. Clearly defined criteria for interpretation of diagnostic tests aid in the detection of BFS. Severity indices may be useful for assessing disease progression and response to treatment.

  9. Bone Cysts After Osteochondral Allograft Repair of Cartilage Defects in Goats Suggest Abnormal Interaction Between Subchondral Bone and Overlying Synovial Joint Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCA) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12 months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCA and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral (ScB) and trabecular (TB) bone structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCA was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCA was lower than Non-Op and other OCA. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCA did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCA contained “basal” cysts, localized to deeper regions, some “subchondral” cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  10. Age dependence of the normal/abnormal difference of bone mineral density in osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Bagur, A; Vega, E; Mautalen, C

    1994-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is the major factor in bone strength and in the risk of suffering osteoporotic fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the normal/abnormal difference for antero-posterior (AP) spine, lateral spine, proximal femur and total body BMD to assess if age influences discrimination at three different decades between 50 and 80 years of age. The BMD was determined in 61 control women and 60 osteoporotic women (at least one vertebral wedge fracture readily visible in the lateral X-rays of the thoracic or lumbar spine). Measurements were made by DEXA with a total body scanner. The BMD of the whole group of osteoporotic women was markedly lower than that of age-matched controls at all skeletal areas (P < 0.001) except at the arms where the difference was smaller (P < 0.02). The Z-score (the difference between osteoporotic patients and age-matched control divided by the intrapopulation S.D.) was similar (approximately -1.7) over the AP spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, total body and legs. It was significantly lower at the arms (-0.8, P < 0.001), lateral spine (-1.4, P < 0.01) and trochanter (-1.3, P < 0.001) compared with the Z-score of the AP spine. The analysis of the results by decades of age disclosed that the higher Z-score on the 6th and 7th decades corresponded to the AP lumbar spine (approximately -2.0). A high descrimination was also observed for the femoral neck, Ward's triangle and legs while the Z-score of the lateral lumbar spine, total body, trochanter and arms were significantly lower than that of the AP lumbar spine. However on the 8th decade the Z-score of the AP lumbar spine diminished to -1.2 and was only significantly higher than the Z-score of the arms (P < 0.01). The study showed that, in women 50-60 years of age--the period where the majority of studies are made for prevention of osteoporosis, none of the other skeletal areas were superior to the AP spine in discrimination for spinal osteoporosis. Proximal femur and

  11. Imaging microfractures and other abnormalities of bone using a supercontinuum laser source with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Leproux, Philippe; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-02-01

    Many areas of the body such as the tibia have minimal tissue thickness overlying bone. Near-infrared (NIR) optical windows may be used to image more deeply to reveal abnormalities hidden beneath tissue. We report on the potential application of a compact Leukos supercontinuum laser source (model STM-2000-IR) with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows (from 650 nm to 950 nm, 1,100 nm to 1,350 nm, 1,600 to 1,870, and 2,100 nm to 2,300 nm, respectively) and between 200 - 500 microwatt/nm power, with InGaAs (Goodrich Sensors Inc. SU320- 1.7RT) and InSb detectors (Teledyne Technologies) to image microfractures and abnormalities of bone hidden beneath tissue.

  12. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hypmore » mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.« less

  13. Vitamin D supplementation has minor effects on parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers in vitamin D-deficient bedridden older patients.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Mikko; Sorva, Antti; Risteli, Juha; Tilvis, Reijo

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid function and bone turnover in aged, chronically immobile patients. a randomised double-blind controlled trial. two hundred and eighteen long-term inpatients aged over 65 years. the patients were randomised into treatment groups of I-III, each receiving 0 IU, 400 IU and 1200 IU cholecalciferol per day, respectively. In case of inadequate consumption of dairy products, patients received a daily calcium substitution of 500 mg. plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), a marker of bone formation, and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), a marker of bone resorption, were measured at baseline and after 6 months. the patients (age 84.5 years) were chronically bedridden. The baseline 25-OHD was low (23 nmol/l), correlated inversely with PINP, and tended to associate inversely with PTH. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) (25-OHD < 50 nmol/l) was 98% and PTH was elevated in 23% of the patients. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased 25-OHD concentrations (124% group II, 204% group III) and decreased PTH (-7% group II, -8% group III). PINP tended to decrease, but ICTP tended to increase, and only their ratio decreased significantly. The tendency of ICTP to increase was inconsistent. Changes in 25-OHD correlated inversely with those in PTH and PINP. vitamin D supplementation has minor effects on PTH and bone turnover in chronically immobilised aged patients with VDD. Further comparative studies and meta-analyses are warranted to elucidate the confounding effects of different mobility levels on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients with differing baseline PTH levels.

  14. Effects of exemestane, anastrozole and tamoxifen on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients: results of N-SAS BC 04, the TEAM Japan substudy.

    PubMed

    Aihara, T; Suemasu, K; Takei, H; Hozumi, Y; Takehara, M; Saito, T; Ohsumi, S; Masuda, N; Ohashi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Use of aromatase inhibitors in women with postmenopausal breast cancer accompanies risks of bone loss. We evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in patients treated with exemestane, anastrozole or tamoxifen for hormone-sensitive postmenopausal early breast cancer. Sixty-eight patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational Japan bone substudy were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen, exemestane or anastrozole. During a 2-year study period, lumbar spine BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urinary type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were also measured. BMD at 2 years of treatment was higher in tamoxifen patients compared with exemestane and anastrozole patients; however, the intergroup difference was not significant (p = 0.2521 and p = 0.0753, respectively). BMD was higher in exemestane patients compared with anastrozole patients; however, the intergroup difference was not significant (p = 0.7059 and p = 0.8134, respectively). NTX and BAP were significantly lower in tamoxifen patients compared with exemestane and anastrozole patients at 1 and 2 years of treatment (p < 0.05). Tamoxifen may provide better bone protection compared with exemestane or anastrozole. The effect of exemestane and anastrozole on bone loss may be comparable in Japanese postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Abnormal subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration is involved in the early pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Zhang, L; Pan, H; Peng, S; Zhao, X; Lu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone microstructure integrity is thought to be related to osteonecrosis. But the relationship between the time when bone microstructure integrity loss appears and the onset of osteonecrosis has not yet been determined. Our study demonstrated abnormal changes of subchondral bone microstructure involved in the early pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the changes of subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration to identify the onset of abnormal bone microstructure development in steroid-induced osteonecrosis. Fifty-five adult female Japanese White rabbits (mean body weight 3.5 kg; mean age 24 months) were used and randomly divided among three time points (3, 7, and 14 days) consisting of 15 rabbits each, received a single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MP; Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV) at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and a control group consisting of 10 rabbits was fed and housed under identical conditions but were not given steroid injections. A micro-CT scanner was applied to detect changes in the trabecular region of subchondral bone of excised femoral head samples. Parameters including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface (BS), trabecular bone pattern factor (Tb.Pf), trabecular thickness/number/separation (Tb.Th, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp), and structure model index (SMI) were evaluated using the software CTAn (SkyScan). After micro-CT scans, bilateral femoral heads were cut in the coronal plane at a thickness of 4 μm. The sections were then stained with haematoxylin-eosin and used for the diagnosis of osteonecrosis and the rate of development of osteonecrosis. The BV/TV, BS, Tb.Th and Tb.N demonstrated a time-dependent decline from 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group, while the Tb.Pf, Tb.Sp and SMI demonstrated an increase at 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group. For the histopathology portion, osteonecrosis was not seen 3 days after steroid treatment, but was

  16. "Ruffled border" formation on a CaP-free substrate: A first step towards osteoclast-recruiting bone-grafts materials able to re-establish bone turn-over.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Antonio; Fung, Stephanie; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Pashuck, E Thomas; Mao, Yong; Wu, Xiaohuan; Steele, Joseph A M; Martin, Daniel; Moghe, Prabhas V; Bromage, Timothy; Kohn, Joachim

    2018-03-21

    Osteoclasts are large multinucleated giant cells that actively resorb bone during the physiological bone turnover (BTO), which is the continuous cycle of bone resorption (by osteoclasts) followed by new bone formation (by osteoblasts). Osteoclasts secrete chemotactic signals to recruit cells for regeneration of vasculature and bone. We hypothesize that a biomaterial that attracts osteoclasts and re-establishes BTO will induce a better healing response than currently used bone graft materials. While the majority of bone regeneration efforts have focused on maximizing bone deposition, the novelty in this approach is the focus on stimulating osteoclastic resorption as the starter for BTO and its concurrent new vascularized bone formation. A biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, E1001(1k), was chosen as the polymer base due to its ability to support bone regeneration in vivo. The polymer was functionalized with a RGD peptide or collagen I, or blended with β-tricalcium phosphate. Osteoclast attachment and early stages of active resorption were observed on all substrates. The transparency of E1001(1k) in combination with high resolution confocal imaging enabled visualization of morphological features of osteoclast activation such as the formation of the "actin ring" and the "ruffled border", which previously required destructive forms of imaging such as transmission electron microscopy. The significance of these results is twofold: (1) E1001(1k) is suitable for osteoclast attachment and supports osteoclast maturation, making it a base polymer that can be further modified to optimize stimulation of BTO and (2) the transparency of this polymer makes it a suitable analytical tool for studying osteoclast behavior.

  17. Relationship between bone turnover markers and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationships between serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 429 Japanese men, with special emphasis on 2 age groups (40–59 years and 60 years or over). The heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Serum samples were collected, and TRACP-5b and BAP levels were measured. The stiffness index was significantly decreased with age. Log (TRACP-5b) was significantly increased with age, but Log (BAP) was stable. Generalized linear models showed that higher levels of Log (TRACP-5b) and Log (BAP) were correlated with a lower stiffness index after adjusting for covariates in men aged 60 years or over, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. In conclusion, higher rates of bone turnover markers were associated with a lower stiffness index only in elderly men. These results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups of men. PMID:29465590

  18. Effect of 1-year dietary supplementation with vitaminized olive oil on markers of bone turnover and oxidative stress in healthy post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Laura; Battino, Maurizio; Nanetti, Laura; Raffaelli, Francesca; Alidori, Alessandro; Sforza, Giulia; Carle, Flavia; Quagliarini, Veronica; Cester, Nelvio; Vignini, Arianna

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis represents a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of fractures and mortality. Nutrition should form part of bone disease prevention strategies, especially in the light of the population ageing and the diet effect on bone health. Thus the study aimed at verifying whether 1 year of oral supplementation with either extra virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6 (VitVOO) or VOO used as placebo (PlaVOO) is able to modify some bone turnover and oxidative stress markers. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 60 healthy post-menopausal women together with the bone vitamin K status by measuring undercarboxylated osteocalcine (ucOC) plasma levels, the ratio between ucOC and carboxylated osteocalcine (UCR) and the relations with oxidative stress markers. After 1 year (T 1), subjects taking VitVOO showed lower ucOC levels than those taking PlaVOO; the same trend was found for UCR. As far as BMD is concerned, a significant increase in T-score at T 1 in VitVOO subjects compared to PlaVOO was found. All oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes showed a significant reduction after VitVOO supplementation, whilst plasma total antioxidant capacity values was significantly increased in VitVOO group compared to PlaVOO group at T 1. It might be suggested that the use of VitVOO in the diet of post-menopausal women could represent a proper tool for bone protection and a useful strategy against oxidative stress and related diseases, thus confirming the antioxidant role played by the added vitamins.

  19. Osteomesopyknosis: report of a new case with bone histology.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, P; Flautre, B; Sutter, B; Leclet, H; Grardel, B; Fauquert, P

    1994-01-01

    A new case of osteomesopyknosis, a rare autosomal dominant axial osteosclerosis is reported, with 4 affected members of the same family. Biochemical investigations, bone mineral content (BMC) measurement, 99mTc HMDP bone scan and microscopy of iliac crest bone and femoral head have been performed on 1 subject. A marked increase of BMC was found, without abnormality of biochemical data. Microscopy of bone showed an increase of trabecular thickness, and a low rate of bone turnover. No abnormality of mineralization was found on microradiographs.

  20. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  1. Short-term effects on bone turnover of replacing milk with cola beverages: a 10-day interventional study in young men.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Marlene; Kudsk, Jane; Henriksen, Marianne; Mølgaard, Christian

    2005-12-01

    In the Western world, increased consumption of carbonated soft drinks combined with a decreasing intake of milk may increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was designed to reflect the trend of replacing milk with carbonated beverages in a group of young men on a low-calcium diet and studies the effects of this replacement on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. This controlled crossover intervention study included 11 healthy men (22-29 years) who were given a low-calcium basic diet in two 10-day intervention periods with an intervening 10-day washout. During one period, they drank 2.5 l of Coca Cola per day and during the other period 2.5 l of semi-skimmed milk. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and cross-linked C-telopeptides (CTX), plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTX) were determined at baseline and endpoint of each intervention period. An increase in serum phosphate (P<0.001), 1,25(OH)2D (P<0.001), PTH (P=0.046) and osteocalcin (P<0.001) was observed in the cola period compared to the milk period. Also, bone resorption was significantly increased following the cola period, seen as increased serum CTX (P<0.001) and urinary NTX (P<0.001) compared to the milk period. No changes were observed in serum concentrations of calcium or B-ALP. This study demonstrates that over a 10-day period high intake of cola with a low-calcium diet induces increased bone turnover compared to a high intake of milk with a low-calcium diet. Thus, the trend towards a replacement of milk with cola and other soft drinks, which results in a low calcium intake, may negatively affect bone health as indicated by this short-term study.

  2. Preeclampsia - a risk factor for osteoporosis? Analysis of maternal Sclerostin levels and markers of bone turnover in patients with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wild, Julia; Pateisky, Petra; Küssel, Lorenz; Huf, Wolfgang; Ott, Johannes; Haslinger, Peter; Knöfler, Martin; Zeisler, Harald

    2014-08-01

    The role of preeclampsia (PE) in affecting bone metabolism could not be clarified in the past years. Recently Sclerostin, a new marker of bone metabolism which is known to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation causing osteoporosis, was discovered. To investigate serum levels of Sclerostin and markers of bone turnover in women with normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by PE. In this prospective study we enrolled 22 women with PE and 22 healthy pregnant women to observe serum levels of carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), cross-linked carboxyl terminal telopeptide of the type I collagen (ICTP), calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone. In 16 preeclamptic and 16 healthy pregnant women, serum Sclerostin levels were analyzed. Serum levels of Sclerostin (mean ± standard deviation: healthy 10.5 ± 8.1 pmol/l versus PE 11.5 ± 9.4 pmol/l, p = 0.768), ICTP (healthy 0.3 ± 0.2 ng/ml versus PE 0.4 ± 0.1 ng/ml, p = 0.462), PICP (healthy 59.9 ± 49.9 ng/ml versus PE 89.0 ± 62.0 ng/ml, p = 0.094), phosphate (healthy 1.1 ± 0.2 mmol/l versus PE 1.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p = 0.162) and parathyroid hormone (healthy 26.9 ± 14 pg/ml versus PE 35.3 ± 17.6 pg/ml, p = 0.08) showed no significant differences between the groups. Significantly lower serum calcium (healthy 2.3 ± 0.1 mmol/l versus PE 2.2 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p < 0.005) and serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (healthy 39.3 ± 16.7 nmol/l versus PE 23.9 ± 16.9 nmol/l, p < 0.005) were observed in preeclamptic women. Pregnancies complicated by PE show no signs of high bone turnover and may not lead to a higher risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  3. Effects of various forms of calcium on body weight and bone turnover markers in women participating in a weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ginger; Kindrick, Shirley; Hertzler, Steven; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the effects of calcium intake on body weight, body fat, and markers of bone turnover in pre-menopausal adult women undergoing a 12 week weight loss program of diet and exercise. Subjects were prescribed a 12 week diet with a 500 Kcal restriction containing about 750 mg calcium/day, exercised 3 times/week, and were given either placebo capsules, capsules of calcium lactate or calcium phosphate (daily dose about 800 mg calcium), or low fat milk (daily dose about 800 mg calcium). Subjects completed and returned daily diet diaries weekly. Daily calcium intake in mg from diet records + supplement assignment was: 788 +/- 175 (placebo), 1698 +/- 210 (Ca lactate), 1566 +/- 250 (Ca phosphate), 1514 +/- 225 (milk)(no significant differences among the calcium and milk groups). Each group had statistically significant changes in body weight (p < 0.01), but there were no significant differences among groups for the weight loss: 5.8 +/- 0.8 kg (placebo), 4.1 +/- 0.7 kg (Ca lactate), 5.4 +/- 1.3 kg (Ca phosphate), 4.2 +/- 0.8 kg (milk). Body fat was changed significantly in each group (p < 0.01), with milk group showing a little less change than the other groups. Serum bone specific alkaline phophatase activity, a bone synthesis marker, increased similarly in all groups (p < 0.001 within groups, no significance for changes among groups). In contrast, the Ca lactate group, but not other groups, had a drop in urine values for alpha helical peptide, a bone resorption marker (p < 0.05). For the conditions of this study, increased calcium intake, by supplement or milk, did not enhance loss of body weight or fat, though calcium lactate supplementation lowered values for a marker of bone degradation.

  4. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice1

    PubMed Central

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1f/f;Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2 weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous by EXT mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822

  5. Novel, near-infrared spectroscopic, label-free, techniques to assess bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis and bone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-02-01

    Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.

  6. Derangement of calcium metabolism in diabetes mellitus: negative outcome from the synergy between impaired bone turnover and intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-01-01

    Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength. The underlying cellular mechanisms (cellular failure) are related to suppression of osteoblast-induced bone formation and bone calcium accretion, as well as to enhancement of osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Several other T2DM-related pathophysiological changes, e.g., osteoblast insulin resistance, impaired productions of osteogenic growth factors (particularly insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone morphogenetic proteins), overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, also aggravate diabetic osteopathy. In the kidney, DM and the resultant hyperglycemia lead to calciuresis and hypercalciuria in both humans and rodents. Furthermore, DM causes deranged functions of endocrine factors related to mineral metabolism, e.g., parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and fibroblast growth factor-23. Despite the wealth of information regarding impaired bone remodeling in DM, the long-lasting effects of DM on calcium metabolism in young growing individuals, pregnant women, and neonates born to women with gestational DM have received scant attention, and their underlying mechanisms are almost unknown and worth exploring.

  7. An Abnormal Bone Lesion of the Scapula in a Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Matthew S.; Donnell, Allison; Miller, Jason; Iven, Val Gene; Pascale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a bone lesion of the scapula in a collegiate basketball player. Background: A 19-year-old National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male basketball player presented with pain in the posterior region of the right shoulder. During practice, he was performing a layup when his arm was forced into hyperflexion by a defender. Evaluation revealed a bone lesion involving the scapular spine and base of the acromion. Differential Diagnosis: Acromioclavicular joint sprain, subacromial bursitis, subscapular bursitis, humeral head contusion, acromial fracture. Treatment: The patient was treated for 2 months with therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation exercises. Because of persistent pain and the risk of a pathologic fracture, open surgical biopsy and bone grafting were then undertaken. Uniqueness: Most simple bone cysts affect the proximal humerus and femur, whereas our patient's lesion was in the acromial complex. Conclusions: Athletic trainers should be alert to the unusual possibility of bone cysts, which are usually identified incidentally when radiographs are obtained for other reasons. Most simple bone cysts are asymptomatic, but a pathologic fracture can occur with trauma. PMID:23725460

  8. Enhanced Androgen Signaling with Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality, and Bone Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    the BMD of female-to-male transsexuals treated with ‘male’ levels of testosterone increased to normal male levels at cortical sites [35]. Finally, men...Testosterone increases bone mineral density in female-to- male transsexuals : a case series of 15 subjects.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2004, 61:560-566. 35...Ruetsche A, Kneubuehl R, Birkhaeuser M, Lippuner K: Cortical and trabecular bone mineral density in transsexuals after long-term cross-sex hormonal treatment

  9. Effect of low-magnitude different-frequency whole-body vibration on subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture, cartilage degradation, bone/cartilage turnover, and joint pain in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Junbo, Wang; Sijia, Liu; Hongying, Chen; Lei, Liu; Pu, Wang

    2017-06-15

    Whole-body vibration(WBV) has been suggested for the prevention of subchondral bone loss of knee osteoarthritis (OA) . This study examined the effects of different frequency of whole-body vibration on subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture, cartilage degradation and metabolism of the tibia and femoral condyle bone, and joint pain in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced knee osteoarthritisrabbit model. Ninety adult rabbits were divided into six groups: all groups received unilateral ACLT; Group 1, ACLT only; Group 2, 5 Hz WBV; Group 3, 10 Hz WBV; Group 4, 20 Hz WBV; Group 5, 30 Hz WBV; and Group 6, 40 Hz WBV. Pain was tested via weight-bearing asymmetry. Subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture was examined using in vivo micro-computed tomography. Knee joint cartilage was evaluated by gross morphology, histology, and ECM gene expression level (aggrecan and type II collagen [CTX-II]). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-mid OC, cartilage oligometric protein, CPII, type I collagen, PIIANP, G1/G2 aggrecan levels, and urinary CTX-II were analyzed. After 8 weeks of low-magnitude WBV, the lower frequency (10 Hz and 20 Hz) WBV treatment decreased joint pain and cartilage resorption, accelerated cartilage formation, delayed cartilage degradation especially at the 20 Hz regimen. However, the higher frequencies (30 Hz and 40 Hz) had worse effects, with worse limb function and cartilage volume as well as higher histological scores and cartilage resorption. In contrast, both prevented loss of trabeculae and increased bone turnover. No significant change was observed in the 5 Hz WBV group. Our data demonstrate that the lower frequencies (10 Hz and 20 Hz) of low-magnitude WBV increased bone turnover, delayed cartilage degeneration, and caused a significant functional change of the OA-affected limb in ACLT-induced OA rabbit model but did not reverse OA progression after 8 weeks of treatment.

  10. Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate-exposed jaw bone analysis of bone turnover-related cell signalling after bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Wehrhan, F; Hyckel, P; Amann, K; Ries, J; Stockmann, P; Schlegel, Ka; Neukam, Fw; Nkenke, E

    2011-05-01

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (aRANKL). Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a side-effect. Aetiopathology models failed to explain their restriction to the jaw. The osteoproliferative transcription factor Msx-1 is expressed constitutively only in mature jaw bone. Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. This study compared the expression of Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and RANKL, in ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone. An automated immunohistochemistry-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone samples (n = 20 each): cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL and GAPDH mRNA levels. Labelling indices were significantly lower for Msx-1 (P < 0.03) and RANKL (P < 0.003) and significantly higher (P < 0.02) for BMP-2 in ONJ compared with healthy bone. Expression was sevenfold lower (P < 0.03) for Msx-1, 22-fold lower (P < 0.001) for RANKL and eightfold higher (P < 0.02) for BMP-2 in ONJ bone. Msx-1, RANKL suppression and BMP-2 induction were consistent with the bisphosphonate-associated osteopetrosis and impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ. Msx-1 suppression suggested a possible explanation of the exclusivity of ONJ in jaw bone. Functional analyses of Msx-1- RANKL interaction during bone remodelling should be performed in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effects of vertical and side-alternating vibration training on fall risk factors and bone turnover in older people at risk of falls.

    PubMed

    Corrie, Heather; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Mansfield, Neil J; Cowley, Alison; Morris, Robert; Masud, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    whole-body vibration training may improve neuromuscular function, falls risk and bone density, but previous studies have had conflicting findings. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of vertical vibration (VV) and side-alternating vibration (SV) on musculoskeletal health in older people at risk of falls. single-blind, randomised, controlled trial comparing vibration training to sham vibration (Sham) in addition to usual care. participants were 61 older people (37 women and 24 men), aged 80.2 + 6.5 years, referred to an outpatient falls prevention service. participants were randomly assigned to VV, SV or Sham in addition to the usual falls prevention programme. Participants were requested to attend three vibration sessions per week for 12 weeks, with sessions increasing to six, 1 min bouts of vibration. Falls risk factors and neuromuscular tests were assessed, and blood samples collected for determination of bone turnover, at baseline and following the intervention. chair stand time, timed-up-and-go time, fear of falling, NEADL index and postural sway with eyes open improved in the Sham group. There were significantly greater gains in leg power in the VV than in the Sham group and in bone formation in SV and VV compared with the Sham group. Conversely, body sway improved less in the VV than in the Sham group. Changes in falls risk factors did not differ between the groups. whole-body vibration increased leg power and bone formation, but it did not provide any additional benefits to balance or fall risk factors beyond a falls prevention programme in older people at risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Role of helminth antigens in the abnormal mitosis of bone marrow cells in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Sivkova, T N; Tatarnikova, N A; Berezhko, V K; Benediktov, I I

    2013-01-01

    The intraabdominal administration of somatic extracts of the cestodes Hydatigera taeniaformis Batsch 1786, Lamarck, 1816 and Diphyllobothrium latum Linnaeus, 1758 and the nematodes Anisakis simplex larva Rudolphi 1809, Toxocara canis Railliet et Henry, 1912 in albino mice proved that these helminths had a karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of the animals. The antigenic composition of these extracts was investigated using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The antigenic composition of the parasites was ascertained to affect their karyopathic properties. The amount of antigens and their foreignness caused a marked karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of laboratory animals during intraabdominal administration.

  13. An evaluation of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and bone turnover markers in professional football players and in physically inactive men.

    PubMed

    Solarz, K; Kopeć, A; Pietraszewska, J; Majda, F; Słowińska-Lisowska, M; Mędraś, M

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during exposure to sunlight and its fundamental roles are the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and bone mineralisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, PTH and bone turnover markers (P1NP, OC, beta-CTx, OC/beta-CTx) and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in Polish Professional Football League (Ekstraklasa) players and in young men with a low level of physical activity. Fifty healthy men aged 19 to 34 years were included in the study. We showed that 25(OH)D3 and P1NP levels and OC/beta-CTx were higher in the group of professional football players than in the group of physically inactive men. The daily vitamin D and calcium intake in the group of professional football players was also higher. We showed a significant relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and body mass, body cell mass, total body water, fat-free mass, muscle mass, vitamin D and calcium intake. Optimum 25(OH)D3 levels were observed in a mere 16.7% of the football players and vitamin D deficiency was observed in the physically inactive men. The level of physical activity, body composition, calcium and vitamin D intake and the duration of exposure to sunlight may significantly affect serum levels of 25(OH)D3.

  14. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  15. The role of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane in the suppression of postprandial inflammatory markers and bone turnover in obese and overweight adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tara S; Demmer, Elieke; Rivera, Nancy; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M; Van Loan, Marta D

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption; the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover has not been explored. Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces inflammation in animal models. This study aimed to measure postprandial changes in bone turnover after intake of high saturated fat test meals, with- and without the anti-inflammatory ingredient MFGM. Subjects ( n  = 36 adults) were obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) or overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ) with two traits of Metabolic Syndrome. Subjects consumed a different test meal on four occasions at random; blood draws were taken at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 h postprandial. Test meals included whipping cream (WC), WC + MFGM, palm oil (PO) and PO + MFGM. Biomarkers of bone turnover and inflammation were analyzed from all four time points. Test meal (treatment) by time interactions were significant for bone resorption marker C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) ( p  < 0.0001) and inflammatory marker interleukin 10 (IL-10) ( p  = 0.012). Significant differences in overall postprandial response among test meals were found for CTX and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), with the greatest overall postprandial suppression of CTX occurring in meals containing MFGM. However, test meal by MFGM interactions were non- significant for bone and inflammatory markers. Correlations between CTX and inflammatory markers were non-significant. This exploratory analysis advances the study of postprandial suppression of bone turnover by demonstrating differing effects of high SFA meals that contained MFGM; however MFGM alone did not directly moderate the difference in postprandial CTX response among test meals in this analysis. These observations may be useful for identifying foods and ingredients which maximize the suppression of bone resorption, and for generating hypotheses to test in future studies examining the role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover

  16. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and circulating thyroid hormones are not associated with bone turnover markers or incident hip fracture in older men.

    PubMed

    Siru, Ranita; Alfonso, Helman; Chubb, S A Paul; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon; Yeap, Bu B

    2018-04-14

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has also been associated with fracture. It remains unclear whether variation in thyroid hormones within the euthyroid range modulates bone health, particularly among older men. We assessed whether thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) are associated with bone turnover markers (BTMs) and predict hip fracture risk in community-dwelling older men without known thyroid disease. Prospective cohort study. 4248 men aged 70-89 years. Baseline blood samples were assayed for TSH, FT4, total osteocalcin (TOC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and collagen type I C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX). Incidence of hip fracture events was ascertained to 2012. Associations of TSH and FT4 with BTMs were analysed at baseline using Pearson correlation coefficients, and with incident hip fracture using Cox proportional hazards regression. After excluding men with pre-existing thyroid or bone disease, there were 3, 338 men for analysis. Of these, 3, 117 were euthyroid, 135 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 86 had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Men with subclinical thyroid disease were older and those with subclinical hyperthyroidism had lower creatinine than the other groups. After multivariate analysis, there was no association found between FT4, TSH or subclinical thyroid dysfunction and BTMs at baseline. Neither subclinical thyroid dysfunction, TSH nor FT4 were predictive of incident hip fracture in our study population. In euthyroid older men, TSH and FT4 were not associated with BTMs or incident hip fracture. Our findings differ from those previously described in post-menopausal women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. An abnormal bone marrow microenvironment contributes to hematopoietic dysfunction in Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; He, Yongzheng; Xing, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Hui; Chen, Shi; Shi, Jun; Bai, Jie; Rhodes, Steven D; Zhang, Fengqui; Yuan, Jin; Yang, Xianlin; Zhu, Xiaofan; Li, Yan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Xu, Mingjiang; Robertson, Kent A; Yuan, Weiping; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Cheng, Tao; Clapp, D Wade; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi anemia is a complex heterogeneous genetic disorder with a high incidence of bone marrow failure, clonal evolution to acute myeloid leukemia and mesenchymal-derived congenital anomalies. Increasing evidence in Fanconi anemia and other genetic disorders points towards an interdependence of skeletal and hematopoietic development, yet the impact of the marrow microenvironment in the pathogenesis of the bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that mice with double knockout of both Fancc and Fancg genes had decreased bone formation at least partially due to impaired osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells from the double knockout mice showed impaired hematopoietic supportive activity. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells of patients with Fanconi anemia exhibited similar cellular deficits, including increased senescence, reduced proliferation, impaired osteoblast differentiation and defective hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell supportive activity. Collectively, these studies provide unique insights into the physiological significance of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in supporting the marrow microenvironment, which is potentially of broad relevance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. An abnormal bone marrow microenvironment contributes to hematopoietic dysfunction in Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; He, Yongzheng; Xing, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Hui; Chen, Shi; Shi, Jun; Bai, Jie; Rhodes, Steven D.; Zhang, Fengqui; Yuan, Jin; Yang, Xianlin; Zhu, Xiaofan; Li, Yan; Hanenberg, Helmut; Xu, Mingjiang; Robertson, Kent A.; Yuan, Weiping; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Cheng, Tao; Clapp, D. Wade; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a complex heterogeneous genetic disorder with a high incidence of bone marrow failure, clonal evolution to acute myeloid leukemia and mesenchymal-derived congenital anomalies. Increasing evidence in Fanconi anemia and other genetic disorders points towards an interdependence of skeletal and hematopoietic development, yet the impact of the marrow microenvironment in the pathogenesis of the bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that mice with double knockout of both Fancc and Fancg genes had decreased bone formation at least partially due to impaired osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells from the double knockout mice showed impaired hematopoietic supportive activity. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells of patients with Fanconi anemia exhibited similar cellular deficits, including increased senescence, reduced proliferation, impaired osteoblast differentiation and defective hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell supportive activity. Collectively, these studies provide unique insights into the physiological significance of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in supporting the marrow microenvironment, which is potentially of broad relevance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28341737

  19. Enhanced Androgen Signaling with Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    calculatedbyconverting thegrayscale output of bone voxels in Hounsfield units (HU) to mineral values (mg/cc of HA) through the use of a calibration phantom...NUMBER Kristine M. Wiren, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: wirenk@ohsu.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...and d) characterization of effects of androgen on MSC colony forming units and lineage commitment in vitro. In this final report, we have included

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bone turnover-related genes in Koreans: ethnic differences in linkage disequilibrium and haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Seon; Kim, Ghi-Su; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-joong; Jung, Jongsun; Cha, Hyo-Soung; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kang, Jong-Ho; Park, Eui Kyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hong, Jung-Min; Koh, Jung-Min; Oh, Bermseok; Kimm, Kuchan; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Lee, Jong-Young

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is defined as the loss of bone mineral density that leads to bone fragility with aging. Population-based case-control studies have identified polymorphisms in many candidate genes that have been associated with bone mass maintenance or osteoporotic fracture. To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with osteoporosis, we examined the genetic variation among Koreans by analyzing 81 genes according to their function in bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling. Methods We resequenced all the exons, splice junctions and promoter regions of candidate osteoporosis genes using 24 unrelated Korean individuals. Using the common SNPs from our study and the HapMap database, a statistical analysis of deviation in heterozygosity depicted. Results We identified 942 variants, including 888 SNPs, 43 insertion/deletion polymorphisms, and 11 microsatellite markers. Of the SNPs, 557 (63%) had been previously identified and 331 (37%) were newly discovered in the Korean population. When compared SNPs in the Korean population with those in HapMap database, 1% (or less) of SNPs in the Japanese and Chinese subpopulations and 20% of those in Caucasian and African subpopulations were significantly differentiated from the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, an analysis of the genetic diversity showed that there were no significant differences among Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese populations, but African and Caucasian populations were significantly differentiated in selected genes. Nevertheless, in the detailed analysis of genetic properties, the LD and Haplotype block patterns among the five sub-populations were substantially different from one another. Conclusion Through the resequencing of 81 osteoporosis candidate genes, 118 unknown SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05 were discovered in the Korean population. In addition, using the common SNPs between our study and HapMap, an analysis of genetic

  1. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. [Congenital hemihypertrophy associated with cutaneous pigmento-vascular, cerebral, visceral and bone abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hidano, A; Arai, Y

    1987-01-01

    A case of hemihypertrophy associated with multiple anomalies of the skin, bone and visceral organs is presented. A 31-year-old female was admitted for evaluation of her skin conditions. Her family history is noncontributory, while her past history discloses operations for syndactyly of the right foot, tonsillar hypertrophy, anal prolapse and ovarial cyst. Erythemas of the face and the left upper extremity were noticed during the neonatal period and hypertrophy of the right side of the body started at age 2 months. On admission, hemihypertrophy was observed in the face, trunk and extremities. Multiple faint nevi flammei were seen on the right half of the face and on the left side of the trunk and extremities. Telangiectasis and nevus anemicus were seen in the upper chest. The left upper extremity showed diffuse brown patches that was histologically basal pigmentation with some giant melanosomes. Visceral anomalies consisted of fibromatous tumors of the tip of the tongue and mitral prolapse. Angiography and computed tomography revealed a possible arteriovenous malformation of the right occipital region, small hemangiomas around the patella, dilation of the lateral ventricle, and calcification of the choroid plexus. Tortuous superficial veins were noted in the right leg. She had no seizure, but her IQ was 68. The bone disorders consisted of scoliosis, short forth metacarpus, hypoplastic mandible and peroneal exostosis. Examination revealed a slight diminution of urinary corticosteroid, but no other endocrinological disorders were found. The hemihypertrophy in this case is at least partially due to an arteriovenous shunt, suggested by elevated oxygen saturation of the blood obtained from the internal saphenous vein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    PubMed

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P < 0.05) than those of the CB controls. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  4. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the selection and monitoring of bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, P; Body, J-J; Boonen, S; Boutsen, Y; Devogelaer, J-P; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Reginster, J-Y; Gangji, V

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To review the clinical value of bone turnover markers (BTM), to initiate and/or monitor anti-resorptive treatment for osteoporosis compared with bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate suitable BTM and changes in BTM levels for significance of treatment efficiency. Methodology: Consensus meeting generating guidelines for clinical practice after review and discussion of the randomised controlled trials or meta-analyses on the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Results: Although the correlation between BMD and BTM is statistically significant, BTM cannot be used as predictive markers of BMD in an individual patient. Both are independent predictors of fracture risk, but BTM can only be used as an additional risk factor in the decision to treat. Current data do not support the use of BTM to select the optimal treatment. However, they can be used to monitor treatment efficiency before BMD changes can be evaluated. Early changes in BTM can be used to measure the clinical efficacy of an anti-resorptive treatment and to reinforce patient compliance. Discussion: Determining a threshold of BTM reflecting an optimal long-term effect is not obvious. The objective should be the return to the premenopausal range and/or a decrease at least equal to the least significant change (30%). Preanalytical and analytical variability of BTM is an important limitation to their use. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), procollagen 1 N terminal extension peptide and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP) appear to be the most suitable. Conclusion: Consensus regarding the use of BTM resulted in guidelines for clinical practice. BMD determines the indication to treat osteoporosis. BTM reflect treatment efficiency and can be used to motivate patients to persist with their medication. PMID:19125989

  5. Disruption of Axonal Transport Perturbs Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) - Signaling and Contributes to Synaptic Abnormalities in Two Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2014-01-01

    Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478

  6. Turnover Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  7. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6-/- mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6-/- and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6-/- mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6-/- mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6-/- mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6-/- mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  8. The characteristics of bone turnover in the second decade in relation to age and puberty development in healthy Japanese male and female subjects--Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, T; Kagamimori, S; Nishino, H; Yamagami, T; Iki, M; Kajita, E; Kagawa, Y; Yoneshima, H; Matsuzaki, T; Marumo, F

    2003-01-01

    There are few studies that clarify the characteristics of bone turnover in children and adolescents. Furthermore, little has been published on changes in urinary CrossLaps(TM) (CTx) in Japanese subjects. To investigate biochemical markers of bone turnover in subjects, in relation to age and puberty development. We measured serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (B-Alp) and CTx in 1207 Japanese subjects aged 9-18 years. As an indicator of puberty development, the age that pubic hair appeared in males and menstruation started in females was obtained from questionnaires. B-Alp and CTx/Cr (creatinine) had high values before and just after the indicators and was lower thereafter, reaching a plateau in both genders. There was no significant difference in these values in males 5-6 years, or 7 years and more after the appearance of pubic hair. B-Alp and CTx/Cr values 7 years and more after menarche were significantly lower than those 5-6 years after menarche, however the differences were relatively small. Subjects in the second decade can be divided into three groups: 'before the appearance of pubic hair for males and menarche for females', 'up to and including 3-4 years after them' and '5-6 years and more after them'.

  9. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines

    PubMed Central

    Korać, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kušec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-01-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease. PMID:16311361

  10. Effects of risedronate 5 mg/d on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in late-postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a multinational, 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Matti J; Farrerons-Minguella, Jordi; Halse, Johan; Kröger, Heikki; Maroni, Marilyn; Mulder, Henk; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Sääf, Maria; Snorre Øfjord, Erik

    2007-09-01

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that risedronate reduces the risk for both ver- tebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD] T-score, <-2.5). If left untreated, osteopenia (T-score, between -1 and -2.5) may progress to osteo- porosis. Risedronate sodium, a pyridinyl bisphospho- nate, is an antiresorptive drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although the effects of risedronate in preventing frac- tures has been established, its effects in maintaining or increasing BMD in osteopenia have not. In this clinical trial, the efficacy and tol- erability of risedronate in improving and maintaining BMD levels in late-postmenopausal women with os- teopenia were assessed. This 24-month, randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase III trial was conducted at 14 study centers across Finland, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. Late- postmenopausal (> or =5 years from menopause) women with lumbar spine (LS) BMD T-score between -1 and -2.5 and the presence of > or =1 additional risk factor for osteo- porosis or proximal femur (Fern) BMD T-score < or = -1 were randomized to receive risedronate 5 mg (n = 114) or placebo (n = 57) PO QD for 24 months. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage change from baseline in LS BMD at study end point (24 months or last observation carried forward). Secondary efficacy end points were the percentage changes from base- line in total proximal Fern BMD and 2 bone turnover markers-urinary type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (uNTx) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP)-at 12 months and study end point. Tolerability was assessed using reported adverse events (AEs), laboratory analysis, and physical exami- nation including vital-sign measurements. A total of 171 women were included (mean [SD] age, 65.9 [6.8] years; mean [SD] LS BMD T

  11. Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Deficiency Causes Abnormal Craniofacial Bone Development in the Alpl−/− Mouse Model of Infantile Hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Nam, Hwa Kyung; Campbell, Cassie; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Millán, José Luis; Hatch, Nan E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is an enzyme present on the surface of mineralizing cells and their derived matrix vesicles that promotes hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism that, dependent upon age of onset, features rickets or osteomalacia due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding TNAP. Craniosynostosis is prevalent in infants with HPP and other forms of rachitic disease but how craniosynostosis develops in these disorders is unknown. Objectives: Because craniosynostosis carries high morbidity, we are investigating craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in Alpl−/− mice to establish these mice as a model of HPP-associated craniosynostosis and determine mechanisms by which TNAP influences craniofacial skeletal development. Methods: Cranial bone, cranial suture and cranial base abnormalities were analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Craniofacial shape abnormalities were quantified using digital calipers. TNAP expression was suppressed in MC3T3E1(C4) calvarial cells by TNAP-specific shRNA. Cells were analyzed for changes in mineralization, gene expression, proliferation, apoptosis, matrix deposition and cell adhesion. Results: Alpl−/− mice feature craniofacial shape abnormalities suggestive of limited anterior-posterior growth. Craniosynostosis in the form of bony coronal suture fusion is present by three weeks after birth. Alpl−/− mice also exhibit marked histologic abnormalities of calvarial bones and the cranial base involving growth plates, cortical and trabecular bone within two weeks of birth. Analysis of calvarial cells in which TNAP expression was suppressed by shRNA indicates that TNAP deficiency promotes aberrant osteoblastic gene expression, diminished matrix deposition, diminished proliferation, increased apoptosis and increased cell adhesion. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that Alpl−/− mice exhibit a craniofacial skeletal phenotype similar to that

  12. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D; Allen, Matthew R; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2015-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43(ΔCT/fl)) were studied. Cx43(ΔCT/fl) mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43(fl/fl) controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43(ΔCT) is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43(ΔCT) mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43(ΔCT) were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M.; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C.; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43ΔCT/fl) were studied. Cx43ΔCT/fl mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43ΔCT is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43ΔCT mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43ΔCT were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. PMID:26409319

  14. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan, on turnover of bone metabolism in bedridden elderly hypertensive women with disuse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Motokuni; Kawahata, Hirohisa; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Yu, Hisahiro; Moriguchi, Atsushi; Nakagami, Hironori; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-08-01

    Although recent studies suggest that several antihypertensive drugs could reduce the risk of bone fracture, it is still unclear how these drugs act on bone remodeling, especially in elderly women with severe osteoporosis with disuse syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on bone metabolism in elderly bedridden women with hypertension and disuse syndrome. Elderly bedridden women (aged >75 years) receiving antihypertensive therapy treated with CCB were recruited in the present study. The participants were divided into two groups--CCB group and ARB group--and followed up to 12 months. Markers of bone resorption were markedly increased, suggesting accelerated bone resorption in the participants of the present study. In the follow-up period, the patients treated with a CCB showed a significant decrease in bone mineral density in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant increase in bone resorption markers, whereas treatment with olmesartan inhibited bone loss, associated with attenuation of increased bone resorption markers. Bone mineral density of femoral neck in the CCB group was significantly lower than that in the ARB group at 6 months. The present study showed inhibitory effects of an ARB on bone resorption in hypertensive patients with accelerated bone resorption, such as elderly bedridden women, and indicated an important role of the renin-angiotensin system in bone metabolism. In elderly hypertensive patients, ARB might be expected to have additional beneficial potential to maintain bone health in bedridden patients. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Evaluating bone quality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Malluche, Hartmut H.; Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Bone of normal quality and quantity can successfully endure physiologically imposed mechanical loads. Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) adversely affects bone quality through alterations in bone turnover and mineralization, whereas bone quantity is affected through changes in bone volume. Changes in bone quality can be associated with altered bone material, structure, or microdamage, which can result in an elevated rate of fracture in patients with CKD–MBD. Fractures cannot always be explained by reduced bone quantity and, therefore, bone quality should be assessed with a variety of techniques from the macro-organ level to the nanoscale level. In this Review, we demonstrate the importance of evaluating bone from multiple perspectives and hierarchical levels to understand CKD–MBD-related abnormalities in bone quality. Understanding the relationships between variations in material, structure, microdamage, and mechanical properties of bone in patients with CKD–MBD should aid in the development of new modalities to prevent, or treat, these abnormalities. PMID:24100399

  16. Effects of a moderately high-protein diet and interval aerobic training combined with strength-endurance exercise on markers of bone metabolism, microarchitecture and turnover in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Nebot, Elena; Aparicio, Virginia A; Coll-Risco, Irene; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Heimel, Patrick; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana; Slezak, Paul; Redl, Heinz; Porres, Jesús M; López-Jurado, María; Pietschmann, Peter; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-11-01

    microarchitecture and BMD, and has a partial impact on cortical bone in obese rats. Nevertheless, they do not induce any alteration on the bone turnover markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone Disease after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Salam, Syrazah; Delanaye, Pierre; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Bone and mineral disorders occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients and are associated with a high risk of fracture, morbidity, and mortality. There is a broad spectrum of often overlapping bone diseases seen after transplantation, including osteoporosis as well as persisting high– or low–turnover bone disease. The pathophysiology underlying bone disorders after transplantation results from a complex interplay of factors, including preexisting renal osteodystrophy and bone loss related to a variety of causes, such as immunosuppression and alterations in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 axis as well as changes in mineral metabolism. Management is complex, because noninvasive tools, such as imaging and bone biomarkers, do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect these abnormalities in bone structure and function, whereas bone biopsy is not a widely available diagnostic tool. In this review, we focus on recent data that highlight improvements in our understanding of the prevalence, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of mineral and bone disorders in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26912549

  18. Turnover among healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ben D

    2009-01-01

    Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.

  19. Odanacatib, effects of 16-month treatment and discontinuation of therapy on bone mass, turnover and strength in the ovariectomized rabbit model of osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Le T; Crawford, Randy; Scott, Kevin; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Wu, Gouxin; Szczerba, Pete; Gentile, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) a selective and reversible cathepsin K inhibitor, inhibits bone resorption, increases bone mass and reduces fracture risk in women with osteoporosis. A 16-month (~7-remodeling cycles) study was carried out in treatment mode to assess the effects of ODN versus ALN on bone mass, remodeling status and biomechanical properties of lumbar vertebrae (LV) and femur in ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits. This study also evaluated the impact of discontinuing ODN on these parameters. Rabbits at 7.5months post-OVX were dosed for 16-months with ODN (7.5μM·h 0-24 , in food) or ALN (0.2mg/kg/wk, s.c.) and compared to vehicle-treated OVX- (OVX+Veh) or Sham-operated animals. After 8months, treatment was discontinued in half of the ODN group. ODN treatment increased in vivo LV aBMD and trabecular (Tb) vBMD until reaching plateau at month 12 by 16% and 23% vs. baseline, respectively, comparable levels to that in Sham and significantly above OVX+Veh. LV BMD was also higher in ALN that plateaued around month 8 to levels below that in ODN or Sham. ODN treatment resulted in higher BMD, structure and improved biomechanical strength of LV and central femur (CF) to levels similar to Sham. ALN generally showed less robust efficacy compared to ODN. Neither ODN nor ALN influenced material properties at these bone sites following ODN or ALN treatment for 7 remodeling cycles in rabbits. ODN and ALN persistently reduced the bone resorption marker urinary helical peptide over study duration. While ALN reduced the bone formation marker BSAP, ODN treatment did not affect this marker. ODN also preserved histomorphometry-based bone formation indices in LV trabecular, CF endocortical and intracortical surfaces, at the levels of OVX+Veh. Discontinuation of ODN returned bone mass, structure and strength parameters to the comparable respective levels in OVX+Veh. Together, these data demonstrate efficacy and bone safety profile of ODN and suggests the potential long-term benefits of this agent

  20. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-07

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might

  1. Individualized therapy to prevent bone mineral density loss after kidney and kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mainra, Rahul; Elder, Grahame J

    2010-01-01

    Most patients who undergo kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation have renal osteodystrophy, and immediately after transplantation bone mineral density (BMD) commonly falls. Together, these abnormalities predispose to an increased fracture incidence. Bisphosphonate or calcitriol therapy can preserve BMD after transplantation, but although bisphosphonates may be more effective, they pose potential risks for adynamic bone. A total of 153 kidney (61%) and kidney-pancreas (39%) transplant recipients were allocated to bisphosphonate (62%) or calcitriol (38%) therapy using an algorithm that incorporated BMD, prevalent vertebral fracture, biomarkers of bone turnover, and risk factor assessment. Patients received cholecalciferol and calcium as appropriate and were followed for 12 mo. Patients who were treated with bisphosphonates had lower BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck and longer time on dialysis. Age and gender were similar between the groups. At 12 mo, bisphosphonate-treated patients had significant BMD increases at the lumber spine and femoral neck and a negative trend at the wrist. Patients who were allocated to calcitriol, who were assessed to have lower baseline fracture risk, had no significant change in BMD at any site. At 1 yr, mean levels of bone turnover marker and intact parathyroid hormone normalized in both groups. Incident fracture rates did not differ significantly. With targeted treatment, BMD levels were stable or improved and bone turnover markers normalized. This algorithm provides a guide to targeting therapy after transplantation that avoids BMD loss and may reduce suppression of bone turnover.

  2. Management of mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-07-01

    Mineral and bone disorders (MBDs), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease, occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about the clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on posttransplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, and the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities, often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed.

  3. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  4. Characteristic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint: Focus on Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal of the Mandibular Condyle, Pannus, and Lymph Node Swelling in the Parotid Glands.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Naohisa; Kaneda, Takashi; Muraoka, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Taiga; Ito, Kotaro; Kawashima, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicating bone and soft tissue involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Twenty-one patients with RA and TMJ pain who underwent MRI examination of the TMJs at the authors' hospital from August 2006 to December 2014 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients with normal TMJs who underwent MRI examination at the authors' hospital from November to December 2014 were included as controls. MRI findings were compared between the 2 groups. MRI findings of RA in the TMJ included 1) abnormal disc position (95.2%), 2) abnormal disc morphology (83.3%), 3) joint effusion (30.9%), 4) osseous changes in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), 5) synovial proliferation (pannus; 85.7%), 6) erosion of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (9.52%), 7) deformity of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (16.6%), 8) abnormal bone marrow signal in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), and 9) swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands (78.5%). The abnormal bone marrow signal and pannus in the mandibular condyle and lymph node swelling in the parotid glands were markedly more common in patients with RA than in controls. MRI findings of RA of the TMJs were characterized by bone and soft tissue involvement, including abnormal bone marrow signal of the mandibular condyle, pannus, and swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands. These characteristic MRI findings could be useful in detecting RA in the TMJ in a clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical vitamin B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam A; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé; Rosado, Jorge L; Keyes, William R; Newman, John W; Miller, Joshua W; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-10-01

    A high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations has been reported in studies and surveys in Latin America including Mexico, but the functional consequences are unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the response to a high-dose vitamin B-12 supplementation of women in rural Querétaro, Mexico. Participants aged 20-59 y were stratified at baseline to deficient, marginal, and adequate status groups (serum vitamin B-12, 75-148, 149-220, and >220 pmol/L, respectively), and each group was randomized to vitamin B-12 treatment (single dose of 1 mg i.m. then 500 μg/d orally for 3 mo, n = 70) or placebo (n = 62). Measures at baseline and 3 mo included: complete blood count, serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), folate, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), bone alkaline phosphatase, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). At baseline, 11% of the women were vitamin B-12 deficient and 22% had marginal status. HoloTC was low (<35 pmol/L) in 23% and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = 0.7; P < 0.001). Elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L) and tHcy (>12 μmol/L) occurred in 21 and 31%, respectively, and correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.28, P < 0.0007 and r = -0.20, P < 0.01, respectively). Supplementation increased serum vitamin B-12 and holoTC and lowered MMA and tHcy, normalizing all values except for elevated tHcy in 21% of the women. Supplementation did not affect hematology or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B-12 supplementation normalized biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 status in the treatment group but did not affect the functional outcomes measured.

  6. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H; Enderby, Larry T; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

    2017-01-26

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases.

  7. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H.; Enderby, Larry T.; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Witt-Enderby, Paula A.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases. PMID:28130552

  8. Evaluation of the protective effects of curcuminoid (curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin)-loaded liposomes against bone turnover in a cell-based model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chih-Chang; Su, Yu-Han; Lin, Yu-Jhe; Chen, Pin-Jyun; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), extracted from Curcuma longa, are poorly water-soluble polyphenol compounds that have shown anti-inflammatory potential for the treatment of osteoarthritis. To increase cellular uptake of Cur and BDMC in bone tissue, soybean phosphatidylcholines were used for liposome formulation. In this study, curcuminoid (Cur and BDMC)-loaded liposomes were characterized in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency, liposome stability, and cellular uptake. The results show that there is about 70% entrapment efficiency of Cur and BDMC in liposomes and that particle sizes are stable after liposome formation. Both types of liposome can inhibit macrophage inflammation and osteoclast differential activities. In comparison with free drugs (Cur and BDMC), curcuminoid-loaded liposomes were less cytotoxic and expressed high cellular uptake of the drugs. Of note is that Cur-loaded liposomes can prevent liposome-dependent inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, but BDMC-loaded liposomes could not. With interleukin (IL)-1β stimulation, curcuminoid-loaded liposomes can successfully downregulate the expression of inflammatory markers on osteoblasts, and show a high osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio to prevent osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that Cur and BDMC can be successfully encapsulated in liposomes and can reduce osteoclast activity and maintain osteoblast functions. Therefore, curcuminoid-loaded liposomes may slow osteoarthritis progression.

  9. Triennial Growth Symposium--Effects of dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol on blood vitamin D and mineral status, bone turnover, milk composition, and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Weber, G M; Witschi, A-K M; Wenk, C; Martens, H

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of vitamin D3 during gestation and lactation of sows, 2 independent experiments were performed with the aim of investigating sow reproductive performance, milk composition (study 1 only), and changes in blood status of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3; study 2 only), minerals, and bone markers of sows during gestation and lactation. Study 1 comprised 39 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows fed 1 of 3 barley meal-based diets fortified with 200 IU/kg vitamin D3 (NRC, 1998; treatment DL), 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; treatment DN), or 50 μg 25-OH-D3 (calcidiol; treatment HD)/kg feed. This study was conducted over a 4-parity period under controlled conditions. Study 2, running over 1 parity only, was performed in a commercial farm with 227 primi- and multiparous sows allocated to 2 dietary treatments: control (CON), receiving 2,000 IU vitamin D3/kg (equivalent to 50 μg/kg) feed (114 sows), and test (HYD), supplemented with 50 μg 25-OH-D3/kg feed (113 sows). Blood samples of sows were collected at 84 and 110d postcoitum and 1, 5, and 33 d postpartum (study 1) and at insemination and 28 and 80 d postinsemination as well as d 5 and 28 postpartum (study 2). Colostrum and milk samples in study 1 were obtained at 1, 9, and 33 d of lactation after oxytocin administration. Plasma 25-OH-D3 concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in sows receiving 25-OH-D3 (HD and HYD) at any time of sampling whereas circulating plasma concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2-D3, Ca, and P were not affected by treatment. Milk concentrations of Ca and P were similar, but 25-OH-D3 content (except in colostrum) was clearly increased (P< 0.05) when 25-OH-D3 was fed. Most characteristics of sow reproductive performance responded similarly to the 2 sources and levels of vitamin D3, but weight gain of piglets between birth and weaning was decreased (P< 0.05) in offspring of DL and HD sows compared with animals of treatment DN

  10. Pediatric solid organ transplantation and osteoporosis: a descriptive study on bone histomorphometric findings.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Inari S; Valta, Helena; Jalanko, Hannu; Salminen, Sari; Mäyränpää, Mervi K; Isaksson, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-08-01

    Organ transplantation may lead to secondary osteoporosis in children. This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 19 children (7.6-18.8 years, 11 male) who had undergone kidney (n = 6), liver (n = 9), or heart (n = 4) transplantation a median 4.6 years (range 0.6-16.3 years) earlier. All patients had received oral glucocorticoids at the time of the biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 21 % had sustained peripheral fractures and 58 % vertebral compression fractures. Nine children (47 %) had a lumbar spine BMD Z-score below -2.0. Histomorphometric analyses showed low trabecular bone volume (< -1.0 SD) in 6 children (32 %) and decreased trabecular thickness in 14 children (74 %). Seven children (37 %) had high bone turnover at biopsy, and low turnover was found in 6 children (32 %), 1 of whom had adynamic bone disease. There was a great heterogeneity in the histological findings in different transplant groups, and the results were unpredictable using non-invasive methods. The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  11. Deterioration of Cortical Bone Microarchitecture: Critical Component of Renal Osteodystrophy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish K; Toussaint, Nigel D; Masterson, Rosemary; Holt, Stephen G; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Ebeling, Peter R; Mohanty, Sindhu T; Baldock, Paul; Elder, Grahame J

    2018-05-23

    Cortical bone is a significant determinant of bone strength and its deterioration contributes to bone fragility. Thin cortices and increased cortical porosity have been noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the "Turnover Mineralization Volume" classification of renal osteodystrophy does not emphasize cortical bone as a key parameter. We aimed to assess trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture by histomorphometry and micro-CT in patients with CKD G5 and 5D (dialysis). Transiliac bone biopsies were performed in 14 patients undergoing kidney transplantation (n = 12) and parathyroidectomy (n = 2). Structural parameters were analysed by histomorphometry and micro-CT including trabecular bone volume, thickness (TbTh), number (TbN) and separation and cortical thickness (CtTh) and porosity (CtPo). Indices of bone remodelling and mineralisation were obtained and relationships to bone biomarkers examined. Associations were determined by Spearman's or Pearson's rank correlation coefficients. By micro-CT, trabecular parameters were within normal ranges in most patients, but all patients showed very low CtTh (127 ± 44 µm) and high CtPo (60.3 ± 22.5%). CtPo was inversely related to TbN (r = -0.56; p = 0.03) by micro-CT and to TbTh (r = -0.60; p = 0.024) by histomorphometry and correlated to parathyroid hormone values (r = 0.62; p = 0.021). By histomorphometry, bone turnover was high in 50%, low in 21% and normal in 29%, while 36% showed abnormal patterns of mineralization. Significant positive associations were observed between osteoblast surface, osteoclast surface, mineralization surface and bone turnover markers. Deterioration of cortical -microarchitecture despite predominantly normal trabecular parameters reinforces the importance of comprehensive cortical evaluation in patients with CKD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover and inflammation in diabetes patients with or without a Charcot foot: An 8.5-year prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens; Rørdam, Lene; Holstein, Per E; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2018-02-01

    Charcot foot is a rare but severe complication to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. It is still unclear if an acute Charcot foot has long-term effects on the bone metabolism. To investigate this, we conducted a follow-up study to examine if a previously acute Charcot foot has any long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) or local or systemic bone metabolism. An 8.5-year follow-up case-control study of 44 individuals with diabetes mellitus, 24 of whom also had acute or chronic Charcot foot at the baseline visit in 2005-2007, who were followed up in 2015 with DXA scans and blood samples. 21 of the 44 baseline participants participated in the follow-up. There were no difference in the change in total hip BMD from baseline to follow-up in either the Charcot or the control group (p = 0.402 and 0.517), and no increased risk of osteoporosis in the previous Charcot feet either. From baseline to follow-up, there was a significant difference in the change in levels of fsRANK-L in the Charcot group, but not in the control group (p = 0.002 and 0.232, respectively). At follow-up, there were no differences in fsRANK-L between the groups. The fsRANK-L/OPG ratio also significantly decreased from baseline to follow-up in the Charcot group (3.4 versus 0.5) (p = 0.009), but not in the control group (1.3 versus 1.1) (p = 0.302). We found that diabetes patients with an acute Charcot foot have an elevated fsRANK-L/OPG ratio, and that the level decreased from baseline to follow-up to be comparable to the level in diabetes patients without previous or current Charcot foot. We found no permanent effect of an acute Charcot foot on hip or foot BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient Turnover: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    VanFosson, Christopher A; Yoder, Linda H; Jones, Terry L

    Patient turnover influences the quality and safety of patient care. However, variations in the conceptual underpinnings of patient turnover limit the understanding of the phenomenon. A concept analysis was completed to clarify the role of patient turnover in relation to outcomes in the acute care hospital setting. The defining attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents of patient turnover were proposed. Nursing leaders should account for patient turnover in workload and staffing calculations. Further research is needed to clarify the influence of patient turnover on the quality and safety of nursing care using a unified understanding of the phenomenon.

  14. Superintendent Turnover in Guam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanga, Alvin

    2017-01-01

    Superintendent turnover has been rampant in the public school district in Guam, an unincorporated United States territory; there have been 18 superintendents since the 1981. This qualitative study aimed to identify and analyze potential factors affecting the superintendency in Guam. Social systems theory proposes a number of factors about the…

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease.

  17. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (p<0.05) was observed, whereas no correlation with osteocalcin could be seen. A dual control of bone formation by leptin is assumed: This involves local mechanisms acting on osteoblasts and a central inhibitory effect on bone metabolism via a hypothalamic relay. Our data indicate that the net effect of circulating leptin may cause bone loss and is significantly related to high-turnover serum bone markers, at least in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  18. A novel NF1 mutation in a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait macule in neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tong, H-X; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, J; Lu, W-Q

    2012-08-29

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; OMIM#162200) is a common neurocutaneous disorder that is characterized by multiple café-au-lait, skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas. Mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the neurofibromin protein, have been identified as the pathogenic gene of NF1. In this study, we present a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait in NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body, axillary freckling, and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas. He also had a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormalities. The germline mutational analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 13. It is a novel heterozygous nucleotide G>A transition at position 2241 of the NF1 gene. We found no mutation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor DNA from this patient. This expands the database for NF1 gene mutations in NF1. Its absence in the normal chromosomes suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first case of giant café-au-lait macule in NF1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

  19. Impaired proteoglycan glycosylation, elevated TGF-β signaling, and abnormal osteoblast differentiation as the basis for bone fragility in a mouse model for gerodermia osteodysplastica

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing Lee; Steiner, Magdalena; Egerer, Johannes; Mizumoto, Shuji; Pestka, Jan M.; Zhang, Haikuo; Khayal, Layal Abo; Ott, Claus-Eric; Kolanczyk, Mateusz; Schinke, Thorsten; Paganini, Chiara; Rossi, Antonio; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Amling, Michael; Knaus, Petra; Chan, Danny; Mundlos, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures. Collagen fibrils in the skin of GorabNull mutants and in bone of GorabPrx1 mutants were disorganized, which was also seen in a bone biopsy from a GO patient. Measurement of glycosaminoglycan contents revealed a reduction of dermatan sulfate levels in skin and cartilage from GorabNull mutants. In bone from GorabPrx1 mutants total glycosaminoglycan levels and the relative percentage of dermatan sulfate were both strongly diminished. Accordingly, the proteoglycans biglycan and decorin showed reduced glycanation. Also in cultured GORAB-deficient fibroblasts reduced decorin glycanation was evident. The Golgi compartment of these cells showed an accumulation of decorin, but reduced signals for dermatan sulfate. Moreover, we found elevated activation of TGF-β in GorabPrx1 bone tissue leading to enhanced downstream signalling, which was reproduced in GORAB-deficient fibroblasts. Our data suggest that the loss of Gorab primarily perturbs pre-osteoblasts. GO may be regarded as a congenital disorder of glycosylation affecting proteoglycan synthesis due to delayed transport and impaired posttranslational modification in the Golgi compartment. PMID:29561836

  20. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  1. Triazolopyrimidine (trapidil), a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits parathyroid bone disease in an animal model for chronic hyperparathyroidism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Sibonga, Jean D.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    Parathyroid bone disease in humans is caused by chronic hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Continuous infusion of PTH into rats results in histological changes similar to parathyroid bone disease, including increased bone formation, focal bone resorption, and severe peritrabecular fibrosis, whereas pulsatile PTH increases bone formation without skeletal abnormalities. Using a cDNA microarray with over 5000 genes, we identified an association between increased platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) signaling and PTH-induced bone disease in rats. Verification of PDGF-A overexpression was accomplished with a ribonuclease protection assay. Using immunohistochemistry, PDGF-A peptide was localized to mast cells in PTH-treated rats. We also report a novel strategy for prevention of parathyroid bone disease using triazolopyrimidine (trapidil). Trapidil, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling, did not have any effect on indexes of bone turnover in normal rats. However, dramatic reductions in marrow fibrosis and bone resorption, but not bone formation, were observed in PTH-treated rats given trapidil. Also, trapidil antagonized the PTH-induced increases in mRNA levels for PDGF-A. These results suggest that PDGF signaling is important for the detrimental skeletal effects of HPT, and drugs that target the cytokine or its receptor might be useful in reducing or preventing parathyroid bone disease.

  2. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    PubMed

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  3. Proteomics in bone research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hengwei; Recker, Robert; Lee, Wai-Nang Paul; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent among the elderly and is a major cause of bone fracture in this population. Bone integrity is maintained by the dynamic processes of bone resorption and bone formation (bone remodeling). Osteoporosis results when there is an imbalance of the two counteracting processes. Bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has been the primary method to assess fracture risk for decades. Recent studies demonstrated that measurement of bone turnover markers allows for a dynamic assessment of bone remodeling, while imaging techniques, such as dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, do not. The application of proteomics has permitted discoveries of new, sensitive, bone turnover markers, which provide unique information for clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with bone diseases. This review summarizes the recent findings of proteomic studies on bone diseases, properties of mesenchymal stem cells with high expansion rates and osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, with emphasis on the role of quantitative proteomics in the study of signaling dynamics, biomarkers and discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:20121480

  4. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  5. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    PubMed

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  6. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  7. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  8. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    van't Hof, R. J.; Armour, K. J.; Smith, L. M.; Armour, K. E.; Wei, X. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Ralston, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFκB and in NFκB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFκB in osteoclast precursors. PMID:10869429

  9. Work and Career considerations in Understanding Employee Turnover Intentions and Turnover: Development of the Turnover Diagnostic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    speciflying some of these factor. Employee Turnover 22 References Alderfer , C . P., & Brown, L. D. (1972). Designing an "empathic questionnaire" for...organizational research. Journal of Applied Psychology 5 456-460. Alley, W. E ., & Gould, R . B. (1975). Feasibility of estimating personnel turnover from...leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover. Personnel Psychology, 15 43-56. Forrest, C . R ., Cummings, L. L., & Johnson, A. C

  10. SIRT6 deficiency culminates in low-turnover osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Sugatani, Toshifumi; Agapova, Olga; Malluche, Hartmut H; Hruska, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Deficiency of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a chromatin-related deacetylase, in mice reveals severe premature aging phenotypes including osteopenia. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of SIRT6 in bone metabolism are unknown. Here we show that SIRT6 deficiency in mice produces low-turnover osteopenia caused by impaired bone formation and bone resorption, which are mechanisms similar to those of age-related bone loss. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix (Osx), which are the two key transcriptional regulators of osteoblastogenesis, and deacetylates histone H3 at Lysine 9 (H3K9) at their promoters. Hence, excessively elevated Runx2 and Osx in SIRT6(-/-) osteoblasts lead to impaired osteoblastogenesis. In addition, SIRT6 deficiency produces hyperacetylation of H3K9 in the promoter of dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1), a potent negative regulator of osteoblastogenesis, and osteoprotegerin, an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the resulting up-regulation of Dkk1 and osteoprotegerin levels contribute to impaired bone remodeling, leading to osteopenia with a low bone turnover in SIRT6-deficient mice. These results establish a new link between SIRT6 and bone remodeling that positively regulates osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Teacher Turnover: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the available literature concerning teacher turnover. The seriousness of this issue was addressed as cause for concern is clearly present. Issues we examined in this conceptual analysis were the federal government's role in public education, the No Child Left Behind Act, teacher turnover, teacher retention, teacher…

  12. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  13. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  14. Occupational stress and employee turnover.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Day, Andrea J; Morton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data captured in January-March 2007 were examined in relation to turnover in males and females during the next five years. In general, most of the workplace stressors (such as role conflict or peer support) were not antecedents of turnover in any group. Junior personnel with psychological strain in 2007 had an increased risk of turnover in the next five years. Low commitment to the service in 2007 increased the odds of turnover in male and female juniors and in female officers. Female juniors with less effective skills for coping with stress and who exercised less frequently on a weekly basis were more likely to leave. An incidental finding was that the odds of turnover were three times greater in female officers with children than in female officers with no children. Stress management interventions focusing on effective coping and sports and exercise participation which are targeted appropriately may improve retention.

  15. Defective bone formation and anabolic response to exogenous estrogen in mice with targeted disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Armour, K E; Armour, K J; Gallagher, M E; Gödecke, A; Helfrich, M H; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H

    2001-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that is produced by bone cells constitutively and in response to diverse stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines, mechanical strain, and sex hormones. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the predominant NOS isoform expressed in bone, but its physiological role in regulating bone metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied various aspects of bone metabolism in female mice with targeted disruption of the eNOS gene. Mice with eNOS deficiency (eNOS KO) had reduced bone mineral density, and cortical thinning when compared with WT controls and histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed profound abnormalities of bone formation, with reduced osteoblast numbers, surfaces and mineral apposition rate. Studies in vitro showed that osteoblasts derived from eNOS KO mice had reduced rates of growth when compared with WT and were less well differentiated as reflected by lower levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Mice with eNOS deficiency lost bone normally following ovariectomy but exhibited a significantly blunted anabolic response to high dose exogenous estrogen. We conclude that the eNOS pathway plays an essential role in regulating bone mass and bone turnover by modulating osteoblast function.

  16. Paget disease of the bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/000414.htm Paget disease of the bone To use the sharing features on this page, ... Paget disease is a disorder that involves abnormal bone destruction and regrowth. This results in deformity of ...

  17. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  18. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    PubMed

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of TGF-β in a mouse model of high turnover renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Altered bone turnover is a key pathologic feature of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Expression of TGF-β1, a known regulator of bone turnover, is increased in bone biopsies from individuals with CKD. Similarly, TGF-β1 mRNA and downstream signaling is increased in bones from jck mice, a model of high-turnover renal osteodystrophy. A neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody (1D11) was used to explore TGF-β's role in renal osteodystrophy. 1D11 administration to jck significantly attenuated elevated serum osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptides. Histomorphometric analysis indicated that 1D11 administration increased bone volume and suppressed the elevated bone turnover in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were associated with reductions in osteoblast and osteoclast surface areas. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) confirmed the observed increase in trabecular bone volume and demonstrated improvements in trabecular architecture and increased cortical thickness. 1D11 administration was associated with significant reductions in expression of osteoblast marker genes (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin) and the osteoclast marker gene, Trap5. Importantly, in this model, 1D11 did not improve kidney function or reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, indicating that 1D11 effects on bone are independent of changes in renal or parathyroid function. 1D11 also significantly attenuated high-turnover bone disease in the adenine-induced uremic rat model. Antibody administration was associated with a reduction in pSMAD2/SMAD2 in bone but not bone marrow as assessed by quantitative immunoblot analysis. Immunostaining revealed pSMAD staining in osteoblasts and osteocytes but not osteoclasts, suggesting 1D11 effects on osteoclasts may be indirect. Immunoblot and whole genome mRNA expression analysis confirmed our previous observation that repression of Wnt/β-catenin expression in bone is correlated with increased osteoclast activity in jck

  20. Mechanism of Action of Bortezomib and the New Proteasome Inhibitors on Myeloma Cells and the Bone Microenvironment: Impact on Myeloma-Induced Alterations of Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Accardi, Fabrizio; Toscani, Denise; Dalla Palma, Benedetta; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a high capacity to induce alterations in the bone remodeling process. The increase in osteoclastogenesis and the suppression of osteoblast formation are both involved in the pathophysiology of the bone lesions in MM. The proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib is the first drug designed and approved for the treatment of MM patients by targeting the proteasome. However, recently novel PIs have been developed to overcome bortezomib resistance. Interestingly, several preclinical data indicate that the proteasome complex is involved in both osteoclast and osteoblast formation. It is also evident that bortezomib either inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) or stimulates the osteoblast differentiation. Similarly, the new PIs including carfilzomib and ixazomib can inhibit bone resorption and stimulate the osteoblast differentiation. In a clinical setting, PIs restore the abnormal bone remodeling by normalizing the levels of bone turnover markers. In addition, a bone anabolic effect was described in responding MM patients treated with PIs, as demonstrated by the increase in the osteoblast number. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical evidence on the effects of bortezomib and other new PIs on myeloma bone disease. PMID:26579531

  1. Functional Turnover: An Empirical Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    assumption that turnover is invariably dysfunctional to the organization (Dalton & Todor , 1979; Dalton & Todor , in press (a), (b); Jeswald, 1974; Muchinsky...34voluntary" turnover (Dalton, Todor & Krackhardt, in press). Dysfunctional (cell C) - The individual wants to leave the organization but the organization...criticized (Dalton & Todor , 1979; Dalton & Todor . in press (a), (b); Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979; Muchinsky & Morrow, in press; Staw, in press; Staw

  2. Bone anabolics in osteoporosis: Actuality and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral and nonvertebral fractures prevention is the main goal for osteoporosis therapy by inhibiting bone resorption and/or stimulating bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs decrease the activation frequency, thereby determining a secondary decrease in bone formation rate and a low bone turnover. Bisphosphonates are today’s mainstay among antiresorptive treatment of osteoporosis. Also, oral selective estrogen receptor modulators and recently denosumab have a negative effect on bone turnover. Agents active on bone formation are considered a better perspective in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. Recombinant-human parathyroid hormone (PTH) has showed to increase bone formation and significantly decrease vertebral fractures in severe patients, but with a modest effect on nonvertebral fractures. The study of Wnt signaling pathway, that induces prevalently an osteoblastic activity, opens large possibilities to antagonists of Wnt-inhibitors, such as sclerostin antibodies and dickkopf-1 antagonists, with potential effects not only on trabecular bone but also on cortical bone. PMID:25035827

  3. [Turnover Experience of Male Nurses].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jeongseop

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify turnover experiences of men in nursing and to derive a substantive theory on the turnover experience of men who are nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 men who had worked as a nurse for 1 year or more, and had a turnover experience during that period. Collected data were analyzed on the basis of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. The core category in the turnover experiences of the respondents was 'seeking a stable place for me'. In the analysis of the core category, types of 'contentment', 'seeking', 'survival' and 'confusion' were identified. The sequential stages of these nurses' turnover experience were 'confrontation', 'incertitude', 'retrying' and 'realization'. However, when a problem arose in the process, they returned to the stage of confusion. Thus, these stages could occur in a circular fashion. These findings provide a deep understanding of the turnover experience of men in nursing and offers new information about how they adapt to nursing practice. The findings should be useful as foundational data for men who hope to become nurses and also for managers responsible for nurses who are men. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  4. Perinatal collagen turnover markers in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Demetrios; Briana, Despina D; Georgiadis, Anestis; Boutsikou, Maria; Baka, Stavroula; Marmarinos, Antonios; Hassiakos, Demetrios; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2012-09-01

    To investigate bone and connective tissue collagen turnover in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pregnancies, by determining circulating markers of type I collagen synthesis (carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen [PICP], representing bone formation) and degradation (cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [ICTP], representing bone resorption) as well as type III collagen synthesis (N-terminal propeptide of type-III procollagen [PIIINP], reflecting growth and tissue maturity). Plasma PICP, ICTP and PIIINP concentrations were measured in 40 mothers and their 20 asymmetric IUGR and 20 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) full-term fetuses and neonates on postnatal day 1-(N1) and 4-(N4). Fetal PICP, fetal and N4 ICTP, as well as fetal, N1 and N4 PIIINP concentrations were higher in the IUGR group (p ≤ 0.038, in all cases). In both groups, maternal PICP, ICTP and PIIINP concentrations were lower than fetal, N1 and N4 ones (p<0.001, in each case). Type I collagen turnover is enhanced in IUGR than AGA fetuses/neonates. Similarly, fetal/neonatal PIIINP concentrations are elevated in IUGR, probably due to stress, responsible for induction of tissue maturation, and/or to impaired excretory renal function, leading to reduced protein clearance. Fetal/neonatal PICP, ICTP and PIIINP concentrations are higher than maternal concentrations, possibly reflecting increased skeletal growth and collagen turnover in the former.

  5. Stem cells and bone diseases: new tools, new perspective.

    PubMed

    Riminucci, Mara; Remoli, Cristina; Robey, Pamela G; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal skeletal stem cells are a unique class of progenitors with biological properties that extend well beyond the limits of stemness as commonly defined. Skeletal stem cells sustain skeletal tissue homeostasis, organize and maintain the complex architectural structure of the bone marrow microenvironment and provide a niche for hematopoietic progenitor cells. The identification of stem cells in the human post-natal skeleton has profoundly changed our approach to the physiology and pathology of this system. Skeletal diseases have been long interpreted essentially in terms of defective function of differentiated cells and/or abnormal turnover of the matrix that they produce. The notion of a skeletal stem cell has brought forth multiple, novel concepts in skeletal biology that provide potential alternative concepts. At the same time, the recognition of the complex functions played by skeletal progenitors, such as the structural and functional organization of the bone marrow, has provided an innovative, unifying perspective for understanding bone and bone marrow changes simultaneously occurring in many disorders. Finally, the possibility to isolate and highly enrich for skeletal progenitors, enables us to reproduce perfectly normal or pathological organ miniatures. These, in turn, provide suitable models to investigate and manipulate the pathogenetic mechanisms of many genetic and non-genetic skeletal diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem cells and Bone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of TGF-β in a Mouse Model of High Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Altered bone turnover is a key pathologic feature of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Expression of TGF-β1, a known regulator of bone turnover, is increased in bone biopsies from individuals with CKD. Similarly, TGF-β1 mRNA and downstream signaling is increased in bones from jck mice, a model of high-turnover renal osteodystropy. A neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody (1D11) was used to explore TGF-βs role in renal osteodystrophy. 1D11 administration to jck significantly attenuated elevated serum osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptides. Histomorphometric analysis indicated that 1D11 administration increased bone volume and suppressed the elevated bone turnover in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were associated with reductions in osteoblast and osteoclast surface areas. μCT confirmed the observed increase in trabecular bone volume and demonstrated improvements in trabecular architecture and increased cortical thickness. 1D11 administration was associated with significant reductions in expression of osteoblast marker genes (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin) and the osteoclast marker gene, Trap5. Importantly, in this model, 1D11 did not improve kidney function or reduce serum PTH levels indicating that 1D11 effects on bone are independent of changes in renal or parathyroid function. 1D11 also significantly attenuated high turnover bone disease in the adenine-induced uremic rat model. Antibody administration was associated with a reduction in pSMAD2/SMAD2 in bone but not bone marrow as assessed by quantitative immunoblot analysis. Immunostaining revealed pSMAD staining in osteoblasts and osteocytes but not osteoclasts, suggesting 1D11 effects on osteoclasts may be indirect. Immunoblot and whole genome mRNA expression analysis confirmed our previous observation that repression of Wnt/β catenin expression in bone is correlated with increased osteoclast activity in jck mice and bone biopsies from CKD patients. Furthermore

  7. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  8. Protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Pan, Jing-Hua; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on preventing rat alveolar bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX), and to determine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in this effect. Female Wistar rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery. The rats that had undergone OVX were treated with RDE (RDE group), vehicle (OVX group) or 17β-estradiol subcutaneous injection (E2 group). Subsequently, bone metabolic activity was assessed by analyzing 3-D alveolar bone construction, bone mineral density, as well as the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover. The gene expression of alveolar bone in the OVX and RDE groups was evaluated by IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays, and differentially expressed genes were determined through reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The inhibitory effect of RDE on alveolar bone loss in the OVX group was demonstrated in the study. In comparison with the OVX group, the RDE group exhibited 19 downregulated genes and 1 upregulated gene associated with the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in alveolar bone. Thus, RDE was shown to relieve OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats, an effect which was likely associated with decreased abnormal bone remodeling via regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  9. Optimization of Bone Health in Children before and after Renal Transplantation: Current Perspectives and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sgambat, Kristen; Moudgil, Asha

    2014-01-01

    The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), altered growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF-23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD–MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF-23 antibodies, FGF-23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization. PMID:24605319

  10. Pioglitazone-induced bone loss in diabetic rats and its amelioration by berberine: A portrait of molecular crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Adil, Mohammad; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Singh, Divya; Kandhare, Amit Dattatraya; Sharma, Manju

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis both are high prevalence disorders, especially in the elderly population. Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist associated with bone loss and risk of fracture in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this study, ameliorative effect of berberine against pioglitazone-induced bone loss in diabetic rats and possible mechanisms has been explored. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar albino rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.v.) after 15min of nicotinamide (230mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Diabetic rats were treated orally with pioglitazone (10mg/kg) and berberine (100mg/kg) alone and in combination of both for 12 weeks. Femur of each rat was isolated and evaluated for the bone micro-architecture, BMD, histology and mRNA expression of PPAR-γ, AMPK, and bone turnover markers (RANKL, OPG, Runx2, and osteocalcin). Urinary calcium and serum TRAP was also measured. Treatment of pioglitazone and berberine alone and in combination significantly ameliorate abnormal blood glucose, serum insulin, and HbA1c levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pioglitazone treatment significantly increased urinary calcium, serum TRAP, mRNA expression of RANKL, PPAR-γ as well as significantly decreased Runx2, OPG, osteocalcin and AMPK levels in diabetic rats. Pioglitazone administration also shows detrimental effect on femur epiphysis micro-architecture, BMD and histology. Whereas, berberine treatment alone and in combination with pioglitazone remarkably ameliorates the abnormal urinary calcium, mRNA expression of AMPK, bone turnover markers, femur epiphysis micro-architecture, histology and also increases BMD in diabetic rats. In conclusion, berberine shows protective effect against pioglitazone-induced bone loss in diabetic rats possibly through AMPK activation pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone involvement in adult patients affected with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eller-Vainicher, C; Bassotti, A; Imeraj, A; Cairoli, E; Ulivieri, F M; Cortini, F; Dubini, M; Marinelli, B; Spada, A; Chiodini, I

    2016-08-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is characterized by abnormal connective tissue but bone involvement is debated. We found a reduced BMD and bone quality and increased prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in eugonadal patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These findings suggest the need of a bone health evaluation in these patients. The Ehlers-Danlos (EDS) syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of the connective tissue leading to ligamentous laxity and skin and tissue fragility. We evaluated the bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality (measured by trabecular bone score, TBS), and the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFx) in a group of eugonadal adult EDS patients. Fifty consecutive Caucasian patients, aged 30-50 years (36 females, 14 males) with classical or hypermobility EDS and 50 age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were enrolled. In all subjects' calcium-phosphorous metabolism, bone turnover, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femur (femoral neck, FN and total femur, FT) and TBS by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the VFx presence by spine radiograph were assessed. Patients showed reduced BMD (Z-scores LS -0.45 ± 1.00, FN -0.56 ± 1.01, FT -0.58 ± 0.92) and TBS (1.299 ± 0.111) and increased prevalence of morphometric VFx (32 %) than controls (Z-scores LS 0.09 ± 1.22, FN 0.01 ± 0.97, FT 0.08 ± 0.89; TBS 1.382 ± 0.176; VFx 8 %, p <0.05 for all comparisons), while vitamin D levels, calcium-phosphorous metabolism, and bone turnover were comparable. Fractured EDS patients showed lower TBS values than non-fractured ones (1.245 ± 0.138 vs 1.325 ± 0.086, p < 0.05), despite comparable BMD. In EDS patients, the VFx presence was significantly associated with TBS even after adjusting for sex, age, BMD, EDS type, and falls frequency. EDS patients have reduced BMD and bone quality (as measured by TBS) and increased prevalence of VFx.

  12. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  14. Stem cells and bone diseases: new tools, new perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riminucci, Mara; Remoli, Cristina; Robey, Pamela G.; Bianco, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Postnatal skeletal stem cells are a unique class of progenitors with biological properties that extend well beyond the limits of stemness as commonly defined. Skeletal stem cells sustain skeletal tissue homeostasis, organize and maintain the complex architectural structure of the bone marrow microenvironment and provide a niche for hematopoietic progenitor cells. The identification of stem cells in the human post-natal skeleton has profoundly changed our approach to the physiology and pathology of this system. Skeletal diseases have been long interpreted essentially in terms of defective function of differentiated cells and/or abnormal turnover of the matrix they produce. The notion of a skeletal stem cell has brought forth multiple, novel concepts in skeletal biology that provide potential alternative concepts. At the same time, the recognition of the complex functions played by skeletal progenitors, such as the structural and functional organization of the bone marrow, has provided an innovative, unifying perspective for understanding bone and bone marrow changes simultaneously occurring in many disorders. Finally, the possibility to isolate and highly enrich for skeletal progenitors, enables us to reproduce perfectly normal or pathological organ miniatures. These, in turn, provide suitable models to investigate and manipulate the pathogenetic mechanisms of many genetic and non-genetic skeletal diseases. PMID:25240458

  15. Employee turnover: measuring the malady.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    One measure of an organization's value to its employees is turnover. But how do you know if your employees are wondering if the grass is greener elsewhere? Scott Badler in his book What's So Funny about Looking for a Job? suggests a quick quiz to find out.

  16. Growth hormone and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. The Protective Effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Shaojun; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Methods: Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). Conclusion: These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation. PMID:25514564

  18. The protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Shaojun; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation.

  19. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  1. Using Turnover as a Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Teacher turnover is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. Turnover is costly. Not only do high levels of turnover negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…

  2. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  3. Measuring Staff Turnover in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the levels of staff turnover reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of turnover used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff turnover is defined…

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  6. Bone metabolism in cow milk allergic children.

    PubMed

    Jakusova, Lubica; Jesenak, Milos; Schudichova, Jela; Banovcin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Children with cow milk allergy are suspected to develop calcium metabolism disturbances. We observed increased markers of bone turnover in these children. Children with cow milk allergy are more prone to develop the disturbances of the bone mineralization even in the first year of life.

  7. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  8. Analysis and control of employee turnover.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Turnover is a relatively simple and easily described concept. However, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect, and thus, not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role.

  9. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  10. [Impact of thyroid diseases on bone].

    PubMed

    Tsourdi, E; Lademann, F; Siggelkow, H

    2018-05-09

    Thyroid hormones are key regulators of skeletal development in childhood and bone homeostasis in adulthood, and thyroid diseases have been associated with increased osteoporotic fractures. Hypothyroidism in children leads to an impaired skeletal maturation and mineralization, but an adequate and timely substitution with thyroid hormones stimulates bone growth. Conversely, hyperthyroidism at a young age accelerates skeletal development, but may also cause short stature because of a premature fusion of the growth plates. Hypothyroidism in adults causes an increase in the duration of the remodeling cycle and, thus, leads to low bone turnover and enhanced mineralization, but an association with a higher fracture risk is less well established. In adults, a surplus of thyroid hormones enhances bone turnover, mostly due to an increased bone resorption driven by osteoclasts. Thus, hyperthyroidism is a well-recognized cause of high-bone turnover secondary osteoporosis, resulting in an increased susceptibility to fragility fractures. Subclinical hyperthyroidism, especially resulting from endogenous disease, also has an adverse effect on bone mineral density and is associated with fractures. In most patients with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism restoration of the euthyroid status reverses bone loss. In postmenopausal women who receive thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy because of thyroid cancer, antiresorptive treatments may be indicated. Overall, extensive data support the importance of a euthyroid status for bone mineral accrual and growth in childhood as well as maintenance of bone health in adulthood.

  11. Hypocalcaemia in patients with metastatic bone disease treated with denosumab.

    PubMed

    Body, Jean-Jacques; Bone, Henry G; de Boer, Richard H; Stopeck, Alison; Van Poznak, Catherine; Damião, Ronaldo; Fizazi, Karim; Henry, David H; Ibrahim, Toni; Lipton, Allan; Saad, Fred; Shore, Neal; Takano, Toshimi; Shaywitz, Adam J; Wang, Huei; Bracco, Oswaldo L; Braun, Ada; Kostenuik, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    This analysis was performed to further characterise treatment-emergent hypocalcaemia in patients with bone metastases receiving denosumab. Laboratory abnormalities and adverse events of hypocalcaemia in patients with metastatic bone disease were analysed using data from three identically designed phase 3 trials of subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg (n = 2841) versus intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg (n = 2836). The overall incidence of laboratory events of hypocalcaemia grade ⩾ 2 was higher with denosumab (12.4%) than with zoledronic acid (5.3%). Hypocalcaemia events were primarily grade 2 in severity and usually occurred within the first 6 months of treatment. Patients who reported taking calcium and/or vitamin D supplements had a lower incidence of hypocalcaemia. Prostate cancer or small-cell lung cancer, reduced creatinine clearance and higher baseline bone turnover markers of urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTx; > 50 versus ⩽ 50 nmol/mmol) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP; > 20.77 μg/L [median] versus ⩽ 20.77 μg/L) values were important risk factors for developing hypocalcaemia. The risk associated with increased baseline BSAP levels was greater among patients who had > 2 bone metastases at baseline versus those with ⩽ 2 bone metastases at baseline. Hypocalcaemia was more frequent with denosumab versus zoledronic acid, consistent with denosumab's greater antiresorptive effect. Low serum calcium levels and potential vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before initiating treatment with a potent osteoclast inhibitor, and corrected serum calcium levels should be monitored during treatment. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake appears to substantially reduce the risk of hypocalcaemia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  13. Computational model of collagen turnover in carotid arteries during hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Peña, E; Tarbell, J M; Martínez, M A

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that biological tissues adapt their properties because of different mechanical and chemical stimuli. The goal of this work is to study the collagen turnover in the arterial tissue of hypertensive patients through a coupled computational mechano-chemical model. Although it has been widely studied experimentally, computational models dealing with the mechano-chemical approach are not. The present approach can be extended easily to study other aspects of bone remodeling or collagen degradation in heart diseases. The model can be divided into three different stages. First, we study the smooth muscle cell synthesis of different biological substances due to over-stretching during hypertension. Next, we study the mass-transport of these substances along the arterial wall. The last step is to compute the turnover of collagen based on the amount of these substances in the arterial wall which interact with each other to modify the turnover rate of collagen. We simulate this process in a finite element model of a real human carotid artery. The final results show the well-known stiffening of the arterial wall due to the increase in the collagen content. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Telomerase gene therapy rescues telomere length, bone marrow aplasia, and survival in mice with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Bär, Christian; Povedano, Juan Manuel; Serrano, Rosa; Benitez-Buelga, Carlos; Popkes, Miriam; Formentini, Ivan; Bobadilla, Maria; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2016-04-07

    Aplastic anemia is a fatal bone marrow disorder characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. The disease can be hereditary or acquired and develops at any stage of life. A subgroup of the inherited form is caused by replicative impairment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells due to very short telomeres as a result of mutations in telomerase and other telomere components. Abnormal telomere shortening is also described in cases of acquired aplastic anemia, most likely secondary to increased turnover of bone marrow stem and progenitor cells. Here, we test the therapeutic efficacy of telomerase activation by using adeno-associated virus (AAV)9 gene therapy vectors carrying the telomerase Tert gene in 2 independent mouse models of aplastic anemia due to short telomeres (Trf1- and Tert-deficient mice). We find that a high dose of AAV9-Tert targets the bone marrow compartment, including hematopoietic stem cells. AAV9-Tert treatment after telomere attrition in bone marrow cells rescues aplastic anemia and mouse survival compared with mice treated with the empty vector. Improved survival is associated with a significant increase in telomere length in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, as well as improved blood counts. These findings indicate that telomerase gene therapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy to treat aplastic anemia provoked or associated with short telomeres. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Bisphosphonates in chronic kidney disease; balancing potential benefits and adverse effects on bone and soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nigel D; Elder, Grahame J; Kerr, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is often associated with increased vascular stiffness and calcification. Recent studies have suggested a complex interaction between vascular calcification and abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism, with an inverse relationship between arterial calcification and bone mineral density (BMD). Although osteoporosis is recognized and treated in CKD 1 to 3, the interpretation of BMD levels in the osteoporotic range is controversial in CKD 4, 5, and 5D when renal osteodystrophy is generally present. In addition, there is a paucity of data for patients with CKD mineral and bone disorder (MBD), because studies using bisphosphonates in postmenopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis have generally excluded patients with significant CKD. For these patients, treatment of low BMD using standard therapies for osteoporosis is not without potential for harm due to the possibility of worsening low bone turnover, osteomalacia, mixed uraemic osteodystrophy, and of exacerbated hyperparathyroidism; and bisphosphonates should only be used selectively and with caution. Some experimental and clinical studies have also suggested that bisphosphonates may reduce progression of extra-osseous calcification and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. The authors review the potential benefits and risks associated with bisphosphonate use for bone protection in CKD, and assess their effect on vascular calcification and atherosclerosis.

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid turnover.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, L

    2002-12-01

    case of a primary abnormality of one ore more of the mechanisms of pleural liquid turnover, a pleural effusion ensues. The factors responsible for pleural effusion may be subdivided into three main categories: those changing transpleural pressure balance, those impairing lymphatic drainage, and those producing increases in mesothelial and capillary endothelial permeability. Except in the first case, pleural fluid protein concentration increases above normal: this feature underlies the classification of pleural effusions into transudative and exudative.

  17. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Arya, Nlin; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Cheewamongkolnimit, Nareerat; Keratikul, Nutcha; Poon-Iam, Sawinee; Routh, Andrew; Bumpenpol, Pitikarn; Angkawanish, Taweepoke

    2015-11-01

    Bone turnover markers could offer a potential alternative means for the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in young growing elephants although the baseline of bone turnover markers in elephant is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine any relationship between the age of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and markers of bone formation. Serum samples from 24 female Asian elephants were collected to evaluate levels of two bone formation markers, namely, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Both intact and N-terminal midfragment OC and BAP were negatively correlated with age. The findings demonstrate that younger elephants have a higher rate of bone turnover than older elephants. Use of these and additional bone markers could lead to the establishment of validated protocols for the monitoring of bone disease in elephants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between bile acid turnover and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Ruth; Ryan, Nicola; Snelling, Hayley; Walker-Bone, Karen; Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A Michael

    2013-06-01

    The intestinal absorption of vitamin D is linked to bile acid absorption. This link may be abnormal in patients with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relation between osteoporosis and bile acid turnover, measured as whole-body Se-75-HCAT retention (WBR), in postmenopausal women. Whole-body counts were recorded using an uncollimated gamma camera 3 h and 7 days after oral administration of Se-75-homocholic acid taurine (Se-75-HCAT) in 16 women aged 58-85 years with dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-proven osteoporosis. WBR was expressed as physical decay-corrected counts at 7 days as a percentage of the counts at 3 h. Seven patients had unexplained diarrhoea. Six patients (five with diarrhoea) had WBR less than 19%. There was a significant difference in DEXA t-score between women with and without diarrhoea (P<0.02). There was a significant negative correlation (R s=-0.58; P<0.02) between WBR and alcohol consumption rated on a three-point scale: <1, 2-7 and >7 U/week. Our results indicate an association between osteoporosis and diarrhoea that may be the result of abnormal bile acid turnover. The role of alcohol requires further investigation.

  19. Revisiting nurse turnover costs: adjusting for inflation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl Bland

    2008-01-01

    Organizational knowledge of nurse turnover costs is important, but gathering these data frequently may not always be feasible in today's fast-paced and complex healthcare environment. The author presents a method to inflation adjust baseline nurse turnover costs using the Consumer Price Index. This approach allows nurse executives to gain current knowledge of organizational nurse turnover costs when primary data collection is not practical and to determine costs and potential savings if nurse retention investments are made.

  20. Work Context Interactions, Work Climate and Turnover.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AD-A133 893 WORK CONTEXT INTERACTIONS WORK CLIMATE AND TURNOVER(U) 1/f MICHIGAN STATE UNIV tAST LANSING B SCHNEIDER OCT 83 RR-83-2 NOSOTA-79-C-0781...CATALOG NUMBER -) L SIL ad utte. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED Work Context Interactions, Work Climate and FnlRpr Turnover: Final Report...reverse aide If necesaranmd Identify by block number) Work climate turnover organizational climate interactional psychology realistic job preview job

  1. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  2. The costs of turnover in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. DATA AND SAMPLE: Nine hundred two nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set, Medicare enrollment files, Census, and Area Resource File. We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The instrumental variable estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (P = 0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10% point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs.

  3. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  4. The costs of turnover in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The IV estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs. PMID:19648834

  5. [Magnesium disorder in metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility.

  6. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P < 0.009) to body mass. Overall, 22Na turnover overestimated Na intake by 9.8 .+-. 2.4% after 32 days. Actual Na intake was similar in males and females; however, Na turnover (P < 0.05) and the discrepancy (P < 0.01) between turnover and actual Na intake were greater in females than males. From Day 8 to the end of the study, the absolute difference (mEq) between Na intake and Na turnover remained stable. Sodium turnover (mEq/kg/day) was a reliable (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) estimator of food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  7. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  8. Employee Turnover among Full-time Public Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of employee turnover in 31 public libraries in the American Midwest established baseline turnover rates and examined the relationship of gender to turnover behavior. Findings showed that: turnover rates are low compared to other occupations; and turnover rates of males and females are similar. (28 references) (Author/MES)

  9. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  10. Employee Turnover and Post Decision Accommodation Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    Turnover consequences Job expectations Individual differences Behavioral cues Job performance Organizational characteristics Job attitudes Attribution theory...and Meglino, 1979; Muchinsky and Tuttle, 1979; Pettman, 1973; Porter and Steers, 1973; Price, 1977; Schuh, 1967; Stoikov and Raimon, 1968; Vroom , 1964...Simon, 1958; Vroom , 1964; Price, 1977; Mobley, 1977). Although the details of the models differ, turnover is generally thought to be a function of

  11. Predicting Employee Turnover from Communication Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; Barnett, George A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates three social network models of employee turnover: a structural equivalence model, a social influence model, and an erosion model. Administers a communication network questionnaire to all 170 employees of an organization. Finds support for all three models of turnover, with the erosion model explaining more of the variance than do the…

  12. Employee Turnover: An Empirical and Methodological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchinsky, Paul M.; Tuttle, Mark L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research on the prediction of employee turnover. Groups predictor variables into five general categories: attitudinal (job satisfaction), biodata, work-related, personal, and test-score predictors. Consistent relationships between common predictor variables and turnover were found for four categories. Eight methodological problems/issues…

  13. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  14. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  16. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than

  17. [Development, physiology, and cell activity of bone].

    PubMed

    de Baat, P; Heijboer, M P; de Baat, C

    2005-07-01

    Bones are of crucial importance for the human body, providing skeletal support, serving as a home for the formation of haematopoietic cells, and reservoiring calcium and phosphate. Long bones develop by endochondral ossification. Flat bones develop by intramembranous ossification. Bone tissue contains hydroxyapatite and various extracellular proteins, producing bone matrix. Two biological mechanisms, determining the strength of bone, are modelling and remodelling. Modelling can change bone shape and size through bone formation by osteoblasts at some sites and through bone destruction by osteoclasts at other sites. Remodelling is bone turnover, also performed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The processes of modelling and remodelling are induced by mechanical loads, predominantly muscle loads. Osteoblasts develop from mesenchymal stem cells. Many stimulating factors are known to activate the differentiation. Mature osteoblasts synthesize bone matrix and may further differentiate into osteocytes. Osteocytes maintain structural bone integrity and allow bone to adapt to any mechanical and chemical stimulus. Osteoclasts derive from haematopoietic stem cells. A number of transcription and growth factors have been identified essential for osteoclast differentiation and function. Finally, there is a complex interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone destruction starts by attachment of osteoclasts to the bone surface. Following this, osteoclasts undergo specific morphological changes. The process of bone destruction starts by acid dissolution of hydroxyapatite. After that osteoclasts start to destruct the organic matrix.

  18. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  19. Bone's mechanostat: a 2003 update.

    PubMed

    Frost, Harold M

    2003-12-01

    The still-evolving mechanostat hypothesis for bones inserts tissue-level realities into the former knowledge gap between bone's organ-level and cell-level realities. It concerns load-bearing bones in postnatal free-living bony vertebrates, physiologic bone loading, and how bones adapt their strength to the mechanical loads on them. Voluntary mechanical usage determines most of the postnatal strength of healthy bones in ways that minimize nontraumatic fractures and create a bone-strength safety factor. The mechanostat hypothesis predicts 32 things that occur, including the gross anatomical bone abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta; it distinguishes postnatal situations from baseline conditions at birth; it distinguishes bones that carry typical voluntary loads from bones that have other chief functions; and it distinguishes traumatic from nontraumatic fractures. It provides functional definitions of mechanical bone competence, bone quality, osteopenias, and osteoporoses. It includes permissive hormonal and other effects on bones, a marrow mediator mechanism, some limitations of clinical densitometry, a cause of bone "mass" plateaus during treatment, an "adaptational lag" in some children, and some vibration effects on bones. The mechanostat hypothesis may have analogs in nonosseous skeletal organs as well. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Role of RANKL in bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Allen P

    2009-03-01

    Bone remodeling is a tightly regulated process of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, balanced by osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Disruption of this balance can lead to increased bone turnover, resulting in excessive bone loss or extra bone formation and consequent skeletal disease. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) (along with its receptor), the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB and its natural decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin, are the final effector proteins of osteoclastic bone resorption. Here, I provide an overview of recent studies that highlight the key role of RANKL in the pathophysiology of several bone diseases and discuss the novel therapeutic approaches afforded by the modulation of RANKL.

  1. Bone metabolism and arterial stiffness after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cseprekál, Orsolya; Kis, Eva; Dégi, Arianna A; Kerti, Andrea; Szabó, Attila J; Reusz, György S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Following transplantation (Tx), improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)) were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191) months after Tx). Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r = -0.35; r = -0.36 respectively). PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD). In patients with a follow up of <24 months, PWV was correlated with BALP and beta-crosslaps (r=0.53; r = 0.69 respectively) while in the ≥24 months group, PWV was correlated with cholesterol (r=0.38). Increased bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.

  2. Site-specific adaptive remodeling of Greyhound metacarpal cortical bone subjected to asymmetrical cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Skinner, G A; Muir, P

    2001-05-01

    To quantify geometric, inertial, and histomorphometric properties at the mid-diaphyseal level of left and right metacarpal bones (MCB) of racing Greyhounds. MCB from 7 racing Greyhounds euthanatized for reasons unrelated to MCB abnormalities. Mid-diaphyseal transverse sections of left and right MCB were stained with H&E or microradiographed. Images of stained sections were digitized, and cross-sectional area, cortical area, and maximum and minimum area moments of inertia of each bone were determined. Histomorphometric data (osteonal density, osteonal birefringence, and endosteal new lamellar bone thickness) were collected in 4 quadrants (dorsal, palmar, lateral, medial). Values were compared between limbs and among bones and quadrants. Cross-sectional area, cortical area, and maximum and minimum moments of inertia of left MCB-IV and -V were significantly greater, compared with contralateral bones. Overall osteonal densities in the dorsal quadrants of left MCB were greater, compared with lateral and medial quadrants. Also, percentage of birefringent osteons was significantly greater in the dorsal quadrant of left MCB-III, -IV, and -V, compared with the palmar quadrant. Thickness of new endosteal lamellar bone was not significantly influenced by limb, bone, or quadrant. Increased cortical thickness and geometric properties of left MCB-IV and -V of Greyhounds, together with altered turnover and orientation of osteons in the dorsal quadrants of left MCB, are site-specific adaptive responses associated with asymmetric cyclic loading as a result of racing on circular tracks. Site-specific adaptive remodeling may be important in the etiopathogenesis of fatigue fractures in racing Greyhounds.

  3. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Licata, Angelo A; Rice, Andrea J

    2005-06-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  4. Exercise and pharmacological countermeasures for bone loss during long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Licata, Angelo A.; Rice, Andrea J.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss in the lower extremities and lumbar spine is an established consequence of long-duration human space flight. Astronauts typically lose as much bone mass in the proximal femur in 1 month as postmenopausal women on Earth lose in 1 year. Pharmacological interventions have not been routinely used in space, and countermeasure programs have depended solely upon exercise. However, it is clear that the osteogenic stimulus from exercise has been inadequate to maintain bone mass, due to insufficient load or duration. Attention has therefore been focused on several pharmacological interventions that have been successful in preventing or attenuating osteoporosis on Earth. Anti-resorptives are the class of drugs most commonly used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, notably alendronate sodium, risedronate sodium, zoledronic acid, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. There has also been considerable recent interest in anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and teriparatide (rhPTH [1-34]). Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have also been used. Recent studies of kindreds with abnormally high bone mineral density have provided insight into the genetic regulation of bone mass. This has led to potential therapeutic interventions based on the LRP5, Wnt and BMP2 pathways. Another target is the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway, which influences bone turnover by regulating osteoclast formation and maturation. Trials using such therapies in space are being planned. Among the factors to be considered are dose-response relationships, bone quality, post-use recovery, and combination therapies--all of which may have unique characteristics when the drugs are used in space.

  5. Nurse turnover: a literature review - an update.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Laureen J; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Duffield, Christine; Shamian, Judith; Buchan, James; Hughes, Frances; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; North, Nicola

    2012-07-01

    Concerns related to the complex issue of nursing turnover continue to challenge healthcare leaders in every sector of health care. Voluntary nurse turnover is shown to be influenced by a myriad of inter-related factors, and there is increasing evidence of its negative effects on nurses, patients and health care organizations. The objectives were to conduct a comprehensive review of the related literature to examine recent findings related to the issue of nursing turnover and its causes and consequences, and to identify on methodological challenges and the implications of new evidence for future studies. A comprehensive search of the recent literature related to nursing turnover was undertaken to summarize findings published in the past six years. Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed, reference lists of journal publications. Keyword searches were conducted for publications published 2006 or later that examined turnover or turnover intention in employee populations of registered or practical/enrolled or assistant nurses working in the hospital, long-term or community care areas. Literature findings are presented using an integrative approach and a table format to report individual studies. From about 330 citations or abstracts that were initially scanned for content relevance, 68 studies were included in this summary review. The predominance of studies continues to focus on determinants of nurse turnover in acute care settings. Recent studies offer insight into generational factors that should be considered in strategies to promote stable staffing in healthcare organizations. Nursing turnover continues to present serious challenges at all levels of health care. Longitudinal research is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships between nurse turnover and related costs, and the impact on patients and the health care team. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nursing home spending, staffing, and turnover.

    PubMed

    Kash, Bita A; Castle, Nicholas G; Phillips, Charles D

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on nursing home staffing and turnover has stressed the importance of ownership and resources. However, few studies have examined spending behaviors, which might also influence staffing levels and staff turnover rates. This study investigates whether spending behaviors measured by financial ratios are associated with staffing levels and staff turnover in nursing homes. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,014 Texas homes. Data were from the 2002 Texas Nursing Facility Medicaid Cost Report and the 2003 Area Resource File. First, we examined differences in financial ratios by ownership type. Next, the effect of 10 financial ratios on staffing levels and turnover rates for registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and certified nursing assistants was examined using robust regression models. Descriptive data indicated that expense ratios related to resident care activities and staff development were significantly higher among not-for-profit than for-profit homes. Higher profits were associated with lower staffing levels, but not higher turnover rates. Administrative expenses (a measure of management capacity) had a negative impact both on staffing levels and staff turnover for licensed vocational nurses and certified nursing assistants, but they did not affect registered nurse staffing. Employee benefit expenses exhibited a positive impact on registered nurse and licensed vocational nurse staffing levels. The addition of information on financial ratios to models predicting staffing indicators reduced the effect of ownership on these indicators. Solutions to the staffing and turnover problem should focus on more effective management practices. Certain levels of administrative and staff benefit expenses may be necessary to improve professional staff recruitment and reduce both staffing and turnover costs. Differences in these financial ratios may partially explain the role played by ownership in determining staffing levels and turnover.

  7. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Assessment of bone quality using Raman and infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Suda, Hiromi Kimura

    2015-10-01

    Bone quality, which was defined as "the sum total of characteristics of the bone that influence the bone's resistance to fracture" at the National Institute of Health (NIH) conference in 2001, contributes to bone strength in combination with bone mass. Bone mass is often measured as bone mineral density (BMD) and, consequently, can be quantified easily. On the other hand, bone quality is composed of several factors such as bone structure, bone matrix, calcification degree, microdamage, and bone turnover, and it is not easy to obtain data for the various factors. Therefore, it is difficult to quantify bone quality. We are eager to develop new measurement methods for bone quality that make it possible to determine several factors associated with bone quality at the same time. Analytic methods based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy have attracted a good deal of attention as they can provide a good deal of chemical information about hydroxyapatite and collagen, which are the main components of bone. A lot of studies on bone quality using Raman and FTIR imaging have been reported following the development of the two imaging systems. Thus, both Raman and FTIR imaging appear to be promising new bone morphometric techniques.

  8. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  9. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  10. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  11. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  12. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  14. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B; Hubble, Michael W; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). To quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a six-month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data-collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for three categories of agency staff mix: all-paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed) staff, and all-volunteer staff. The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix (all-paid = 10.2%, mixed = 12.3%, all-volunteer = 12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n = 25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $86,452.05, mixed = $9,766.65, and all-volunteer = $0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix (all-paid = $7,161.38, mixed = $1,409.64, and all-volunteer = $0). Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study's mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key

  15. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  16. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns.

    PubMed

    Chew, F S; Hudson, T M

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative 99mTc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  17. Heterogeneous glycation of cancellous bone and its association with bone quality and fragility.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lamya; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and enzymatic biochemical processes create crosslinks that modify the extracellular matrix (ECM) and affect the turnover of bone tissue. Because NEG affects turnover and turnover at the local level affects microarchitecture and formation and removal of microdamage, we hypothesized that NEG in cancellous bone is heterogeneous and accounts partly for the contribution of microarchitecture and microdamage on bone fragility. Human trabecular bone cores from 23 donors were subjected to compression tests. Mechanically tested cores as well as an additional 19 cores were stained with lead-uranyl acetate and imaged to determine microarchitecture and measure microdamage. Post-yield mechanical properties were measured and damaged trabeculae were extracted from a subset of specimens and characterized for the morphology of induced microdamage. Tested specimens and extracted trabeculae were quantified for enzymatic and non-enzymatic crosslink content using a colorimetric assay and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Results show that an increase in enzymatic crosslinks was beneficial for bone where they were associated with increased toughness and decreased microdamage. Conversely, bone with increased NEG required less strain to reach failure and were less tough. NEG heterogeneously modified trabecular microarchitecture where high amounts of NEG crosslinks were found in trabecular rods and with the mechanically deleterious form of microdamage (linear microcracks). The extent of NEG in tibial cancellous bone was the dominant predictor of bone fragility and was associated with changes in microarchitecture and microdamage.

  18. Heterogeneous Glycation of Cancellous Bone and Its Association with Bone Quality and Fragility

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lamya; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and enzymatic biochemical processes create crosslinks that modify the extracellular matrix (ECM) and affect the turnover of bone tissue. Because NEG affects turnover and turnover at the local level affects microarchitecture and formation and removal of microdamage, we hypothesized that NEG in cancellous bone is heterogeneous and accounts partly for the contribution of microarchitecture and microdamage on bone fragility. Human trabecular bone cores from 23 donors were subjected to compression tests. Mechanically tested cores as well as an additional 19 cores were stained with lead-uranyl acetate and imaged to determine microarchitecture and measure microdamage. Post-yield mechanical properties were measured and damaged trabeculae were extracted from a subset of specimens and characterized for the morphology of induced microdamage. Tested specimens and extracted trabeculae were quantified for enzymatic and non-enzymatic crosslink content using a colorimetric assay and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Results show that an increase in enzymatic crosslinks was beneficial for bone where they were associated with increased toughness and decreased microdamage. Conversely, bone with increased NEG required less strain to reach failure and were less tough. NEG heterogeneously modified trabecular microarchitecture where high amounts of NEG crosslinks were found in trabecular rods and with the mechanically deleterious form of microdamage (linear microcracks). The extent of NEG in tibial cancellous bone was the dominant predictor of bone fragility and was associated with changes in microarchitecture and microdamage. PMID:22514706

  19. Plagued by Turnover? Train Your Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with managers is a major cause of employee turnover The Charles Schwab Corporation surveys employees annually and holds employee focus groups and online town meetings. The information is used for the coaching and training of department heads. (JOW)

  20. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, J. H. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888