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Sample records for abnormal breathing patterns

  1. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    PubMed

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  2. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  3. The importance of a normal breathing pattern for an effective abdominal-hollowing maneuver in healthy people: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Kwon, Oh-yun; Kim, Su-jung; Choung, Sung-dae

    2014-02-01

    A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated. To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis. Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study. University research laboratory. 16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population. A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR. Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Identification of abnormal accident patterns at intersections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations based on the Identification of Abnormal Accident Patterns at Intersections. This project used a statistically valid sampling method to determine whether a specific intersection has an abnormally h...

  6. Description of Abnormal Breathing Is Associated With Improved Outcomes and Delayed Telephone Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Instructions.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hidetada; Panczyk, Micah; Hu, Chengcheng; Dameff, Christian; Chikani, Vatsal; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Spaite, Daniel W; Bobrow, Bentley J

    2017-08-29

    Emergency 9-1-1 callers use a wide range of terms to describe abnormal breathing in persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). These breathing descriptors can obstruct the telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) process. We conducted an observational study of emergency call audio recordings linked to confirmed OHCAs in a statewide Utstein-style database. Breathing descriptors fell into 1 of 8 groups (eg, gasping, snoring). We divided the study population into groups with and without descriptors for abnormal breathing to investigate the impact of these descriptors on patient outcomes and telephone CPR process. Callers used descriptors in 459 of 2411 cases (19.0%) between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. Survival outcome was better when the caller used a breathing descriptor (19.6% versus 8.8%, P <0.0001), with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.25). After exclusions, 379 of 459 cases were eligible for process analysis. When callers described abnormal breathing, the rates of telecommunicator OHCA recognition, CPR instruction, and telephone CPR were lower than when callers did not use a breathing descriptor (79.7% versus 93.0%, P <0.0001; 65.4% versus 72.5%, P =0.0078; and 60.2% versus 66.9%, P =0.0123, respectively). The time interval between call receipt and OHCA recognition was longer when the caller used a breathing descriptor (118.5 versus 73.5 seconds, P <0.0001). Descriptors of abnormal breathing are associated with improved outcomes but also with delays in the identification of OHCA. Familiarizing telecommunicators with these descriptors may improve the telephone CPR process including OHCA recognition for patients with increased probability of survival. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    PubMed

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  8. Effects of breathing exercises on breathing patterns in obese and non-obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Olsén, M F; Lönroth, H; Bake, B

    1999-05-01

    Chest physiotherapy in connection with abdominal surgery includes different deep-breathing exercises to prevent post-operative pulmonary complications. The therapy is effective in preventing pulmonary complications, especially in high-risk patients such as obese persons. The mechanisms behind the effect is unclear, but part of the effect may be explained by the changes in breathing patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to describe and to analyse the breathing patterns in obese and non-obese subjects during three different breathing techniques frequently used in the treatment of post-operative patients. Twenty-one severely obese [body mass index (BMI) > 40] and 21 non-obese (BMI 19-25) subjects were studied. All persons denied having any lung disease and were non-smokers. The breathing techniques investigated were: deep breaths without any resistance (DB), positive expiratory pressure (PEP) with an airway resistance of approximately +15 cmH2O (1.5 kPa) during expiration, inspiratory resistance positive expiratory pressure (IR-PEP) with a pressure of approximately -10 cmH2O (-1.0 kPa) during inspiration. Expiratory resistance as for PEP. Volume against time was monitored while the subjects were sitting in a body plethysmograph. Variables for volume and flow during the breathing cycle were determined. Tidal volume and alveolar ventilation were highest during DB, and peak inspiratory volume was significantly higher than during PEP and IR-PEP in the group of obese subjects. The breathing cycles were prolonged in all techniques but were most prolonged in PEP and IR-PEP. The functional residual capacity (FRC) was significantly lower during DB than during PEP and IR-PEP in the group of obese subjects. FRC as determined within 2 min of finishing each breathing technique was identical to before the breathing manoeuvres.

  9. Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Beatty, J. David; Cataneo, Renee N.; Huston, Jan; Kaplan, Peter D.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Lambin, Philippe; Lobbes, Marc B. I.; Mundada, Mayur; Pappas, Nadine; Patel, Urvish

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:24599224

  10. [Effects of breathing exercises on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion after gastroplasty].

    PubMed

    Tomich, Georgia Miranda; França, Danielle Corrêa; Diniz, Marco Túlio Costa; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion during breathing exercises. Twenty-four patients with class II or III obesity (18 women; 6 men) were studied on the second postoperative day after gastroplasty. The mean age was 37 +/- 11 years, and the mean BMI was 44 +/- 3 kg/m(2). Diaphragmatic breathing, incentive spirometry with a flow-oriented device and incentive spirometry with a volume-oriented device were performed in random order. Respiratory inductive plethysmography was used in order to measure respiratory variables and thoracoabdominal motion. Comparisons among the three exercises showed significant differences: tidal volume was higher during incentive spirometry (with the flow-oriented device or with the volume-oriented device) than during diaphragmatic breathing; the respiratory rate was lower during incentive spirometry with the volume-oriented device than during incentive spirometry with the flow-oriented device; and minute ventilation was higher during incentive spirometry (with the flow-oriented device or with the volume-oriented device) than during diaphragmatic breathing. Rib cage motion did not vary during breathing exercises, although there was an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony, especially during incentive spirometry with the flow-oriented device. Among the breathing exercises evaluated, incentive spirometry with the volume-oriented device provided the best results, because it allowed slower, deeper inhalation.

  11. Respiratory mechanics and breathing pattern in the neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Kosch, P C

    1987-01-01

    Breathing pattern, respiratory muscle activation pattern, lung volumes and volume-pressure characteristics of the respiratory system of normal, term, neonatal foals on Days 2 and 7 of age were determined to test the hypothesis that the foal actively maintains end-expiratory lung volume (EEV) greater than the relaxation volume of the respiratory system (Vrx) because of a highly compliant chest wall. Breathing pattern was measured in the awake, unsedated foal during quiet breathing in lateral and standing positions. The typical neonatal foal breathing pattern was characterized by a monophasic inspiratory and expiratory flow pattern. Both inspiration and expiration were active, with onset of Edi activity preceding onset of inspiratory flow, and phasic abdominal muscle activity detectable throughout most of expiration. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the normal, term neonatal foal actively maintains EEV greater than Vrx. In the neonatal foal, normalized lung volume and lung compliance values were similar to those reported for neonates of other species, while normalized chest wall compliance was considerably lower. We conclude that the chest wall of the term neonatal foal is sufficiently rigid to prevent a low Vrx. This characteristic probably prevents the foal from having to use a breathing strategy which maintains an EEV greater than Vrx.

  12. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  13. Breathing patterns in preterm and term infants immediately after birth.

    PubMed

    te Pas, Arjan B; Wong, Connie; Kamlin, C Omar F; Dawson, Jennifer A; Morley, Colin J; Davis, Peter G

    2009-03-01

    There is limited data describing how preterm and term infants breathe spontaneously immediately after birth. We studied spontaneously breathing infants >or=29 wk immediately after birth. Airway flow and tidal volume were measured for 90 s using a hot wire anemometer attached to a facemask. Twelve preterm and 13 term infants had recordings suitable for analysis. The median (interquartile range) proportion of expiratory braking was very high in both groups (preterm 90 [74-99] vs. term 87 [74-94]%; NS). Crying pattern was the predominant breathing pattern for both groups (62 [36-77]% vs. 64 [46-79]%; NS). Preterm infants showed a higher incidence of expiratory hold pattern (9 [4-17]% vs. 2 [0-6]%; p = 0.02). Both groups had large tidal volumes (6.7 [3.9] vs. 6.5 [4.1] mL/kg), high peak inspiratory flows (5.7 [3.8] vs. 8.0 [5] L/min), lower peak expiratory flow (3.6 [2.4] vs. 4.8 [3.2] L/min), short inspiration time (0.31 [0.13] vs. 0.32 [0.16] s) and long expiration time (0.93 [0.64] vs. 1.14 [0.86] s). Directly after birth, both preterm and term infants frequently brake their expiration, mostly by crying. Preterm infants use significantly more expiratory breath holds to defend their lung volume.

  14. Digital stethoscopes compared to standard auscultation for detecting abnormal paediatric breath sounds.

    PubMed

    Kevat, Ajay C; Kalirajah, Anaath; Roseby, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to objectively describe the audiological characteristics of wheeze and crackles in children by using digital stethoscope (DS) auscultation, as well as assess concordance between standard auscultation and two different DS devices in their ability to detect pathological breath sounds. Twenty children were auscultated by a paediatric consultant doctor and digitally recorded using the Littman™ 3200 Digital Electronic Stethoscope and a Clinicloud™ DS with smart device. Using spectrographic analysis, we found those with clinically described wheeze had prominent periodic waveform segments spanning expiration for a period of 0.03-1.2 s at frequencies of 100-1050 Hz, and occasionally spanning shorter inspiratory segments; paediatric crackles were brief discontinuous sounds with a distinguishing waveform. There was moderate concordance with respect to wheeze detection between digital and standard binaural stethoscopes, and 100% concordance for crackle detection. Importantly, DS devices were more sensitive than clinician auscultation in detecting wheeze in our study. Objective definition of audio characteristics of abnormal paediatric breath sounds was achieved using DS technology. We demonstrated superiority of our DS method compared to traditional auscultation for detection of wheeze. What is Known: • The audiological characteristics of abnormal breath sounds have been well-described in adult populations but not in children. • Inter-observer agreement for detection of pathological breath sounds using standard auscultation has been shown to be poor, but the clinical value of now easily available digital stethoscopes has not been sufficiently examined. What is New: • Digital stethoscopes can objectively define the nature of pathological breath sounds such as wheeze and crackles in children. • Paediatric wheeze was better detected by digital stethoscopes than by standard auscultation performed by an expert paediatric clinician.

  15. A Novel Approach to the Identification of Compromised Pulmonary Systems in Smokers by Exploiting Tidal Breathing Patterns.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Raj; Khasnobish, Anwesha; Chowdhury, Arijit; Sinharay, Arijit; Pal, Arpan; Chakravarty, Tapas

    2018-04-25

    Smoking causes unalterable physiological abnormalities in the pulmonary system. This is emerging as a serious threat worldwide. Unlike spirometry, tidal breathing does not require subjects to undergo forceful breathing maneuvers and is progressing as a new direction towards pulmonary health assessment. The aim of the paper is to evaluate whether tidal breathing signatures can indicate deteriorating adult lung condition in an otherwise healthy person. If successful, such a system can be used as a pre-screening tool for all people before some of them need to undergo a thorough clinical checkup. This work presents a novel systematic approach to identify compromised pulmonary systems in smokers from acquired tidal breathing patterns. Tidal breathing patterns are acquired during restful breathing of adult participants. Thereafter, physiological attributes are extracted from the acquired tidal breathing signals. Finally, a unique classification approach of locally weighted learning with ridge regression (LWL-ridge) is implemented, which handles the subjective variations in tidal breathing data without performing feature normalization. The LWL-ridge classifier recognized compromised pulmonary systems in smokers with an average classification accuracy of 86.17% along with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. The implemented approach outperformed other variants of LWL as well as other standard classifiers and generated comparable results when applied on an external cohort. This end-to-end automated system is suitable for pre-screening people routinely for early detection of lung ailments as a preventive measure in an infrastructure-agnostic way.

  16. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Parot, S; Miara, B; Milic-Emili, J; Gautier, H

    1982-11-01

    The results of lung function tests (total and functional residual capacities, residual volume/total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory volume in one second) breathing patterns and arterial PO2 and PCO2 were studied in 651 ambulatory male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functionally and clinically stable. Function tests were only loosely correlated with gas tensions: abnormalities in mechanics and in gas exchange are not necessarily related. In patients matched for the degree of obstruction, the breathing pattern depended upon both PaO2 and PaCO2. Isolated hypoxemia was accompanied by increased respiratory frequency without any variation in tidal volume: this suggests that the chemoreceptive systems still responded to changes in PaO2. Isolated hypercapnia was accompanied by a decrease in tidal volume and an increase in respiratory frequency. Consequently, the dead space/tidal volume ratio increased, leading to a drop in alveolar ventilation and to CO2 retention.

  17. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  18. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    PubMed

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  19. Abnormal auditory pattern perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Butera, Christiana D; Salisbury, Dean F

    2016-10-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to deviation from physical sound parameters (e.g., pitch, duration) is reduced in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz), suggesting deficits in deviance detection. However, MMN can appear at several time intervals as part of deviance detection. Understanding which part of the processing stream is abnormal in Sz is crucial for understanding MMN pathophysiology. We measured MMN to complex pattern deviants, which have been shown to produce multiple MMNs in healthy controls (HC). Both simple and complex MMNs were recorded from 27 Sz and 27 matched HC. For simple MMN, pitch- and duration-deviants were presented among frequent standard tones. For complex MMN, patterns of five single tones were repeatedly presented, with the occasional deviant group of tones containing an extra sixth tone. Sz showed smaller pitch MMN (p=0.009, ~110ms) and duration MMN (p=0.030, ~170ms) than healthy controls. For complex MMN, there were two deviance-related negativities. The first (~150ms) was not significantly different between HC and SZ. The second was significantly reduced in Sz (p=0.011, ~400ms). The topography of the late complex MMN was consistent with generators in anterior temporal cortex. Worse late MMN in Sz was associated with increased emotional withdrawal, poor attention, lack of spontaneity/conversation, and increased preoccupation. Late MMN blunting in schizophrenia suggests a deficit in later stages of deviance processing. Correlations with negative symptoms measures are preliminary, but suggest that abnormal complex auditory perceptual processes may compound higher-order cognitive and social deficits in the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventilatory muscle endurance training in quadriplegia: effects on breathing pattern.

    PubMed

    Loveridge, B; Badour, M; Dubo, H

    1989-10-01

    We examined the effects of ventilatory muscle endurance training on resting breathing pattern in 12 C6-C7 traumatic quadriplegics at least 1 year post-injury. All subjects had complete motor loss below the lesion level. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training (N = 6), or a control group (N = 6). Baseline tests included measurement of resting ventilation and breathing pattern using mercury in rubber strain gauges for 20 minutes in a seated position; maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) at FRC, and sustainable inspiratory mouth pressure for 10 minutes (SIP); lung volumes, and arterial blood gases (ABG's). The training protocol consisted of breathing through an inspiratory resistor equivalent to 85% SIP for 15 minutes twice daily, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Both trainers and controls attended the lab every 2 weeks for reassessment of MIP and SIP and the inspiratory resistance was increased in the training group as SIP increased. At the end of 8 weeks, baseline tests were repeated. All subjects had normal ABG's. There was a significant increase in mean MIP and SIP in both the control group (30% +/- 19% and 31% +/- 18% respectively), and in the training group (42% +/- 24% and 78% +/- 49% respectively). Although the absolute values for both MIP and SIP were greater in the training group than in the control group, the differences were not significant. The alterations in resting breathing pattern were also the same in both groups. Mean frequency decreased significantly in the control group (20.2/minute to 16.9/minute) and, while insignificant, the change in frequency in the training group was the same, 19.4/minute to 16.4/minute. Mean tidal volume (Vt) increased 18.2% of baseline Vt in the control group and 17.0% baseline in the trainers, resulting in no change in minute ventilation. As MIP and SIP increased similarly in both groups, the data from the control and trainers was pooled and timing changes re-evaluated pre- and post-study. A significant decrease in

  1. Progressive Changes in a Distributed Neural Circuit Underlie Breathing Abnormalities in Mice Lacking MeCP2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Teng-Wei; Kochukov, Mikhail Y; Ward, Christopher S; Merritt, Jonathan; Thomas, Kaitlin; Nguyen, Tiffani; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-05-18

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Severe breathing abnormalities are common in RTT and are reproduced in mouse models of RTT. Previously, we found that removing MeCP2 from the brainstem and spinal cord in mice caused early lethality and abnormal breathing. To determine whether loss of MeCP2 in functional components of the respiratory network causes specific breathing disorders, we used the Cre/LoxP system to differentially manipulate MeCP2 expression throughout the brainstem respiratory network, specifically within HoxA4-derived tissues, which include breathing control circuitry within the nucleus tractus solitarius and the caudal part of ventral respiratory column but do not include more rostral parts of the breathing control circuitry. To determine whether respiratory phenotypes manifested in animals with MeCP2 removed from specific pons medullary respiratory circuits, we performed whole-body plethysmography and electrophysiological recordings from in vitro brainstem slices from mice lacking MeCP2 in different circuits. Our results indicate that MeCP2 expression in the medullary respiratory network is sufficient for normal respiratory rhythm and preventing apnea. However, MeCP2 expression within components of the breathing circuitry rostral to the HoxA4 domain are neither sufficient to prevent the hyperventilation nor abnormal hypoxic ventilatory response. Surprisingly, we found that MeCP2 expression in the HoxA4 domain alone is critical for survival. Our study reveals that MeCP2 is differentially required in select respiratory components for different aspects of respiratory functions, and collectively for the integrity of this network functions to maintain proper respiration. Breathing abnormalities are a significant clinical feature in Rett syndrome and are robustly reproduced in the mouse models of this disease. Previous work has established that alterations in the function of Me

  2. The pattern of breathing following a 10-breath voluntary hyperventilation during hyperoxic rebreathing.

    PubMed

    Chatha, D; Duffin, J

    1997-06-01

    The pattern of breathing following a 10-breath voluntary hyperventilation period during hyperoxic rebreathing was compared to that without hyperventilation in 6 subjects (3 male and 3 female). The aim was to measure the posthyperventilation short-term potentiation of ventilation without changes in respiratory chemoreflex drives induced by the voluntary hyperventilation. Hyperoxia was used to reduce the peripheral chemoreflex drive, and rebreathing to prevent the decrease in arterial carbon dioxide tension normally produced by hyperventilation. There were significant differences between the male and female responses. However, in all subjects, ventilation and heart rate were increased during hyperventilation but end-tidal partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen were unchanged. Following hyperventilation, ventilation immediately returned to the values observed when hyperventilation was omitted. Hyperventilation did not induce a short-term potentiation of ventilation under these conditions; changes in chemoreflex stimuli brought about by cardiovascular changes induced by hyperventilation may play a role in the short-term potentiation observed under other circumstances.

  3. Small reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex area induces abnormal breathing periods in awake goats.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, J M; Pan, L G; Klum, L; Leekley, T; Bastastic, J; Hodges, M R; Feroah, T; Davis, S; Forster, H V

    2004-11-01

    In awake rats, >80% bilateral reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötzC) resulted in hypoventilation and an "ataxic" breathing pattern (Gray PA, Rekling JC, Bocchiaro CM, Feldman JL, Science 286: 1566-1568, 1999). Accordingly, the present study was designed to gain further insight into the role of the pre-BötzC area NK1R-expressing neurons in the control of breathing during physiological conditions. Microtubules were chronically implanted bilaterally into the medulla of adult goats. After recovery from surgery, the neurotoxin saporin conjugated to substance P, specific for NK1R-expressing neurons, was bilaterally injected (50 pM in 10 microl) into the pre-BötzC area during the awake state (n = 8). In unoperated goats, 34 +/- 0.01% of the pre-BötzC area neurons are immunoreactive for the NK1R, but, in goats after bilateral injection of SP-SAP into the pre-BötzC area, NK1R immunoreactivity was reduced to 22.5 +/- 2.5% (29% decrease, P < 0.01). Ten to fourteen days after the injection, the frequency of abnormal breathing periods was sixfold greater than before injection (107.8 +/- 21.8/h, P < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of these periods were breaths of varying duration and volume with an altered respiratory muscle activation pattern, whereas the remaining were rapid, complete breaths with coordinated inspiratory-expiratory cycles. The rate of occurrence and characteristics of abnormal breathing periods were not altered during a CO2 inhalation-induced hyperpnea. Pathological breathing patterns were eliminated during non-rapid eye movement sleep in seven of eight goats, but they frequently occurred on arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. We conclude that a moderate reduction in pre-BötzC NK1R-expressing neurons results in state-dependent transient changes in respiratory rhythm and/or eupneic respiratory muscle activation patterns.

  4. Influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate and breathing pattern in laryngectomized individuals.

    PubMed

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) on endotracheal climate and breathing pattern. Endotracheal temperature and humidity and tidal volumes were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME with "standard" breathing resistance (Provox Normal HME; R-HME), a low breathing-resistance HME (Provox HiFlow HME; L-HME), and without HME. Both R-HME and L-HME increased end-inspiratory humidity (+5.8 and 4.7 mgH(2)O/L, respectively), decreased end-inspiratory temperature (-1.6 and -1.0 degrees C, respectively), and prolonged the exhalation breath length to approximately 0.5 seconds. The R-HME significantly enlarged tidal volumes (0.07 L; p < .05). Both HMEs significantly improve tracheal climate. The R-HME has better moistening properties and a small but significant positive effect on tidal volume. Therefore, if the higher resistance is tolerated, the R-HME is the preferred pulmonary rehabilitation device. The L-HME is indicated if lower breathing resistance is required. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

  5. Breath-Taking Patterns: Discontinuous Hydrophilic Regions for Photonic Crystal Beads Assembly and Patterns Revisualization.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuemin; Wang, Juan; Cui, Huanqing; Zhao, Qilong; Chen, Hongxu; He, Le; Wang, Yunlong

    2017-11-01

    Surfaces patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions provide robust and versatile means for investigating the wetting behaviors of liquids, surface properties analysis, and producing patterned arrays. However, the fabrication of integral and uniform arrays onto these open systems remains a challenge, thus restricting them from being used in practical applications. Here, we present a simple yet powerful approach for the fabrication of water droplet arrays and the assembly of photonic crystal bead arrays based on hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterned substrates. Various integral arrays are simply prepared in a high-quality output with a low cost, large scale, and uniform size control. By simply taking a breath, which brings moisture to the substrate surface, complex hydrophilic-hydrophobic outlined images can be revisualized in the discontinuous hydrophilic regions. Integration of hydrogel photonic crystal bead arrays into the "breath-taking" process results in breath-responsive photonic crystal beads, which can change their colors upon a mild exhalation. This state-of-the-art technology not only provides an effective methodology for the preparation of patterned arrays but also demonstrates intriguing applications in information storage and biochemical sensors.

  6. Mixed Pattern Matching-Based Traffic Abnormal Behavior Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

  7. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  8. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  9. Effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on breath condensate volume, pH, nitrite, and protein concentrations

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, J; Bradshaw, T; Tate, S; Greening, A; Innes, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: The effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on the volume and content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were investigated. Methods: Total exhaled water (TEW), EBC volume, pH, nitrite and protein concentrations were measured in three groups of 10 healthy subjects breathing into a condenser at different target minute ventilations (Vm), tidal volumes (Vt), and inspired air conditions. Results: The volumes of both TEW and EBC increased significantly with Vm. For Vm 7.5, 15 and 22.5 l/min, mean (SD) EBC was 627 (258) µl, 1019 (313) µl, and 1358 (364) µl, respectively (p<0.001) and TEW was 1879 (378) µl, 2986 (496) µl, and 4679 (700) µl, respectively (p<0.001). TEW was significantly higher than EBC, reflecting a condenser efficiency of 40% at a target Vm of 7.5 l/min which reduced to 29% at Vm 22.5 l/min. Lower Vt gave less TEW than higher Vt (26.6 v 30.7 µl/l, mean difference 4.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.6), p<0.001) and a smaller EBC volume (4.3 v 7.6 µl/l, mean difference 3.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.5), p<0.001). Cooler and drier inspired air yielded less water vapour and less breath condensate than standard conditions (p<0.05). Changes in the breathing pattern had no effect on EBC protein and nitrite concentrations and pH. Conclusion: These results show that condensate volume can be increased by using high Vt and increased Vm without compromising the dilution of the sample. PMID:15282391

  10. Effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on breath condensate volume, pH, nitrite, and protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, J B; Bradshaw, T A; Tate, S; Greening, A P; Innes, J A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on the volume and content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were investigated. Total exhaled water (TEW), EBC volume, pH, nitrite and protein concentrations were measured in three groups of 10 healthy subjects breathing into a condenser at different target minute ventilations (Vm), tidal volumes (Vt), and inspired air conditions. The volumes of both TEW and EBC increased significantly with Vm. For Vm 7.5, 15 and 22.5 l/min, mean (SD) EBC was 627 (258) microl, 1019 (313) microl, and 1358 (364) microl, respectively (p<0.001) and TEW was 1879 (378) microl, 2986 (496) microl, and 4679 (700) microl, respectively (p<0.001). TEW was significantly higher than EBC, reflecting a condenser efficiency of 40% at a target Vm of 7.5 l/min which reduced to 29% at Vm 22.5 l/min. Lower Vt gave less TEW than higher Vt (26.6 v 30.7 microl/l, mean difference 4.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.6), p<0.001) and a smaller EBC volume (4.3 v 7.6 microl/l, mean difference 3.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.5), p<0.001). Cooler and drier inspired air yielded less water vapour and less breath condensate than standard conditions (p<0.05). Changes in the breathing pattern had no effect on EBC protein and nitrite concentrations and pH. These results show that condensate volume can be increased by using high Vt and increased Vm without compromising the dilution of the sample.

  11. Changes in breathing pattern in the normal horse at rest up to age one year.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Wozniak, J A; Kosch, P C

    1995-07-01

    Changes in pattern of airflow, sequence of respiratory muscle activation and generated pressures were measured serially in a group of foals during the first year post partum, in order to describe the maturation of the equine breathing pattern. In neonatal foals, inspiration and expiration were both primarily active and airflow pattern was essentially monophasic. By age 1 year, foals displayed essentially the same breathing pattern previously described in adult horses, utilising a combination of active and passive inspiration and expiration to breathe around, rather than from, the relaxation volume of the respiratory system (Vrx). A strong temporal relationship during growth was found between the timing of changes observed in airflow pattern and in the neuromuscular strategy of breathing. The transition to the adult breathing pattern appeared to involve a time delay in activation of both inspiratory and expiratory muscle groups, establishing a passive and active component to both inspiration and expiration. Throughout the study period, concurrent with the increase in delay of abdominal muscle activation, the expiratory flow pattern became progressively more biphasic in appearance. The time of appearance of a consistent biphasic inspiratory flow pattern was considerably later, at approximately age 1 year and coincided with the appearance of a delay in inspiratory muscle activation. From our results, we conclude that the transition from the neonatal to the adult breathing strategy in the horse appears not to be induced by the time course of chest wall stiffening during maturation. While changes in relative body proportions and size of abdominal contents during growth may influence the transition in breathing, our results also indicate that respiratory control mechanisms play an essential role in the expression of the polyphasic breathing pattern.

  12. EFFECT OF BODY SIZE ON BREATHING PATTERN AND FINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-child variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle, lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2um monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy...

  13. Relationship between dysfunctional breathing patterns and ability to achieve target heart rate variability with features of "coherence" during biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Rosalba; Cohen, Marc; van Dixhoorn, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is a self-regulation strategy used to improve conditions including asthma, stress, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory muscle function affects hemodynamic influences on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and HRV and HRV-biofeedback protocols often include slow abdominal breathing to achieve physiologically optimal patterns of HRV with power spectral distribution concentrated around the 0.1-Hz frequency and large amplitude. It is likely that optimal balanced breathing patterns and ability to entrain heart rhythms to breathing reflect physiological efficiency and resilience and that individuals with dysfunctional breathing patterns may have difficulty voluntarily modulating HRV and RSA. The relationship between breathing movement patterns and HRV, however, has not been investigated. This study examines how individuals' habitual breathing patterns correspond with their ability to optimize HRV and RSA. Breathing pattern was assessed using the Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and the Hi Lo manual palpation techniques in 83 people with possible dysfunctional breathing before they attempted HRV biofeedback. Mean respiratory rate was also assessed. Subsequently, participants applied a brief 5-minute biofeedback protocol, involving breathing and positive emotional focus, to achieve HRV patterns proposed to reflect physiological "coherence" and entrainment of heart rhythm oscillations to other oscillating body systems. Thoracic-dominant breathing was associated with decreased coherence of HRV (r = -.463, P = .0001). Individuals with paradoxical breathing had the lowest HRV coherence (t(8) = 10.7, P = .001), and the negative relationship between coherence of HRV and extent of thoracic breathing was strongest in this group (r = -.768, P = .03). Dysfunctional breathing patterns are associated with decreased ability to achieve HRV patterns that reflect cardiorespiratory efficiency and

  14. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  15. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  16. Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing Patterns on Balance: A Preliminary Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Rylee J; Haas, Mitchell; Moore, William L; Emmil, Jordan R; Sipress, Jayson A; Williams, Alex

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing a larger study to determine if training in diaphragmatic breathing influences static and dynamic balance. A group of 13 healthy persons (8 men, 5 women), who were staff, faculty, or students at the University of Western States participated in an 8-week breathing and balance study using an uncontrolled clinical trial design. Participants were given a series of breathing exercises to perform weekly in the clinic and at home. Balance and breathing were assessed at the weekly clinic sessions. Breathing was evaluated with Liebenson's breathing assessment, static balance with the Modified Balance Error Scoring System, and dynamic balance with OptoGait's March in Place protocol. Improvement was noted in mean diaphragmatic breathing scores (1.3 to 2.6, P < .001), number of single-leg stance balance errors (7.1 to 3.8, P = .001), and tandem stance balance errors (3.2 to 0.9, P = .039). A decreasing error rate in single-leg stance was associated with improvement in breathing score within participants over the 8 weeks of the study (-1.4 errors/unit breathing score change, P < .001). Tandem stance performance did not reach statistical significance (-0.5 error/unit change, P = .118). Dynamic balance was insensitive to balance change, being error free for all participants throughout the study. This proof-of-concept study indicated that promotion of a costal-diaphragmatic breathing pattern may be associated with improvement in balance and suggests that a study of this phenomenon using an experimental design is feasible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house toolmore » was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.« less

  18. Effect of physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises using breathing pattern on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungyoung; Rhee, Min-Hyung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to confirm physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. [Subject and Methods] A 15-year-old male middle school student with scoliosis. Cobb's angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were measured before and after 8 weeks training. [Results] After 8 weeks training, Cobb's angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were improved better. [Conclusion] These results indicate that physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises improves scoliosis curves and could provide an effective intervention and management of scoliosis.

  19. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  20. Time course of ozone-induced changes in breathing pattern in healthy exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F; Adams, William C

    2007-02-01

    We examined the time course of O3-induced changes in breathing pattern in 97 healthy human subjects (70 men and 27 women). One- to five-minute averages of breathing frequency (f(B)) and minute ventilation (Ve) were used to generate plots of cumulative breaths and cumulative exposure volume vs. time and cumulative exposure volume vs. cumulative breaths. Analysis revealed a three-phase response; delay, no response detected; onset, f(B) began to increase; response, f(B) stabilized. Regression analysis was used to identify four parameters: time to onset, number of breaths at onset, cumulative inhaled dose of ozone at onset of O3-induced tachypnea, and the percent change in f(B). The effect of altering O3 concentration, Ve, atropine treatment, and indomethacin treatment were examined. We found that the lower the O3 concentration, the greater the number of breaths at onset of tachypnea at a fixed ventilation, whereas number of breaths at onset of tachypnea remains unchanged when Ve is altered and O3 concentration is fixed. The cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea remained constant and showed no relationship with the magnitude of percent change in f(B). Atropine did not affect any of the derived parameters, whereas indomethacin did not affect time to onset, number of breaths at onset, or cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea but did attenuate percent change in f(B). The results are discussed in the context of dose response and intrinsic mechanisms of action.

  1. The Ultrasonic Directional Tidal Breathing Pattern Sensor: Equitable Design Realization Based on Phase Information

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Arijit; Rakshit, Raj; Chakravarty, Tapas; Ghosh, Deb; Pal, Arpan

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary ailments are conventionally diagnosed by spirometry. The complex forceful breathing maneuver as well as the extreme cost of spirometry renders it unsuitable in many situations. This work is aimed to facilitate an emerging direction of tidal breathing-based pulmonary evaluation by designing a novel, equitable, precise and portable device for acquisition and analysis of directional tidal breathing patterns, in real time. The proposed system primarily uses an in-house designed blow pipe, 40-kHz air-coupled ultrasound transreceivers, and a radio frequency (RF) phase-gain integrated circuit (IC). Moreover, in order to achieve high sensitivity in a cost-effective design philosophy, we have exploited the phase measurement technique, instead of selecting the contemporary time-of-flight (TOF) measurement; since application of the TOF principle in tidal breathing assessments requires sub-micro to nanosecond time resolution. This approach, which depends on accurate phase measurement, contributed to enhanced sensitivity using a simple electronics design. The developed system has been calibrated using a standard 3-L calibration syringe. The parameters of this system are validated against a standard spirometer, with maximum percentage error below 16%. Further, the extracted respiratory parameters related to tidal breathing have been found to be comparable with relevant prior works. The error in detecting respiration rate only is 3.9% compared to manual evaluation. These encouraging insights reveal the definite potential of our tidal breathing pattern (TBP) prototype for measuring tidal breathing parameters in order to extend the reach of affordable healthcare in rural regions and developing areas. PMID:28800103

  2. VARIATION OF LUNG DEPOSITION OF MICRON SIZE PARTICLES WITH LUNG VOLUME AND BREATHING PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung volume and breathing pattern are the source of inter-and intra-subject variability of lung deposition of inhaled particles. Controlling these factors may help optimize delivery of aerosol medicine to the target site within the lung. In the present study we measured total lu...

  3. Morphological patterns in children with ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Henna, Nausheen; Nagi, Abdul H; Sheikh, Muhammad A; Shaukat, Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) is a developmental disorder of enteric nervous system characterised by the absence of ganglion cells in submucosal (Meissner's) and myenteric (Aurbach's) plexuses of distal bowel. The purpose of the present study was to observe and report the morphological patterns of ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities in children presented with clinical features of (HD) in a Pakistani population. A total of 92 patients with clinical presentation of HD were enrolled between March 2009 and October 2009. Among them, 8 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. After detailed history and physical examination, paraffin embedded H and E stained sections were prepared from the serial open biopsies from colorectum. The data was analysed using SPSS-17. Frequencies and percentages are given for qualitative variables. Non-parametric Binomial Chi-Square test was applied to observe within group associations and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among 84 patients, 13 (15.5%) proved to be normally ganglionic whereas 71 (84.5%) showed ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities namely isolated hypoganglionosis 9 (12.7%), immaturity of ganglion cells 9 (12.7%), isolated hyperganglionosis (IND Type B) 2 (2.8%) and Hirschsprung's disease 51 (71.8%). Among HD group, 34 (66.7%) belonged to isolated form and 17 (33.3%) showed combined ganglion related abnormalities. Hirschsprung's disease is common in Pakistani population, followed by hypoganglionosis, immaturity of ganglion cells and IND type B. The presence of hypertrophic nerve fibres was significant in HD, hyperganglionosis and hypoganglionosis, whereas, no hypertrophic nerve fibres were appreciated in immaturity of ganglion cell group.

  4. [Guidelines in Practice: The New S3 Guideline "Sleeping Disorders - Sleep-Related Abnormal Breathing"].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Martin; Sanner, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders include central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxia. These disorders are frequent and growing in clinical relevance. The related chapter of the S3 guideline "Non-restorative sleep/Sleep disorders", published by the German Sleep Society (DGSM), has recently been updated in November 2016. Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapeutic procedures, and classification of sleep related disorders have been revised. Concerning epidemiology, a considerably higher mortality rate among pregnant women with OSA has been emphasized. With regards to diagnostics, the authors point out that respiratory polygraphy may be sufficient in diagnosing OSA, if a typical clinical condition is given. For CSA, recommendations were changed to diagnose CSA with low apnea rates present. Significant changes for treating CSA in patients with left ventricular dysfunction have been introduced. In addition, there is now to be differentiated between sleep-related hypoventilation and sleep-related hypoxaemia. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is discussed in more detail. This article sums up and comments on the published changes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Guidelines in Practice: The New S3 Guideline "Sleeping Disorders - Sleep-Related Abnormal Breathing"].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, M; Sanner, B

    2017-08-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders include central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxia. These disorders are frequent and growing in clinical relevance. The related chapter of the S3 guideline "Non-restorative sleep/Sleep disorders", published by the German Sleep Society (DGSM), has recently been updated in November 2016. Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapeutic procedures, and classification of sleep related disorders have been revised. Concerning epidemiology, a considerably higher mortality rate among pregnant women with OSA has been emphasized. With regards to diagnostics, the authors point out that respiratory polygraphy may be sufficient in diagnosing OSA, if a typical clinical condition is given. For CSA, recommendations were changed to diagnose CSA with low apnea rates present. Significant changes for treating CSA in patients with left ventricular dysfunction have been introduced. In addition, there is now to be differentiated between sleep-related hypoventilation and sleep-related hypoxaemia. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is discussed in more detail. This article sums up and comments on the published changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Abnormal patterns of displacement activities: a review and reinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-1970 about displacement activities -- those 'out-of-context' actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit 'abnormalities' of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model -- the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) -- then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model.

  7. Patterns of pulmonary maturation in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goldkrand, J W; Slattery, D S

    1979-03-01

    Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract and is relation to pulmonary maturity was utilized for this analysis. Validation of this technique is presented. A normal curve was constructed from 22 to 42 weeks; gestation and compared to the abnormal pregnancies. Patients with class A, B, and C diabetes and Rh-sensitized pregnancies had delayed pulmonary maturation. Patients with class D diabetes and preclampsia paralleled the normal course of maturation. A discussion of these results and their possible cause is presented.

  8. Luteal phase deficiency: abnormal gonadotropin and progesterone secretion patterns.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Clifton, D K; Cohen, N L; Bremner, W J; Steiner, R A

    1989-10-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is a reproductive disorder associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. This study was undertaken to determine whether LPD might be related to an abnormal pattern of gonadotropin secretion. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the pattern of pulsatile LH secretion in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in normal women (n = 21) and women with LPD (n = 20), which was diagnosed on the basis of two out of phase endometrial biopsies. In addition, we sought to determine whether changes in progesterone (P) pulse patterns could account for the decrease in average serum P levels in women with LPD. To this end, we examined the pulse patterns of P and compared these patterns between normal women and those with LPD. Frequent blood sampling was performed in both groups to determine their respective hormone secretion patterns. In the follicular phase, blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal phase the samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal LH, FSH, and P were assayed in each sample. Pulse detection was performed by an adaptive threshold method of pulse analysis. The LH pulse frequency was significantly higher in the women with LPD than in the normal women in the early follicular phase [P less than 0.05; LPD, 12.8 +/- 1.4 (+/- SE); normal, 8.2 +/- 0.7 pulses/12 h]. LH pulse frequency was similar in the early and late follicular phases in the women with LPD, whereas it was higher in the late follicular phase in normal women. Mean serum FSH levels were not different between groups in both the early and late follicular phases. In the luteal phase the P pulse amplitude and mean serum P level were significantly lower in the LPD group than in the normal women (P less than 0.01). We conclude that 1) a too rapid LH pulse pattern in the early follicular phase may lead to inadequate LH support of the corpus luteum and become manifest as LPD; 2) the mechanism for inadequate P

  9. Breathing pattern and breathlessness in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Olukogbon, Kasope L; Thomas, Paul; Colasanti, Ricardo; Hope-Gill, Ben; Williams, Edgar Mark

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive decline in lung function and increasing dyspnoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among IPF, pulmonary function, resting tidal breathing patterns and level of breathlessness. Thirty-one participants with IPF and 17 matched healthy controls underwent lung function testing, followed by a 2-min period of resting tidal breathing. The IPF cohort was stratified according to disease severity, based on their forced vital capacity and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. In comparison to the healthy controls, the IPF cohort showed a higher tidal volume, VT , of 0.22 L (P = 0.026) and a raised minute ventilation in the severest IPF group, while no differences in the timing of inspiration or expiration were observed. In the IPF cohort, the ratio of VT to forced vital capacity was around 15% higher. These changes corresponded with an increase in the self-reported sensation of breathlessness. Those with IPF increased their depth of breathing with worsening disease severity, with IPF-induced changes in pulmonary function and breathlessness associated with an altered tidal breathing pattern. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Intelligent Process Abnormal Patterns Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Logic.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shi-Wang; Feng, Shunxiao; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Locating the assignable causes by use of the abnormal patterns of control chart is a widely used technology for manufacturing quality control. If there are uncertainties about the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns, the diagnosis process is impossible to be carried out. Considering four common abnormal control chart patterns, this paper proposed a characteristic numbers based recognition method point by point to quantify the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns under uncertain conditions and a fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy logic to calculate the contribution degree of assignable causes with fuzzy abnormal patterns. Application case results show that the proposed approach can give a ranked causes list under fuzzy control chart abnormal patterns and support the abnormity eliminating.

  11. Correlations between the circadian patterns of body temperature, metabolism and breathing in rats.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-02-15

    It had been demonstrated previously that the circadian patterns of activity and state of arousal are not essential for the manifestation of the daily patterns of pulmonary ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume (V(T)) and breathing frequency (f). In this study we investigated the extent of the linkage between the circadian pattern of breathing and those of body temperature (T(b)) and metabolic rate (oxygen consumption, V(O2), and carbon dioxide production, V(CO2)). Rats were instrumented for measurements of T(b) (by telemetry), and placed in a chamber for continuous 13-day period of measurement of breathing (by a modification of the barometric methodology), and of V(O2) and V(CO2) (by an open flow method). After the first 4 days in control conditions under a 12 h light:12 h dark (L:D) cycle, a perturbation was introduced on day 4, with an L-phase prolongation of 12 h, and on day 9, with an D-phase prolongation of 12 h. During the control days 1-4, all variables had daily oscillations (higher values in D), in phase with each other. During the perturbations (days 4-13), changes in T(b), V(O2) and V(CO2), averaged over the whole period, correlated significantly better with f than with V(T). Day-by-day X-Y loops indicated that V (E), V(T) and f could lead significantly the changes of T(b), V(O2) and V(CO2), and that these relations changed throughout the perturbation period. In addition, f and V(T) did not change necessarily in phase with each other. It is concluded that neither the oscillation in T(b) nor that in metabolism can be considered the direct cause of the daily oscillation of breathing. Presumably, the circadian pattern of breathing reflects the interplay of the daily patterns of many variables, none acting as the primary guide of the breathing daily rhythm.

  12. [Nursing outcomes for ineffective breathing patterns and impaired spontaneous ventilation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    do Canto, Débora Francisco; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to validate the results of Nursing selected from the link NANDA-I-NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification--NANDA--International) for diagnosis Ineffective Breathing Pattern and Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation in adult intensive care unit. This is a content validation study conducted in a university hospital in southern Brazil with 15 expert nurses with clinical experience and knowledge of the ratings. The instruments contained five-point Likert scales to rate the importance of each outcome (1st step) and indicator (Step 2) for the diagnoses studied. We calculated weighted averages for each outcome/indicator, considering) 1 = 0. 2 = 0.25, 3 = 0.50 4 = 0.75 and 5 = 1. The outcomes suggested by the NOC with averages above 0.8 were considered validated as well as the indicators. The results Respiratory State--airway permeability (Ineffective Breathing Patterns) and 11 indicators, and Response to mechanical ventilation: adult (Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation) with 26 indicators were validated.

  13. Sleep-disordered breathing and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities on 12-lead electrocardiogram in community-dwelling older men.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Picel, Katherine; Adabag, Selcuk; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-01

    Nocturnal cardiac conduction abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, few population-based studies have examined the association between SDB and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities. We examined a random sample of 471 community-dwelling men, aged ≥67 years, enrolled in the multi-center Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study. SDB severity was categorized using percent of total sleep time with oxygen saturation <90 % (%TST < 90) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Cardiac conduction parameters were assessed by resting 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). All analyses were adjusted for age, site, β-blocker use, coronary heart disease, calcium channel blocker use, and use of antiarrhythmic medications. Mean age was 77 ± 6 years, median %TST < 90 was 0.7 (IQR 0.00-3.40), and median AHI was 7.06 (IQR 2.55-15.32). Men with greater nocturnal hypoxemia (%TST < 90 ≥ 3.5 %) compared with those without hypoxemia (%TST < 90 < 1.0 %) had a lower odds of bradycardia (OR 0.55 [0.32-0.94]) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR 0.24 [0.08-0.75]) but a higher odds of ventricular paced rhythm (OR 4.42 [1.29-15.19]). Heart rate (HR) increased in a graded manner with increasing %TST < 90 (p-trend 0.01) and increasing AHI (p-trend 0.006), but these gradients were small in absolute magnitude. There were no associations of SDB measures with other ECG conduction parameters. Greater nocturnal hypoxemia in older men was associated with a lower prevalence of daytime sinus bradycardia and RBBB, a higher prevalence of ventricular paced rhythm, and higher resting HR.

  14. Sleep-disordered breathing and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities on 12-lead electrocardiogram in community-dwelling older men

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Younghoon; Picel, Katherine; Adabag, Selcuk; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C.; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nocturnal cardiac conduction abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, few population-based studies have examined the association between SDB and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities. Methods We examined a random sample of 471 community-dwelling men, aged ≥67 years, enrolled in the multi-center Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study. SDB severity was categorized using percent of total sleep time with oxygen saturation <90 % (%TST < 90) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Cardiac conduction parameters were assessed by resting 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). All analyses were adjusted for age, site, β-blocker use, coronary heart disease, calcium channel blocker use, and use of antiarrhythmic medications. Results Mean age was 77 ± 6 years, median %TST < 90 was 0.7 (IQR 0.00–3.40), and median AHI was 7.06 (IQR 2.55–15.32). Men with greater nocturnal hypoxemia (%TST < 90 ≥ 3.5 %) compared with those without hypoxemia (%TST < 90 < 1.0 %) had a lower odds of bradycardia (OR 0.55 [0.32–0.94]) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR 0.24 [0.08–0.75]) but a higher odds of ventricular paced rhythm (OR 4.42 [1.29–15.19]). Heart rate (HR) increased in a graded manner with increasing %TST < 90 (p-trend 0.01) and increasing AHI (p-trend 0.006), but these gradients were small in absolute magnitude. There were no associations of SDB measures with other ECG conduction parameters. Conclusions Greater nocturnal hypoxemia in older men was associated with a lower prevalence of daytime sinus bradycardia and RBBB, a higher prevalence of ventricular paced rhythm, and higher resting HR. PMID:26971326

  15. Evaluation of breathing patterns for respiratory-gated radiation therapy using the respiration regularity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, MeYeon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, KyoungJu; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, not to mention the necessity of maintaining that regularity through the following sessions, an effective and simply applicable method by which those goals can be accomplished has rarely been reported. The authors herein propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a cos4( ω( t) · t) wave form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: the sample standard deviation of respiration period ( s f ), the sample standard deviation of amplitude ( s a ) and the results of a simple regression of the baseline drift (slope as β, and standard deviation of residuals as σ r ) of a respiration signal. The overall irregularity ( δ) was defined as , where is a variable newly-derived by using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters and has two principal components ( ω 1, ω 2). The proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ = ln(1 + (1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. We investigated its clinical relevance by comparing it with other known parameters. Subsequently, we applied it to 110 respiration signals acquired from five liver and five lung cancer patients by using real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Additionally, the respiration regularity was compared between the liver and lung cancer patient groups. The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ < 0.3 showed

  16. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  17. [Evolution of breathing pattern and ventilation at maximal exercise during growth. Definition of reference values].

    PubMed

    Prioux, J; Mercier, J; Ramonatxo, M; Granier, P; Mercier, B; Prefaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the changes of parameters of breathing pattern and ventilation (VE) as a function of age during maximal exercise in children. A multi-longitudinal survey was conducted in forty four untrained schoolboys, divided in three groups with initial age of 11.2 years for group I, 12.9 years for group II, and 14.9 for group III. These children were subsequently followed three years ago at the same period. The range age was thus 11.2 to 16.9 years. This study showed that, during growth, ventilation (VE max), tidal volume (VT max) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI max) increased significantly with age, that inspiratory frequency (f max) decreased, that inspiratory, expiratory and total time of the respiratory cycle (TI max, TE max, TTOT max) increased slightly and that the inspiration fraction (TI/TTOT max) was identical at 11 and 17 years. Furthermore we observed that the peak height velocity and peak tidal volume velocity took place at the same age, i.e., 14 years and that those of weight and VT/TI at the same age of 15 years. In conclusion, this study allowed us to define reference values for breathing pattern at maximal exercise in sedentary boys and to specify the relation between growth and parameters of breathing pattern in these children.

  18. Time series analyses of breathing patterns of lung cancer patients using nonlinear dynamical system theory.

    PubMed

    Tewatia, D K; Tolakanahalli, R P; Paliwal, B R; Tomé, W A

    2011-04-07

    The underlying requirements for successful implementation of any efficient tumour motion management strategy are regularity and reproducibility of a patient's breathing pattern. The physiological act of breathing is controlled by multiple nonlinear feedback and feed-forward couplings. It would therefore be appropriate to analyse the breathing pattern of lung cancer patients in the light of nonlinear dynamical system theory. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the one-dimensional respiratory time series of lung cancer patients based on nonlinear dynamics and delay coordinate state space embedding. It is very important to select a suitable pair of embedding dimension 'm' and time delay 'τ' when performing a state space reconstruction. Appropriate time delay and embedding dimension were obtained using well-established methods, namely mutual information and the false nearest neighbour method, respectively. Establishing stationarity and determinism in a given scalar time series is a prerequisite to demonstrating that the nonlinear dynamical system that gave rise to the scalar time series exhibits a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, i.e. is chaotic. Hence, once an appropriate state space embedding of the dynamical system has been reconstructed, we show that the time series of the nonlinear dynamical systems under study are both stationary and deterministic in nature. Once both criteria are established, we proceed to calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), which is an invariant quantity under time delay embedding. The LLE for all 16 patients is positive, which along with stationarity and determinism establishes the fact that the time series of a lung cancer patient's breathing pattern is not random or irregular, but rather it is deterministic in nature albeit chaotic. These results indicate that chaotic characteristics exist in the respiratory waveform and techniques based on state space dynamics should be employed for tumour motion management.

  19. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  20. Vagal-dependent nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, R. R.; Jacono, F. J.; Fishman, M.; Loparo, K. A.; Rybak, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological rhythms, including respiration, exhibit endogenous variability associated with health, and deviations from this are associated with disease. Specific changes in the linear and nonlinear sources of breathing variability have not been investigated. In this study, we used information theory-based techniques, combined with surrogate data testing, to quantify and characterize the vagal-dependent nonlinear pattern variability in urethane-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rats. Surrogate data sets preserved the amplitude distribution and linear correlations of the original data set, but nonlinear correlation structure in the data was removed. Differences in mutual information and sample entropy between original and surrogate data sets indicated the presence of deterministic nonlinear or stochastic non-Gaussian variability. With vagi intact (n = 11), the respiratory cycle exhibited significant nonlinear behavior in templates of points separated by time delays ranging from one sample to one cycle length. After vagotomy (n = 6), even though nonlinear variability was reduced significantly, nonlinear properties were still evident at various time delays. Nonlinear deterministic variability did not change further after subsequent bilateral microinjection of MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in the Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. Reversing the sequence (n = 5), blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors bilaterally in the dorsolateral pons significantly decreased nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern, even with the vagi intact, and subsequent vagotomy did not change nonlinear variability. Thus both vagal and dorsolateral pontine influences contribute to nonlinear respiratory pattern variability. Furthermore, breathing dynamics of the intact system are mutually dependent on vagal and pontine sources of nonlinear complexity. Understanding the structure and modulation of variability provides insight into disease effects on respiratory

  1. Lung volume, breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneity in preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Latzin, Philipp; Roth, Stefan; Thamrin, Cindy; Hutten, Gerard J; Pramana, Isabelle; Kuehni, Claudia E; Casaulta, Carmen; Nelle, Matthias; Riedel, Thomas; Frey, Urs

    2009-01-01

    Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants, conflicting results exist possibly due to differences in sedation and measurement techniques. We studied 127 infants with BPD, 58 preterm infants without BPD and 239 healthy term-born infants, at a matched post-conceptional age of 44 weeks during quiet natural sleep according to ATS/ERS standards. Lung function parameters measured were functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneity by multiple breath washout as well as tidal breathing parameters. Preterm infants with BPD had only marginally lower FRC (21.4 mL/kg) than preterm infants without BPD (23.4 mL/kg) and term-born infants (22.6 mL/kg), though there was no trend with disease severity. They also showed higher respiratory rates and lower ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (t(PTEF)/t(E)) than healthy preterm and term controls. These changes were related to disease severity. No differences were found for ventilation inhomogeneity. Our results suggest that preterm infants with BPD have a high capacity to maintain functional lung volume during natural sleep. The alterations in breathing pattern with disease severity may reflect presence of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the disease process.

  2. Influence of the breathing pattern on the learning process: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Genef Caroline Andrade; Dos Santos, Isadora Diniz; Santos, Ana Claudia Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; César, Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20%) and sample calculation protocols (10%). The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [Characteristics of auto-CPAP devices during the simulation of sleep-related breathing flow patterns].

    PubMed

    Rühle, K H; Karweina, D; Domanski, U; Nilius, G

    2009-07-01

    The function of automatic CPAP devices is difficult to investigate using clinical examinations due to the high variability of breathing disorders. With a flow generator, however, identical breathing patterns can be reproduced so that comparative studies on the behaviour of pressure of APAP devices are possible. Because the algorithms of APAP devices based on the experience of users can be modified without much effort, also previously investigated devices should regularly be reviewed with regard to programme changes. Had changes occurred in the algorithms of 3 selected devices--compared to the previously published benchmark studies? Do the current versions of these investigated devices differentiate between open and closed apnoeas? With a self-developed respiratory pump, sleep-related breathing patterns and, with the help of a computerised valve, resistances of the upper respiratory tract were simulated. Three different auto-CPAP devices were subjected to a bench test with and without feedback (open/closed loop). Open loop: the 3 devices showed marked differences in the rate of pressure rise but did not differ from the earlier published results. From an initial pressure of 4 mbar the pressure increased to 10 mbar after a different number of apnoeas (1-6 repetitive apnoeas). Only one device differentiated between closed and open apnoeas. Closed loop: due to the pressure increase, the flow generator simulated reduced obstruction of the upper airways (apnoeas changed to hypopnoeas, hypopnoeas changed to flattening) but different patterns of pressure regulation could still be observed. By applying bench-testing, the algorithms of auto-CPAP devices can regularly be reviewed to detect changes in the software. The differentiation between open and closed apnoeas should be improved in several APAP devices.

  4. Effects of ion channel noise on neural circuits: an application to the respiratory pattern generator to investigate breathing variability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Dhingra, Rishi R; Dick, Thomas E; Galán, Roberto F

    2017-01-01

    Neural activity generally displays irregular firing patterns even in circuits with apparently regular outputs, such as motor pattern generators, in which the output frequency fluctuates randomly around a mean value. This "circuit noise" is inherited from the random firing of single neurons, which emerges from stochastic ion channel gating (channel noise), spontaneous neurotransmitter release, and its diffusion and binding to synaptic receptors. Here we demonstrate how to expand conductance-based network models that are originally deterministic to include realistic, physiological noise, focusing on stochastic ion channel gating. We illustrate this procedure with a well-established conductance-based model of the respiratory pattern generator, which allows us to investigate how channel noise affects neural dynamics at the circuit level and, in particular, to understand the relationship between the respiratory pattern and its breath-to-breath variability. We show that as the channel number increases, the duration of inspiration and expiration varies, and so does the coefficient of variation of the breath-to-breath interval, which attains a minimum when the mean duration of expiration slightly exceeds that of inspiration. For small channel numbers, the variability of the expiratory phase dominates over that of the inspiratory phase, and vice versa for large channel numbers. Among the four different cell types in the respiratory pattern generator, pacemaker cells exhibit the highest sensitivity to channel noise. The model shows that suppressing input from the pons leads to longer inspiratory phases, a reduction in breathing frequency, and larger breath-to-breath variability, whereas enhanced input from the raphe nucleus increases breathing frequency without changing its pattern. A major source of noise in neuronal circuits is the "flickering" of ion currents passing through the neurons' membranes (channel noise), which cannot be suppressed experimentally. Computational

  5. The effects of locomotor-respiratory coupling on the pattern of breathing in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Lafortuna, C L; Reinach, E; Saibene, F

    1996-01-01

    1. To investigate the effect of locomotor activity on the pattern of breathing in quadrupeds, ventilatory response was studied in four healthy horses during horizontal and inclined (7%) treadmill exercise at different velocities (1.4-6.9 m s(-1)) and during chemical stimulation with a rebreathing method. Stride frequency (f(s)) and locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) were also simultaneously determined by means of video recordings synchronized with respiratory events. 2. Tidal volume (V(T)) was positively correlated with pulmonary ventilation (V(E)) but significantly different linear regression equations were found between the experimental conditions (P < 0.0001), since the chemical hyperventilation was mainly due to increases in V(T), whereas the major contribution to exercise hyperpnoea came from changes in respiratory frequency (f(R)). 3. The average f(R) at each exercise level was not significantly different from f(S), although there was not always a tight 1:1 LRC. At constant speeds, f(S) was independent of the treadmill slope and hence the greater V(E) during inclined exercise was due to increased V(T). 4. At any ventilatory level, the differences in breathing patterns between locomotion and rebreathing or locomotion at different slopes derived from different set points of the inspiratory off-switch mechanism. 5. The percentage of single breaths entrained with locomotor rhythm rose progressively and significantly with treadmill speed (P < 0.0001) up to a 1:1 LRC and was significantly affected by treadmill slope (P < 0.001). 6. A LRC of 1:1 was systematically observed at canter (10 out of 10 trials) and sometimes at trot (5 out of 14) and it entailed (i) a 4- to 5-fold reduction in both V(T) and f(R) variability, and (ii) a gait-specific phase locking of inspiratory onset during the locomotor cycle. 7. It is concluded that different patterns of breathing are employed during locomotion and rebreathing due to the interference between locomotor and respiratory

  6. Breathing Pattern Interpretation as an Alternative and Effective Voice Communication Solution.

    PubMed

    Elsahar, Yasmin; Bouazza-Marouf, Kaddour; Kerr, David; Gaur, Atul; Kaushik, Vipul; Hu, Sijung

    2018-05-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems tend to rely on the interpretation of purposeful gestures for interaction. Existing AAC methods could be cumbersome and limit the solutions in terms of versatility. The study aims to interpret breathing patterns (BPs) to converse with the outside world by means of a unidirectional microphone and researches breathing-pattern interpretation (BPI) to encode messages in an interactive manner with minimal training. We present BP processing work with (1) output synthesized machine-spoken words (SMSW) along with single-channel Weiner filtering (WF) for signal de-noising, and (2) k -nearest neighbor ( k-NN ) classification of BPs associated with embedded dynamic time warping (DTW). An approved protocol to collect analogue modulated BP sets belonging to 4 distinct classes with 10 training BPs per class and 5 live BPs per class was implemented with 23 healthy subjects. An 86% accuracy of k-NN classification was obtained with decreasing error rates of 17%, 14%, and 11% for the live classifications of classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The results express a systematic reliability of 89% with increased familiarity. The outcomes from the current AAC setup recommend a durable engineering solution directly beneficial to the sufferers.

  7. Influence of drive and timing mechanisms on breathing pattern and ventilation during mental task performance.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, C J; Grossman, P; Gaillard, A W

    1998-09-01

    Assessment of multiple respiratory measures may provide insight into how behavioral demands affect the breathing pattern. This is illustrated by data from a study among 44 subjects, in which tidal volume, respiration rate, minute ventilation and indices of central drive and timing mechanisms were assessed via inductive plethysmography, in addition to end-tidal PCO2. After a baseline, three conditions of a memory comparison task were presented. The first two conditions differed only with regard to the presence or absence of feedback of performance (NFB and FB). In the third 'all-or-nothing' (AON) condition, subjects only received a monetary bonus, if their performance exceeded that of the previous two conditions. Minute ventilation increased from baseline to all task conditions, and from NFB and FB to AON. Respiration rate increased in all task conditions, but there were no differences between task conditions. Tidal volume decreased during NFB, but was equal to baseline during FB and AON. Of the respiratory control indices, inspiratory flow rate covaried much more closely with minute ventilation than duty cycle. The task performance induced a minor degree of hyperventilation. The discussion focusses on how behavioral demands affect respiratory control processes to produce alterations in breathing pattern and ventilation.

  8. EEG patterns associated with nitrogen narcosis (breathing air at 9 ATA).

    PubMed

    Pastena, Lucio; Faralli, Fabio; Mainardi, Giovanni; Gagliardi, Riccardo

    2005-11-01

    The narcotic effect of nitrogen impairs diver performance and limits dive profiles, especially for deep dives using compressed air. It would be helpful to establish measurable correlates of nitrogen narcosis. The authors observed the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 10 subjects, ages 22-27 yr, who breathed air during a 3-min compression to a simulated depth of 80 msw (9 ATA). The EEG from a 19-electrode cap was recorded for 20 min while the subject reclined on a cot with eyes closed, first at 1 ATA before the dive and again at 9 ATA. Signals were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform and brain mapping for frequency domains 0-4 Hz, 4-7 Hz, 7-12 Hz, and 12-15 Hz. Student's paired t-test and correlation tests were used to compare results for the two conditions. Two EEG patterns were observed. The first was an increase in delta and theta activity in all cortical regions that appeared in the first 2 min at depth and was related to exposure time. The second was an increase in delta and theta activity and shifting of alpha activity to the frontal regions at minute 6 of breathing air at 9 ATA and was related to the narcotic effects of nitrogen. If confirmed by studies with larger case series, this EEG pattern could be used to identify nitrogen narcosis for various gas mixtures and prevent the dangerous impact of nitrogen on diver performance.

  9. Improvement of plastic optical fiber microphone based on moisture pattern sensing in devoiced breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Tomohito; Honma, Satoshi; Morisawa, Masayuki; Muto, Shinzo

    2008-03-01

    Conversation is the most practical and common form in communication. However, people with a verbal handicap feel a difficulty to produce words due to variations in vocal chords. This research leads to develop a new devoiced microphone system based on distinguishes between the moisture patterns for each devoiced breaths, using a plastic optical fiber (POF) moisture sensor. In the experiment, five POF-type moisture sensors with fast response were fabricated by coating swell polymer with a slightly larger refractive index than that of fiber core and were set in front of mouth. When these sensors are exposed into humid air produced by devoiced breath, refractive index in cladding layer decreases by swelling and then the POF sensor heads change to guided type. Based on the above operation principle, the output light intensities from the five sensors set in front of mouth change each other. Using above mentioned output light intensity patterns, discernment of devoiced vowels in Japanese (a,i,u,e,o) was tried by means of DynamicProgramming-Matching (DP-matching) method. As the result, distinction rate over 90% was obtained to Japanese devoiced vowels. Therefore, using this system and a voice synthesizer, development of new microphone for the person with a functional disorder in the vocal chords seems to be possible.

  10. Attractor structure discriminates sleep states: recurrence plot analysis applied to infant breathing patterns.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Wilson, Stephen James; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2010-05-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between infant active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS), and statistical quantifications of interbreath interval (IBI) data have previously been used to discriminate between infant sleep states. It has also been identified that breathing patterns are governed by a nonlinear controller. This study aims to investigate whether nonlinear quantifications of infant IBI data are characteristically different between AS and QS, and whether they may be used to discriminate between these infant sleep states. Polysomnograms were obtained from 24 healthy infants at six months of age. Periods of AS and QS were identified, and IBI data extracted. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was applied to each period, and recurrence calculated for a fixed radius in the range of 0-8 in steps of 0.02, and embedding dimensions of 4, 6, 8, and 16. When a threshold classifier was trained, the RQA variable recurrence was able to correctly classify 94.3% of periods in a test dataset. It was concluded that RQA of IBI data is able to accurately discriminate between infant sleep states. This is a promising step toward development of a minimal-channel automatic sleep state classification system.

  11. Neural breathing patterns in preterm newborns supported with non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Fermín; Urquía Martí, Lourdes; Galán Henríquez, Gloria; Rivero Rodríguez, Sonia; Hernández Gómez, Alberto

    2018-06-18

    To characterize the neural breathing pattern in preterm infants supported with non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA). Single-center prospective observational study. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) was periodically recorded in 30-second series with the Edi catheter and the Servo-n software (Maquet, Solna, Sweden) in preterm infants supported with NIV-NAVA. The EAdi Peak , EAdi Min , EAdi Tonic , EAdi Phasic , neural inspiratory, and expiratory times (nTi and nTe) and the neural respiratory rate (nRR) were calculated. EAdi curves were generated by Excel for visual examination and classified according to the predominant pattern. 291 observations were analyzed in 19 patients with a mean GA of 27.3 weeks (range 24-36 weeks), birth weight 1028 g (510-2945 g), and a median (IQR) postnatal age of 18 days (4-27 days). The distribution of respiratory patterns was phasic without tonic activity 61.9%, phasic with basal tonic activity 18.6, tonic burst 3.8%, central apnea 7.9%, and mixed pattern 7.9%. In addition, 12% of the records showed apneas of >10 seconds, and 50.2% one or more "sighs", defined as breaths with an EAdi Peak and/or nTi greater than twice the average EAdi Peak and/or nTi of the recording. Neural times were measurable in 252 observations. The nTi was, median (IQR): 279 ms (253-285 ms), the nTe 764 ms (642-925 ms), and the nRR 63 bpm (51-70), with a great intra and inter-subjects variability. The neural breathing patterns in preterm infants supported with NIV-NAVA are quite variable and are characterized by the presence of significant tonic activity. Central apneas and sighs are common in this group of patients. The nTi seems to be shorter than the mechanical Ti commonly used in assisted ventilation.

  12. Effect of exposure to fentanyl aerosol in mice on breathing pattern and respiratory variables.

    PubMed

    Manral, Laxmi; Muniappan, Natrajan; Gupta, Pradeep K; Ganesan, Kumaran; Malhotra, Ramesh Chandra; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2009-01-01

    The breathing pattern of mice that were exposed to fentanyl aerosol was studied (2.7, 5.7, 6.0, 10.0, and 23.6 microg/m(3); for 1 hour), using dimethyl sulfoxide as a vehicle. This study was conducted in a head-only exposure assembly. Body plethysmographs connected to a volumetric pressure transducer were used to capture the respiratory signals, and an on-line computer program capable of recognizing the changes in the breathing pattern was used for monitoring the respiratory pattern. The response of mice to fentanyl exposure was found to be concentration dependent. A lower concentration (2.7 microg/m(3)) showed fast recovery and no mortality, while 100% mortality was observed at a higher concentration (23.6 microg/m(3)). No sensory, pulmonary irritation, and airway limitation in mice was observed, and death occurred probably due to respiratory depression. The concentration that decreased 50% of the respiratory frequency (RD(50)) was estimated to be 6.4 microg/m(3). The extrapolated human threshold limit value, calculated from the RD(50) value, was found to be 0.192 microg/m(3). The concentration that caused 50% mortality in exposed mice (LC(50)) was estimated to be 8.8 microg/m(3). This study shows that aerosolized fentanyl does not cause sensory and pulmonary irritation, and since the RD(50) and LC(50) are very close with a low safety margin, this type of sedative should not be used as an incapacitating agent.

  13. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O 2 /hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O 2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  14. Photogrammetry of fetal breathing movements during the third trimester of pregnancy: observations in normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Soto, V; Camacho, A; Moscoso, G; Navarrete, L

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate parameters of fetal breathing movements-displacement of the fetal abdominal wall during inspiration and expiration, time of inspiration and expiration and speed of inspiration and expiration-between 30 and 36 weeks' gestation in normal pregnancies, and in those complicated by gestational diabetes or maternal hypertension. Three categories of pregnancy were investigated: 49 were normal, 16 had pregnancy-induced diabetes and 10 were hypertensive. According to their gestational age, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A between 30 and 32 weeks' gestation and Group B between 33 and 36 weeks. Using photogrammetry and a computer-operated algorithm, six parameters of fetal breathing movements were investigated. There were significant differences in the various fetal parameters measured among the three categories of pregnant women. Up until 32 weeks of gestation, the displacements during inspiration and expiration were larger, the speeds of inspiration and expiration were higher, and the times for inspiration and expiration were shorter in the diabetic and hypertensive groups than in the normal group. In the later period, between 33 and 36 weeks, fetuses of pregnancy-induced diabetic patients showed the lowest inspiration and expiration times and the highest speeds of inspiration and expiration. Photogrammetry in conjunction with a computer-operated algorithm can be used to assess fetal breathing movements. There are significant differences in fetal breathing movements between normal pregnancies and those that are complicated by gestational diabetes or hypertension.

  15. Breath Figures under Electrowetting: Electrically Controlled Evolution of Drop Condensation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratian, Davood; Dey, Ranabir; Hoek, Harmen; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2018-05-01

    We show that electrowetting (EW) with structured electrodes significantly modifies the distribution of drops condensing onto flat hydrophobic surfaces by aligning the drops and by enhancing coalescence. Numerical calculations demonstrate that drop alignment and coalescence are governed by the drop-size-dependent electrostatic energy landscape that is imposed by the electrode pattern and the applied voltage. Such EW-controlled migration and coalescence of condensate drops significantly alter the statistical characteristics of the ensemble of droplets. The evolution of the drop size distribution displays self-similar characteristics that significantly deviate from classical breath figures on homogeneous surfaces once the electrically induced coalescence cascades set in beyond a certain critical drop size. The resulting reduced surface coverage, coupled with earlier drop shedding under EW, enhances the net heat transfer.

  16. Muscular patterns and activation levels of auxiliary breathing muscles and thorax movement in classical singing.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the findings in seven studies exploring muscular patterns and muscle activation levels in selected muscles by classical singers. In addition, the relationship of these muscles to thorax (TX) movement was investigated. Loading levels and respiratory phasing of upper trapezius (TR), sternocleidomastoideus (STM) and the scalenes (SC) were investigated in vocalization tasks with variation in vocal loudness and pitch. Further, muscle activity in the posterior neck (PN) was investigated in inhalation and phonation and, finally, TR, intercostal (INT), lateral abdominal (OBL) and anterior abdominal (RC) muscle loading in student and professional singers was examined. Muscle activity was recorded by use of an ambulatory four-channel monitoring system (Physiometer PHY 400, Premed, Norway). TX movement was traced with two strain gauge sensors (RES-117) placed around the upper TX and lower TX. A phasing of upper TR activity to INT and OBL activity was discovered, all muscles supporting the expiration phase. During phonation, TR contributes in the compression of the upper TX, thus serving as an accessory muscle of expiration. TR activity is reduced with short breathing cycles and is mostly inactive in simplified speaking tasks. During phonation, professional opera singers activate the expiratory-phased TR, INT, OBL and RC muscles to higher levels than student singers do. STM and SC show correlated activity patterns during inhalation and phonation by classical singers. During demanding singing, expiratory-phased STM and SC activity peaks produce a counterforce to the compression of upper TX at high pitches. As breathing demands are lowered, STM and SC activity are reduced and attain inspiratory phasing. Substantial muscle activity is observed in PN during inhalation and phonation. EMG biofeedback performed on TR and STM have a secondary effect of lowering EMG activity in PN. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  18. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, M.

    2004-05-01

    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  19. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  20. First-time imaging of effects of inspired oxygen concentration on regional lung volumes and breathing pattern during hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Batista; Hedenstierna, Göran; Bergman, Jakob S; Amato, Marcelo B P; Avenel, Jacques; Montmerle-Borgdorff, Stéphanie

    2015-02-01

    Aeroatelectasis can develop in aircrew flying the latest generation high-performance aircraft. Causes alleged are relative hyperoxia, increased gravity in the head-to-foot direction (+Gz), and compression of legs and stomach by anti-G trousers (AGT). We aimed to assess, in real time, the effects of hyperoxia, +Gz accelerations and AGT inflation on changes in regional lung volumes and breathing pattern evaluated in an axial plane by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The protocol mimicked a routine peacetime flight in combat aircraft. Eight subjects wearing AGT were studied in a human centrifuge during 1 h 15 min exposure of +1 to +3.5Gz. They performed this sequence three times, breathing AIR, 44.5 % O2 or 100 % O2. Continuous recording of functional EIT enabled uninterrupted assessment of regional lung volumes at the 5th intercostal level. Breathing pattern was also monitored. EIT data showed that +3.5Gz, compared with any moment without hypergravity, caused an abrupt decrease in regional tidal volume (VT) and regional end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) measured in the EIT slice, independently of inspired oxygen concentration. Breathing AIR or 44.5 % O2, sub-regional EELV measured in the EIT slice decreased similarly in dorsal and ventral regions, but sub-regional VT measured in the EIT slice decreased significantly more dorsally than ventrally. Breathing 100 % O2, EELV and VT decreased similarly in both regions. Inspired tidal volume increased in hyperoxia, whereas breathing frequency increased in hypergravity and hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hypergravity and AGT inflation cause airway closure and air trapping in gravity-dependent lung regions, facilitating absorption atelectasis formation, in particular during hyperoxia.

  1. Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.

    PubMed

    Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

    2000-01-01

    The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers.

  2. Effect of tubing deposition, breathing pattern, and temperature on aerosol mass distribution measured by cascade impactor.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Burak K; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols produced by nebulizers are often characterized on the bench using cascade impactors. We studied the effects of connecting tubing, breathing pattern, and temperature on mass-weighted aerodynamic particle size aerosol distributions (APSD) measured by cascade impaction. Our experimental setup consisted of a piston ventilator, low-flow (1.0 L/min) cascade impactor, two commercially available nebulizers that produced large and small particles, and two "T"-shaped tubes called "Tconnector(cascade)" and "Tconnector(nebulizer)" placed above the impactor and the nebulizer, respectively. Radiolabeled normal saline was nebulized using an airtank at 50 PSIG; APSD, mass balance, and Tconnector(cascade) deposition were measured with a gamma camera and radioisotope calibrator. Flow through the circuit was defined by the air tank (standing cloud, 10 L/min) with or without a piston pump, which superimposed a sinusoidal flow on the flow from the air tank (tidal volume and frequency of breathing). Experiments were performed at room temperature and in a cooled environment. With increasing tidal volume and frequency, smaller particles entered the cascade impactor (decreasing MMAD; e.g., Misty-Neb, 4.2 +/- 0.9 microm at lowest ventilation and 2.7 +/- 0.1 microm at highest, p = 0.042). These effects were reduced in magnitude for the nebulizer that produced smaller particles (AeroTech II, MMAD 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microm; p = 0.0044). Deposition on Tconnector(cascade) increased with ventilation but was independent of cascade impactor flow. Imaging of the Tconnector(cascade) revealed a pattern of deposition unaffected by cascade impactor flow. These measurements suggest that changes in MMAD with ventilation were not artifacts of tubing deposition in the Tconnector(cascade). At lower temperatures, APSD distributions were more polydisperse. Our data suggest that, during patient inhalation, changes in particle distribution occur that are related to conditions in the tubing and

  3. Diagnostic value of a pattern of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Maloča Vuljanko, I; Turkalj, M; Nogalo, B; Bulat Lokas, S; Plavec, D

    Diagnosing asthma in children is a challenge and using a single biomarker from exhaled breath condensate (EBC) showed the lack of improvement in it. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic potential of a pattern of simple chemical biomarkers from EBC in diagnosing asthma in children in a real-life setting, its association with lung function and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In 75 consecutive children aged 5-7 years with asthma-like symptoms the following tests were performed: skin prick tests, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO (F E NO), 24-hour oesophageal pH monitoring and EBC collection with subsequent analysis of pH, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen tension, and concentrations of magnesium, calcium, iron and urates. No significant differences were found for individual EBC biomarkers between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (p>0.05 for all). A pattern of six EBC biomarkers showed a statistically significant (p=0.046) predictive model for asthma (AUC=0.698, PPV=84.2%, NPV=38.9%). None to moderate association (R 2 up to 0.43) between EBC biomarkers and lung function measures and F E NO was found, with IOS parameters showing the best association with EBC biomarkers. A significantly higher EBC Fe was found in children with asthma and GERD compared to asthmatics without GERD (p=0.049). An approach that involves a pattern of EBC biomarkers had a better diagnostic accuracy for asthma in children in real-life settings compared to a single one. Poor to moderate association of EBC biomarkers with lung function suggests a complementary value of EBC analysis for asthma diagnosis in children. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Im, K; Guimaraes, A; Kim, Y; Cottrill, E; Gagoski, B; Rollins, C; Ortinau, C; Yang, E; Grant, P E

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities. Triplane MR images were aligned to create a motion-corrected volume for each individual fetal brain, and cortical plate surfaces were extracted. Sulcal basins were automatically identified on the cortical plate surface and compared with a combined set generated from 9 normal fetal brain templates. Sulcal pattern similarities to the templates were quantified by using multivariate geometric features and intersulcal relationships for 14 normal fetal brains and 5 fetal brains that were proved to be abnormal on postnatal MR imaging. Results were compared with the gyrification index. Significantly reduced sulcal pattern similarities to normal templates were found in all abnormal individual fetuses compared with normal fetuses (mean similarity [normal, abnormal], left: 0.818, 0.752; P < .001; right: 0.810, 0.753; P < .01). Altered location and depth patterns of sulcal basins were the primary distinguishing features. The gyrification index was not significantly different between the normal and abnormal groups. Automated analysis of interrelated patterning of early primary sulci could outperform the traditional gyrification index and has the potential to quantitatively detect individual fetuses with emerging abnormal sulcal patterns. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Abnormal Patterns of Tongue-Palate Contact in the Speech of Individuals with Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with cleft palate, even those with adequate velopharyngeal function, are at high risk for disordered lingual articulation. This article attempts to summarize current knowledge of abnormal tongue-palate contact patterns derived from electropalatographic (EPG) data in speakers with cleft palate. These data, which have been reported in 23…

  6. Characterising non-linear dynamics in nocturnal breathing patterns of healthy infants using recurrence quantification analysis.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2013-05-01

    Breathing dynamics vary between infant sleep states, and are likely to exhibit non-linear behaviour. This study applied the non-linear analytical tool recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to 400 breath interval periods of REM and N-REM sleep, and then using an overlapping moving window. The RQA variables were different between sleep states, with REM radius 150% greater than N-REM radius, and REM laminarity 79% greater than N-REM laminarity. RQA allowed the observation of temporal variations in non-linear breathing dynamics across a night's sleep at 30s resolution, and provides a basis for quantifying changes in complex breathing dynamics with physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the upper airway on breathing pattern and expiratory time constant in unanesthetized dog pups.

    PubMed

    England, S J; Stogryn, H A

    1986-11-01

    Unanesthetized dog pups (2 to 31 days old) respond to sudden opening of a tracheal cannula to atmospheric pressure with a marked increase in breathing frequency. This response is achieved with a 25% decrease in inspiratory and 40% decrease in expiratory times. Expiratory thyroarytenoid muscle activity increased concomitantly, while inspiratory diaphragmatic and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle activities were reduced. These responses are interpreted as a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of an elevated end-expiratory lung volume with functional loss of the upper airway. The changes in expiratory time and thyroarytenoid muscle activity were not observed when positive pressure was applied at the trachea. The expiratory time constant was assessed during spontaneous breathing. The mean value was twice as long during nasal breathing than during tracheal breathing. The nasal value was substantially increased when the thyroarytenoid muscle was active during expiration.

  8. SU-E-J-227: Breathing Pattern Consistency and Reproducibility: Comparative Analysis for Supine and Prone Body Positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Laugeman, E; Weiss, E; Chen, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of breathing patterns and their reproducibility over the course of treatment, for supine and prone positioning. Methods: Respiratory traces from 25 patients were recorded for sequential supine/prone 4DCT scans acquired prior to treatment, and during the course of the treatment (weekly or bi-weekly). For each breathing cycle, the average(AVE), end-of-exhale(EoE) and end-of-inhale( EoI) locations were identified using in-house developed software. In addition, the mean values and variations for the above quantities were computed for each breathing trace. F-tests were used to compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of all pairs of sequential supine and pronemore » scans. Analysis of variances was also performed using population means for AVE, EoE and EoI to quantify differences between the reproducibility of prone and supine respiration traces over the treatment course. Results: Consistency: Cycle-to-cycle variations are less in prone than supine in the pre-treatment and during-treatment scans for AVE, EoE and EoI points, for the majority of patients (differences significant at p<0.05). The few cases where the respiratory pattern had more variability in prone appeared to be random events. Reproducibility: The reproducibility of breathing patterns (supine and prone) improved as treatment progressed, perhaps due to patients becoming more comfortable with the procedure. However, variability in supine position continued to remain significantly larger than in prone (p<0.05), as indicated by the variance analysis of population means for the pretreatment and subsequent during-treatment scans. Conclusions: Prone positioning stabilizes breathing patterns in most subjects investigated in this study. Importantly, a parallel analysis of the same group of patients revealed a tendency towards increasing motion amplitude of tumor targets in prone position regardless of their size or location; thus, the choice for body

  9. Sonographic assessment of normal and abnormal patterns of fetal cerebral lamination.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Hendson, G; Dunham, C P; Dewar, K; Money, D M; Prayer, D

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal development of the brain is characterized by gestational age-specific changes in the laminar structure of the brain parenchyma before 30 gestational weeks. Cerebral lamination patterns of normal fetal brain development have been described histologically, by postmortem in-vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and by in-vivo fetal MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic appearance of laminar organization of the cerebral wall in normal and abnormal brain development. This was a retrospective study of ultrasound findings in 92 normal fetuses and 68 fetuses with abnormal cerebral lamination patterns for gestational age, at 17-38 weeks' gestation. We investigated the visibility of the subplate zone relative to the intermediate zone and correlated characteristic sonographic findings of cerebral lamination with gestational age in order to evaluate transient structures. In the normal cohort, the subplate zone-intermediate zone interface was identified as early as 17 weeks, and in all 57 fetuses examined up to 28 weeks. In all of these fetuses, the subplate zone appeared anechoic and the intermediate zone appeared homogeneously more echogenic than did the subplate zone. In the 22 fetuses between 28 and 34 weeks, there was a transition period when lamination disappeared in a variable fashion. The subplate zone-intermediate zone interface was not identified in any fetus after 34 weeks (n=13). There were three patterns of abnormal cerebral lamination: (1) no normal laminar pattern before 28 weeks (n=32), in association with severe ventriculomegaly, diffuse ischemia, microcephaly, teratogen exposure or lissencephaly; (2) focal disruption of lamination before 28 weeks (n=24), associated with hemorrhage, porencephaly, stroke, migrational abnormalities, thanatophoric dysplasia, meningomyelocele or encephalocele; (3) increased prominence and echogenicity of the intermediate zone before 28 weeks and/or persistence of a laminar pattern beyond 33 weeks

  10. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  11. Comparison of respiratory function during TIVA and isoflurane anaesthesia in ponies Part II: breathing patterns and transdiaphragmatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Lidia; Steblaj, Barbara; Schauvliege, Stijn; Schramel, Johannes Peter; Pavlidou, Kiriaki; Savvas, Ioannis; Duchateau, Luc; Gasthuys, Frank; Moens, Yves

    2014-11-01

    To compare breathing patterns and transdiaphragmatic pressure during total intravenous (TIVA) and isoflurane anaesthesia in ponies. Experimental, cross-over study. Six healthy ponies weighing 286 (233-388) ± 61 kg, age 13 (9-16) ± 3 years. Following premedication with romifidine [80 μg kg(-1) intravenously (IV)], general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.06 mg kg(-1) IV) and ketamine (2.5 mg kg(-1) IV) and maintained with either isoflurane (Fe'Iso = 1.1%) (T-ISO) or an IV combination of romifidine (120 μg kg(-1) per hour), midazolam (0.09 mg kg(-1) hour(-1)) and ketamine (3.3 mg kg(-1) hour(-1)) (T-TIVA), while breathing 60% oxygen (FIO(2)). The circumference changes of the rib cage (RC) and abdominal compartment (ABD) were recorded using respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography (RUP). Balloon tipped catheters were placed in the distal oesophagus and the stomach and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi max) was calculated during Mueller's manoeuvre. The breathing pattern T-ISO was more regular and respiratory rate significantly lower compared with T-TIVA. Ponies in T-TIVA showed regularly appearing sighs, which were never observed in T-ISO. Different contribution of the RC and ABD compartments to the breathing pattern was observed with a smaller participation of the RC to the total volume change during T-ISO. Transdiaphragmatic pressures (mean 13.7 ± SD 8.61 versus 23.4 ± 7.27 cmH(2) O, p < 0.0001) were lower in T-TIVA compared to T-ISO [corrected]. The sum of the RC and ABD circumferential changes was lower during T-TIVA compared to T-ISO (6.32 ± 4.42 versus 11.72 ± 4.38 units, p < 0.0001). Marked differences in breathing pattern and transdiaphragmatic pressure exist during inhalation- and TIVA and these should be taken into account for clinical estimation of anaesthetic depth. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal asynchrony in horses with chronic obstructive and inflammatory lung disease.

    PubMed

    Haltmayer, E; Reiser, S; Schramel, J P; van den Hoven, R

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to show that changes in thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) between quiet breathing and CO2-induced hyperpnoea can be used to differentiate between horses with healthy airways and those suffering from inflammatory airway disease (IAD) or recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). The level of TAA was displayed by the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of thoracic and abdominal signals, generated by respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography (RUP) during quiet breathing and hyperpnoea. Changes in TAA were expressed as the quotient of the PCCs (PCCQ) during normal breathing and hyperpnoea. Horses with RAO and IAD showed significant higher median PCCQ than healthy horses. Median PCCQ of horses with RAO and IAD was not significantly different. Horses affected by a pulmonary disorder showed lower TAA compared to the control group. This study suggests that TAA provides a useful parameter to differentiate horses with RAO and IAD from healthy horses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

  14. Effect of leak and breathing pattern on the accuracy of tidal volume estimation by commercial home ventilators: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Luján, Manel; Sogo, Ana; Pomares, Xavier; Monsó, Eduard; Sales, Bernat; Blanch, Lluís

    2013-05-01

    New home ventilators are able to provide clinicians data of interest through built-in software. Monitoring of tidal volume (VT) is a key point in the assessment of the efficacy of home mechanical ventilation. To assess the reliability of the VT provided by 5 ventilators in a bench test. Five commercial ventilators from 4 different manufacturers were tested in pressure support mode with the help of a breathing simulator under different conditions of mechanical respiratory pattern, inflation pressure, and intentional leakage. Values provided by the built-in software of each ventilator were compared breath to breath with the VT monitored through an external pneumotachograph. Ten breaths for each condition were compared for every tested situation. All tested ventilators underestimated VT (ranges of -21.7 mL to -83.5 mL, which corresponded to -3.6% to -14.7% of the externally measured VT). A direct relationship between leak and underestimation was found in 4 ventilators, with higher underestimations of the VT when the leakage increased, ranging between -2.27% and -5.42% for each 10 L/min increase in the leakage. A ventilator that included an algorithm that computes the pressure loss through the tube as a function of the flow exiting the ventilator had the minimal effect of leaks on the estimation of VT (0.3%). In 3 ventilators the underestimation was also influenced by mechanical pattern (lower underestimation with restrictive, and higher with obstructive). The inclusion of algorithms that calculate the pressure loss as a function of the flow exiting the ventilator in commercial models may increase the reliability of VT estimation.

  15. Effects of aerial hypoxia and temperature on pulmonary breathing pattern and gas exchange in the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Glauber S F; Ventura, Daniela A D N; Zena, Lucas A; Giusti, Humberto; Glass, Mogens L; Klein, Wilfried

    2017-05-01

    The South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa is an obligatory air-breathing fish possessing well-developed bilateral lungs, and undergoing seasonal changes in its habitat, including temperature changes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate gas exchange and pulmonary breathing pattern in L. paradoxa at different temperatures (25 and 30°C) and different inspired O 2 levels (21, 12, 10, and 7%). Normoxic breathing pattern consisted of isolated ventilatory cycles composed of an expiration followed by 2.4±0.2 buccal inspirations. Both expiratory and inspiratory tidal volumes reached a maximum of about 35mlkg -1 , indicating that L. paradoxa is able to exchange nearly all of its lung air in a single ventilatory cycle. At both temperatures, hypoxia caused a significant increase in pulmonary ventilation (V̇ E ), mainly due to an increase in respiratory frequency. Durations of the ventilatory cycle and expiratory and inspiratory tidal volumes were not significantly affected by hypoxia. Expiratory time (but not inspiratory) was significantly shorter at 30°C and at all O 2 levels. While a small change in oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 ) could be noticed, the carbon dioxide release (V̇CO 2 , P=0.0003) and air convection requirement (V̇ E /V̇O 2 , P=0.0001) were significantly affected by hypoxia (7% O 2 ) at both temperatures, when compared to normoxia, and pulmonary diffusion capacity increased about four-fold due to hypoxic exposure. These data highlight important features of the respiratory system of L. paradoxa, capable of matching O 2 demand and supply under different environmental change, as well as help to understand the evolution of air breathing in lungfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breathing-motion-compensated robotic guided stereotactic body radiation therapy : Patterns of failure analysis.

    PubMed

    Stera, Susanne; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Chan, Mark K H; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Wurster, Stefan; Keller, Christian; Imhoff, Detlef; Rades, Dirk; Dunst, Jürgen; Rödel, Claus; Hildebrandt, Guido; Blanck, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the patterns of failure for robotic guided real-time breathing-motion-compensated (BMC) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of tumors in moving organs. Between 2011 and 2016, a total of 198 patients with 280 lung, liver, and abdominal tumors were treated with BMC-SBRT. The median gross tumor volume (GTV) was 12.3 cc (0.1-372.0 cc). Medians of mean GTV BED α/β = 10   Gy (BED = biological effective dose) was 148.5 Gy 10 (31.5-233.3 Gy 10 ) and prescribed planning target volume (PTV) BED α/β = 10   Gy was 89.7 Gy 10 (28.8-151.2 Gy 10 ), respectively. We analyzed overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) based on various factors, including BEDs with α/β ratios of 15 Gy (lung metastases), 21 Gy (primary lung tumors), and 27 Gy (liver metastases). Median follow-up was 10.4 months (2.0-59.0 months). The 2‑year actuarial LC was 100 and 86.4% for primary early and advanced stage lung tumors, respectively, 100% for lung metastases, 82.2% for liver metastases, and 90% for extrapulmonary extrahepatic metastases. The 2‑year OS rate was 47.9% for all patients. In uni- and multivariate analysis, comparatively lower PTV prescription dose (equivalence of 3 × 12-13 Gy) and higher average GTV dose (equivalence of 3 × 18 Gy) to current practice were significantly associated with LC. For OS, Karnofsky performance score (100%), gender (female), and SBRT without simultaneous chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Grade 3 side effects were rare (0.5%). Robotic guided BMC-SBRT can be considered a safe and effective treatment for solid tumors in moving organs. To reach sufficient local control rates, high average GTV doses are necessary. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate these points.

  17. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Breathing Patterns for Respiratory-Gated Radiation Therapy Using Respiration Regularity Index

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, K; Lee, M; Kang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, an effective and simply applicable method has rarely been reported. The authors propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. Methods: In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a power of cosine form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: sample standard deviation of respiration period, sample standard deviation of amplitude andmore » the results of simple regression of the baseline drift (slope and standard deviation of residuals of a respiration signal. Overall irregularity (δ) was defined as a Euclidean norm of newly derived variable using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters. Finally, the proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ=ln(1+(1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. Subsequently, we applied it to simulated and clinical respiration signals from real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and investigated respiration regularity. Moreover, correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ<0.3 showed worse regularity than the others, whereas ρ>0.7 was suitable for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). Fluctuations in breathing cycle and amplitude were especially determinative of ρ. If the respiration regularity of a patient's first session was known, it could be estimated through subsequent sessions. Conclusions: Respiration regularity could be objectively determined using a

  18. Abnormal early dynamic individual patterns of functional networks in low gamma band for depression recognition.

    PubMed

    Bi, Kun; Chattun, Mahammad Ridwan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiang; Tian, Shui; Zhang, Siqi; Lu, Qing; Yao, Zhijian

    2018-06-13

    The functional networks are associated with emotional processing in depression. The mapping of dynamic spatio-temporal brain networks is used to explore individual performance during early negative emotional processing. However, the dysfunctions of functional networks in low gamma band and their discriminative potentialities during early period of emotional face processing remain to be explored. Functional brain networks were constructed from the MEG recordings of 54 depressed patients and 54 controls in low gamma band (30-48 Hz). Dynamic connectivity regression (DCR) algorithm analyzed the individual change points of time series in response to emotional stimuli and constructed individualized spatio-temporal patterns. The nodal characteristics of patterns were calculated and fed into support vector machine (SVM). Performance of the classification algorithm in low gamma band was validated by dynamic topological characteristics of individual patterns in comparison to alpha and beta band. The best discrimination accuracy of individual spatio-temporal patterns was 91.01% in low gamma band. Individual temporal patterns had better results compared to group-averaged temporal patterns in all bands. The most important discriminative networks included affective network (AN) and fronto-parietal network (FPN) in low gamma band. The sample size is relatively small. High gamma band was not considered. The abnormal dynamic functional networks in low gamma band during early emotion processing enabled depression recognition. The individual information processing is crucial in the discovery of abnormal spatio-temporal patterns in depression during early negative emotional processing. Individual spatio-temporal patterns may reflect the real dynamic function of subjects while group-averaged data may neglect some individual information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Histological Pattern Of Endometrial Samples In Postmenopausal Women With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Deeba, Farhat; Shaista; Khan, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems in gynaecological practice and is an indicator of various underlying disorders. An endometrial biopsy should be done in all women over 35 years with AUB to rule out endometrial cancer or pre-malignant lesion and to initiate treatment. However, wide range of histological patterns on endometrial biopsy offer a diagnostic challenge to practicing pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine histological patterns of endometrium in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed women and children teaching hospital, Abbottabad from 15/11/2014 to 14/05/2015. This study involved 110 postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. A written informed consent was obtained from every patient. The mean age of the patients was 61.60±6.17 years and the mean duration of AUB was 5.20±2.80 years. Most of the patients were para 6 (28.2%) and para 5 (28.2%) followed by para 4 (18.2%) and para 3 (17.3%) while only 8.2% were para 1. The most common histological pattern observed was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%). When stratified the data, there was no significant difference of histological patterns across various age groups (p=.673), duration of AUB (p=.064) and parity (p=.242). The most common histological pattern observed in postmenopausal women with AUB was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%).

  20. Are distinct etiologies of upper airway obstruction in mouth-breathing children associated with different cephalometric patterns?

    PubMed

    Franco, Letícia P; Souki, Bernardo Q; Cheib, Paula L; Abrão, Marcel; Pereira, Tatiana B J; Becker, Helena M G; Pinto, Jorge A

    2015-02-01

    To test the null hypothesis that mouth-breathing (MB) children by distinct obstructive tissues present a similar cephalometric pattern. The sample included 226 prepubescent children (113 MB and 113 nasal breathing (NB) controls). An ENT clinical examination, including flexible nasal endoscopy, orthodontic clinical and cephalometric examinations, was performed on the MB population. MB children were grouped into three categories, according to the obstructive tissues: 1) adenoid group (AG), 2) tonsillar group (TG), and 3) adenotonsillar group (ATG). The NB controls were matched by gender, age, sagittal dental relationship and skeletal maturation status. Lateral cephalometric radiography provided the cephalometric pattern comparisons between the MB and NB groups. MB cephalometric measurements were significantly different from those of NB children, exception in the SNB° (P=0.056). All comparisons between the three groups of MB children with the NB children showed a significant difference. Finally, even among the three groups of MB children, a significant difference was observed in the measurements of the SNB° (P<0.036), NSGn° (P<0.028) and PFH/TAFH ratio (posterior facial height/total anterior facial height) (P<0.012). The cephalometric pattern of MB and NB children was not similar. Cephalometric measurements of the MB group differed according to the etiology of upper airway obstruction. Children with isolated hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils presented with a mandible that was positioned more forward and upward compared to children obstructed only by the enlarged adenoid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of abnormal living patterns for elderly living alone using support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone.

  2. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  3. Abnormal patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K; Bremner, W J

    1984-05-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is usually a problem of inadequate progesterone production associated with inadequate ovarian follicular development. The hypothesis that luteal phase deficiency results from an abnormal secretion pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) was tested in these women. To this end, the early follicular LH secretion pattern in four women with luteal phase deficiency was characterized and compared with patterns in normal women. Blood samples were obtained through indwelling catheters every ten minutes for eight hours (10 AM to 6 PM), and plasma levels of LH and FSH were measured. Luteinizing hormone and FSH secretion profiles were analyzed for pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean plasma level. A significantly greater LH pulse frequency in women with luteal phase deficiency was observed when compared with the frequency in normal controls (luteal phase deficiency, 10.5 pulses/eight hours; normal, 5.2 pulses/eight hours; P less than or equal to .05). The mean FSH concentration was less in the women with luteal phase deficiency, but the level was not significant. These data suggest that the abnormal LH secretion pattern observed in women with luteal phase deficiency is responsible for their inadequate luteal phase progesterone secretion and their infertility.

  4. Reflex changes in breathing pattern evoked by inhalation of wood smoke in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Y.R.; Lai, C.J.

    1994-06-01

    The acute ventilatory response to inhalation of wood smoke was studied in 58 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Wood smoke ([approximately]6 ml) was inhaled spontaneously via a tracheal cannula. Within the first two breaths of smoke inhalation, either a slowing of respiration (SR) (n=39) or an augmented inspiration (AI) (n=19) was elicited consistently in each rat. The SR was primarily due to a prolongation of expiratory duration, whereas the AI was characterized by a two-step inspiratory flow leading to an exceedingly large tidal volume. Both initial responses, usually accompanied by bradycardia and hypotension, were reduced by inhaling smoke at a decreased concentration.more » After these initial responses, a delayed tachypnea developed and reached its peak 6-10 breaths after inhalation of smoke. Both the SR and AI were completely abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy. In contrast, the delayed tachypneic response was not prevented by vagotomy but was significantly attenuated by denervation of peripheral chemoreceptors. The authors conclude that the initial responses to inhalation of several tidal breaths of wood smoke are mediated through vagal bronchopulmonary afferents, whereas the delayed tachypnea may involve nonvagal mechanisms that include a stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors.« less

  5. Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease correspond to phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed N; Alberico, Ronald A; Barczykowski, Amy L; Duffner, Patricia K

    2014-02-01

    Initial magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with Krabbe disease were analyzed to determine whether the pattern of abnormalities corresponded to the phenotype. This was a retrospective, nonblinded study. Families/patients diagnosed with Krabbe disease submitted medical records and magnetic resonance imaging discs for central review. Institutional review board approval/informed consents were obtained. Sixty-four magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed by two neuroradiologists and a child neurologist according to phenotype: early infantile (onset 0-6 months) = 39 patients; late infantile (onset 7-12 months) = 10 patients; later onset (onset 13 months-10 years) = 11 patients; adolescent (onset 11-20 years) = one patient; and adult (21 years or greater) = three patients. Local interpretations were compared with central review. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities differed among phenotypes. Early infantile patients had a predominance of increased intensity in the dentate/cerebellar white matter as well as changes in the deep cerebral white matter. Later onset patients did not demonstrate involvement in the dentate/cerebellar white matter but had extensive involvement of the deep cerebral white matter, parieto-occipital region, and posterior corpus callosum. Late infantile patients exhibited a mixed pattern; 40% had dentate/cerebellar white matter involvement while all had involvement of the deep cerebral white matter. Adolescent/adult patients demonstrated isolated corticospinal tract involvement. Local and central reviews primarily differed in interpretation of the early infantile phenotype. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in a large cohort of symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease demonstrated imaging abnormalities correspond to specific phenotypes. Knowledge of these patterns along with typical clinical signs/symptoms should promote earlier diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory comfort and breathing pattern during volume proportional assist ventilation and pressure support ventilation: a study on volunteers with artificially reduced compliance.

    PubMed

    Mols, G; von Ungern-Sternberg, B; Rohr, E; Haberthür, C; Geiger, K; Guttmann, J

    2000-06-01

    To assess respiratory comfort and associated breathing pattern during volume assist (VA) as a component of proportional assist ventilation and during pressure support ventilation (PSV). Prospective, double-blind, interventional study. Laboratory. A total of 15 healthy volunteers (11 females, 4 males) aged 21-31 yrs. Decreased respiratory system compliance was simulated by banding of the thorax and abdomen. Volunteers breathed via a mouthpiece with VA and PSV each applied at two levels (VA, 8 cm H2O/L and 12 cm H2O/L; PSV, 10 cm H2O and 15 cm H2O) using a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O throughout. The study was subdivided into two parts. In Part 1, volunteers breathed three times with each of the four settings for 2 mins in random order. In Part 2, the first breath effects of multiple, randomly applied mode, and level shifts were studied. In Part 1, the volunteers were asked to estimate respiratory comfort in comparison with normal breathing using a visual analog scale. In Part 2, they were asked to estimate the change of respiratory comfort as increased, decreased, or unchanged immediately after a mode shift. Concomitantly, the respiratory pattern (change) was characterized with continuously measured tidal volume, respiratory rate, pressure, and gas flow. Respiratory comfort during VA was higher than during PSV. The higher support level was less important during VA but had a major negative influence on comfort during PSV. Both modes differed with respect to the associated breathing pattern. Variability of breathing was higher during VA than during PSV (Part 1). Changes in respiratory variables were associated with changes in respiratory comfort (Part 2). For volunteers breathing with artificially reduced respiratory system compliance, respiratory comfort is higher with VA than with PSV. This is probably caused by a better adaptation of the ventilatory support to the volunteer's need with VA.

  7. Diving and foraging patterns of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus): Testing predictions from optimal-breathing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Collopy, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    The diving behavior of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was studied using telemetry along the Oregon coast during the 1995 and 1996 breeding seasons and examined in relation to predictions from optimal-breathing models. Duration of dives, pauses, dive bouts, time spent under water during dive bouts, and nondiving intervals between successive dive bouts were recorded. Most diving metrics differed between years but not with oceanographic conditions or shore type. There was no effect of water depth on mean dive time or percent time spent under water even though dive bouts occurred in depths from 3 to 36 m. There was a significant, positive relationship between mean dive time and mean pause time at the dive-bout scale each year. At the dive-cycle scale, there was a significant positive relationship between dive time and preceding pause time in each year and a significant positive relationship between dive time and ensuing pause time in 1996. Although it appears that aerobic diving was the norm, there appeared to be an increase in anaerobic diving in 1996. The diving performance of Marbled Murrelets in this study appeared to be affected by annual changes in environmental conditions and prey resources but did not consistently fit predictions from optimal-breathing models.

  8. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 μg/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 μg/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  9. Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2012-04-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O₃, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363 ± 66 μg/m³ P+MSHA and 212 ± 95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions.

  10. Menstrual Abnormalities in School Going Girls – Are They Related to Dietary and Exercise Pattern?

    PubMed Central

    Vani K., Rupa; K.S., Veena; L., Subitha; Kumar V.R., Hemanth; A., Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is the transitional phase of physical and mental development between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by immense hormonal changes.75% of girls experience some problems associated with menstruation. Aim: We tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in school going girls in Pondicherry and their association with dietary and exercise habits. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in adolescent girls who attained menarche in four secondary schools of Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: All students who attained menarche and willing to participate in the study were invited to answer the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, socioeconomic data, menstrual history, and diet and exercise pattern. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the dietary and exercise patterns among students having menstrual abnormalities and those who do not have menstrual abnormalities. Results: A total of 853 students participated in the study. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were the most frequent problems encountered. Premenstrual symptoms were significantly more common among girls who were overweight, in girls who were eating junk food regularly, in girls who were eating less food (dieting) in order to lose weight and in those who were not doing regular physical activity. Dysmenorrhea was significantly more common in the girls who were dieting to lose weight. Passage of clots was also significantly high in the girls who were dieting. Conclusion: Lifestyle modifications like regular physical activity, decreasing the intake of junk food and promoting healthy eating habits should be emphasised in school health education programs to improve their menstrual health. PMID:24392394

  11. Levothyroxine treatment generates an abnormal uterine contractility patterns in an in vitro animal model.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Stéphanie; Blouin, Simon; Raiche, Évelyne; Nolin, Marc-Antoine; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal uterine contraction patterns were recently demonstrated in uterine strips from pregnant women treated with Levothyroxine (T4). These abnormalities were correlated with an increased risk of C-section delivery and associated surgical complications. To date, no study has investigated whether uterine contractility is modified by hypothyroidism or T4 treatment. Herein, we analyze the physiological role of T4 on uterine contractions. Female non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats ( N  = 22) were used and divided into four groups: 1) control, 2) hypothyroidism, 3) hypothyroidism treated with low T4 doses (20 μg/kg/day) and 4) with high T4 doses (100 μg/kg/day). Hypothyroidism was induced by an iodine-deficient diet. Isometric tension measurements were performed in vitro on myometrium tissues in isolated organ baths. Contractile activity parameters were quantified (amplitude, duration, frequency and area under the curve) using pharmacological tools to assess their effect. Screening of thyroid function confirmed a hypothyroid state for all rats under iodine-free diet to which T4 was subsequently administered to counterbalance hypothyroidism. Results demonstrate that hypothyroidism significantly decreased contractile duration (-17%) and increased contractile frequency (+26%), while high doses of T4 increased duration (+200%) and decreased frequency (-51%). These results thus mimic the pattern of abnormal contractions previously observed in uterine tissue from T4-treated hypothyroid pregnant women. Our data suggest that changes in myometrial reactivity are induced by T4 treatment. Thus, in conjunction with our previous observations on human myometrial strips, management of hypothyroidism should be improved to reduce the rate of C-sections in this group of patients.

  12. Abnormal Complex Auditory Pattern Analysis in Schizophrenia Reflected in an Absent Missing Stimulus Mismatch Negativity.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G

    2016-11-01

    The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation. Whether persons with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the complex MMN is unknown. Fourteen schizophrenia participants and 16 matched healthy underwent EEG recording while listening to 400 groups of 6 tones 330 ms apart, separated by 800 ms. Occasional deviant groups were missing the 4th or 6th tone (50 groups each). Healthy participants generated a robust response to a missing but expected tone. The schizophrenia group was significantly impaired in activating the missing stimulus MMN, generating no significant activity at all. Schizophrenia affects the ability of "primitive sensory intelligence" and pre-attentive perceptual mechanisms to form implicit groups in the auditory environment. Importantly, this deficit must relate to abnormalities in abstract complex pattern analysis rather than sensory problems in the disorder. The results indicate a deficit in parsing of the complex auditory scene which likely impacts negatively on successful social navigation in schizophrenia. Knowledge of the location and circuit architecture underlying the true novelty-related MMN and its pathophysiology in schizophrenia will help target future interventions.

  13. Let's party tonight: drinking patterns and breath alcohol values at high school parties.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Little, D L

    1997-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether the number of alcohol-containing beverages consumed by adolescents attending a "typical" high school weekend party was planned or spontaneous. A second objective was to understand the role of the designated driver and whether he or she honored a pledge of sobriety. A printed, anonymous survey with signed informed consent was distributed to 52 high school students from three different suburban high schools during three weekend high school parties. In addition, subjects underwent breath alcohol testing using the Intoximeter breath alcohol instrument. Salivary alcohol measurements were also obtained using Alco-Screen. Levels were measured in volunteers on entry and exit from the party. Fifty-two students volunteered to participate in the survey. Eleven participants volunteered to be designated drivers, nine of whom did not drink alcohol at this party. By the end of each party, the 26 boys had consumed a mean of 10 drinks, and the 16 girls had consumed 4.1 drinks, almost exactly what they had predicted at the time of arrival. By departure time, 22 (54%) of the drinkers had a breath alcohol value of .10 g/dL or greater, while only three (7%), had alcohol values of .02 g/dL or less. Blackouts were common and had been experienced by 73% of all the students surveyed. Twenty-seven percent of those surveyed had been involved in some form of physical violence while drinking. Eleven percent of the female participants reported being sexually assaulted while they or their attacker were drunk. Most of the 42 drinkers believed that it was acceptable for designated drivers to drink at least two beers. Two intoxicated designated drivers were driven home by sober friends. High school students in this study knew before attending a party the quantity of beer they would consume. Survey participants believed that it is acceptable practice for designated drivers to drink alcohol at parties; 13% of those who intended to drive after these parties were

  14. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  16. A Nano-Thin Film-Based Prototype QCM Sensor Array for Monitoring Human Breath and Respiratory Patterns.

    PubMed

    Selyanchyn, Roman; Wakamatsu, Shunichi; Hayashi, Kenshi; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2015-07-31

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array was developed for multi-purpose human respiration assessment. The sensor system was designed to provide feedback for human respiration. Thorough optimization of measurement conditions: air flow, temperature in the QCM chamber, frequency measurement rate, and electrode position regarding to the gas flow-was performed. As shown, acquisition of respiratory parameters (rate and respiratory pattern) could be achieved even with a single electrode used in the system. The prototype system contains eight available QCM channels that can be potentially used for selective responses to certain breath chemicals. At present, the prototype machine is ready for the assessment of respiratory functions in larger populations in order to gain statistical validation. To the best of our knowledge, the developed prototype is the only respiratory assessment system based on surface modified QCM sensors.

  17. A Nano-Thin Film-Based Prototype QCM Sensor Array for Monitoring Human Breath and Respiratory Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Selyanchyn, Roman; Wakamatsu, Shunichi; Hayashi, Kenshi; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array was developed for multi-purpose human respiration assessment. The sensor system was designed to provide feedback for human respiration. Thorough optimization of measurement conditions: air flow, temperature in the QCM chamber, frequency measurement rate, and electrode position regarding to the gas flow—was performed. As shown, acquisition of respiratory parameters (rate and respiratory pattern) could be achieved even with a single electrode used in the system. The prototype system contains eight available QCM channels that can be potentially used for selective responses to certain breath chemicals. At present, the prototype machine is ready for the assessment of respiratory functions in larger populations in order to gain statistical validation. To the best of our knowledge, the developed prototype is the only respiratory assessment system based on surface modified QCM sensors. PMID:26263994

  18. Abnormal gallium scan patterns of the salivary gland in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.; Tanaka, T.T.; Niden, A.H.

    1978-12-01

    The findings of gallium imaging suggest that parotid abnormalities in sarcoidosis are common. Correlation with lung and mediastinal uptake suggests that this represents an early disease state and that it responds to steroid administration. That the findings after therapy do not simply represent suppression of the uptake mechanism for gallium is supported by objective improvement in pulmonary function as well as symptomatic relief. Salivary gland accumulation of gallium citrate occurred in one third of our control group patients--in those who had collagen disease and presumably either were alcoholic or had infectious parotitis. This may also be seen in lymphoma andmore » after radiation therapy. Although the combination of salivary gland, pulmonary, and hilar concentration of gallium is not specific, in the appropriate clinical setting the pattern may be helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis.« less

  19. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex andmore » then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.« less

  20. Arterial spin labelling reveals an abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Tracy R; Watts, Richard; MacAskill, Michael R; Pearson, John F; Rüeger, Sina; Pitcher, Toni L; Livingston, Leslie; Graham, Charlotte; Keenan, Ross; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Anderson, Tim J

    2011-03-01

    There is a need for objective imaging markers of Parkinson's disease status and progression. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies have suggested patterns of abnormal cerebral perfusion in Parkinson's disease as potential functional biomarkers. This study aimed to identify an arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance-derived perfusion network as an accessible, non-invasive alternative. We used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling to measure cerebral grey matter perfusion in 61 subjects with Parkinson's disease with a range of motor and cognitive impairment, including patients with dementia and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Principal component analysis was used to derive a Parkinson's disease-related perfusion network via logistic regression. Region of interest analysis of absolute perfusion values revealed that the Parkinson's disease pattern was characterized by decreased perfusion in posterior parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cuneus, and middle frontal gyri compared with healthy controls. Perfusion was preserved in globus pallidus, putamen, anterior cingulate and post- and pre-central gyri. Both motor and cognitive statuses were significant factors related to network score. A network approach, supported by arterial spin labelling-derived absolute perfusion values may provide a readily accessible neuroimaging method to characterize and track progression of both motor and cognitive status in Parkinson's disease.

  1. [Rehabilitation evaluation on post-stroke abnormal movement pattern prevented and treated with acupuncture and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-min; Tang, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    To explore the impacts of acupuncture and rehabilitation on post-stroke abnormal patterns of limb movement and evaluate them via rehabilitation method. Ninety cases of post-stroke movement disorder were randomly divided into an acupuncture-rehabilitation group, a body acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. In medication group, the conventional medication in neurological department was administered. In acupuncture-rehabilitation group and body acupuncture group, on the basis of the therapy as medication group, scalp acupuncture (such as parietal area and anterior parietal area, etc.), rehabilitation training and traditional body acupuncture [such as Jianyu (LI 15) and Fengshi (GB 31),etc.] were supplemented. The continuous electric stimulation was applied in body acupuncture group. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The assessment of clinical efficacy, Fugl-Meyer score, Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) and shoulder pain score were taken as observation indices for rehabilitation evaluation before and after treatment in each group. The effective rate was 93.1% (27/29) in acupuncture-rehabilitation group, which was superior to 66.7% (20/30) in body acupuncture group and 57.1% (16/28) in control group (both P<0.01) separately. After treatment, Fugl-Meyer score, MAS, ROM of the lower limbs and shoulder joint and shoulder pain score (except medication group) were all remarkably improved as compared with those before treatment in each group (all P<0.01). The improvements in Fugl-Meyer score, MAS, ROM of the upper limbs and shoulder pain score in acupuncture-rehabilitation group were significantly superior to those in body acupuncture group and medication group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy and traditional body acupuncture remarkably improve in post-stroke movement disorder. But acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy is apparently superior to traditional body acupuncture. This therapy can effectively

  2. Comparison of Realistic and Idealized Breathing Patterns in Computational Models of Airflow and Vapor Dosimetry in the Rodent Upper Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing, and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory, and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration, and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles—including sniffing—could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions. PMID:26986954

  3. Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: an experimental study in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Jenny; Gudmundsson, Anders; Nicklasson, Hanna; Swietlicki, Erik; Wollmer, Per; Löndahl, Jakob

    2017-04-08

    Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry). To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

  4. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.

    Abstract Context: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective: Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods: Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both asmore » flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results: For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions: The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.« less

  5. Effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on complexity of breathing pattern in a guinea pig model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Pazhoohan, Saeed; Javan, Mohammad; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2017-01-01

    Asthma represents an episodic and fluctuating behavior characterized with decreased complexity of respiratory dynamics. Several evidence indicate that asthma severity or control is associated with alteration in variability of lung function. The pathophysiological basis of alteration in complexity of breathing pattern in asthma has remained poorly understood. Regarding the point that Rho-kinase is involved in pathophysiology of asthma, in present study we investigated the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on complexity of respiratory dynamics in a guinea pig model of asthma. Male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 12 series of inhalations with ovalbumin or saline. Animals were treated by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (1mM aerosols) prior to each allergen challenge. We recorded respiration of conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. Exposure to ovalbumin induced lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling including goblet cell hyperplasia, increase in the thickness of airways smooth muscles and subepithelial collagen deposition. Complexity analysis of respiratory dynamics revealed a dramatic decrease in irregularity of respiratory rhythm representing less complexity in asthmatic guinea pigs. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced the airway remodeling and hyperreponsiveness, but had no significant effect on lung inflammation and complexity of respiratory dynamics in asthmatic animals. It seems that airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling do not significantly affect the complexity of respiratory dynamics. Our results suggest that inflammation might be the probable cause of shift in the respiratory dynamics away from the normal fluctuation in asthma. PMID:29088265

  6. From honeycomb- to microsphere-patterned surfaces of poly(lactic acid) and a starch-poly(lactic acid) blend via the breath figure method.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Maniglio, Devid; Sousa, Nuno; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2017-01-26

    This study investigated the preparation of ordered patterned surfaces and/or microspheres from a natural-based polymer, using the breath figure and reverse breath figure methods. Poly(D,L-lactic acid) and starch poly(lactic acid) solutions were precipitated in different conditions - namely, polymer concentration, vapor atmosphere temperature and substrate - to evaluate the effect of these conditions on the morphology of the precipitates obtained. The possibility of fine-tuning the properties of the final patterns simply by changing the vapor atmosphere was also demonstrated here using a range of compositions of the vapor phase. Porous films or discrete particles are formed when the differences in surface tension determine the ability of polymer solution to surround water droplets or methanol to surround polymer droplets, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed applying a simple standard protocol to evaluate the possibility to use these materials in biomedical applications. Moreover, fluorescent microscopy images showed a good interaction of cells with the material, which were able to adhere on the patterned surfaces after 24 hours in culture. The development of patterned surfaces using the breath figure method was tested in this work for the preparation of both poly(lactic acid) and a blend containing starch and poly(lactic acid). The potential of these films to be used in the biomedical area was confirmed by a preliminary cytotoxicity test and by morphological observation of cell adhesion.

  7. Efficiency index: a new parameter to define breathing patterns during dynamic Xe-127 ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Slosman, D.; Susskind, H.; Bossuyt, A.

    1986-03-01

    Ventilation imaging can be improved by gating scintigraphic data with the respiratory cycle using temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) to quantify the temporal behavior of the ventilation. Sixteen consecutive images, representing equal-time increments of an average respiratory cycle, were produced by TFA in the posterior view on a pixel-by-pixel basis. An Efficiency Index (EFF), defined as the ratio of the summation of all the differences between maximum and minimum counts for each pixel to that for the entire lung during the respiratory cycle, was derived to describe the pattern of ventilation. The gated ventilation studies were carried out with Xe-127 inmore » 12 subjects: normal lung function (4), small airway disease (2), COPD (5), and restrictive disease (1). EFF for the first three harmonics correlated linearly with FEV1 (r = 0.701, p< 0.01). This approach is suggested as a very sensitive method to quantify the extent and regional distribution of airway obstruction.« less

  8. Assessment of breathing patterns and respiratory muscle recruitment during singing and speech in quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2011-02-01

    To explore how respiratory impairment after cervical spinal cord injury affects vocal function, and to explore muscle recruitment strategies used during vocal tasks after quadriplegia. It was hypothesized that to achieve the increased respiratory support required for singing and loud speech, people with quadriplegia use different patterns of muscle recruitment and control strategies compared with control subjects without spinal cord injury. Matched, parallel-group design. Large university-affiliated public hospital. Consenting participants with motor-complete C5-7 quadriplegia (n=6) and able-bodied age-matched controls (n=6) were assessed on physiologic and voice measures during vocal tasks. Not applicable. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Perceptual Voice Profile. The group with quadriplegia had a reduced lung capacity (vital capacity, 71% vs 102% of predicted; P=.028), more perceived voice problems (Voice Handicap Index score, 22.5 vs 6.5; P=.046), and greater recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles during both loud and soft volumes (P=.028) than the able-bodied controls. The group with quadriplegia also demonstrated higher accessory muscle activation in changing from soft to loud speech (P=.028). People with quadriplegia have impaired vocal ability and use different muscle recruitment strategies during speech than the able-bodied. These findings will enable us to target specific measurements of respiratory physiology for assessing functional improvements in response to formal therapeutic singing training. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward Anatomical Simulation for Breath Training in Mind/Body Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Benjamin; Dilorenzo, Paul; Zordan, Victor; Bakal, Donald

    The use of breath in healing is poorly understood by patients and professionals alike. Dysfunctional breathing is a characteristic of many unexplained symptoms and mind/body medical professionals seek methods for breath training to alleviate such problems. Our approach is to re-purpose and evolve a recently developed anatomically inspired respiration simulation which was created for synthesizing motion in entertainment for the use of visualization in breath training. In mind/body medicine, problems are often created from patients being advised to breathe according to some standard based on pace or volume. However, a breathing pattern that is comfortable and effortless for one person may not have the same benefits for the next person. The breathing rhythm which is most effortless for each person needs to be dynamically identified. To this end, in this chapter, we employ optimization to modify a generic model of respiration to fit the breath patterns of specific individuals. In practice, the corresponding visualization which is specific to individual patients could be used to train proper breath behavior, both by showing specific (abnormal) practice and recommended modification(s).

  10. T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a) levels predict the development of major abnormal Q/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Christina Strom; Byberg, Liisa; Sundstrom, Johan; Lind, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17), high lipoprotein (a) levels, high body mass index (BMI) and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a) levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI) compared to clinically recognized MI. PMID:16519804

  11. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  12. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Agatha D.; Leow, Alex D.; Lu, Allen; Reiss, Allan L.; Hall, Scott; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX (age: 14.66+/−1.58SD, 18 females/18 males), and 33 age-matched healthy controls (age: 14.67+/−2.2SD, 17 females/16 males), using high-dimensional elastic image registration. All 69 subjects' 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs were spatially deformed to match a high-resolution single-subject average MRI scan in ICBM space, whose geometry was optimized to produce a minimal deformation target. Maps of the local Jacobian determinant (expansion factor) were computed from the deformation fields. Statistical maps showed increased caudate (10% higher; p=0.001) and lateral ventricle volumes (19% higher; p=0.003), and trend-level parietal and temporal white matter excesses (10% higher locally; p=0.04). In affected females, volume abnormalities correlated with reduction in systemically measured levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP; Spearman's r<−0.5 locally). Decreased FMRP correlated with ventricular expansion (p=0.042; permutation test), and anterior cingulate tissue reductions (p=0.0026; permutation test) supporting theories that FMRP is required for normal dendritic pruning in fronto-striatal-limbic pathways. No sex differences were found; findings were confirmed using traditional volumetric measures in regions of interest. Deficit patterns were replicated using Lie group statistics optimized for tensor-valued data. Investigation of how these anomalies emerge over time will accelerate our understanding of FraX and its treatment. PMID:17161622

  13. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of the Abnormal Isometric Strength Movement Pattern between Shoulder and Elbow Joint in Patients with Hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yali; Hong, Yuezhen; Ji, Linhong

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hemiplegia usually have weak muscle selectivity and usually perform strength at a secondary joint (secondary strength) during performing a strength at one joint (primary strength). The abnormal strength pattern between shoulder and elbow joint has been analyzed by the maximum value while the performing process with strength changing from 0 to maximum then to 0 was a dynamic process. The objective of this study was to develop a method to dynamically analyze the strength changing process. Ten patients were asked to perform four group asks (maximum and 50% maximum voluntary strength in shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, elbow flexion, and elbow extension). Strength and activities from seven muscles were measured. The changes of secondary strength had significant correlation with those of primary strength in all tasks ( R > 0.76, p < 0.01). The antagonistic muscles were moderately influenced by the primary strength ( R > 0.4, p < 0.01). Deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis had significant influences on the abnormal strength pattern (all p < 0.01). The dynamic method was proved to be efficient to analyze the different influences of muscles on the abnormal strength pattern. The muscles, deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis, much influenced the stereotyped movement pattern between shoulder and elbow joint.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of the Abnormal Isometric Strength Movement Pattern between Shoulder and Elbow Joint in Patients with Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hemiplegia usually have weak muscle selectivity and usually perform strength at a secondary joint (secondary strength) during performing a strength at one joint (primary strength). The abnormal strength pattern between shoulder and elbow joint has been analyzed by the maximum value while the performing process with strength changing from 0 to maximum then to 0 was a dynamic process. The objective of this study was to develop a method to dynamically analyze the strength changing process. Ten patients were asked to perform four group asks (maximum and 50% maximum voluntary strength in shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, elbow flexion, and elbow extension). Strength and activities from seven muscles were measured. The changes of secondary strength had significant correlation with those of primary strength in all tasks (R > 0.76, p < 0.01). The antagonistic muscles were moderately influenced by the primary strength (R > 0.4, p < 0.01). Deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis had significant influences on the abnormal strength pattern (all p < 0.01). The dynamic method was proved to be efficient to analyze the different influences of muscles on the abnormal strength pattern. The muscles, deltoid muscles, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis, much influenced the stereotyped movement pattern between shoulder and elbow joint. PMID:29610654

  16. Central nervous system abnormalities in Fanconi anaemia: patterns and frequency on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Robert; Wright, Neville B; Chandler, Kate; Bonney, Denise; Wynn, Robert F; Will, Andrew M; Punekar, Maqsood; Loughran, Sean; Kilday, John-Paul; Schindler, Detlev; Patel, Leena; Meyer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease associated with congenital and developmental abnormalities resulting from the disruption of a multigenic DNA damage response pathway. This study aimed to define the MRI appearances of the brain in patients with FA in correlation with their genetic and clinical features. Methods: A review of the brain MRI in 20 patients with FA was performed. Pituitary size and frequencies of the radiological findings of individuals with FA and age-matched controls were determined. Results: Abnormalities were identified in 18 (90%) patients with FA, the commonest being a small pituitary (68%, p < 0.01 females and p < 0.001 males). In five cases (25%, p = 0.02), the pituitary morphology was also abnormal. Posterior fossa abnormalities were seen in six cases (30%, p = 0.01) including Chiari I malformation (n = 3), Dandy–Walker variant (n = 2) and cerebellar atrophy (n = 2). Six patients (30%, p = 0.01) had morphological structural variation of the corpus callosum (CC). Conclusion: The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with a midline predominance that points to impact in the early stages of CNS development. MRI brain imaging is important for endocrine assessment and pre-transplant evaluation and can make an important contribution to clinical decision-making. Advances in knowledge: The incidence of brain structural abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with abnormalities of the posterior fossa, CC and pituitary being common. There is an association with gender and reduction in pituitary size which does not strongly correlate with biochemically evident endocrine abnormality. PMID:26369989

  17. Breathing pattern and chest wall volumes during exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis and COPD before and after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, H; Weingard, B; Lo Mauro, A; Schena, E; Pedotti, A; Sybrecht, G W; Aliverti, A

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often cause chronic respiratory failure (CRF). In order to investigate if there are different patterns of adaptation of the ventilatory pump in CRF, in three groups of lung transplant candidates with PF (n=9, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))=37+/-3% predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC)=32+/-2% predicted), CF (n=9, FEV(1)=22+/-3% predicted, FVC=30+/-3% predicted) and COPD (n=21, FEV(1)=21+/-1% predicted, FVC=46+/-2% predicted), 10 healthy controls and 16 transplanted patients, total and compartmental chest wall volumes were measured by opto-electronic plethysmography during rest and exercise. Three different breathing patterns were found during CRF in PF, CF and COPD. Patients with COPD were characterised by a reduced duty cycle at rest and maximal exercise (34+/-1%, p<0.001), while patients with PF and CF showed an increased breathing frequency (49+/-6 and 34+/-2/min, respectively) and decreased tidal volume (0.75+/-0.10 and 0.79+/-0.07 litres) (p<0.05). During exercise, end-expiratory chest wall and rib cage volumes increased significantly in patients with COPD and CF but not in those with PF. End-inspiratory volumes did not increase in CF and PF. The breathing pattern of transplanted patients was similar to that of healthy controls. There are three distinct patterns of CRF in patients with PF, CF and COPD adopted by the ventilatory pump to cope with the underlying lung disease that may explain why patients with PF and CF are prone to respiratory failure earlier than patients with COPD. After lung transplantation the chronic adaptations of the ventilatory pattern to advanced lung diseases are reversible and indicate that the main contributing factor is the lung itself rather than systemic effects of the disease.

  18. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  19. Is screening for abnormal ECG patterns justified in long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines?

    PubMed

    Pourier, Milanthy S; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Annelies M C; Loonen, Jacqueline; Bökkerink, Jos P M; Roeleveld, Nel; Beer, Gil; Bellersen, Louise; Kapusta, Livia

    2017-03-01

    ECG and echocardiography are noninvasive screening tools to detect subclinical cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Our aims were as follows: (1) assess the prevalence of abnormal ECG patterns, (2) determine the agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and echocardiographic abnormalities; and (3) determine whether ECG screening for subclinical cardiotoxicity in CCSs is justified. We retrospectively studied ECG and echocardiography in asymptomatic CCSs more than 5 years after anthracycline treatment. Exclusion criteria were abnormal ECG and/or echocardiogram at the start of therapy, incomplete follow-up data, clinical heart failure, cardiac medication, and congenital heart disease. ECG abnormalities were classified using the Minnesota Code. Level of agreement between ECG and echocardiography was calculated with Cohen kappa. We included 340 survivors with a mean follow-up of 14.5 years (range 5-32). ECG was abnormal in 73 survivors (21.5%), with ventricular conduction disorders, sinus bradycardia, and high-amplitude R waves being most common. Prolonged QTc (>0.45 msec) was found in two survivors, both with a cumulative anthracycline dose of 300 mg/m 2 or higher. Echocardiography showed abnormalities in 44 survivors (12.9%), mostly mild valvular abnormalities. The level of agreement between ECG and echocardiography was low (kappa 0.09). Male survivors more often had an abnormal ECG (corrected odds ratio: 3.00, 95% confidence interval: 1.68-5.37). Abnormal ECG patterns were present in 21% of asymptomatic long-term CCSs. Lack of agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and echocardiographic abnormalities may suggest that ECG is valuable in long-term follow-up of CCSs. However, it is not clear whether these abnormal ECG patterns will be clinically relevant. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Spreading Photoparoxysmal EEG Response is Associated with an Abnormal Cortical Excitability Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J.; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR…

  1. Impact of anatomical parameters on optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer thickness abnormality patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Mahd, Mufeed; Elze, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of four anatomical parameters (angle between superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries [inter-artery angle, IAA], optic disc [OD] rotation, retinal curvature, and central retinal vessel trunk entry point location [CRVTL]) on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) abnormality marks by OCT machines. Methods: Cirrus OCT circumpapillary RNFLT measurements and Humphrey visual fields (HVF 24-2) of 421 patients from a large glaucoma clinic were included. Ellipses were fitted to the OD borders. Ellipse rotation relative to the vertical axis defined OD rotation. CRVTL was manually marked on the horizontal axis of the ellipse on the OCT fundus image. IAA was calculated between manually marked retinal artery locations at the 1.73mm radius around OD. Retinal curvature was determined by the inner limiting membrane on the horizontal B-scan closest to the OD center. For each location on the circumpapillary scanning area, logistic regression was used to determine if each of the four parameters had a significant impact on RNFLT abnormality marks independent of disease severity. The results are presented on spatial maps of the entire scanning area. Results: Variations in IAA significantly influenced abnormality marks on 38.8% of the total scanning area, followed by CRVTL (19.2%) and retinal curvature (18.7%). The effect of OD rotation was negligible (<1%). Conclusions: A natural variation in IAA, retinal curvature, and CRVTL can affect OCT abnormality ratings, which may bias clinical diagnosis. Our spatial maps may help OCT manufacturers to introduce location specific norms to ensure that abnormality marks indicate ocular disease instead of variations in eye anatomy.

  2. Novel insights in cough and breathing patterns of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis performing repeated 24-hour-respiratory polygraphies.

    PubMed

    Schertel, Anke; Funke-Chambour, Manuela; Geiser, Thomas; Brill, Anne-Kathrin

    2017-11-13

    The main symptoms of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are cough and dyspnea. IPF leads to a restrictive lung disorder impacting daytime and nocturnal breathing patterns. In this pilot study we assessed the course of day- and nighttime respiration, oxygenation, and cough over a period of 8 months as well as differences between wakefulness and sleep in IPF patients. Repetitive 24-h respiratory polygraphies (RP) and pulmonary function tests were performed at baseline and after 3, 4, 7 and 8 months. Cough-index, oxygenation parameters (SpO2, time with SpO2 < 90%, desaturation index), respiratory rate and heart rate were assessed for differences between wakefulness and sleep. The first and the last RP were compared to identify changes of these parameters over time. Statistical analyses were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Nine IPF patients (8 male, median age 67 years (IQR 60, 77) with 37 valid 24-h RPs were included. Eight patients (88.9%) received antifibrotic treatment. Cough was more prevalent during wakefulness with a median cough-index of 14.8/h (IQR 10.9, 16.8) and 1.6/h (IQR 1.3-2.8) during sleep, p = 0.0039. Oxygenation parameters showed no difference, while respiratory- and heart rate were significantly higher during wakefulness. Despite stable pulmonary function tests over 8 months, the initially elevated respiratory rate increased further during wakefulness (baseline RR median 25.7/min (IQR 19.8, 26.6) vs. RR median 32.2/min (IQR 26.5, 40.9) at follow-up, p = 0.0273). The other respiratory parameters remained stable over time. Cough in IPF patients is more prevalent during wakefulness than during sleep. Further studies with a larger sample size and longer a follow-up period are needed to evaluate the role of the respiratory rate during wakefulness as a potential clinical follow up parameter in IPF.

  3. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  4. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  5. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ. This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  6. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  7. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Clements, N; Kron, T; Franich, R; Dunn, L; Roxby, P; Aarons, Y; Chesson, B; Siva, S; Duplan, D; Ball, D

    2013-02-01

    Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of this work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden "lung" inserts with embedded Perspex "lesions" were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to true ITVs. Breathing patterns with a

  8. The effect of irregular breathing patterns on internal target volumes in four-dimensional CT and cone-beam CT images in the context of stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, N.; Kron, T.; Roxby, P.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic lung radiotherapy is complicated by tumor motion from patient respiration. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) imaging is a motion compensation method used in treatment planning to generate a maximum intensity projection (MIP) internal target volume (ITV). Image guided radiotherapy during treatment may involve acquiring a volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) image and visually aligning the tumor to the planning 4DCT MIP ITV contour. Moving targets imaged with CBCT can appear blurred and currently there are no studies reporting on the effect that irregular breathing patterns have on CBCT volumes and their alignment to 4DCT MIP ITV contours. The objective of thismore » work was therefore to image a phantom moving with irregular breathing patterns to determine whether any configurations resulted in errors in volume contouring or alignment. Methods: A Perspex thorax phantom was used to simulate a patient. Three wooden 'lung' inserts with embedded Perspex 'lesions' were moved up to 4 cm with computer-generated motion patterns, and up to 1 cm with patient-specific breathing patterns. The phantom was imaged on 4DCT and CBCT with the same acquisition settings used for stereotactic lung patients in the clinic and the volumes on all phantom images were contoured. This project assessed the volumes for qualitative and quantitative changes including volume, length of the volume, and errors in alignment between CBCT volumes and 4DCT MIP ITV contours. Results: When motion was introduced 4DCT and CBCT volumes were reduced by up to 20% and 30% and shortened by up to 7 and 11 mm, respectively, indicating that volume was being under-represented at the extremes of motion. Banding artifacts were present in 4DCT MIP images, while CBCT volumes were largely reduced in contrast. When variable amplitudes from patient traces were used and CBCT ITVs were compared to 4DCT MIP ITVs there was a distinct trend in reduced ITV with increasing amplitude that was not seen when compared to

  9. Abnormal motor patterns in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis: a cause for dystonic movements?

    PubMed

    Latash, M L; Gutman, S R

    1994-01-01

    Until now, the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) of motor control has assumed nonintersecting force-length characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex for individual muscles. Limited data from animal experiments suggest, however, that such intersections may occur. We have assumed the possibility of intersection of the characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex and performed a computer simulation of movement trajectories and electromyographic patterns. The simulation has demonstrated, in particular, that a transient change in the slope of the characteristic of an agonist muscle may lead to temporary movement reversals, hesitations, oscillations, and multiple electromyographic bursts that are typical of movements of patients with dystonia. The movement patterns of three patients with idiopathic dystonia during attempts at fast single-joint movements (in the elbow, wrist, and ankle) were recorded and compared with the results of the computer simulation. This approach considers that motor disorders in dystonia result from faulty control patterns that may not correlate with any morphological or neurophysiological changes. It provides a basis for the high variability of dystonic movements. The uniqueness of abnormal motor patterns in dystonia, that precludes statistical analysis across patients, may result from subtle differences in the patterns of intersecting characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex. The applicability of our analysis to disordered multijoint movement patterns is discussed.

  10. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  11. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  12. Patterns of Head Computed Tomography Abnormalities During Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Association With Outcomes.

    PubMed

    LaRovere, Kerri L; Vonberg, Frederick W; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kapur, Kush; Harini, Chellamani; Garcia-Jacques, Rogelio; Chao, Jessica H; Akhondi-Asl, Aliresa; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    We sought to classify type and distribution of acute infarction and hemorrhage on head computed tomography (CT) during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We also analyzed the occurrence of seizures on electroencephalography and outcomes between those with and without CT abnormalities. We conducted a single center observational study in pediatric intensive care units. The medical records of 179 children who underwent ECMO between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. No interventions were done. A total of 46% (82/179) of children underwent CT. Of these, 60% (49/82) had acute pathology. Cerebral infarction occurred in 55% (27/49) and hemorrhage in 41% (20/49). Infarction was arterial in 67% (18/27) with a preponderance in the middle cerebral artery territory (17 patients). Infarction was bilateral in 41% (11/27) and not specific to the side of cannulation in the rest. Sensitivity and specificity for head ultrasound in predicting infarction on CT were 100% and 53%, respectively. A total of 36% (65/179) underwent continuous encephalography monitoring; 22% (14/65) of these had electrographic seizures. Electrographic seizures were increased in those with infarction (odds ratio [OR], 6.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98 to 23.43). Survival was reduced with both infarction (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.54) and hemorrhage (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.72). Children with CT abnormalities had more unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.01). Head ultrasound is insufficient to rule out infarction. Infarction is middle cerebral artery predominant and associated with an increased risk of electrographic seizures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Chen, Jiayu; Patel, Veena; Liu, Jingyu; Segall, Judith; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Fisher, Simon E; Fernandez, Guillen; van Erp, Theo G M; Potkin, Steven; Ford, Judith; Mathalon, Daniel; McEwen, Sarah; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mueller, Bryon A; Greve, Douglas N; Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Gollub, Randy L; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Pearlson, Godfrey; Glahn, David C; Sprooten, Emma; Mayer, Andrew R; Stephen, Julia; Jung, Rex E; Canive, Jose; Bustillo, Juan; Turner, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on GMC images from 784 Sz and 936 controls (Ct) across 23 scanning sites in Europe and the United States. After correcting for age, gender, site, and diagnosis by site interactions, SBM analyses showed 9 patterns of diagnostic differences. They comprised separate cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. Seven patterns showed greater GMC in Ct than Sz, while 2 (brainstem and cerebellum) showed greater GMC for Sz. The greatest GMC deficit was in a single pattern comprising regions in the superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal cortex, which replicated over analyses of data subsets. VBM analyses identified overall cortical GMC loss and one small cluster of increased GMC in Sz, which overlapped with the SBM brainstem component. We found no significant association between the component loadings and symptom severity in either analysis. This mega-analysis confirms that the commonly found GMC loss in Sz in the anterior temporal lobe, insula, and medial frontal lobe form a single, consistent spatial pattern even in such a diverse dataset. The separation of GMC loss into robust, repeatable spatial patterns across multiple datasets paves the way for the application of these methods to identify subtle genetic and clinical cohort effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  15. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  16. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  17. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  18. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  19. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot, you may need to visit your dentist or doctor . What Causes Bad Breath? Here are ... particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist twice a year for regular checkups and cleanings. ...

  20. Breathing Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and your lungs Breathing in and out is ... improve effective coughing. Techniques are explained in The ALS Association’s Living with ALS manual #6 “Adapting to ...

  1. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-05-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome.

  2. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome. PMID:1534650

  3. Exploring non-stationarity patterns in schizophrenia: neural reorganization abnormalities in the alpha band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Pablo; Poza, Jesús; Bachiller, Alejandro; Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Lubeiro, Alba; Molina, Vicente; Hornero, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper was to characterize brain non-stationarity during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). The level of non-stationarity was measured in the baseline and response windows of relevant tones in SCH patients and healthy controls. Approach. Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 SCH patients and 51 controls. Non-stationarity was estimated in the conventional electroencephalography frequency bands by means of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD). Relative power (RP) was also computed to assess a possible complementarity with KLD. Main results. Results showed a widespread statistically significant increase in the level of non-stationarity from baseline to response in all frequency bands for both groups. Statistically significant differences in non-stationarity were found between SCH patients and controls in beta-2 and in the alpha band. SCH patients showed more non-stationarity in the left parieto-occipital region during the baseline window in the beta-2 band. A leave-one-out cross validation classification study with feature selection based on binary stepwise logistic regression to discriminate between SCH patients and controls provided a positive predictive value of 72.73% and negative predictive value of 78.95%. Significance. KLD can characterize transient neural reorganization during an attentional task in response to novelty and relevance. Our findings suggest anomalous reorganization of neural dynamics in SCH during an oddball task. The abnormal frequency-dependent modulation found in SCH patients during relevant tones is in agreement with the hypothesis of aberrant salience detection in SCH. The increase in non-stationarity in the alpha band during the active task supports the notion that this band is involved in top-down processing. The baseline differences in the beta-2 band suggest that hyperactivation of the default mode network during attention tasks may be related to SCH symptoms. Furthermore, the classification

  4. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and abnormal geometric patterns of left ventricle in untreated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Elbasan, Zafer; Gür, Mustafa; Sahin, Durmuş Yıldıray; Kırım, Sinan; Akyol, Selahattin; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koyunsever, Nermin Yıldız; Seker, Taner; Kıvrak, Ali; Caylı, Murat

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive patients. Relationship between NT-proBNP level and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is well known in hypertensive patients. However, the studies investigating relationship between LV geometric patterns and serum NT-proBNP level have conflicting results and are in a limited number. The goal of the present study is to investigate relation between NT-proBNP and abnormal LV geometric patterns in untreated hypertensive patients. Measurements were obtained from 273 patients with untreated essential hypertension (mean age = 51.7 ± 5.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age; 51.3 ± 4.7). Four different geometric patterns (NG: normal geometry; CR: concentric remodelling; EH: eccentric hypertrophy; CH: concentric hypertrophy) were determined according to LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness. NT-proBNP and other biochemical markers were measured in all subjects. The highest NT-proBNP levels were determined in the CH group compared with the control group and other geometric patterns (p < 0.05). NT-proBNP levels of all geometric patterns were higher than the control group (p < 0.05, for all). NT-proBNP levels were similar between CR and NG groups (p > 0.05). NT-proBNP was independently associated with LV geometry (β = 0.304, p = 0.003) and LVMI (β = 0.266, p = 0.007) in multiple linear regression analysis. Serum NT-proBNP level was independently associated with LVMI and LV geometry in untreated hypertensive patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  5. Abnormal skeletal growth patterns in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis--a longitudinal study until skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Yim, Annie P Y; Yeung, Hiu-Yan; Hung, Vivian W Y; Lee, Kwong-Man; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack C Y

    2012-08-15

    A cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal study on the anthropometric parameters and growth pattern of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To investigate the growth pattern of girls with AIS with different severities, using cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal data set in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. AIS occurs in children during their pubertal growth spurt. Although there is no clear consensus on the difference in body height between girls with AIS and healthy controls, it is generally thought that the development and curve progression in girls with AIS is closely associated with their growth rate. There is no concrete prospective longitudinal study to document clearly the growth pattern and growth rate of subjects with AIS . A total of 611 girls with AIS and 296 healthy age-matched controls were included in the study and among them, 194 girls with AIS and 116 healthy controls were followed up until skeletal maturity. The girls with AIS were grouped into moderate (AIS20) and severe curve (AIS40) groups on the basis of maximum curve magnitude at skeletal maturity. Clinical data and detailed anthropometric parameters were recorded. In the cross-sectional analysis, the groups of subjects were compared within different age groups (from the age of 12-16 yr). In the longitudinal study, linear mixed modeling with respect to age or years since menarche was employed to formulate the growth trajectory of different anthropometric parameters. In the cross-sectional analysis, the girls with AIS were generally taller, with longer arm span and lower body mass index than the healthy controls. The girls with AIS40 were found to be significantly shorter in height (P = 0.006) and arm span (P = 0.025) at the age of 12 years but caught up and overtook the control group at the age of 14 to 16 years. In the longitudinal study, the average growth rate of arm span in girls with AIS40 was significantly higher than that in girls with AIS20 (> 30

  6. Tei index correlates with tissue Doppler parameters and reflects neurohormonal activation in patients with an abnormal transmitral flow pattern.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stefania; Troisi, Federica; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Di Biase, Matteo

    2009-10-01

    Tei index (TI) is a Doppler parameter which reflects combined systolic and diastolic function. We aimed to study the relationship between TI, both traditional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographic parameters and neurohormonal profile in outpatients with diastolic dysfunction expressed by an abnormal transmitral flow pattern. A total of 67 consecutive outpatients with diastolic dysfunction (abnormal transmitral flow pattern) were studied; all patients underwent clinical evaluation, blood sampling for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma assaying, echocardiography for the determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), dP/dt, left atrium (LA) dimensions, longitudinal systolic (S) and diastolic wall velocities (E'and A'), TI measured with Doppler echocardiography, and mitral regurgitation (MR) quantified on a semicontinuous scale. TI values were significantly correlated with BNP levels (r = 0.33; P < 0.01), LVEF (r =-0.56; P < 0.001), dP/dt (r =-0.52; P < 0.01), S (r =-0.45; P < 0.001), E'(r =-0.36; P < 0.01), A'(r =-0.27; P < 0.05), LA volume (r = 0.35; P < 0.01), and MR (P for trend < 0.05). In a multivariate regression analysis, TI was an independent predictor of increased BNP levels (beta= 0.32; P < 0.05), even after correction for potential confounders. ROC analysis showed as values of TI >0.59 identified subjects with combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 71.4%. In outpatients with diastolic dysfunction, TI, an easy to perform parameter for global ventricular performance assessment, might be useful in identifying subjects with concomitant systolic impairment and neurohormonal activation.

  7. Abnormal peri-pubertal anthropometric measurements and growth pattern in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a study of 598 patients.

    PubMed

    Siu King Cheung, Catherine; Tak Keung Lee, Warren; Kit Tse, Yee; Ping Tang, Sheng; Man Lee, Kwong; Guo, Xia; Qin, Lin; Chun Yiu Cheng, Jack

    2003-09-15

    A cross-sectional study of anthropometric parameters in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To compare anthropometric parameters and growth pattern of AIS girls versus normal controls during peri-puberty. Abnormal pattern of growth has been reported in AIS patients. The sequential changes of growth and the correlation with curve severity have not been properly studied. Five hundred ninety-eight AIS girls and 307 healthy girls entered the study. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), arm span, sitting height, and leg length were determined using standard techniques. Height and sitting height were adjusted by using the greatest Cobb angle to correct for spinal deformity (Bjure's formula). Puberty was graded by Tanner's staging. AIS girls had significantly shorter height (P = 0.001), corrected height (P = 0.005), arm span (P = 0.022), sitting height (P = 0.005) and leg length (P = 0.004) than the controls at pubertal stage I. From pubertal stages II through V, corrected height (P abnormal growth in AIS patients during peripubertal development.

  8. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to

  9. Dirty breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisham, M.

    2017-12-01

    Breathing issues befall most asthmatics. However, the symptoms are not caused randomly. Particulate matter is a cause that has been collected and sampled at several bus stops. The following experiment provides the results of collected particulate matter in several locations around LSU.

  10. Recovery of Percent Vital Capacity by Breathing Training in Patients With Panic Disorder and Impaired Diaphragmatic Breathing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tatsuji; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    Slow diaphragmatic breathing is one of the therapeutic methods used in behavioral therapy for panic disorder. In practice, we have noticed that some of these patients could not perform diaphragmatic breathing and their percent vital capacity was initially reduced but could be recovered through breathing training. We conducted a comparative study with healthy controls to investigate the relationship between diaphragmatic breathing ability and percent vital capacity in patients with panic disorder. Our findings suggest that percent vital capacity in patients with impaired diaphragmatic breathing was significantly reduced compared with those with normal diaphragmatic breathing and that diaphragmatic breathing could be restored by breathing training. Percent vital capacity of the healthy controls was equivalent to that of the patients who had completed breathing training. This article provides preliminary findings regarding reduced vital capacity in relation to abnormal respiratory movements found in patients with panic disorder, potentially offering alternative perspectives for verifying the significance of breathing training for panic disorder.

  11. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K D; Dazzan, P; Morgan, C; Lappin, J; Hutchinson, G; Chitnis, X; Suckling, J; Fearon, P; Jones, P B; Leff, J; Murray, R M

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients. We obtained dual-echo (proton density/T2-weighted) images from a sample of 75 first-episode psychosis patients and 68 healthy controls. We used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based methods of image analysis. Two separate analyses were conducted: (1) 34 white British patients were compared with 33 white British controls; (2) 41 African-Caribbean and black African patients were compared with 35 African-Caribbean and black African controls. White British patients and African-Caribbean/black African patients had ventricular enlargement and increased lenticular nucleus volume compared with their respective ethnic controls. The African-Caribbean/black African patients also showed reduced global grey matter and increased lingual gyrus grey-matter volume. The white British patients had no regional or global grey-matter loss compared with their normal ethnic counterparts but showed increased grey matter in the left superior temporal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found no evidence in support of our hypothesis. Indeed, the finding of reduced global grey-matter volume in the African-Caribbean/black African patients but not in the white British patients was contrary to our prediction.

  12. Cognitive Impairment and Structural Abnormalities in Late Life Depression with Olfactory Identification Impairment: an Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pattern.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ben; Zhong, Xiaomei; Mai, Naikeng; Peng, Qi; Wu, Zhangying; Ouyang, Cong; Zhang, Weiru; Liang, Wanyuan; Wu, Yujie; Liu, Sha; Chen, Lijian; Ning, Yuping

    2018-03-15

    Late-life depression patients are at a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and diminished olfactory identification is an indicator in early screening for Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. However, whether diminished olfactory identification is associated with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late-life depression patients remains unclear. One hundred and twenty-five late-life depression patients, 50 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 60 normal controls were continuously recruited. The participants underwent a clinical evaluation, olfactory test, neuropsychological assessment, and neuroimaging assessment. The olfactory identification impairment in late-life depression patients was milder than that in Alzheimer's disease patients. Diminished olfactory identification was significantly correlated with worse cognitive performance (global function, memory language, executive function, and attention) and reduced grey matter volume (olfactory bulb and hippocampus) in the late-life depression patients. According to a multiple linear regression analysis, olfactory identification was significantly associated with the memory scores in late-life depression group (B=1.623, P<.001). The late-life depression with olfactory identification impairment group had worse cognitive performance (global, memory, language, and executive function) and more structural abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease-related regions than the late-life depression without olfactory identification impairment group, and global cognitive function and logical memory in the late-life depression without olfactory identification impairment group was intact. Reduced volume observed in many areas (hippocampus, precuneus, etc.) in the Alzheimer's disease group was also observed in late-life depression with olfactory identification impairment group but not in the late-life depression without olfactory identification impairment group. The patterns of cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in

  13. Role of "Sural Sparing" Pattern (Absent/Abnormal Median and Ulnar with Present Sural SNAP) Compared to Absent/Abnormal Median or Ulnar with Normal Sural SNAP in Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Surpur, Spurthi Sunil; Govindarajan, Raghav

    2017-01-01

    Sural sparing defined as absent/abnormal median sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude or absent/abnormal ulnar SNAP amplitude with a normal sural SNAP amplitude is thought to be a marker for inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. If sural sparing pattern specifically defined as absent/abnormal median and ulnar SNAP amplitude with normal sural SNAP amplitude (AMUNS) is sensitive and specific when compared with either absent/abnormal median and normal sural (AMNS) or absent/abnormal ulnar and normal sural (AUNS) for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), select non-diabetic axonopathies (AXPs), and diabetic neuropathies (DNs). Retrospective analysis from 2001 to 2010 on all newly diagnosed AIDP, CIDP, select non-diabetic AXP, and DN. There were 20 AIDP and 23 CIDP. Twenty AXP and 50 DN patients between 2009 and 2010 were included as controls. AMUNS was seen in 65% of AIDP, 39% CIDP compared with 10% of AXP and 6% for DN with sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 92%, whereas the specificity of AMNS/AUNS was 73% and its sensitivity was 58%. If a patient has AMUNS they are >12 times more likely to have AIDP ( p  < 0.001). Sural sparing is highly specific but not sensitive when compared with either AMNS or AUNS in AIDP but does not add to sensitivity or specificity in CIDP.

  14. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (<14) for all the studies. The main areas of weakness were a clear description of the participants, of the methods used to access posture, of the principal confounders and lack of power analysis. External and internal validity were also threatened by the lack of a representative sample and blinding of the participants and assessors, respectively. The review provides low evidence that mouth-breathing pattern in children between the ages 5-14 years is associated with postural deviations. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. MO-FG-BRA-05: Dosimetric and Radiobiological Validation of Respiratory Gating in Conventional and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy of the Lung: Effect of Dose, Dose Rate, Gating Window and Breathing Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Cervino, L; Soultan, D; Pettersson, N

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the dosimetric and radiobiological consequences from having different gating windows, dose rates, and breathing patterns in gated VMAT lung radiotherapy. Methods: A novel 3D-printed moving phantom with central high and peripheral low tracer uptake regions was 4D FDG-PET/CT-scanned using ideal, patient-specific regular, and irregular breathing patterns. A scan of the stationary phantom was obtained as a reference. Target volumes corresponding to different uptake regions were delineated. Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) 6 MV VMAT plans were produced for conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapy, using 30–70 and 100% cycle gating scenarios. Prescribed doses were 200 cGy with SIB to 240more » cGy to high uptake volume for conventional, and 800 with SIB to 900 cGy for hypofractionated plans. Dose rates of 600 MU/min (conventional and hypofractionated) and flattening filter free 1400 MU/min (hypofractionated) were used. Ion chamber measurements were performed to verify delivered doses. Vials with A549 cells placed in locations matching ion chamber measurements were irradiated using the same plans to measure clonogenic survival. Differences in survival for the different doses, dose rates, gating windows, and breathing patterns were analyzed. Results: Ion chamber measurements agreed within 3% of the planned dose, for all locations, breathing patterns and gating windows. Cell survival depended on dose alone, and not on gating window, breathing pattern, MU rate, or delivery time. The surviving fraction varied from approximately 40% at 2Gy to 1% for 9 Gy and was within statistical uncertainty relative to that observed for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: Use of gated VMAT in PET-driven SIB radiotherapy was validated using ion chamber measurements and cell survival assays for conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapy.« less

  16. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and taking big breaths can be uncomfortable. A device called an incentive spirometer can help you take deep breaths correctly. If you do not have this device, you can still practice deep breathing on your ...

  17. Classification of postural profiles among mouth-breathing children by learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Sousa, F S; Hummel, A D; Falcão, A E J; Yi, L C; Ortolani, C F; Sigulem, D; Pisa, I T

    2011-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a chronic syndrome that may bring about postural changes. Finding characteristic patterns of changes occurring in the complex musculoskeletal system of mouth-breathing children has been a challenge. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) is an artificial neural network model that can be applied for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to apply LVQ to determine the characteristic postural profiles shown by mouth-breathing children, in order to further understand abnormal posture among mouth breathers. Postural training data on 52 children (30 mouth breathers and 22 nose breathers) and postural validation data on 32 children (22 mouth breathers and 10 nose breathers) were used. The performance of LVQ and other classification models was compared in relation to self-organizing maps, back-propagation applied to multilayer perceptrons, Bayesian networks, naive Bayes, J48 decision trees, k, and k-nearest-neighbor classifiers. Classifier accuracy was assessed by means of leave-one-out cross-validation, area under ROC curve (AUC), and inter-rater agreement (Kappa statistics). By using the LVQ model, five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children could be determined. LVQ showed satisfactory results for mouth-breathing and nose-breathing classification: sensitivity and specificity rates of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, when using the training dataset, and 0.95 and 0.90, respectively, when using the validation dataset. The five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children suggested by LVQ were incorporated into application software for classifying the severity of mouth breathers' abnormal posture.

  18. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ...

  19. Abnormal gait pattern emerges during curved trajectories in high-functioning Parkinsonian patients walking in line at normal speed

    PubMed Central

    Godi, Marco; Giardini, Marica; Arcolin, Ilaria; Nardone, Antonio; Giordano, Andrea; Schieppati, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Background Several patients with Parkinson´s disease (PD) can walk normally along straight trajectories, and impairment in their stride length and cadence may not be easily discernible. Do obvious abnormalities occur in these high-functioning patients when more challenging trajectories are travelled, such as circular paths, which normally implicate a graded modulation in the duration of the interlimb gait cycle phases? Methods We compared a cohort of well-treated mildly to moderately affected PD patients to a group of age-matched healthy subjects (HS), by deliberately including HS spontaneously walking at the same speed of the patients with PD. All participants performed, in random order: linear and circular walking (clockwise and counter-clockwise) at self-selected speed. By means of pressure-sensitive insoles, we recorded walking speed, cadence, duration of single support, double support, swing phase, and stride time. Stride length-cadence relationships were built for linear and curved walking. Stride-to-stride variability of temporal gait parameters was also estimated. Results Walking speed, cadence or stride length were not different between PD and HS during linear walking. Speed, cadence and stride length diminished during curved walking in both groups, stride length more in PD than HS. In PD compared to HS, the stride length-cadence relationship was altered during curved walking. Duration of the double-support phase was also increased during curved walking, as was variability of the single support, swing phase and double support phase. Conclusion The spatio-temporal gait pattern and variability are significantly modified in well-treated, high-functioning patients with PD walking along circular trajectories, even when they exhibit no changes in speed in straight-line walking. The increased variability of the gait phases during curved walking is an identifying characteristic of PD. We discuss our findings in term of interplay between control of balance and of

  20. Patterns of cervical cytological abnormalities according to the Human Development Index in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho-França, José De Ribamar; Chein, Maria Bethânia Da Costa; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2016-08-12

    Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality rates between regions arise due to differences in socioeconomic conditions and in human development factors. The major purpose of this study was to measure the role of the Human Development Index (HDI) in the pattern of cervical cytological abnormalities (CCAs). This was an analytical sectional study involving a review of secondary cervical cytology data collected from women living in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, in 2007-2012 and collected from the Cervical Cancer Information System (Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero - SISCOLO). The cervical screening results were classified according to the Brazilian Classification of Cervical Reporting (Nomenclatura Brasileira para Laudos Cervicais), an adaptation of the Bethesda System. The Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) was used, which is an adaptation of the global HDI. The association between CCAs and MHDI was evaluated using the chi-squared test and odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The significance level used for all tests was 5 %. We analysed 1,363,689 examinations of women living in the state of Maranhão. CCAs were identified in 2.0 % of smears in municipalities with high MHDI, 2.2 % in those with medium or low MHDI and 4.1 % in those with very low MHDI. In addition, potentially malignant changes and suspected cervical cancer (HSIL+) were 40.0 % more frequent (0.3 %) in municipalities with medium or low MHDI and 3.6 times more frequent (0.8 %) in municipalities with very low MHDI compared to those with high MHDI (0.2 %). The association between MHDI and the occurrence of CCAs and HSIL+ shows that more developed areas with more effective health services have a lower prevalence of these lesions. To control cervical cancer, it is necessary to reduce social inequality and improve the availability of health services.

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease and patterns of volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath of children: A case-control study using Ion Molecule Reaction-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Monasta, Lorenzo; Pierobon, Chiara; Princivalle, Andrea; Martelossi, Stefano; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Pasini, Francesco; Perbellini, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) profoundly affect quality of life and have been gradually increasing in incidence, prevalence and severity in many areas of the world, and in children in particular. Patients with suspected IBD require careful history and clinical examination, while definitive diagnosis relies on endoscopic and histological findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the alveolar air of pediatric patients with IBD presents a specific volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) pattern when compared to controls. Patients 10-17 years of age, were divided into four groups: Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), controls with gastrointestinal symptomatology, and surgical controls with no evidence of gastrointestinal problems. Alveolar breath was analyzed by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry. Four models were built starting from 81 molecules plus the age of subjects as independent variables, adopting a penalizing LASSO logistic regression approach: 1) IBDs vs. controls, finally based on 18 VOCs plus age (sensitivity = 95%, specificity = 69%, AUC = 0.925); 2) CD vs. UC, finally based on 13 VOCs plus age (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 76%, AUC = 0.934); 3) IBDs vs. gastroenterological controls, finally based on 15 VOCs plus age (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 65%, AUC = 0.918); 4) IBDs vs. controls, built starting from the 21 directly or indirectly calibrated molecules only, and finally based on 12 VOCs plus age (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 71%, AUC = 0.888). The molecules identified by the models were carefully studied in relation to the concerned outcomes. This study, with the creation of models based on VOCs profiles, precise instrumentation and advanced statistical methods, can contribute to the development of new non-invasive, fast and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tools, with high sensitivity and specificity. It also represents a crucial step towards gaining further insights on the etiology of IBD through the

  2. Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Pham@petermac.org; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist'smore » discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.« less

  3. Unique mitochondrial localization of arginase 1 and 2 in hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus and their differential expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Koner, Debaprasad; Lal, Priyanka; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-07-30

    Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH 4 Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish. Initially, full length sequences of both arg1 and arg2 genes were obtained by RACE-PCR. Studies on molecular characterization demonstrated the presence of all the conserved amino acids required for stability and activity of binuclear metal center in both the isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of ARG isoforms showed a differentiation of the ARG1 and ARG2 into two distinct clusters with their respective isoforms from other species. Most interestingly, both the isoforms of ARG in hepatocytes were found to be localized inside the mitochondria as evidenced by the presence of mitochondrial target peptide (mTP) in N-terminal of the derived amino acid sequences, and exclusive localization of ARG activity in the mitochondrial fraction. This was additionally confirmed by Western blot analysis of ARGs in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions, and by immunocytochemical analysis in isolated hepatocytes. Although the possible reasons associated with the presence of both the isoforms of ARGs inside the mitochondria is not clearly understood, perhaps this mitochondrial localization of ARG is functionally advantageous in this catfish for the synthesis of N

  4. Femur-sparing pattern of abnormal fetal growth in pregnant women from New York City after maternal Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christie L; Merriam, Audrey A; Ohuma, Eric O; Dighe, Manjiri K; Gale, Michael; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M

    2018-05-05

    /7, 28-33 6/7, >34 weeks) to analyze time-dependent effects of Zika virus infection on fetal size. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test on paired data, comparing either abdominal circumference or head circumference to femur length. A total of 56 pregnant women were included in the study with laboratory evidence of a confirmed or possible recent Zika virus infection. Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition for microcephaly after congenital Zika virus exposure, microcephaly was diagnosed in 5% (3/56) by both the 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart standards (head circumference Z-score ≤-2 or ≤2.3%). Using 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project, intrauterine fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in 18% of pregnancies (10/56; abdominal circumference Z-score ≤-1.3, <10%). Analysis of fetal size using the last ultrasound scan for all subjects revealed a significantly abnormal skewing of fetal biometrics with a smaller abdominal circumference vs femur length by either 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project or World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart (P < .001 for both). A difference in distribution of fetal abdominal circumference compared to femur length was first apparent in the 24-27 6/7 week strata (2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project, P = .002; World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart, P = .001). A significantly smaller head circumference compared to femur length was also observed by 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project as early as the 28-33 6/7 week strata (2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project, P = .007). Overall, a femur-sparing pattern of growth restriction was detected

  5. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  7. Real-time continuous visual biofeedback in the treatment of speech breathing disorders following childhood traumatic brain injury: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, B E; Pitt, G; Theodoros, D G; Ward, E C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population.

  8. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  9. Endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with moderate-to-severe head trauma: incidence, pattern and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Douka, Evangelia; Zervou, Maria; Kouyialis, Andreas T; Thalassinos, Nikolaos; Roussos, Charis

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and type of endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine their relationships to possible predisposing factors. Prospective study. General intensive care unit in a university hospital. Thirty-four TBI patients (27 men, 7 women), having a mean age of 37+/-16 years, were studied after weaning from mechanical ventilation. Baseline endocrine assessment was carried out by measuring cortisol, corticotropin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free thyroxine, thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone, oestradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I. Dynamic evaluation was performed by human corticotropin releasing hormone and growth hormone releasing hormone in all patients. Male patients underwent additional investigation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Severity of neurological derangement was graded according to Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Marshall Computerized Tomographic Classification and intracranial pressure (ICP) levels. Eighteen of the 34 patients (53%) had an abnormal result in at least one hormonal axis tested, with cortisol hyporesponsiveness and gonadal dysfunction being equally common, affecting 24% of patients. Endocrine abnormalities were associated with a higher brain CT-scan classification score ( p=0.02). The GCS on admission correlated positively with baseline FSH (r=0.37, p=0.03), peak FSH (r=0.41, p=0.03), testosterone (r=0.44, p=0.02) and TSH (r=0.39, p=0.03). There were no relations between ICP(max) and any baseline or dynamic hormone measurements. Patients with TBI receiving critical care show changes in their neuroendocrine responses, which depend upon clinical and radiological measures of head injury severity. Most common abnormalities include cortisol hyporesponsiveness and hypogonadism.

  10. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 1. Impacts of refractive error and interartery angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, Tobias; Baniasadi, Neda; Jin, Qingying; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mengyu

    2017-12-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in clinical practice to support glaucoma diagnosis. Clinicians frequently interpret peripapillary RNFLT areas marked as abnormal by OCT machines. However, presently, clinical OCT machines do not take individual retinal anatomy variation into account, and according diagnostic biases have been shown particularly for patients with ametropia. The angle between the two major temporal retinal arteries (interartery angle, IAA) is considered a fundamental retinal ametropia marker. Here, we analyze peripapillary spectral domain OCT RNFLT scans of 691 glaucoma patients and apply multivariate logistic regression to quantitatively compare the diagnostic bias of spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error and IAA and to identify the precise retinal locations of false-positive/negative abnormality marks. Independent of glaucoma severity (visual field mean deviation), IAA/SE variations biased abnormality marks on OCT RNFLT printouts at 36.7%/22.9% of the peripapillary area, respectively. 17.2% of the biases due to SE are not explained by IAA variation, particularly in inferonasal areas. To conclude, the inclusion of SE and IAA in OCT RNFLT norms would help to increase diagnostic accuracy. Our detailed location maps may help clinicians to reduce diagnostic bias while interpreting retinal OCT scans.

  11. Analysis of patterns of patient compliance after an abnormal Pap smear result: the influence of demographic characteristics on patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Christine; Zhou, Ming K; Khamis, Harry J; Amesse, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine population characteristics that correlate to suboptimal follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Nonpregnant women, ages 21 to 65 years, with newly diagnosed abnormal cervical cytology result between January 2009 and January 2012 at an urban clinic were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective chart review. Cervical cytology data and demographic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, employment, marital and smoking status, health insurance and number of pregnancies were abstracted from electronic medical record. A log-linear model was used to determine which factors influenced patient compliance. Of the total of 206 women, 78 (37.9%) had optimal follow-up and 128 (62.1%) had suboptimal follow-up. The 3 variables that were statistically significant in influencing patient follow-up after adjusted analyses included severity of cytology result (p = .0013), ethnicity (p = .02), and employment status (p = .0159). The risk ratio for optimal follow-up for those with severe cytology result was 1.81; for the non-whites, 1.77; and for the employed, 1.53. Ethnicity, severity of cervical cytology result, and employment status play an important role in patient follow-up after an abnormal cervical cytology result. Detecting trends in our patient population that influence adherence to follow-up will help health care providers formulate strategies that target this problem.

  12. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Couldrey, Christine; Lee, Rita Sf

    2010-03-07

    Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI). Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1) showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a good predictor of whether the foetus would develop to term

  13. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI). Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1) showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a good predictor of whether the

  14. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hyperventilation as well as factors like emotional stress, overexertion, habitual postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach pursed-lip breathing. This ...

  15. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema - travel ... you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath ... doctor if you plan to travel in a place at a high altitude (such ...

  16. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83. McGee S. Respiratory rate and ...

  17. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  18. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  19. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  20. Guiding curve based on the normal breathing as monitored by thermocouple for regular breathing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sangwook; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do; Suh, Yelin; Shin, Seong Soo; Lee, Sang-wook; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yi, Byong Yong; Kwon, Soo Il; Kim, Sookil; Jeung, Tae Sig

    2007-11-01

    Adapting radiation fields to a moving target requires information continuously on the location of internal target by detecting it directly or indirectly. The aim of this study is to make the breathing regular effectively with minimizing stress to the patient. A system for regulating patient's breath consists of a respiratory monitoring mask (ReMM), a thermocouple module, a screen, inner earphones, and a personal computer. A ReMM with thermocouple was developed previously to measure the patient's respiration. A software was written in LabView 7.0 (National Instruments, TX), which acquires respiration signal and displays its pattern. Two curves are displayed on the screen: One is a curve indicating the patient's current breathing pattern; the other is a guiding curve, which is iterated with one period of the patient's normal breathing curve. The guiding curves were acquired for each volunteer before they breathed with guidance. Ten volunteers participated in this study to evaluate this system. A cycle of the representative guiding curve was acquired by monitoring each volunteer's free breathing with ReMM and was then generated iteratively. The regularity was compared between a free breath curve and a guided breath curve by measuring standard deviations of amplitudes and periods of two groups of breathing. When the breathing was guided, the standard deviation of amplitudes and periods on average were reduced from 0.0029 to 0.00139 (arbitrary units) and from 0.359 s to 0.202 s, respectively. And the correlation coefficients between breathing curves and guiding curves were greater than 0.99 for all volunteers. The regularity was improved statistically when the guiding curve was used.

  1. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  2. Abnormal hubs of white matter networks in the frontal-parieto circuit contribute to depression discrimination via pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiaolong; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Jianhuai; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Zhao, Ke; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies had explored the diagnostic and prognostic value of the structural neuroimaging data of MDD and treated the whole brain voxels, the fractional anisotropy and the structural connectivity as classification features. To our best knowledge, no study examined the potential diagnostic value of the hubs of anatomical brain networks in MDD. The purpose of the current study was to provide an exploratory examination of the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of hubs of white matter brain networks in MDD discrimination and the corresponding impaired hub pattern via a multi-pattern analysis. We constructed white matter brain networks from 29 depressions and 30 healthy controls based on diffusion tensor imaging data, calculated nodal measures and identified hubs. Using these measures as features, two types of feature architectures were established, one only included hubs (HUB) and the other contained both hubs and non hubs. The support vector machine classifiers with Gaussian radial basis kernel were used after the feature selection. Moreover, the relative contribution of the features was estimated by means of the consensus features. Our results presented that the hubs (including the bilateral dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus) played an important role in distinguishing the depressions from healthy controls with the best accuracy of 83.05%. Moreover, most of the HUB consensus features located in the frontal-parieto circuit. These findings provided evidence that the hubs could be served as valuable potential diagnostic measure for MDD, and the hub-concentrated lesion distribution of MDD was primarily anchored within the frontal-parieto circuit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  4. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  5. Role of bronchodilation and pattern of breathing in increasing tidal expiratory flow with progressive induced hypercapnia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Kevin E; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-01-01

    Hypercapnia (HC) in vitro relaxes airway smooth muscle; in vivo, it increases respiratory effort, tidal expiratory flows (V̇ exp ), and, by decreasing inspiratory duration (Ti), increases elastic recoil pressure (Pel) via lung viscoelasticity; however, its effect on airway resistance is uncertain. We examined the contributions of bronchodilation, Ti, and expiratory effort to increasing V̇ exp with progressive HC in 10 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) 53% predicted. Lung volumes (Vl), V̇ exp , esophageal pressure (Pes), Ti, and end-tidal Pco 2 ([Formula: see text]) were measured during six tidal breaths followed by an inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing air, and at three levels of HC. V̇ exp and V̇ with submaximal forced vital capacities breathing air (V̇ sFVC ) were compared. Pulmonary resistance ( Rl) was measured from the Pes-V̇ relationship. V̇ exp and Pes at end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) + 0.3 tidal volume [V̇ (0.3Vt) and Pes (0.3Vt) , respectively], Ti, and Rl correlated with [Formula: see text] ( P < 0.001 for all) and were independent of tiotropium. [Formula: see text], Ti, and Pes (0.3Vt) predicted the increasing V̇ (0.3Vt) /V̇ sFVC(0.3Vt) [multiple regression analysis (MRA): P = 0.001, 0.004, and 0.025, respectively]. At [Formula: see text] ≥ 50 Torr, V̇ (0.3Vt) /V̇ sFVC(0.3Vt) exceeded unity in 30 of 36 measurements and was predicted by [Formula: see text] and Pes (0.3Vt) (MRA: P = 0.02 and 0.025, respectively). Rl decreased at [Formula: see text] 45 Torr ( P < 0.05) and did not change with further HC. IC and Vl (0.3Vt) did not change with HC. We conclude that in COPD HC increases V̇ exp due to bronchodilation, increased Pel secondary to decreasing Ti, and increased expiratory effort, all promoting lung emptying and a stable EELV. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The response of airways to intrapulmonary hypercapnia (HC) is uncertain. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  6. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; Chronic respiratory failure - pursed lip breathing ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  8. Chronic muscle stimulation improves muscle function and reverts the abnormal surface EMG pattern in Myotonic Dystrophy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) the rehabilitative interventions have always been aimed at muscle strengthening, increasing of fatigue resistance and improving of aerobic metabolism efficiency whereas the electrical membrane fault has always been addressed pharmacologically. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a useful therapeutic tool in sport medicine and in the rehabilitation of many clinical conditions characterized by motor impairment such as stroke, cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury. The aim of our pilot study was to evaluate the effects of chronic electrical stimulation both on functional and electrical properties of muscle in a small group of DM1 patients. Methods Five DM1 patients and one patient with Congenital Myotonia (CM) performed a home electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle lasting 15 days with a frequency of two daily sessions of 60 minutes each. Muscle strength was assessed according to the MRC scale (Medical Research Council) and functional tests (10 Meter Walking Test, 6 Minutes Walking Test and Timed Up and Go Test) were performed. We analyzed the average rectified value of sEMG signal amplitude (ARV) to characterize the sarcolemmal excitability. Results After the treatment an increase of muscle strength in those DM1 patients with a mild strength deficit was observed. In all subjects an improvement of 10MWT was recorded. Five patients improved their performance in the 6MWT. In TUG test 4 out of 6 patients showed a slight reduction in execution time. All patients reported a subjective improvement when walking. A complete recovery of the normal increasing ARV curve was observed in 4 out of 5 DM1 patients; the CM patient didn’t show modification of the ARV pattern. Conclusions NMES determined a clear-cut improvement of both the muscular weakness and the sarcolemmal excitability alteration in our small group of DM1 patients. Therefore this rehabilitative approach, if confirmed by further

  9. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  10. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  11. ROHHAD syndrome and evolution of sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Reppucci, Diana; Hamilton, Jill; Yeh, E Ann; Katz, Sherri; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Narang, Indra

    2016-07-30

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Although nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) is central to ROHHAD, the evolution of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is not well studied. The aim of the study was to assess early manifestations of SDB and their evolution in ROHHAD syndrome. Retrospective study of children with ROHHAD at two Canadian centers. All children with suspected ROHHAD at presentation underwent polysomnography (PSG) to screen for nocturnal hypoventilation. PSG findings at baseline and follow-up were collected. Interventions and diagnostic test results were recorded. Six children were included. The median age of rapid onset obesity and nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) was 3.5 and 7.2 years respectively. On initial screening for ROHHAD 4/6 (66.7 %) children had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 1/6 (16.7 %) had NH and 1/6 (16.7 %) had both OSA and NH. Follow up PSGs were performed in 5/6 children as one child died following a cardiorespiratory arrest. All children at follow up had NH and required non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Additionally, 3/6 (50 %) children demonstrated irregular breathing patterns during wakefulness. Children with ROHHAD may initially present with OSA and only develop NH later as well as dysregulation of breathing during wakefulness. The recognition of the spectrum of respiratory abnormalities at presentation and over time may be important in raising the index of suspicion of ROHHAD. Early recognition and targeted therapeutic interventions may limit morbidity and mortality associated with ROHHAD.

  12. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  13. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  14. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    PubMed

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of patterns of biologically relevant aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects by liquid chromatography/atmospheric chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Roberta; Manini, Paola; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of several classes of aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was developed using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS). EBC is a biological matrix obtained by a relatively new, simple and noninvasive technique and provides an indirect assessment of pulmonary status. The measurement of aldehydes in EBC represents a biomarker of the effect of oxidative stress caused by smoke, disease, or strong oxidants like ozone. Malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein, α,β-unsaturated hydroxylated aldehydes [namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)], and saturated aldehydes (n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal) were measured in EBC after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes was obtained in positiveion mode for MDA, and in negativeion mode for acrolein, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, and saturated aldehydes. DNPH derivatives were separated on a C18 column using variable proportions of 20 mM aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Linearity was established over 4–5 orders of magnitude and limits of detection were in the 0.3–1.0 nM range. Intra-day and inter-day precision were in the 1.3–9.9% range for all the compounds. MDA, acrolein and n-alkanals were detectable in all EBC samples, whereas the highly reactive 4-HHE and 4-HNE were found in only a few samples. Statistically significant higher concentrations of MDA, acrolein and n-hexanal were found in EBC from smokers. PMID:12661015

  16. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Opportunities Research Conference Recruit for Clinical Trials Research Publications Spinraza Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ...

  17. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... orthopnea Images Breathing References Davis JL, Murray JF. History and physical examination. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  19. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  20. Breath test refusals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-11-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has found that the percentage of people who refuse to provide breath samples when arrested for Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) varies considerably across States, and this creates a concern in the cri...

  1. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  2. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  4. Breath-to-breath hypercapnic response in neonatal rats: temperature dependency of the chemoreflexes and potential implications for breathing stability.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2009-07-01

    The breathing of newborns is destabilized by warm temperatures. We hypothesized that in unanesthetized, intact newborn rats, body temperature (T(B)) influences the peripheral chemoreflex response (PCR response) to hypercapnia. To test this, we delivered square-wave challenges of 8% CO(2) in air to postnatal day 4-5 (P4-P5) rats held at a T(B) of 30 degrees C (Cold group, n = 11), 33 degrees C (Cool group, n = 10), and 35 degrees C thermoneutral zone group [thermoneutral zone (TNZ) group, n = 11], while measuring ventilation (Ve) directly with a pneumotach and mask. Cool animals were challenged with 8% CO(2) balanced in either air or hyperoxia (n = 10) to identify the PCR response. Breath-to-breath analysis was performed on 30 room air breaths and every breath of the 1-min CO(2) challenge. As expected, warmer T(B) was associated with an unstable breathing pattern in room air: TNZ animals had a coefficient of variation in Ve (Ve CV%) that was double that of animals held at cooler T(B) (P < 0.001). Hyperoxia markedly suppressed the hypercapnic ventilatory response over the first 10 breaths (or approximately 4 s), suggesting that this domain is dominated by the PCR response. The PCR response (P = 0.03) and total response (P = 0.04) were significantly greater in TNZ animals compared with hypothermic animals. The total response had a significant, negative relationship with Vco(2) (R(2) = 0.53; P < 0.001). Breathing stability was positively related to the total response (R(2) = 0.36; P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent, the PCR response (R(2) = 0.19; P = 0.01) and was negatively related to Vco(2) (R(2) = 0.34; P < 0.001). ANCOVA confirmed a significant effect of T(B) alone on breathing stability (P < 0.01), with no independent effects of Vco(2) (P = 0.41), the PCR response (P = 0.82), or the total Ve response (P = 0.08). Our data suggest that in early postnatal life, the chemoreflex responses to CO(2) are highly influenced by T(B), and while related to breathing stability

  5. Prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia: study by 99mTc-sestamibi radionuclide scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed M; Rayan, Mona; Adel, Amr; Demerdash, Salah; Atef, Mohamed; Abdallah, Mohamed; Nammas, Wail

    2014-02-01

    We explored the prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE), as demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Prospectively, we enrolled 35 patients with angiographically documented CAE and no significant coronary obstruction, who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients underwent Stress-rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy within 4 days of coronary angiography. They were divided into 2 groups: group I: with normal perfusion scan; and group II: with reversible perfusion defects. The mean age was 49.6 ± 6.9 years; 34 (97.1 %) were males. Seventy-nine (75.2 %) arteries were affected by CAE. Among 79 arteries affected by CAE, affection was diffuse in 37 (46.8 %). Thirteen (37.1 %) patients had normal perfusion scan (group I), whereas 22 (62.9 %) had reversible perfusion defects (group II). Among 22 patients with reversible perfusion defects, 20 (90.9 %) had mild and 2 (9.1 %) had moderate ischemia. Among 49 myocardial segments with reversible perfusion defects, 22 (44.9 %) were basal, 18 (36.7 %) mid-, and 9 (18.4 %) apical segments. Diffuse CAE was significantly more prevalent in group II versus group I, in all 3 major coronary arteries (p < 0.05 for all). In patients with isolated CAE who underwent elective coronary angiography, reversible perfusion defects demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy were rather prevalent, mostly mild, more likely to affect the basal and mid-segments of the myocardium, and more frequently associated with diffuse ectasia.

  6. Clinico-laboratory profile of breath-holding spells in children in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Abdelrahim Abdrabou; Mohamed, Montaser Mohamed; Sharaf, El-Zahraa El-Said Ahmed; Magdy, Rofaida Mohamed; Allam, Ahmed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breath-holding spells (BHSs) are involuntary pauses of breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. They usually occur in response to an upsetting or surprising situation. Breath-holding spells are usually caused by either a change in the usual breathing pattern or a slowing of the heart rate. In some children, BHSs may be related to iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the work was to study the clinical and laboratory profile of BPHs in children presented to the Neuropediatric Clinic at Sohag University Hospital. Methods An observational prospective study was done at Sohag University Hospital over a period of one year on children diagnosed as having BHSs by clinical history and laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and Electroencephalography (EEG). Results During the period of study (one year), we reviewed data of 32 children who had been diagnosed as having BHSs. We found that cyanotic spells (71.88%) predominated over pallid spells. There were positive family histories (31.25%) and consanguinity (53.135) in the studied patients. We found a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia (62.5%) in association with BHS. Abnormal EEGs were found in (65.63%) of studied children. Conclusion BHS is a common, important problem associated with iron deficiency anemia, which is, in turn, a common nutritional problem in our country. PMID:27279996

  7. Childhood obstructive sleep-disordered breathing: a clinical update and discussion of technological innovations and challenges.

    PubMed

    Halbower, Ann C; Ishman, Stacey L; McGinley, Brian M

    2007-12-01

    Childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been known to be associated with health and cognitive impacts for more than a century, and yet our understanding of this disorder is in its infancy. Neuropsychological consequences in children with snoring or subtle breathing disturbances not meeting the traditional definition of sleep apnea suggest that "benign, or primary snoring" may be clinically significant, and that the true prevalence of SDB might be underestimated. There is no standard definition of SDB in children. The polysomnographic technology used in many sleep laboratories may be inadequate to diagnose serious but subtle forms of clinically important airflow limitation. In the last several years, advances in digital technology as well as new observational studies of respiratory and arousal patterns in large populations of healthy children have led to alternative views of what constitutes sleep-related breathing and arousal abnormalities that may refine our diagnostic criteria. This article reviews our knowledge of childhood SDB, highlights recent advances in technology, and discusses diagnostic and treatment strategies that will advance the management of children with pediatric SDB.

  8. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  9. Breath-collection device for delayed breath-alcohol analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-12-01

    The report includes the details of a study to develop, evaluate, and validate a breath collection device (BCD) for delayed breath-alcohol analysis. Primary applications of the BCD include collection of breath-alcohol samples for field surveys or for ...

  10. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  11. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  12. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  13. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  14. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  15. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technicians fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  16. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Bad Breath - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese, Traditional ( ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  17. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 2 May 2018

  18. Breath-Hold Diving.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Breathing spiral waves in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Igal; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Yang, Lingfa; Dolnik, Milos; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M; Epstein, Irving R

    2008-08-01

    Breathing spiral waves are observed in the oscillatory chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system. The breathing develops within established patterns of multiple spiral waves after the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol in the feeding chamber of a continuously fed, unstirred reactor is increased. The breathing period is determined by the period of bulk oscillations in the feeding chamber. Similar behavior is obtained in the Lengyel-Epstein model of this system, where small amplitude parametric forcing of spiral waves near the spiral wave frequency leads to the formation of breathing spiral waves in which the period of breathing is equal to the period of forcing.

  20. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. REGIONAL DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS DURING CONTROLLED NORMAL BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION

    One of the key factors for affecting respiratory

    deposition of particles is the breathing pattern of

    individual subjects. Although idealized breathing

    patterns
    (square or sine wave form) are frequently used

    for studying lung deposit...

  2. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  3. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Periodic Breathing and Very Long Apnea in Preterm Infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Mary A.

    Electronic signals from bedside monitors in University of Virginia's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are routinely collected and stored. The overall goal of our research is predictive monitoring: we seek patterns in signals that give early warning of impending pathology. This work focuses on apnea (pauses in regular respiration), and on periodic breathing (regular cycles of breathing and apnea). Our examination of apnea events revealed a disturbing number of cases in which the cessation of breathing lasted at least 60 seconds. These observations were validated, clinical correlations of these events were identified, and a theory was developed that partially explains how they occur. Periodic breathing in neonates is a normal developmental phenomenon. It arises when there is instability in the respiratory control system. A mathematical model of periodic breathing was developed to analyze the stability of the control system in infants. Periodic breathing has long been thought to be benign, however, exaggerated durations of periodic breathing may be an indicator of pathology. Characterization of periodic breathing has previously been limited to short monitoring times in small numbers of infants. An automated system for measurement and characterization of periodic breathing was developed and applied to 5 years of data from the NICU. The amount of periodic breathing that infants had was found to increase with gestational age (up to 32 weeks). Also, times of excessive periodic breathing were recorded and clinical correlations were sought. A significant increase in periodic breathing in the 24 hours before diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was found.

  5. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  6. Progression of abnormal MIB-1 staining patterns of reserve cells in cervical smears from women ultimately developing high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Frederike C; van Haaften, Carolien; Kuijpers, Johan C; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Boon, Mathilde E

    2006-01-01

    To assess, in a longitudinal study in women diagnosed with high grade squamous epithelial lesion (HSIL), the progression over time of proliferative activity in reserve cells using population screening cervical cytology specimens. Twenty consecutive, unselected patients with HSIL lesions were part of the national cervical screening program. From the archives, for each patient, the last prior normal population screening smear was included in the study. Concurrent sets of cervical smears from 80 age-matched women without pathology formed the controls. The original slides were stained using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. The fraction of MIB-1-positive reserve cells was assessed using systematic random sampling and running progressive means assessment to ensure a sufficient sample size. The proliferation fraction in reserve cells of HSIL patients was significantly raised (mean, 65.0%; range, 53.5-94.1%; p < 0.01) as compared with that in concurrent controls (mean, 12.8%; range, 1.9-45.4%). Prior smears from HSIL patients, although without morphologic abnormalities, had abnormally high proliferation fractions (mean, 59.1%; range, 1.0-94.7%), significantly raised over those from concurrent controls (mean, 9.4%; range In population-based cervical smear screening, HSIL patients already have abnormally raised proliferation fractions of reserve cells, even without morphologic changes in squamous cells, 1-5 (mean, 3.6) years prior to diagnosis.

  7. Upper airway sleep-disordered breathing in women.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Stoohs, R; Kim, Y D; Chervin, R; Black, J; Clerk, A

    1995-04-01

    To investigate the various clinical presentations of sleep-disordered breathing in women. A retrospective case-control study. A sleep disorders clinic. 334 women, aged 18 years and older, seen between 1988 and 1993, who were diagnosed with upper airway sleep-disordered breathing. Controls were 60 women with insomnia and 100 men with sleep-disordered breathing. Clinical, anatomic, and polygraphic information. The mean lag time (+/- SD) in women between the appearance of symptoms and a positive diagnosis was 9.7 +/- 3.1 years; among participants 30 to 60 years of age, the duration of untreated symptoms differed (P < 0.001) between women and men. Sleep-disordered breathing was blamed for divorce or social isolation by 40% of the case patients. Abnormal maxillomandibular features were noted in 45% of the women with disordered breathing. Dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea (which disappeared after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure) were reported in 43% of premenopausal women compared with 13% of persons in the control group of women with insomnia. Thirty-eight women (11.4%) with upper airway sleep-disordered breathing had a respiratory disturbance index of less than 5 and were significantly younger, had a smaller neck circumference, and had a lower body mass index than women with a respiratory disturbance index of 5 or more. Physicians should revise their understanding of upper airway sleep-disordered breathing so that they notice women with certain craniofacial features, a low body mass index, a small neck circumference, and a respiratory disturbance index of less than 5. These revisions may enable more rapid diagnosis and treatment of women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  8. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  9. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  10. Whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography with multiple breath-holds and automatic breathing-level tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhara, Shigehide; Ninomiya, Ayako; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanao, Shotaro; Kamae, Toshikazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-05-01

    Whole-heart (WH) magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) studies are usually performed during free breathing while monitoring the position of the diaphragm with real-time motion correction. However, this results in a long scan time and the patient's breathing pattern may change, causing the study to be aborted. Alternatively, WH MRCA can be performed with multiple breath-holds (mBH). However, one problem in the mBH method is that patients cannot hold their breath at the same position every time, leading to image degradation. We have developed a new WH MRCA imaging method that employs both the mBH method and automatic breathing-level tracking to permit automatic tracking of the changes in breathing or breath-hold levels. Evaluation of its effects on WH MRCA image quality showed that this method can provide high-quality images within a shorter scan time. This proposed method is expected to be very useful in clinical WH MRCA studies.

  11. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  12. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor.

    PubMed

    Favero, Fernando C; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. TU-F-17A-04: Respiratory Phase-Resolved 3D MRI with Isotropic High Spatial Resolution: Determination of the Average Breathing Motion Pattern for Abdominal Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z; Pang, J; Yang, W

    Purpose: To develop a retrospective 4D-MRI technique (respiratory phase-resolved 3D-MRI) for providing an accurate assessment of tumor motion secondary to respiration. Methods: A 3D projection reconstruction (PR) sequence with self-gating (SG) was developed for 4D-MRI on a 3.0T MRI scanner. The respiration-induced shift of the imaging target was recorded by SG signals acquired in the superior-inferior direction every 15 radial projections (i.e. temporal resolution 98 ms). A total of 73000 radial projections obtained in 8-min were retrospectively sorted into 10 time-domain evenly distributed respiratory phases based on the SG information. Ten 3D image sets were then reconstructed offline. The techniquemore » was validated on a motion phantom (gadolinium-doped water-filled box, frequency of 10 and 18 cycles/min) and humans (4 healthy and 2 patients with liver tumors). Imaging protocol included 8-min 4D-MRI followed by 1-min 2D-realtime (498 ms/frame) MRI as a reference. Results: The multiphase 3D image sets with isotropic high spatial resolution (1.56 mm) permits flexible image reformatting and visualization. No intra-phase motion-induced blurring was observed. Comparing to 2D-realtime, 4D-MRI yielded similar motion range (phantom: 10.46 vs. 11.27 mm; healthy subject: 25.20 vs. 17.9 mm; patient: 11.38 vs. 9.30 mm), reasonable displacement difference averaged over the 10 phases (0.74mm; 3.63mm; 1.65mm), and excellent cross-correlation (0.98; 0.96; 0.94) between the two displacement series. Conclusion: Our preliminary study has demonstrated that the 4D-MRI technique can provide high-quality respiratory phase-resolved 3D images that feature: a) isotropic high spatial resolution, b) a fixed scan time of 8 minutes, c) an accurate estimate of average motion pattern, and d) minimal intra-phase motion artifact. This approach has the potential to become a viable alternative solution to assess the impact of breathing on tumor motion and determine appropriate treatment

  14. Breathing strategy of the adult horse (Equus caballus) at rest.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Kosch, P C; Beech, J; Whitlock, T

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying the polyphasic airflow pattern of the equine species, we recorded airflow, tidal volum, rib cage and abdominal motion, and the sequence of activation of the diaphragm, intercostal, and abdominal muscles during quiet breathing in nine adult horses standing at rest. In addition, esophageal, abdominal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures were simultaneously recorded using balloon-tipped catheters. Analysis of tidal flow-volume loops showed that, unlike humans, the horse at rest breathes around, rather than from, the relaxed volume of the respiratory system (Vrx). Analysis of the pattern of electromyographic activities and changes in generated pressures during the breathing cycle indicate that the first part of expiration is passive, as in humans, with deflation toward Vrx, but subsequent abdominal activity is responsible for a second phase of expiration: active deflation to below Vrx. From this end-expiratory volume, passive inflation occurs toward Vrx, followed by a second phase of inspiration: active inflation to above Vrx, brought about by inspiratory muscle contraction. Under these conditions the abdominal muscles appear to share the principal pumping duties with the diaphragm. Adoption of this breathing strategy by the horse may relate to its peculiar thoracoabdominal anatomic arrangement and to its very low passive chest wall compliance. We conclude that there is a passive and active phase to both inspiration and expiration due to the coordinated action of the respiratory pump muscles responsible for the resting adult horse's biphasic inspiratory and expiratory airflow pattern. This unique breathing pattern perhaps represents a strategy of minimizing the high elastic work of breathing in this species, at least at resting breathing frequencies.

  15. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Methods Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. Results In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. Conclusions ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP

  16. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-08-01

    The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP/SIFE and higher resolution protein

  17. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  18. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. PMID:27542677

  19. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    PubMed

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  1. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  2. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination. PMID:4004310

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  5. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  7. Breath of hospitality.

    PubMed

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  8. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  9. Breathe Easy at Home

    PubMed Central

    Rosofsky, Anna; Reid, Margaret; Sandel, Megan; Zielenbach, Molly; Murphy, Johnna; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2016-01-01

    The Breathe Easy at Home Program enables clinicians to refer asthmatic patients to Boston Inspectional Services Department (ISD) if they suspect housing conditions trigger symptoms. The authors conducted one-on-one interviews with clinicians (n = 10) who referred patients, and focus groups with inspectors from the ISD (n = 9) and a variety of stakeholders (n = 13), to gain insight into program function and implementation. Clinician interviews revealed inconsistencies in enrollment approaches, dissatisfaction with the web-based system, and patient follow-up difficulties. Inspectors identified barriers to working effectively with residents and landlords, and the stakeholder focus group highlighted successes of an unusual institutional collaboration. Interviews and focus groups identified strong and personal rapport between clinicians, inspectors, and patients as key to program retention, and that participating families required additional support throughout the process. Despite recommendations for improvement in program implementation, clinicians, inspectors, and stakeholders felt that the program overall improved both the home environment and asthma outcomes. PMID:28462348

  10. Fatal breathing dysfunction in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Albert; Zanella, Sebastien; Koch, Henner; Kruse, Shane E; Lee, Donghoon; Ramirez, Jan M; Palmiter, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy with gliosis in several brain regions that usually results in infantile death. Loss of murine Ndufs4, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur protein 4, results in compromised activity of mitochondrial complex I as well as progressive neurodegenerative and behavioral changes that resemble LS. Here, we report the development of breathing abnormalities in a murine model of LS. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense bilateral lesions in the dorsal brain stem vestibular nucleus (VN) and cerebellum of severely affected mice. The mutant mice manifested a progressive increase in apnea and had aberrant responses to hypoxia. Electrophysiological recordings within the ventral brain stem pre-Bötzinger respiratory complex were also abnormal. Selective inactivation of Ndufs4 in the VN, one of the principle sites of gliosis, also led to breathing abnormalities and premature death. Conversely, Ndufs4 restoration in the VN corrected breathing deficits and prolonged the life span of knockout mice. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction within the VN results in aberrant regulation of respiration and contributes to the lethality of Ndufs4-knockout mice.

  11. The Cellular Building Blocks of Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, J.M.; Doi, A.; Garcia, A.J.; Elsen, F.P.; Koch, H.; Wei, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory brainstem neurons fulfill critical roles in controlling breathing: they generate the activity patterns for breathing and contribute to various sensory responses including changes in O2 and CO2. These complex sensorimotor tasks depend on the dynamic interplay between numerous cellular building blocks that consist of voltage-, calcium-, and ATP-dependent ionic conductances, various ionotropic and metabotropic synaptic mechanisms, as well as neuromodulators acting on G-protein coupled receptors and second messenger systems. As described in this review, the sensorimotor responses of the respiratory network emerge through the state-dependent integration of all these building blocks. There is no known respiratory function that involves only a small number of intrinsic, synaptic, or modulatory properties. Because of the complex integration of numerous intrinsic, synaptic, and modulatory mechanisms, the respiratory network is capable of continuously adapting to changes in the external and internal environment, which makes breathing one of the most integrated behaviors. Not surprisingly, inspiration is critical not only in the control of ventilation, but also in the context of “inspiring behaviors” such as arousal of the mind and even creativity. Far-reaching implications apply also to the underlying network mechanisms, as lessons learned from the respiratory network apply to network functions in general. PMID:23720262

  12. Social relations and breath odour.

    PubMed

    McKeown, L

    2003-11-01

    In this retrospective qualitative study, the researcher reviewed 55 client records of The Breath Odour Clinic. The purpose was to determine if individuals attended a clinic specialised in treating oral malodour for medical or social reasons. The study focused on the psychosocial and breath odour history. Clients had agreed to the use of information for research purposes. Society uses odour as a means to define and interact with the world. The olfactory, smelling experience is intimate, emotionally charged and connects us with the world. It follows that the smell from mouth breath odour can connect or disconnect a person from their social environment and intimate relationships. How one experiences one's own body is very personal and private but also very public. Breath odour is public as it occurs within a social and cultural context and personal as it affects one's body image and self-confidence. Body image, self-image and social relations mesh, interact and impact upon each other. Breath odour is a dynamic and interactive aspect of the self-image. In addition, breath odour may be value-coded as 'bad'. In 75% of the cases reviewed, decreased self-confidence and insecurity in social and intimate relations led clients to seek treatment at the specialised breath odour clinic. Their doctor, dental hygienist or dentist had treated medical and oral conditions but not resolved their breath odour problem. When a person perceives a constant bad breath problem, she/he uses defence techniques, and may avoid social situations and social relations. This affects a person's well-being.

  13. The D153del Mutation in GNB3 Gene Causes Tissue Specific Signalling Patterns and an Abnormal Renal Morphology in Rge Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tummala, Hemanth; Fleming, Stewart; Hocking, Paul M.; Wehner, Daniel; Naseem, Zahid; Ali, Manir; Inglehearn, Christopher F.; Zhelev, Nikolai; Lester, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The GNB3 gene is expressed in cone but not rod photoreceptors of vertebrates, where it acts as the β transducin subunit in the colour visual transduction process. A naturally occurring mutation ‘D153del’ in the GNB3 gene causes the recessively inherited blinding phenotype retinopathy globe enlarged (rge) disease in chickens. GNB3 is however also expressed in most other vertebrate tissues suggesting that the D153del mutation may exert pathological effects that outlie from eye. Principal Findings Recombinant studies in COS-7 cells that were transfected with normal and mutant recombinant GNB3 constructs and subjected to cycloheximide chase showed that the mutant GNB3d protein had a much shorter half life compared to normal GNB3. GNB3 codes for the Gβ3 protein subunit that, together with different Gγ and Gα subunits, activates and regulates phosphorylation cascades in different tissues. As expected, the relative levels of cGMP and cAMP secondary messengers and their activated kinases such as MAPK, AKT and GRK2 were also found to be altered significantly in a tissue specific manner in rge chickens. Histochemical analysis on kidney tissue sections, from rge homozygous affected chickens, showed the chickens had enlargement of the glomerular capsule, causing glomerulomegaly and tubulointerstitial inflammation whereas other tissues (brain, heart, liver, pancreas) were unaffected. Significance These findings confirm that the D153del mutation in GNB3 gene targets GNB3 protein to early degradation. Lack of GNB3 signalling causes reduced phosphorylation activity of ERK2 and AKT leading to severe pathological phenotypes such as blindness and renal abnormalities in rge chickens. PMID:21887213

  14. Clinical significance of intercellular contact at the four-cell stage of human embryos, and the use of abnormal cleavage patterns to identify embryos with low implantation potential: a time-lapse study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhe; Chapple, Vincent; Feenan, Katie; Roberts, Peter; Matson, Phillip

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of intercellular contact point (ICCP) in four-cell stage human embryos and the effectiveness of morphology and abnormal cleavage patterns in identifying embryos with low implantation potential. Retrospective cohort study. Private IVF center. A total of 223 consecutive IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles, with all resulting embryos cultured in the Embryoscope, and a subset of 207 cycles analyzed for ICCP number where good-quality four-cell embryos were available on day 2 (n = 373 IVF and n = 392 intracytoplasmic sperm injection embryos). None. Morphologic score on day 3, embryo morphokinetic parameters, incidence of abnormal biological events, and known implantation results. Of 765 good-quality four-cell embryos, 89 (11.6%) failed to achieve six ICCPs; 166 of 765 (21.7%) initially had fewer than six ICCPs but were able to establish six ICCPs before subsequent division. Embryos with fewer than six ICCPs at the end of four-cell stage had a lower implantation rate (5.0% vs. 38.5%), with lower embryology performance in both conventional and morphokinetic assessments, compared with embryos achieving six ICCPs by the end of four-cell stage. Deselecting embryos with poor morphology, direct cleavage, reverse cleavage, and fewer than six ICCPs at the four-cell stage led to a significantly improved implantation rate (33.6% vs. 22.4%). Embryos with fewer than six ICCPs at the end of the four-cell stage show compromised subsequent development and reduced implantation potential. Deselection of embryos with poor morphology and abnormal cleavage revealed via time-lapse imaging could provide the basis of a qualitative algorithm for embryo selection. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  16. Practice It: Deep Conscious Breathing Exercise

    Cancer.gov

    No time to sit and breathe? No problem; take your breathing practice with you! Deep conscious breathing can also be done with the eyes open wherever you happen to be—simply pause and take two to three full deep breaths (inhale deeply and exhale completely).

  17. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  18. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  19. Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... and assist in the use of oxygen. Oxygen therapy is sometimes prescribed for breathing problems. Treatment can ...

  20. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  1. Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

  2. NICMOS Focus and HST Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, A.; Hershey, J.

    1998-09-01

    The program 7608 monitored on a biweekly basis NICMOS camera foci from June 9, 1997, through February 18, 1998. Each of the biweekly observations included 17 measurements of focus position (focus sweeps), individually for each of the three cameras. The measurements for camera 1 and camera 3 foci covered one or two HST orbital periods. Comparison of these measurements with the predictions of the three OTA focus breathing models has shown the following. (1). Focus variations seen in NICMOS focus sweeps correlate well with the OTA focus thermal breathing as predicted by breathing models (“4- temperature”, “full-temperature”, and “attitude” models). Thus they can be attributed mostly to the HST orbital temperature variation. (2). The amount of breathing (breathing amplitude) has been found to be on average larger in the first orbit after a telescope slew to a new target. This is explained as being due to additional thermal perturbations caused by the change in the HST attitude as the telescope repoints to a new target. (3). In the first orbit, the amount of focus change predicted by the 4-temperature model is about the same as that seen in the focus sweeps data (breathing scale factor ~1). However the full-temperature model predicts a two times smaller breathing amplitude (breathing scale factor ~1.7). This suggests that the light shield temperatures are more responsive to the attitude change than temperatures from the other temperature sensors. The results of this study may help to better understand the HST thermal cycles and to improve the models describing the impact of those on both the OTA and NICMOS focus.

  3. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  4. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  5. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  6. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tewatia, Dinesh; Zhang Tiezhi; Tome, Wolfgang

    2006-11-15

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of targetmore » tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and

  7. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    PubMed

    Arden-Close, Emily; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne

    2017-10-05

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retraining delivered by digital versatile disc (DVD) or face-to-face sessions with a respiratory physiotherapist) took part in semi-structured telephone interviews about their experiences. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Breathing retraining was perceived positively as a method of asthma management. Motivations for taking part included being asked, to enhance progress in research, to feel better/reduce symptoms, and to reduce medication. Participants were positive about the physiotherapist, liked having the materials tailored, found meetings motivational, and liked the DVD and booklet. The impact of breathing retraining following regular practice included increased awareness of breathing and development of new habits. Benefits of breathing retraining included increased control over breathing, reduced need for medication, feeling more relaxed, and improved health and quality of life. Problems included finding time to practice the exercises, and difficulty mastering techniques. Breathing retraining was acceptable and valued by almost all participants, and many reported improved wellbeing. Face to face physiotherapy was well received. However, some participants in the DVD group mentioned being unable to master techniques. PATIENTS RECEPTIVE TO BREATHING RETRAINING: Patients with asthma taught how to change their unconscious breathing patterns generally like non-pharmacological interventions. Researchers in the UK, led by Mike Thomas from the University of Southampton

  8. Prevalence of abnormalities in dental structure, position, and eruption pattern in a population of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Chiara; Meazzini, Maria C; Garattini, Giovanna; Brusati, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the dental characteristics of patients subjected to a protocol that included early secondary gingivoalveoloplasty (ESGAP). Panoramic radiographs of 87 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) were evaluated. Missing and supernumerary teeth were also quantified on the cleft and noncleft side and in the maxilla and mandible. Crown and root malformations and tooth rotations were quantified. A subsample in permanent dentition was extrapolated to analyze canine eruption patterns. A total of 48.8% of the UCLP patients presented with missing permanent lateral incisors in the cleft area and 6.1% contralaterally. A total of 4.9% presented with missing second maxillary premolars on the cleft site and 1.2% contralaterally. A total of 7.3% presented with supernumerary lateral incisors, and 45% of the BCLP cleft sites presented with missing lateral incisors, while 25% of the cleft sites presented second maxillary premolars agenesis. Five percent of the cleft sites presented with supernumerary lateral incisors. Evaluation of the subsample in permanent dentition showed that 15.5% had a canine retention and 4.4% of the canines had to be surgically exposed. A significant association was observed between canine inclination and retention but not with absence of the lateral incisor. The frequency of dental anomalies in this sample was similar to other cleft populations. As surgical trauma has been suggested to damage forming teeth, the results of this study indicated that ESGAP has no detrimental influence on subsequent dental development.

  9. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  10. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  11. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  12. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  13. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  14. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Punjabi, Naresh M.; Caffo, Brian S.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Newman, Anne B.; O'Connor, George T.; Rapoport, David M.; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine E.; Robbins, John A.; Shahar, Eyal; Unruh, Mark L.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. Methods and Findings We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women) died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: <5 events/h), the fully adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in those with mild (AHI: 5.0–14.9 events/h), moderate (AHI: 15.0–29.9 events/h), and severe (AHI: ≥30.0 events/h) sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80–1.08), 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97–1.42), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14–1.86), respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40–70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31–3.33). Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease–related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. Conclusions Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with

  15. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    2D subjects, and healthy subjects. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone, under a specifically controlled condition fast (<1 min) and portable breath acetone measurement can be used for screening abnormal metabolic status including diabetes, for point-of-care monitoring status of ketone bodies which have the signature smell of breath acetone, and for breath acetone related clinical studies requiring a large number of tests. PMID:27483281

  16. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    subjects, and healthy subjects. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone, under a specifically controlled condition fast (<1 min) and portable breath acetone measurement can be used for screening abnormal metabolic status including diabetes, for point-of-care monitoring status of ketone bodies which have the signature smell of breath acetone, and for breath acetone related clinical studies requiring a large number of tests.

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestation increases the energetic cost of breathing in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa.

    PubMed

    Munns, Suzanne L

    2013-01-15

    High gestational loads result in fetuses that occupy a large proportion of the body cavity and may compress maternal organs. Compression of the lungs results in alterations in breathing patterns during gestation, which may affect the energetic cost of breathing. In this study, the energetic cost of breathing during gestation was determined in the viviparous skink Tiliqua rugosa. Radiographic imaging showed progressive lung compression during gestation and a 30% reduction in the lung inflation index (rib number at which the caudal margin of the lung was imaged divided by total rib number). Pneumotachography and open flow respirometry were used to measure breathing patterns and metabolic rates. Gestation induced a twofold increase in minute ventilation via increases in breathing frequency, but no change in inspired tidal volume. The rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production did not change significantly during gestation. Together, these results suggest that a relative hyperventilation occurs during gestation in T. rugosa, which in turn suggests that diffusion and/or perfusion limitations may exist at the lung during gestation. The energetic cost of breathing was estimated as a percentage of resting metabolic rate using hypercapnia to stimulate ventilation at different stages of pregnancy. The energetic cost of breathing in non-pregnant lizards was 19.96±3.85% of resting metabolic rate and increased threefold to 62.80±10.11% during late gestation. This significant increase in the energetic cost of breathing may have significant consequences for energy budgets during gestation.

  20. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  1. Amplitude gating for a coached breathing approach in respiratory gated 10 MV flattening filter‐free VMAT delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amplitude gating combined with a coached breathing strategy for 10 MV flattening filter‐free (FFF) volumetric‐modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam linac. Ten patient plans for VMAT SABR liver were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The verification plans were then transferred to a CT‐scanned Quasar phantom and delivered on a TrueBeam linac using a 10 MV FFF beam and Varian's real‐time position management (RPM) system for respiratory gating based on breathing amplitude. Breathing traces were acquired from ten patients using two kinds of breathing patterns: free breathing and an interrupted (~5 s pause) end of exhale coached breathing pattern. Ion chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were acquired for a gated delivery while the phantom moved under the described breathing patterns, as well as for a nongated stationary phantom delivery. The gate window was set to obtain a range of residual target motion from 2–5 mm. All gated deliveries on a moving phantom have been shown to be dosimetrically equivalent to the nongated deliveries on a static phantom, with differences in point dose measurements under 1% and average gamma 2%/2 mm agreement above 98.7%. Comparison with the treatment planning system also resulted in good agreement, with differences in point‐dose measurements under 2.5% and average gamma 3%/3 mm agreement of 97%. The use of a coached breathing pattern significantly increases the duty cycle, compared with free breathing, and allows for shorter treatment times. Patients' free‐breathing patterns contain considerable variability and, although dosimetric results for gated delivery may be acceptable, it is difficult to achieve efficient treatment delivery. A coached breathing pattern combined with a 5 mm amplitude gate, resulted in both high‐quality dose distributions and overall shortest gated beam delivery times. PACS number: 87.55.Qr PMID:26219000

  2. Nasal and Oral Inspiration During Natural Speech Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method Ten healthy adults, 18–45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations were categorized as a nasal only, oral only, simultaneous nasal and oral, or alternating nasal and oral inspiration. The method was validated using nasal airflow, oral airflow, audio, and video recordings for two participants. Results The predominant pattern was simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations for all speaking tasks. This pattern was not affected by the nature of the speaking task or by the phonetic context surrounding the inspiration. The validation procedure confirmed that nearly all inspirations during counting and paragraph reading were simultaneous nasal and oral inspirations; whereas for sentence reading, the predominant pattern was alternating nasal and oral inspirations across the three phonetic contexts. Conclusions Healthy adults inspire through both the nose and mouth during natural speech breathing. This pattern of inspiration is likely beneficial in reducing pathway resistance while preserving some of the benefits of nasal breathing. PMID:24129013

  3. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E.; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J.; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B.; Bowman, Frederick P.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10−9 to 10−7 M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor–small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro. Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo. Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.—Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery

  4. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  5. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  6. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  7. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  8. Abnormal branching and regression of the notochord and its relationship to foregut abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vleesch Dubois, V N; Quan Qi, B; Beasley, S W; Williams, A

    2002-04-01

    An abnormally positioned notochord has been reported in embryos that develop foregut abnormalities, vertebral defects and other abnormalities of the VATER association. This study examines the patterns of regression of the abnormal notochord in the rat model of the VATER association and investigates the relationship between developmental abnormalities of the notochord and those of the vertebra and foregut. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin on gestational days 6 - 9 inclusive. Rats were sacrificed between days 14 and 20 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned and stained and examined serially. The location and appearance of the degenerating notochord and its relationship to regional structural defects were analysed. All 26 embryos exposed to adriamycin developed foregut abnormalities and had an abnormal notochord. The notochord disappeared by a process of apoptotic degeneration that lagged behind that of the normal embryo: the notochord persisted in the abnormal embryo beyond day 17, whereas in the normal rat it had already disappeared. Similarly, formation of the nucleus pulposus was delayed. Vertebral abnormalities occurred when the notochord was ventrally-positioned. The notochord disappears during day 16 in the normal embryo whereas abnormal branches of the notochord persist until day 19 in the adriamycin-treated embryo. Degeneration of the notochord is dominated by apoptosis. An excessively ventrally-placed notochord is closely associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column, especially hemivertebrae.

  9. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed:more » benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.« less

  10. Acute Cardiopulmonary Failure From Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gordon E.; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) comprises a diverse set of disorders marked by abnormal respiration during sleep. Clinicians should realize that SDB may present as acute cardiopulmonary failure in susceptible patients. In this review, we discuss three clinical phenotypes of acute cardiopulmonary failure from SDB: acute ventilatory failure, acute congestive heart failure, and sudden death. We review the pathophysiologic mechanisms and recommend general principles for management. Timely recognition of, and therapy for, SDB in the setting of acute cardiopulmonary failure may improve short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:22396567

  11. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  12. PERIODIC AIR-BREATHING BEHAVIOUR IN A PRIMITIVE FISH REVEALED BY SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    PubMed

    Hedrick; Katz; Jones

    1994-12-01

    The ventilatory patterns of air-breathing fish are commonly described as 'arrhythmic' or 'irregular' because the variable periods of breath-holding are punctuated by seemingly unpredictable air-breathing events (see Shelton et al. 1986). This apparent arrhythmicity contrasts with the perceived periodism or regularity in the gill ventilation patterns of some fish and with lung ventilation in birds and mammals. In this sense, periodism refers to behaviour that occurs with a definite, recurring interval (Bendat and Piersol, 1986). The characterisation of aerial ventilation patterns in fish as 'aperiodic' has been generally accepted on the basis of qualitative examination and it remains to be validated with rigorous testing. The bowfin, Amia calva (L.), is a primitive air-breathing fish that makes intermittent excursions to the air­water interface to gulp air, which is transferred to its well-vascularized gas bladder. Its phylogenetic position as the only extant member of the sister lineage of modern teleosts affords a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of aerial ventilation and provides a model for the examination of ventilatory patterns in primitive fishes. To establish whether Amia calva exhibit a particular pattern of air-breathing, we examined time series records of aerial ventilations from undisturbed fish over long periods (8 h). These records were the same as those used to calculate average ventilation intervals under a variety of experimental conditions (Hedrick and Jones, 1993). Their study also reported the occurrence of two distinct breath types. Type I breaths were characterised by an exhalation followed by an inhalation, whereas type II breaths were characterised by inhalation only. It was also hypothesized that the type I breaths were employed to meet oxygen demands, whereas the type II breaths were used to regulate gas bladder volume. However, they did not investigate the potential presence of a periodic ventilatory pattern. We now report

  13. Influence of the respiratory cycle structure on the flow field in human nasal cavity at a fixed level of breath depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosykh, L. Yu.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Sadovskii, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of air flow field in the human nasal cavity has studied during the respiratory cycle. Real tomographic scans of the adult without abnormalities in the upper airway have been used to construct the geometric model. Quiet breathing mode is selected: the duration of the respiratory cycle is 4.3 sec and the depth of breathing is 600 ml, which provides pulmonary ventilation at 8.4 liters of air per minute. The system of Navier - Stokes equations was used to describe the flow. Laminar flow regime was postulated. The Lagrange approach was used for calculation of submicron particles motion. The numerical solution was built on the basis of gas-dynamic solver FLUENT of software package ANSYS 12. Calculations were made for two cases in which the same value of the integral characteristic (the depth of breathing) was reached, but which had different kind of boundary conditions on the exit. In the first case, the velocity was assumed symmetrical with respect to inhalation - exhalation and was approximated by sinusoid. In the second case, the velocity as a function of time is determined by processing of the real person spirogram. For the both variants the flow fields were obtained and compared. Analysis of the results showed that in non-stationary case the use of symmetric boundary condition leads to an underestimation of respiratory effort for the implementation of the required depth of breathing. In cyclic flow the flow fields in acceleration and deceleration phases are, basically, the same as in the corresponding steady flow. At the same time taking into account of non-symmetry of respiratory cycle influences on deposition pattern of particles significantly.

  14. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  15. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the agreement of tidal breathing parameters measured simultaneously using pneumotachography and structured light plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Motamedi-Fakhr, Shayan; Iles, Richard; Barney, Anna; de Boer, Willem; Conlon, Jenny; Khalid, Amna; Wilson, Rachel C

    2017-02-01

    Structured light plethysmography (SLP) is a noncontact, noninvasive, respiratory measurement technique, which uses a structured pattern of light and two cameras to track displacement of the thoraco-abdominal wall during tidal breathing. The primary objective of this study was to examine agreement between tidal breathing parameters measured simultaneously for 45 sec using pneumotachography and SLP in a group of 20 participants with a range of respiratory patterns ("primary cohort"). To examine repeatability of the agreement, an additional 21 healthy subjects ("repeatability cohort") were measured twice during resting breathing and once during increased respiratory rate (RR). Breath-by-breath and averaged RR, inspiratory time (tI), expiratory time (tE), total breath time (tTot), tI/tE, tI/tTot, and IE50 (inspiratory to expiratory flow measured at 50% of tidal volume) were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement. In the primary cohort, breath-by-breath agreement for RR was ±1.44 breaths per minute (brpm). tI, tE, and tTot agreed to ±0.22, ±0.29, and ±0.32 sec, respectively, and tI/tE, tI/tTot, and IE50/IE50 SLP to ±0.16, ±0.05, and ±0.55, respectively. When averaged, agreement for RR was ±0.19 brpm. tI, tE, and tTot were within ±0.16, ±0.16, and ±0.07 sec, respectively, and tI/tE, tI/tTot, and IE50 were within ±0.09, ±0.03, and ±0.25, respectively. A comparison of resting breathing demonstrated that breath-by-breath and averaged agreements for all seven parameters were repeatable ( P  > 0.05). With increased RR, agreement improved for tI, tE, and tTot ( P  ≤ 0.01), did not differ for tI/tE, tI/tTot, and IE50 ( P  > 0.05) and reduced for breath-by-breath ( P  < 0.05) but not averaged RR ( P  > 0.05). © 2017 PneumaCare Limited. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Unilateral ablation of pre-Botzinger complex disrupts breathing during sleep but not wakefulness.

    PubMed

    McKay, Leanne C; Feldman, Jack L

    2008-07-01

    In adult rats, bilateral ablation of pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) neurokinin 1-expressing (NK1R) neurons leads to a progressive and irreversible disruption in breathing pattern, initially during sleep, eventually resulting in an ataxic breathing pattern during wakefulness. Here we determine whether ablation of fewer preBötC NK1R neurons leads to a persistent pattern of disordered breathing during sleep but not during wakefulness. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were instrumented to record diaphragmatic, abdominal, and neck EMG, and EEG. Fourteen days later, a second surgery was performed to stereotaxically microinject into the preBötC on one side the toxin saporin conjugated to substance P (SP-SAP), which selectively ablates NK1R neurons. Postinjection, rats were monitored within a plethysmograph until they were killed (Days 21-51). At Days 6-9 post-unilateral SP-SAP injection, respiratory pattern during sleep, particularly REM sleep, became increasingly disordered, characterized by an increase in frequency of central sleep apnea and hypopneas (36.8 +/- 7.4 episodes/h of REM vs. 6 +/- 2.0 episodes/h in preinjection controls; P < 0.05), whereas breathing during resting wakefulness remained stable. Unlike bilateral SP-SAP-injected rats, an ataxic breathing pattern did not develop during wakefulness. Rats that were monitored up to 51 days post-SP-SAP injection continued to have sleep-disordered breathing; breathing during wakefulness remained relatively stable. Histologic analysis of the ventrolateral medulla confirmed that NK1R neurons within the preBötC on the injected but not on the contralateral side of the medulla were ablated. Gradual loss of preBötC NK1R neurons may be an underlying factor of sleep-disordered breathing, in particular of central sleep apnea.

  18. Unilateral Ablation of Pre-Bötzinger Complex Disrupts Breathing during Sleep but Not Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Leanne C.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: In adult rats, bilateral ablation of pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) neurokinin 1–expressing (NK1R) neurons leads to a progressive and irreversible disruption in breathing pattern, initially during sleep, eventually resulting in an ataxic breathing pattern during wakefulness. Objectives: Here we determine whether ablation of fewer preBötC NK1R neurons leads to a persistent pattern of disordered breathing during sleep but not during wakefulness. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were instrumented to record diaphragmatic, abdominal, and neck EMG, and EEG. Fourteen days later, a second surgery was performed to stereotaxically microinject into the preBötC on one side the toxin saporin conjugated to substance P (SP-SAP), which selectively ablates NK1R neurons. Measurements and Main Results: Postinjection, rats were monitored within a plethysmograph until they were killed (Days 21–51). At Days 6–9 post–unilateral SP-SAP injection, respiratory pattern during sleep, particularly REM sleep, became increasingly disordered, characterized by an increase in frequency of central sleep apnea and hypopneas (36.8 ± 7.4 episodes/h of REM vs. 6 ± 2.0 episodes/h in preinjection controls; P < 0.05), whereas breathing during resting wakefulness remained stable. Unlike bilateral SP-SAP–injected rats, an ataxic breathing pattern did not develop during wakefulness. Rats that were monitored up to 51 days post–SP-SAP injection continued to have sleep-disordered breathing; breathing during wakefulness remained relatively stable. Histologic analysis of the ventrolateral medulla confirmed that NK1R neurons within the preBötC on the injected but not on the contralateral side of the medulla were ablated. Conclusions: Gradual loss of preBötC NK1R neurons may be an underlying factor of sleep-disordered breathing, in particular of central sleep apnea. PMID:18420958

  19. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  20. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  1. Hierarchy of orofacial rhythms revealed through whisking and breathing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey D.; Deschênes, Martin; Furuta, Takahiro; Huber, Daniel; Smear, Matthew C.; Demers, Maxime; Kleinfeld, David

    2014-01-01

    Whisking and sniffing are predominant aspects of exploratory behavior in rodents, yet the neural mechanisms that generate their motor patterns remain largely uncharacterized. We use anatomical, behavioral, electrophysiological, and pharmacological tools to demonstrate that these patterns are coordinated by respiratory centers in the ventral medulla. We delineate a distinct region in the ventral medulla that provides rhythmic input to the facial motoneurons that drive protraction of the vibrissae. Neuronal output from this region is reset at each inspiration by direct input from the preBötzinger complex, such that high frequency sniffing has a one-to-one coordination with whisking while basal respiration is accompanied by intervening whisks that occur between breaths. We conjecture that the respiratory nuclei, which project to other premotor regions for oral and facial control, function as a master clock for behaviors that coordinate with breathing. PMID:23624373

  2. "Loss of breath" as a cause of postoperative hypoxia and bradycardia in children submitted to tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Moro, Eduardo Toshiyuki; Goulart, Alexandre Palmeira

    2015-01-01

    the "shortness of breath" or "breathing interruption" crisis can be considered a cause of hypoxia in childhood. It is characterized by the presence of a triggering factor followed by weeping and apnea in expiration accompanied by cyanosis or pallor. The sequence of events may include bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole. A review of the literature revealed only two reports of postoperative apnea caused by "shortness of breath". this article describes the case of a child with a history of "shortness of breath" undiagnosed before the adenotonsillectomy, but that represented the cause of episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia in the postoperative period. the "shortness of breath" crisis should be considered as a possible cause of perioperative hypoxia in children, especially when there is a history suggestive of this problem. As some events may be accompanied by bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole, observation in a hospital setting should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. ["Loss of breath" as a cause of postoperative hypoxia and bradycardia in children submitted to tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Moro, Eduardo Toshiyuki; Goulart, Alexandre Palmeira

    2015-01-01

    The "shortness of breath" or "breathing interruption" crisis can be considered a cause of hypoxia in childhood. It is characterized by the presence of a triggering factor followed by weeping and apnea in expiration accompanied by cyanosis or pallor. The sequence of events may include bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural toneand even asystole. A review of the literature revealed only two reports of postoperative apneacaused by "shortness of breath". This article describes the case of a child with a history of "shortness of breath" undiagnosed before the adenotonsillectomy, but that represented the cause of episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia in the postoperative period. the "shortness of breath" crisis should be considered as a possible cause of perioperative hypoxia in children, especially when there is a history suggestive of this problem. As some events may be accompanied by bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole, observation in a hospital setting should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  5. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of Exhaled Breath Samples from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and an Exhaled Breath Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Yu, Joon-Boo; Lee, Ho-Won; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2017-08-03

    Exhaled breath is a body secretion, and the sampling process of this is simple and cost effective. It can be non-invasively collected for diagnostic procedures. Variations in the chemical composition of exhaled breath resulting from gaseous exchange in the extensive capillary network of the body are proposed to be associated with pathophysiological changes. In light of the foreseeable potential of exhaled breath as a diagnostic specimen, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study the chemical compounds present in exhaled breath samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and from healthy individuals as a control group. In addition, we also designed and developed a chemical-based exhaled breath sensor system to examine the distribution pattern in the patient and control groups. The results of our study showed that several chemical compounds, such as 1-phenantherol and ethyl 3-cyano-2,3-bis (2,5,-dimethyl-3-thienyl)-acrylate, had a higher percentage area in the AD group than in the PD and control groups. These results may indicate an association of these chemical components in exhaled breath with the progression of disease. In addition, in-house fabricated exhaled breath sensor systems, containing several types of gas sensors, showed significant differences in terms of the normalized response of the sensitivity characteristics between the patient and control groups. A subsequent clustering analysis was able to distinguish between the AD patients, PD patients, and healthy individuals using principal component analysis, Sammon's mapping, and a combination of both methods, in particular when using the exhaled breath sensor array system A consisting of eight sensors. With this in mind, the exhaled breath sensor system could provide alternative option for diagnosis and be applied as a useful, effective tool for the screening and diagnosis of AD in the near future.

  7. Sleep-disordered breathing after targeted ablation of preBötzinger complex neurons.

    PubMed

    McKay, Leanne C; Janczewski, Wiktor A; Feldman, Jack L

    2005-09-01

    Ablation of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) neurons, critical for respiratory rhythm generation, resulted in a progressive, increasingly severe disruption of respiratory pattern, initially during sleep and then also during wakefulness in adult rats. Sleep-disordered breathing is highly prevalent in elderly humans and in some patients with neurodegenerative disease. We propose that sleep-disordered breathing results from loss of preBötC neurons and could underlie death during sleep in these populations.

  8. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Casagrande, Camila Ferreira; Teixeira, Lícia Pacheco; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    Mouth breathing (MB) is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes. The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools. There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction. The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  9. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a time-reversal (TR)-based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multiperson breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TR-BREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 s of measurement, a mean accuracy of can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight scenario and a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation of nine people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 s of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  10. Breathing Mode in Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Bonitz, M.; Melzer, A.; Vitkalov, S.

    2007-11-01

    The breathing mode is a fundamental normal mode present in Coulomb systems, and may have utility in identifying particle charge and the Debye length of certain systems. The question remains whether this mode can be extended to strongly coupled Yukawa balls [1]. These systems are characterized by particles confined within a parabolic potential well and interacting through a shielded Coulomb potential [2,3]. The breathing modes for a variety of systems in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions are computed by solving the eigenvalue problem given by the dynamical (Hesse) matrix. These results are compared to theoretical investigations that assume a strict definition for a breathing mode within the system, and an analysis is made of the most fitting model to utilize in the study of particular systems of complex plasmas [1,4]. References [1] T.E. Sheridan, Phys. of Plasmas. 13, 022106 (2006)[2] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)[3] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)[4] C. Henning et al., submitted for publication

  11. Cardiac Repolarization Changes in the Children with Breath-Holding Spells

    PubMed Central

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Saleh, Fazl; Farhani, Nahal; Rafiei, Mohammad; Inaloo, Soroor; Asadipooya, Ali-Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Breath-holding spells are known as benign attacks, frequencies of which decrease by the development of the autonomic nervous system. The present study aims to compare the electrocardiographic repolarization in children with breath-holding spells. Methods In this study, QT dispersion, QTc dispersion, T peak to T end dispersion, and P wave dispersion of the twelve-lead surface electrocardiography of fifty children who had breath-holding spells were measured and compared with normal children from April 2011 to August 2012. Findings Forty-four (88%) patients had cyanotic spells, while 6 (12%) had pallid spells. QTc dispersion was increased in the patients with breath-holding spells (148.2±33.1) compared to the healthy children (132±27.3) and the difference was statically significant (P = 0.01). Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between the patients and the control subjects regarding the other parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusion QTc dispersion was significantly increased in the patients with breath-holding spells compared to normal children and this is a sign of cardiac repolarization abnormality as well as the increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in patients with breath-holding spells. PMID:24910749

  12. The deadly Morelos-Puebla, Mexico Intraslab Earthquake of 19 September 2017 (Mw7.1): Was the Earthquake Unexpected and Were the Ground Motions and Damage Pattern in Mexico City Abnormal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Ordaz, M.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    On 19 September 2017, thirty two years after the 1985 Michoacan interplate earthquake (Mw8.0), the city was once again devastated but this time by a Mw7.1 intraslab earthquake. The 2017 earthquake was located near the border of the states of Morelos and Puebla (18.410N, -98.710E; H=57 km), to SSE of Mexico City, at a hypocentral distance of about 127 km. It caused great panic in Mexico City, collapse of 44 buildings, and severely damaged many others. More than 200 persons were killed in the city. It was the second most destructive earthquake in the history of Mexico City, next only to the 1985 earthquake. A strong-motion station at CU located on basalt lava flows on main campus UNAM has been in continuous operation since 1964. PGA of 59 gal at CU during the 2017 earthquake is the largest ever, two times greater than that recorded during the 1985 earthquake (29 gal). The 2017 earthquake raised questions that are critical in fathoming the seismic vulnerability of the city and in its reconstruction. Was such an intraslab earthquake (Mw 7 at a hypocentral distance of 127 km) unexpected? Were the recorded ground motions in the city unusually high for such an earthquake? Why did the damage pattern during the earthquake differ from that observed during the 1985 earthquake? The earthquake was the closest M>5 intraslab earthquake to Mexico City ever recorded. However, Mw 5.9 events have occurred in recent years in the vicinity of the 2017 earthquake (R 145 km). Three Mw≥6.9 earthquakes have occurred since 1964 in the distance range 184-225 km. Thus, Mw and R of the earthquake was not surprising. However, a comparison of Fourier acceleration spectra at CU of 10 intraslab earthquakes with largest PGA, reduced to a common distance of R=127 km, shows that the amplitudes of the 2017 events were abnormally high in 1-2s range. Spectra of intraslab events at CU are enriched at higher frequencies relative to interplate ones because of closer distance, greater depth and higher

  13. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontists frequently treat children with mouth breathing. The purpose of the present study was to examine dental positions, skeletal effects and the pharyngeal airway space of children with chronic allergic rhinitis, when compared with a control group exhibiting a normal breathing pattern. Seventy Caucasian children from Santa Maria University Hospital - North Lisbon Hospital Center were evaluated, between September 2009 and February 2013. The study group comprised of 35 children with chronic allergic rhinitis, both genders, aged 5 - 14, with positive reaction to allergens, mouth breathing and malocclusion. The control group was composed of 35 children, both genders, displaying normal nasal breathing and malocclusion, who resorted to the orthodontic department. Measures of Ricketts, Steiner and McNamara's analysis were used and the t- Student test was applied to the data obtained. Statistically significant differences were observed between the oral and nasal breathers, respectively: lower facial height (49.1/45.9 mm), Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle (30.1/26.9º) and Sela-Nasion - oclusal plane angle (17.3/15º), maxillary length (78.4/82.4 mm), mandibular length (102.4/107 mm), overbite (0.8/3.1mm) and overjet (4/4.7 mm). Comparison between the allergic rhinitis and control group showed that there is an increased lower facial height, larger Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle and Sela-Nasion oclusal plane angle in children with chronic allergic rhinitis. This group also had a shorter maxillary and mandibular length, less overbite and decreased upper airway space. Children with allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing have longer faces, shorter maxillas and mandibles and a narrowed pharyngeal airway space. No statistical differences between the groups in sagital relationships or in dental inclinations were found.

  16. TH-CD-207A-04: Optimized Respiratory Gating for Abnormal Breathers in Pancreatic SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, W; Miften, M; Schefter, T

    Purpose: Pancreatic SBRT is uniquely challenging due to both the erratic/unstable motion of the pancreas and the close proximity of the radiosensitive small bowel. Respiratory gating can mitigate this effect, but the irregularity of motion severely affects traditional phase-based gating. The purpose of this study was to analyze real-time motion data of pancreatic tumors to optimize the efficacy and accuracy of respiratory gating, with the overall goal of enabling dose escalated pancreatic SBRT. Methods: Fifteen pancreatic SBRT patients received 30–33 Gy in 5 fractions on a Varian TrueBeam STx unit. Abdominal compression was used to reduce the amplitude of tumormore » motion, and daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired prior to each treatment for target localization purposes. For this study, breathing data (phase and amplitude) were collected during each CBCT scan using Varian’s Real-Time Position Management system. An in-house template matching technique was used to track the superior-inferior motion of implanted fiducial markers in CBCT projection images. Using tumor motion and breathing data, phase-based or amplitude-based respiratory gating was simulated for all 75 fractions, targeting either end-exhalation or end-inhalation phases of breathing. Results: For the average patient, gating at end-exhalation offered the best reductions in effective motion for equal duty cycles. However, optimal central phase angle varied widely (range: 0–92%, mean±SD: 49±12%), and phase-based gating windows typically associated with end-exhalation (i.e., “30–70%”) were rarely ideal. Amplitude-based gating significantly outperformed phase-based gating, with average effective ranges for amplitude-based gating 25% lower than phase-based gating ranges (as much as 73% lower). Amplitude-based gating was consistently better suited to accommodate abnormal breathing patterns. For both phase-based and amplitude-based gating, end-exhalation provided

  17. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  18. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Izci Balserak, Bilgay

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses.Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m(-2)) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy.SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy.Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations.There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population.To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy.To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the

  19. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  20. Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Cope, K A; Solga, S F; Hummers, L K; Wigley, F M; Diehl, A M; Risby, T H

    2006-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease in which oxidative stress is suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology. Therefore, it was postulated that patients with scleroderma would have abnormally high breath ethane concentrations, which is a volatile product of free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, compared with a group of controls. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the mean exhaled ethane concentration of 5.27 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.76) in the scleroderma patients (n=36) versus the mean exhaled concentration of 2.72 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.71) in a group of healthy controls (n=21). Within the scleroderma group, those subjects taking a calcium channel blocker had lower ethane concentrations compared with patients who were not taking these drugs (p=0.05). There was a significant inverse association between lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (per cent of predicted) and ethane concentration (b=-2.8, p=0.026, CI=-5.2 to -0.35). These data support the presence of increased oxidative stress among patients with scleroderma that is detected by measuring breath ethane concentrations.

  1. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  2. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... system. Other components of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) ... and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the lungs. During expiration, ...

  3. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew R; Katz, Ira M; Jenöfi, Katharina; Caillibotte, Georges; Brochard, Laurent; Texereau, Joëlle

    2012-10-03

    Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%). Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing), and with varying levels of pressure support. Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive reduction in inspiratory effort. In addition, breathing He/O2 alone may

  4. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  5. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  6. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  7. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  8. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. The carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J.

    2008-05-01

    At the global scale, there are repeatable annual fluctuations in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide, sometimes referred to as the "breathing of the planet". Vegetation components within ecosystems fix carbon dioxide through photosynthesis into stable organic compounds; simultaneously both vegetation and heterotrophic components of the ecosystem release previously fixed carbon as respiration. These two-way fluxes influencing carbon dioxide exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere impact both the concentration and isotopic composition of carbon dioxide within the convective boundary layer. Over space, the compounding effects of gas exchange activities from ecosystems become reflected in both regional and global changes in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide. When these two parameters are plotted against each other, there are significant linear relationships between the carbon isotopic composition and inverse concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem scale, these "Keeling plots" intercepts of C3-dominated ecosystems describe the carbon isotope ratio of biospheric gas exchange. Using Farquhar's model, these carbon isotope values can be translated into quantitative measures of the drought-dependent control of photosynthesis by stomata as water availability changes through time. This approach is useful in aggregating the influences of drought across regional landscapes as it provides a quantitative measure of stomatal influence on photosynthetic gas exchange at the ecosystem-to-region scales. Multi-year analyses of the drought-dependent trends across terrestrial ecosystems show a repeated pattern with water stress in all but one C3-ecosystem type. Ecosystems that are dominated by ring-porous trees appear not to exhibit a dynamic stomatal response to water stress and therefore, there is little dependence of the carbon isotope ratio of gas exchange on site water balance

  10. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients with Pulmonary Valve Incompetence Complicating Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Miles, Susan; Ahmad, Waheed; Bailey, Amy; Hatton, Rachael; Boyle, Andrew; Collins, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Long standing pulmonary regurgitation results in deleterious effects on right heart size and function with late consequences of right heart volume overload including ventricular dilatation, propensity to arrhythmia and right heart failure. As sleep disordered breathing may predispose to elevations in pulmonary vascular resistance and associated negative effects on right ventricular function, we sought to assess this in patients with underlying congenital heart disease. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing in a patient population with a history of long standing pulmonary valve incompetence in patients with congenital heart disease using overnight oximetry. Patients with a background of tetralogy of Fallot repair or residual pulmonary incompetence following previous pulmonary valve intervention for congenital pulmonary stenosis were included. Twenty-two patients underwent overnight oximetry. The mean age of the cohort was 34.3 ± 15.2 years with no patients observed to have severe underlying pulmonary hypertension. Abnormal overnight oximetry was seen in 13/22 patients (59.1%) with 2/22 (9.1%) patients considered to have severe abnormalities. An important proportion of patients with a background of pulmonary incompetence complicating congenital heart disease are prone to the development of sleep-disordered breathing as assessed by overnight oximetry. Further study into the prevalence and mechanisms of sleep-disordered breathing in a larger cohort are warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Breath-Figure Self-Assembly, a Versatile Method of Manufacturing Membranes and Porous Structures: Physical, Chemical and Technological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The review is devoted to the physical, chemical, and technological aspects of the breath-figure self-assembly process. The main stages of the process and impact of the polymer architecture and physical parameters of breath-figure self-assembly on the eventual pattern are covered. The review is focused on the hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales inherent to breath-figure self-assembly. Multi-scale patterns arising from the process are addressed. The characteristic spatial lateral scales of patterns vary from nanometers to dozens of micrometers. The temporal scale of the process spans from microseconds to seconds. The qualitative analysis performed in the paper demonstrates that the process is mainly governed by interfacial phenomena, whereas the impact of inertia and gravity are negligible. Characterization and applications of polymer films manufactured with breath-figure self-assembly are discussed. PMID:28813026

  12. Study of the detectability of controlled substances on breath

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-07-01

    The University of Missouri used high pressure liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry for a quantitative analysis of marijuana metabolites in blood and breath. A breath collector was developed for road-side sampling of human breath and subsequen...

  13. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  14. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  15. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  16. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  17. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  18. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  19. The course of awake breathing disturbances across the lifespan in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tarquinio, Daniel C; Hou, Wei; Neul, Jeffrey L; Berkmen, Gamze Kilic; Drummond, Jana; Aronoff, Elizabeth; Harris, Jennifer; Lane, Jane B; Kaufmann, Walter E; Motil, Kathleen J; Glaze, Daniel G; Skinner, Steven A; Percy, Alan K

    2018-04-12

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, is associated with a peculiar breathing disturbance exclusively during wakefulness that is distressing, and can even prompt emergency resuscitation. Through the RTT Natural History Study, we characterized cross sectional and longitudinal characteristics of awake breathing abnormalities in RTT and identified associated clinical features. Participants were recruited from 2006 to 2015, and cumulative lifetime prevalence of breathing dysfunction was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. Of 1205 participants, 1185 had sufficient data for analysis, including 922 females with classic RTT, 778 of whom were followed longitudinally for up to 9.0 years, for a total of 3944 person-years. Participants with classic or atypical severe RTT were more likely to have breathing dysfunction (nearly 100% over the lifespan) compared to those with atypical mild RTT (60-70%). Remission was common, lasting 1 year on average, with 15% ending the study in terminal remission. Factors associated with higher odds of severe breathing dysfunction included poor gross and fine motor function, frequency of stereotypical hand movements, seizure frequency, prolonged corrected QT interval on EKG, and two quality of life metrics: caregiver concern about physical health and contracting illness. Factors associated with lower prevalence of severe breathing dysfunction included higher body mass index and head circumference Z-scores, advanced age, and severe scoliosis or contractures. Awake breathing dysfunction is common in RTT, more so than seizures, and is associated with function, quality of life and risk for cardiac dysrhythmia. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.

  1. SU-E-T-151: Breathing Synchronized Delivery (BSD) Planning for RapicArc Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W; Chen, M; Jiang, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a workflow for breathing synchronized delivery (BSD) planning for RapicArc treatment. Methods: The workflow includes three stages: screening/simulation, planning, and delivery. In the screening/simulation stage, a 4D CT with the corresponding breathing pattern is acquired for each of the selected patients, who are able to follow their own breathing pattern. In the planning stage, one breathing phase is chosen as the reference, and contours are delineated on the reference image. Deformation maps to other phases are performed along with contour propagation. Based on the control points of the initial 3D plan for the reference phase and themore » respiration trace, the correlation with respiration phases, the leaf sequence and gantry angles is determined. The beamlet matrices are calculated with the corresponding breathing phase and deformed to the reference phase. Using the 4D dose evaluation tool and the original 3D plan DVHs criteria, the leaf sequence is further optimized to meet the planning objectives and the machine constraints. In the delivery stage, the patients are instructed to follow the programmed breathing patterns of their own, and all other parts are the same as the conventional Rapid-Arc delivery. Results: Our plan analysis is based on comparison of the 3D plan with a static target (SD), 3D plan with motion delivery (MD), and the BSD plan. Cyclic motion of range 0 cm to 3 cm was simulated for phantoms and lung CT. The gain of the BSD plan over MD is significant and concordant for both simulation and lung 4DCT, indicating the benefits of 4D planning. Conclusion: Our study shows that the BSD plan can approach the SD plan quality. However, such BSD scheme relies on the patient being able to follow the same breathing curve that is used in the planning stage during radiation delivery. Funded by Varian Medical Systems.« less

  2. Exercise changes volatiles in exhaled breath assessed by an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Bikov, A; Lazar, Zs; Schandl, K; Antus, B M; Losonczy, G; Horvath, Ildiko

    2011-09-01

    Exercise-caused metabolic changes can be followed by monitoring exhaled volatiles; however it has not been previously reported if a spectrum of exhaled gases is modified after physical challenge. We have hypothesized that changes in volatile molecules assessed by an electronic nose may be the reason for the alkalization of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid following physical exercise.Ten healthy young subjects performed a 6-minute running test. Exhaled breath samples pre-exercise and post-exercise (0 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min) were collected for volatile pattern ("smellprint") determination and pH measurements (at 5.33 kPa CO2), respectively. Exhaled breath smellprints were analyzed using principal component analysis and were related to EBC pH.Smellprints (p=0.04) and EBC pH (p=0.01) were altered during exercise challenge. Compared to pre-exercise values, smellprints and pH differed at 15 min, 30 min and 60 min following exercise (p<0.05), while no difference was found at 0 min post-exercise. In addition, a significant correlation was found between volatile pattern of exhaled breath and EBC pH (p=0.01, r=-0.34).Physical exercise changes the pattern of exhaled volatiles together with an increase in pH of breath. Changes in volatiles may be responsible for increase in EBC pH.

  3. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  4. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  5. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  6. Prolonged dry apnoea: effects on brain activity and physiological functions in breath-hold divers and non-divers.

    PubMed

    Ratmanova, Patricia; Semenyuk, Roxana; Popov, Daniil; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Zelenkova, Irina; Napalkov, Dmitry; Vinogradova, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of voluntary breath-holding on brain activity and physiological functions. We hypothesised that prolonged apnoea would trigger cerebral hypoxia, resulting in a decrease of brain performance; and the apnoea's effects would be more pronounced in breath-hold divers. Trained breath-hold divers and non-divers performed maximal dry breath-holdings. Lung volume, alveolar partial pressures of O2 and CO2, attention and anxiety levels were estimated. Heart rate, blood pressure, arterial blood oxygenation, brain tissue oxygenation, EEG, and DC potential were monitored continuously during breath-holding. There were a few significant changes in electrical brain activity caused by prolonged apnoea. Brain tissue oxygenation index and DC potential were relatively stable up to the end of the apnoea in breath-hold divers and non-divers. We also did not observe any decrease of attention level or speed of processing immediately after breath-holding. Interestingly, trained breath-hold divers had some peculiarities in EEG activity at resting state (before any breath-holding): non-spindled, sharpened alpha rhythm; slowed-down alpha with the frequency nearer to the theta band; and untypical spatial pattern of alpha activity. Our findings contradicted the primary hypothesis. Apnoea up to 5 min does not lead to notable cerebral hypoxia or a decrease of brain performance in either breath-hold divers or non-divers. It seems to be the result of the compensatory mechanisms similar to the diving response aimed at centralising blood circulation and reducing peripheral O2 uptake. Adaptive changes during apnoea are much more prominent in trained breath-hold divers.

  7. Networks within networks: The neuronal control of breathing

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alfredo J.; Zanella, Sebastien; Koch, Henner; Doi, Atsushi; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Breathing emerges through complex network interactions involving neurons distributed throughout the nervous system. The respiratory rhythm generating network is composed of micro networks functioning within larger networks to generate distinct rhythms and patterns that characterize breathing. The pre-Bötzinger complex, a rhythm generating network located within the ventrolateral medulla assumes a core function without which respiratory rhythm generation and breathing cease altogether. It contains subnetworks with distinct synaptic and intrinsic membrane properties that give rise to different types of respiratory rhythmic activities including eupneic, sigh, and gasping activities. While critical aspects of these rhythmic activities are preserved when isolated in in vitro preparations, the pre-Bötzinger complex functions in the behaving animal as part of a larger network that receives important inputs from areas such as the pons and parafacial nucleus. The respiratory network is also an integrator of modulatory and sensory inputs that imbue the network with the important ability to adapt to changes in the behavioral, metabolic, and developmental conditions of the organism. This review summarizes our current understanding of these interactions and relates the emerging concepts to insights gained in other rhythm generating networks. PMID:21333801

  8. A Portable Wireless Communication Platform Based on a Multi-Material Fiber Sensor for Real-Time Breath Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bellemare-Rousseau, Simon; Khalil, Mazen; Messaddeq, Younes

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new mobile wireless communication platform for real-time monitoring of an individual’s breathing rate. The platform takes the form of a wearable stretching T-shirt featuring a sensor and a detection base station. The sensor is formed by a spiral-shaped antenna made from a multi-material fiber connected to a compact transmitter. Based on the resonance frequency of the antenna at approximately 2.4 GHz, the breathing sensor relies on its Bluetooth transmitter. The contactless and non-invasive sensor is designed without compromising the user’s comfort. The sensing mechanism of the system is based on the detection of the signal amplitude transmitted wirelessly by the sensor, which is found to be sensitive to strain. We demonstrate the capability of the platform to detect the breathing rates of four male volunteers who are not in movement. The breathing pattern is obtained through the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) which is filtered and analyzed with home-made algorithms in the portable system. Numerical simulations of human breath are performed to support the experimental detection, and both results are in a good agreement. Slow, fast, regular, irregular, and shallow breathing types are successfully recorded within a frequency interval of 0.16–1.2 Hz, leading to a breathing rate varying from 10 to 72 breaths per minute. PMID:29587396

  9. A Portable Wireless Communication Platform Based on a Multi-Material Fiber Sensor for Real-Time Breath Detection.

    PubMed

    Roudjane, Mourad; Bellemare-Rousseau, Simon; Khalil, Mazen; Gorgutsa, Stepan; Miled, Amine; Messaddeq, Younes

    2018-03-25

    In this paper, we present a new mobile wireless communication platform for real-time monitoring of an individual's breathing rate. The platform takes the form of a wearable stretching T-shirt featuring a sensor and a detection base station. The sensor is formed by a spiral-shaped antenna made from a multi-material fiber connected to a compact transmitter. Based on the resonance frequency of the antenna at approximately 2.4 GHz, the breathing sensor relies on its Bluetooth transmitter. The contactless and non-invasive sensor is designed without compromising the user's comfort. The sensing mechanism of the system is based on the detection of the signal amplitude transmitted wirelessly by the sensor, which is found to be sensitive to strain. We demonstrate the capability of the platform to detect the breathing rates of four male volunteers who are not in movement. The breathing pattern is obtained through the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) which is filtered and analyzed with home-made algorithms in the portable system. Numerical simulations of human breath are performed to support the experimental detection, and both results are in a good agreement. Slow, fast, regular, irregular, and shallow breathing types are successfully recorded within a frequency interval of 0.16-1.2 Hz, leading to a breathing rate varying from 10 to 72 breaths per minute.

  10. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  11. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  12. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  13. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee; Noirhomme, Quentin; Ziegler, Erik; Chatelle, Camille; Plotkin, Anton; Sobel, Noam; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based “sniff controller” that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Methods: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients’ resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. Results: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. Discussion: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. PMID:25566035

  14. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee; Noirhomme, Quentin; Ziegler, Erik; Chatelle, Camille; Plotkin, Anton; Sobel, Noam; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based "sniff controller" that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients' resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury.

  15. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflex anoxic seizures ('white breath-holding'): nonepileptic vagal attacks.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, J B

    1978-01-01

    From clinical history 58 children were diagnosed as having reflex anoxic seizures secondary to provoked cardioinhibition (also known as white breath-holding attacks). Before referral, these seizures were commonly misdiagnosed as epileptic either because the provocation was ignored, not recognised, or was a febrile illness, or because there was no crying, no obvious breath-holding, little cyanosis, and often no pallor to suggest syncope and cerebral ischaemia. The duration of cardiac asystole after ocular compression was measured in these children and in 60 additional children with other paroxysmal disorders. In 45 (78%) of the 58 with reflex anoxic seizures asystole was 2 seconds or over, and in 32 (55%) it was 4 seconds or greater, an abnormal response. Review of the literature supports the concept that these seizures result from vagal-mediated reflex cardiac arrest which can if necessary be prevented by atropine. The simple name 'vagal attack' is proposed. Ocular compression under EEG and ECG control supports the clinical diagnosis if asystole and/or an anoxic seizure is induced; the procedure described is safe and should be routine in seizure or syncope evaluation, when a meticulous history still leaves room for doubt. Images Figs. 1-8 p194-b p194-c p194-d p194-e p194-f p194-g p194-h PMID:348123

  17. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  18. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  19. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo

    2015-10-01

    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible.

  20. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. Experimental and modeling study of thermal exposure of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Michelle K; Yang, Jiann C

    2015-08-01

    An experimental apparatus designed to study firefighter safety equipment exposed to a thermal environment was developed. The apparatus consisted of an elevated temperature flow loop with the ability to heat the air stream up to 200°C. The thermal and flow conditions at the test section were characterized using thermocouples and bi-directional probes. The safety equipment examined in this study was a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), including a facepiece and an air cylinder. The SCBA facepiece was placed on a mannequin headform and coupled to a breathing simulator that was programmed with a prescribed breathing pattern. The entire SCBA assembly was placed in the test section of the flow loop for these thermal exposure experiments. Three air stream temperatures, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C, were used with the average air speed at the test section set at 1.4m/s and thermal exposure durations up to 1200 s. Measurements were made using type-K bare-bead thermocouples located in the mannequin's mouth and on the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. The experimental results indicated that increasing the thermal exposure severity and duration increased the breathing air temperatures supplied by the SCBA. Temperatures of breathing air from the SCBA cylinder in excess of 60°C were observed over the course of the thermal exposure conditions used in most of the experiments. A mathematical model for transient heat transfer was developed to complement the thermal exposure experimental study. The model took into consideration forced convective heat transfer, quasi-steady heat conduction through the composite layers of the SCBA cylinder wall, the breathing pattern and action of the breathing simulator, and predicted air temperatures from the thermally exposed SCBA cylinder and temperatures at the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. Model predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  7. Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandolah, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

  8. Healthy Living: Helping Your Child Breathe Easier

    MedlinePlus

    ... cystic fibrosis. In terms of childhood disease, the respiratory system is the most critical. Here are some tips ... or “irritants” can cause the muscles of the respiratory system to contract, narrowing the airways. Breathing through these ...

  9. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  10. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  11. Aircrew and passenger protective breathing equipment studies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This document represents a collection of various reports concerning the protective capability of passenger and crew oxygen breathing equipment and specialized devices and concepts against smoke and toxic gases produced by aircraft fires.

  12. Maternal Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    PubMed

    Pamidi, Sushmita; Kimoff, R John

    2018-04-01

    Emerging literature suggests that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) worsens over the course of pregnancy and is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Earlier studies, using mainly snoring as a surrogate marker for SDB, have shown an increase in the prevalence of SDB during pregnancy compared with that in the pregravid state. More recently, prospective observational studies in which the investigators ascertained SDB by using complete polysomnography have shown a prevalence ranging from approximately 17% to 45% in the third trimester. Pregnancy itself can be associated with daytime hypersomnolence, so complaints of increasing fatigue and sleepiness during pregnancy are not specific for SDB. Moreover, snoring in isolation also has relatively poor sensitivity and specificity as a screening tool for diagnosing maternal SDB. The indications for screening for SDB during routine obstetric prenatal visits are still unclear, but observational studies indicate that maternal SDB is linked with the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. Some studies also have identified a relationship between maternal SDB and the delivery of infants who are small for gestational age. Aside from a few small interventional studies of CPAP in pregnant patients with gestational hypertension, little currently is known about whether treatment of SDB during pregnancy improves clinical outcomes for the mother and/or baby. Additional current knowledge gaps include elucidating underlying mechanisms of maternal SDB, determining optimal treatment strategies, and understanding the trajectory of SDB after delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  14. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daxa M; Rocque, Brandon G; Hopson, Betsy; Arynchyna, Anastasia; Bishop, E Ralee'; Lozano, David; Blount, Jeffrey P

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT A paucity of literature examines sleep apnea in patients with myelomeningocele, Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II), and related hydrocephalus. Even less is known about the effect of hydrocephalus treatment or CM-II decompression on sleep hygiene. This study is an exploratory analysis of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with myelomeningocele and the effects of neurosurgical treatments, in particular CM-II decompression and hydrocephalus management, on sleep organization. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients seen in their multidisciplinary spina bifida clinic (approximately 435 patients with myelomeningocele) to evaluate polysomnographs obtained between March 1999 and July 2013. They analyzed symptoms prompting evaluation, results, and recommended interventions by using descriptive statistics. They also conducted a subset analysis of 9 children who had undergone polysomnography both before and after neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS Fifty-two patients had polysomnographs available for review. Sleep apnea was diagnosed in 81% of these patients. The most common presenting symptom was "breathing difficulties" (18 cases [43%]). Mild sleep apnea was present in 26 cases (50%), moderate in 10 (19%), and severe in 6 (12%). Among the 42 patients with abnormal sleep architecture, 30 had predominantly obstructive apneas and 12 had predominantly central apneas. The most common pulmonology-recommended intervention was adjustment of peripheral oxygen supplementation (24 cases [57%]), followed by initiation of peripheral oxygen (10 cases [24%]). In a subset analysis of 9 patients who had sleep studies before and after neurosurgical intervention, there was a trend toward a decrease in the mean number of respiratory events (from 34.8 to 15.9, p = 0.098), obstructive events (from 14.7 to 13.9, p = 0.85), and central events (from 20.1 to 2.25, p = 0.15) and in the apnea-hypopnea index (from 5.05 to 2.03, p = 0.038, not significant when

  15. Breath stacking in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, H M; Stocki, A; Kriellaars, D; Pasterkamp, H

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness in neuromuscular disorders (NMD) can lead to shallow breathing and respiratory insufficiency over time. Children with NMD often cannot perform maneuvers to recruit lung volume. In adults, breath stacking with a mask and one-way valve can achieve significantly increased lung volumes. To evaluate involuntary breath stacking (IBS) in NMD, we studied 23 children of whom 15 were cognitively aware and able to communicate verbally. For IBS, a one-way valve and pneumotachograph were attached to a face mask. Tidal volumes (Vt) and minute ventilation (VE ) were calculated from airflow over 30 sec before and after 15 sec of expiratory valve closure. Six cooperative male subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) participated in a subsequent comparison of IBS with voluntary breath stacking (VBS) and supported breath stacking (SBS). The average Vt in those studied with IBS was 277 ml (range 29-598 ml). The average increase in volume by stacking was 599 ml (range -140 to 2,916 ml) above Vt . The average number of stacked breaths was 4.5 (range 0-17). VE increased on average by 18% after stacking (P < 0.05, paired t-test). Oxygen saturation did not change after stacking. Four of the 23 children did not breath stack. Compared to IBS, VBS achieved similar volumes in the six subjects with DMD but SBS was more successful in those with greatest muscle weakness. IBS may achieve breath volumes of approximately three times Vt and may be particularly useful in non-cooperative subjects with milder degrees of respiratory muscle weakness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  17. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  19. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  20. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  2. Air breathing in Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami, under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, and the association with sunlight and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Johannsson, O E; Bergman, H L; Wood, C M; Laurent, P; Kavembe, D G; Bianchini, A; Maina, J N; Chevalier, C; Bianchini, L F; Papah, M B; Ojoo, R O

    2014-03-01

    Observations of the Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami in hot, highly alkaline Lake Magadi revealed that they air breathe not only during hypoxia, as described previously, but also during normoxia and hyperoxia. Air breathing under these latter conditions occurred within distinct groupings of fish (pods) and involved only a small proportion of the population. Air breathing properties (duration and frequency) were quantified from video footage. Air breathing within the population followed a diel pattern with the maximum extent of pod formation occurring in early afternoon. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water may be an irritant that encourages the air-breathing behaviour. The diel pattern of air breathing in the field and in experiments followed the diel pattern of ROS concentrations in the water which are amongst the highest reported in the literature (maximum daytime values of 2.53 – 8.10 μM H₂O₂). Interlamellar cell masses (ILCM) occurred between the gill lamellae of fish from the lagoon with highest ROS and highest oxygen levels, while fish from a normoxic lagoon with one third the ROS had little or no ILCM. This is the first record of air breathing in a facultative air-breathing fish in hyperoxic conditions and the first record of an ILCM in a cichlid species. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing after targeted ablation of preBötzinger complex neurons

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Leanne C; Janczewski, Wiktor A; Feldman, Jack L

    2010-01-01

    Ablation of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) neurons, critical for respiratory rhythm generation, resulted in a progressive, increasingly severe disruption of respiratory pattern, initially during sleep and then also during wakefulness in adult rats. Sleep-disordered breathing is highly prevalent in elderly humans and in some patients with neurodegenerative disease. We propose that sleep-disordered breathing results from loss of preBötC neurons and could underlie death during sleep in these populations. PMID:16116455

  4. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  5. Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Besleaga, Tudor; Blum, Michaël; Briot, Raphaël; Vovc, Victor; Moldovanu, Ion; Calabrese, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation. Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals. Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20. These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on ClinicalTrials.gov, # NCT01881945.

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  7. Left ventricle changes early after breath-holding in deep water in elite apnea divers.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo; Menicucci, Danilo; Passera, Mirko; Frassi, Francesca; Marabotti, Claudio; Piarulli, Andrea; Benassi, Antonio; L'Abbate, Antonio; Bedini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    To study by ultrasounds cardiac morphology and function early after breath-hold diving in deep water in elite athletes. Fifteen healthy male divers (age 28 +/- 3 years) were studied using Doppler-echocardiography, immediately before (basal condition, BC) and two minutes after breath-hold diving (40 meters, acute post-apnea condition, APAC). Each subject performed a series of three consecutive breath-hold dives (20-30 and 40 m depth). End-diastolic left ventricular (LV) diameter (EDD) and end-diastolic LV volume (EDV) increased significantly (p < 0.01). Stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), septal and posterior systolic wall-thickening (SWT) also significantly increased after diving (p < 0.01). No wall motion abnormalities were detected, and wall motion score index was unchanged between BC and APAC. Doppler mitral E wave increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas the A wave was unchanged. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly after diving (p < 0.05). In the factor analysis, filtering out the absolute values smaller than 0.7 in the loading matrix, it resulted that factor I consists of EDV, posterior SWT, SV and CI, factor II of diastolic blood pressure, waves A and E and factor III of heart rate and SVR. Systo-diastolic functions were improved in the early period after deep breath-hold diving due to favorable changes in loading conditions relative to pre-diving, namely the recruitment of left ventricular preload reserve and the reduction in afterload.

  8. eAMI: A Qualitative Quantification of Periodic Breathing Based on Amplitude of Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Migeotte, P. F.; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Meeusen, Romain; Neyt, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Periodic breathing is sleep disordered breathing characterized by instability in the respiratory pattern that exhibits an oscillatory behavior. Periodic breathing is associated with increased mortality, and it is observed in a variety of situations, such as acute hypoxia, chronic heart failure, and damage to respiratory centers. The standard quantification for the diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders is the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), which measures the proportion of apneic/hypopneic events during polysomnography. Determining the AHI is labor-intensive and requires the simultaneous recording of airflow and oxygen saturation. In this paper, we propose an automated, simple, and novel methodology for the detection and qualification of periodic breathing: the estimated amplitude modulation index (eAMI). Patients or Participants: Antarctic cohort (3,800 meters): 13 normal individuals. Clinical cohort: 39 different patients suffering from diverse sleep-related pathologies. Measurements and Results: When tested in a population with high levels of periodic breathing (Antarctic cohort), eAMI was closely correlated with AHI (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). When tested in the clinical setting, the proposed method was able to detect portions of the signal in which subclinical periodic breathing was validated by an expert (n = 93; accuracy = 0.85). Average eAMI was also correlated with the loop gain for the combined clinical and Antarctica cohorts (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). Conclusions: In terms of quantification and temporal resolution, the eAMI is able to estimate the strength of periodic breathing and the underlying loop gain at any given time within a record. The impaired prognosis associated with periodic breathing makes its automated detection and early diagnosis of clinical relevance. Citation: Fernandez Tellez H, Pattyn N, Mairesse O, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Migeotte PF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Meeusen R, Neyt X. eAMI: a qualitative

  9. Pharmacology of Vagal Afferent Influences on Disordered Breathing During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Carley, David W; Radulovacki, Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are a significant public health concern, with a prevalence in the US general population of ∼2% of women and ∼4% of men. Although significant strides have been made in our understanding of these disorders with respect to epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and consequences, work to understand these factors in terms of the underlying cellular, molecular and neuromodulatory processes remains in its infancy. Current primary treatments are surgical or mechanical, with no drug treatments available. Basic investigations into the neurochemistry and neuropharmacology of sleep-related changes in respiratory pattern generation and modulation will be essential to clarify the pathogenic processes underlying SRBD and to identify rational and specific pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. Here we summarize emerging work suggesting the importance of vagal afferent feedback systems in sleep related respiratory pattern disturbances and pointing toward a rich but complex array of neurochemical and neuromodulatory processes that may be involved. PMID:18694851

  10. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    pores facilitates cell infiltration and tissue remodelling in vitro, suggesting its high potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. In the second part of the dissertation, the versatility of breath figure polymers was explored as a reverse template to create micropatterned soft materials. Unlike traditional lithographic masters, the breath figure assembly is a simple and cost-effective approach to create micro/nano sized "bead" like uniform patterns on the surface of hydrogels and biopolymers. By incorporating iron nanoparticles into the pores, this technique was extended to form hydrogels decorated with nanoparticles specifically in the pattern. The morphology features and the functional characteristics were demonstrated through scanning electron microscopy. The potential applications of these micro-fabricated materials in biosensors and cell culture substrates are outlined.

  11. Horses Auto-Recruit Their Lungs by Inspiratory Breath Holding Following Recovery from General Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mosing, Martina; Waldmann, Andreas D.; MacFarlane, Paul; Iff, Samuel; Auer, Ulrike; Bohm, Stephan H.; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Bardell, David

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the breathing pattern and distribution of ventilation in horses prior to and following recovery from general anaesthesia using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Six horses were anaesthetised for 6 hours in dorsal recumbency. Arterial blood gas and EIT measurements were performed 24 hours before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after horses stood following anaesthesia. At each time point 4 representative spontaneous breaths were analysed. The percentage of the total breath length during which impedance remained greater than 50% of the maximum inspiratory impedance change (breath holding), the fraction of total tidal ventilation within each of four stacked regions of interest (ROI) (distribution of ventilation) and the filling time and inflation period of seven ROI evenly distributed over the dorso-ventral height of the lungs were calculated. Mixed effects multi-linear regression and linear regression were used and significance was set at p<0.05. All horses demonstrated inspiratory breath holding until 5 hours after standing. No change from baseline was seen for the distribution of ventilation during inspiration. Filling time and inflation period were more rapid and shorter in ventral and slower and longer in most dorsal ROI compared to baseline, respectively. In a mixed effects multi-linear regression, breath holding was significantly correlated with PaCO2 in both the univariate and multivariate regression. Following recovery from anaesthesia, horses showed inspiratory breath holding during which gas redistributed from ventral into dorsal regions of the lungs. This suggests auto-recruitment of lung tissue which would have been dependent and likely atelectic during anaesthesia. PMID:27331910

  12. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized noninvasive exhaled breath condensate sampler

    PubMed Central

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F.; Pettit, Dayna R.; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C.; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2017-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube™ and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017). PMID:28004639

  13. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized non-invasive exhaled breath condensate sampler.

    PubMed

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Pettit, Dayna R; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-12-22

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube ™ and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017).

  14. Sleep abnormalities in children with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Radhika; Erickson, Maia K; St Louis, Erik K; Wirrell, Elaine; Kotagal, Suresh

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A gene are responsible for the majority of Dravet syndrome cases. There is evidence that the Nav1.1 channel coded by the SCN1A gene is involved in sleep regulation. We evaluated sleep abnormalities in children with Dravet syndrome using nocturnal polysomnography. We identified six children at our institution with genetically confirmed Dravet syndrome who had also undergone formal sleep consultation with nocturnal polysomnography. Indications for polysomnography were parental concern of daytime fatigue or sleepiness, hyperactivity, inattention, disruptive behavior, nighttime awakenings, or nocturnal seizures. Sleep studies were scored according to guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and non-rapid eye movement cyclic alternating pattern was visually identified and scored according to established methods. The mean age of the subjects at the time of polysomnography was 6 years. Standard polysomnography did not show any consistent abnormalities in the obstructive or central apnea index, arousal index, sleep efficiency, or architecture. Cyclic alternating pattern analysis on five patients showed an increased mean rate of 50.3% (vs 31% to 34% in neurological normal children) with a mild increase in A1 subtype of 89.4% (vs 84.5%). A2/A3 subtype (5.3% vs 7.3%) and B phase duration (22.4 vs 24.7 seconds) were similar to previously reported findings in neurologically normal children. Despite parental concerns for sleep disturbance in patients with Dravet syndrome, we could not identify abnormalities in sleep macroarchitecture. Non-rapid eye movement sleep microarchitecture was, however, abnormal, with increased A1 subtype, somewhat resembling a tracé alternant pattern of neonates and possibly suggestive of cortical synaptic immaturity in Dravet syndrome. Larger studies are needed to replicate these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2015-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. PMID:24434437

  16. MO-FG-BRA-02: A Feasibility Study of Integrating Breathing Audio Signal with Surface Surrogates for Respiratory Motion Management

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y; Zhu, X; Zheng, D

    Purpose: Tracking the surrogate placed on patient skin surface sometimes leads to problematic signals for certain patients, such as shallow breathers. This in turn impairs the 4D CT image quality and dosimetric accuracy. In this pilot study, we explored the feasibility of monitoring human breathing motion by integrating breathing sound signal with surface surrogates. Methods: The breathing sound signals were acquired though a microphone attached adjacently to volunteer’s nostrils, and breathing curve were analyzed using a low pass filter. Simultaneously, the Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system from Varian were employed on a volunteer to monitor respiratory motion including both shallowmore » and deep breath modes. The similar experiment was performed by using Calypso system, and three beacons taped on volunteer abdominal region to capture breath motion. The period of each breathing curves were calculated with autocorrelation functions. The coherence and consistency between breathing signals using different acquisition methods were examined. Results: Clear breathing patterns were revealed by the sound signal which was coherent with the signal obtained from both the RPM system and Calypso system. For shallow breathing, the periods of breathing cycle were 3.00±0.19 sec (sound) and 3.00±0.21 sec (RPM); For deep breathing, the periods were 3.49± 0.11 sec (sound) and 3.49±0.12 sec (RPM). Compared with 4.54±0.66 sec period recorded by the calypso system, the sound measured 4.64±0.54 sec. The additional signal from sound could be supplement to the surface monitoring, and provide new parameters to model the hysteresis lung motion. Conclusion: Our preliminary study shows that the breathing sound signal can provide a comparable way as the RPM system to evaluate the respiratory motion. It’s instantaneous and robust characteristics facilitate it possibly to be a either independently or as auxiliary methods to manage respiratory motion in radiotherapy.« less

  17. Role of Parafacial Nuclei in Control of Breathing in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huckstepp, Robert T.R.; Cardoza, Kathryn P.; Henderson, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Contiguous brain regions associated with a given behavior are increasingly being divided into subregions associated with distinct aspects of that behavior. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarizing technologies, we functionally dissect the parafacial region in the medulla, which contains key elements of the central pattern generator for breathing that are important in central CO2-chemoreception and for gating active expiration. By transfecting different populations of neighboring neurons with allatostatin or HM4D Gi/o-coupled receptors, we analyzed the effect of their hyperpolarization on respiration in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized rats. We identify two functionally separate parafacial nuclei: ventral (pFV) and lateral (pFL). Disinhibition of the pFL with bicuculline and strychnine led to active expiration. Hyperpolarizing pFL neurons had no effect on breathing at rest, or changes in inspiratory activity induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia; however, hyperpolarizing pFL neurons attenuated active expiration when it was induced by hypercapnia, hypoxia, or disinhibition of the pFL. In contrast, hyperpolarizing pFV neurons affected breathing at rest by decreasing inspiratory-related activity, attenuating the hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced increase in inspiratory activity, and when present, reducing expiratory-related abdominal activity. Together with previous observations, we conclude that the pFV provides a generic excitatory drive to breathe, even at rest, whereas the pFL is a conditional oscillator quiet at rest that, when activated, e.g., during exercise, drives active expiration. PMID:25609622

  18. Electromyographic fatigue of orbicular oris muscles during exercises in mouth and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Busanello-Stella, Angela Ruviaro; Blanco-Dutra, Ana Paula; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the process of fatigue in orbicularis oris muscles by analyzing the median frequency of electromyographic signal and the referred fatigue time, according to the breathing mode and the facial pattern. The participants were 70 children, aged 6 to 12 years, who matched the established criteria. To be classified as 36 nasal-breathing and 34 mouth-breathing children, they underwent speech-language, otorhinolaryngologic, and cephalometric evaluation. For the electromyographic assessment, the children had to sustain lip dumbbells weighing 40, 60, and 100 g and a lip exerciser, until the feeling of fatigue. Median frequency was analyzed in 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds of activity. The referred time of the feeling of fatigue was also recorded. Data were analyzed through the analysis of variance--repeated measures (post hoc Tukey's test), Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. A significant decrease in the median frequency from 5 seconds of activity was observed, independently from the comparison between the groups. On comparison, the muscles did not show significant decrease. The reported time for the feeling of fatigue was shorter for mouth-breathing individuals. This feeling occurred after the significant decrease in the median frequency. There were signals that indicated myoelectric fatigue for the orbicularis oris muscles, in both groups analyzed, from the first 5 seconds of activity. Myoelectric fatigue in the orbicularis oris muscles preceded the reported feeling of fatigue in all groups. The account for fatigue time was influenced by only the breathing pattern, occurring more precociously in mouth-breathing children.

  19. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thalakkotur Lazar; Pownraj, Prabhahari; Abdulla, Sukhananazerin; Pullithadathil, Biji

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques. PMID:26854142

  20. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  2. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  3. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  4. Chemoresponsiveness and breath physiology in anosmia.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Montinaro, Danilo; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Anosmia is a model to study the interaction among chemoreception systems. In the head injury, the traumatic irreversible anosmia caused by damage to olfactory nerve fibers and brain regions is of enviable research interest. In this study, psychophysiological tests for a comprehensive assessment of olfactory function were utilized to investigate anosmia, together with a new technique based on the breath real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We applied the breath and VOCs analysis to investigate chemoresponsiveness in the long-term irreversible post-traumatic anosmia.

  5. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    PubMed

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Lung function, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Julliand, Sébastien; Boulé, Michèle; Baujat, Geneviève; Ramirez, Adriana; Couloigner, Vincent; Beydon, Nicole; Zerah, Michel; di Rocco, Federico; Lemerrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Children with achondroplasia are at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate lung function and sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia. An interview, clinical examination, lung function tests with blood gases, and a polygraphic sleep study were obtained as part of routine annual evaluation in consecutive children with achondroplasia. We included 30 children (median age 3.0 years, range: 0.4-17.1) over a period of 21 months. Habitual snoring and witnessed apneas were observed in 77% and 33% of the patients, respectively. Prior to the sleep study, 10/29 (34%) patients had undergone upper airway surgery and 5/29 (17%) craniocervical decompression operation. Arterial blood gases were abnormal in two (7%) patients. Sleep findings were abnormal in 28/30 (93%) patients. Eleven (37%) patients had an apnea index≥1 event/hr and 26 (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index≥5 events/hr. The ≥3% desaturation index was >5/hr in 22 (73%) patients. Sixteen (53%) patients had a minimal pulse oximetry<90% but only two (7%) patients had a maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure>50 mmHg during sleep. As a consequence, the following therapeutic interventions were performed: upper airway surgery in four patients and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in five other patients, resulting in an improvement in sleep studies in all nine patients. Systematic sleep studies are recommended in children with achondroplasia because of the high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Upper airway surgery and NPPV are effective treatments of sleep-disordered breathing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the

  8. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

  9. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    PubMed

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P < or = 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  10. Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Boas, Ana Paula Dias Vilas; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Sakano, Eulália; Conti, Patricia Blau Margosian; Toro, Adyléia Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB) have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT) and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB) children and adolescents. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB) and 69 boys (44 NB and 25 MB). Variables were analyzed during the 6MWT: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, distance walked in six minutes and modified Borg scale. All the variables studied were statistically different between groups NB and MB, with the exception of school performance and HR in 6MWT. MB affects physical performance and not the academic performance, we noticed a changed pattern in the 6MWT in the MB group. Since the MBs in our study were classified as non-severe, other studies comparing the academic performance variables and 6MWT are needed to better understand the process of physical and academic performances in MB children.

  11. Sleep-induced periodic breathing and apnea: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khoo, M C; Gottschalk, A; Pack, A I

    1991-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms that lead to sleep-disordered breathing, we have developed a mathematical model that allows for dynamic interactions among the chemical control of respiration, changes in sleep-waking state, and changes in upper airway patency. The increase in steady-state arterial PCO2 accompanying sleep is shown to be inversely related to the ventilatory response to CO2. Chemical control of respiration becomes less stable during the light stage of sleep, despite a reduction in chemoresponsiveness, due to a concomitant increase in "plant gain" (i.e., responsiveness of blood gases to ventilatory changes). The withdrawal of the "wakefulness drive" during sleep onset represents a strong perturbation to respiratory control: higher magnitudes and rates of withdrawal of this drive favor instability. These results may account for the higher incidence of periodic breathing observed during light sleep and sleep onset. Periodic ventilation can also result from repetitive alternations between sleep onset and arousal. The potential for instability is further compounded if the possibility of upper airway occlusion is also included. In systems with high controller gains, instability is mediated primarily through chemoreflex overcompensation. However, in systems with depressed chemoresponsiveness, rapid sleep onset and large blood gas fluctuations trigger repetitive episodes of arousal and hyperpnea alternating with apneas that may or may not be obstructive. Between these extremes, more complex patterns can arise from the interaction between chemoreflex-mediated oscillations of shorter-cycle-duration (approximately 36 s) and longer-wavelength (approximately 60-80 s) state-driven oscillations.

  12. Evaluation of pulmonary function using single-breath-hold dual-energy computed tomography with xenon

    PubMed Central

    Kyoyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kosuke; Saito, Yuriko; Mikami, Shintaro; Moriyama, Gaku; Yanagita, Hisami; Watanabe, Wataru; Otani, Katharina; Honda, Norinari; Uematsu, Kazutsugu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Xenon-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (xenon-enhanced CT) can provide lung ventilation maps that may be useful for assessing structural and functional abnormalities of the lung. Xenon-enhanced CT has been performed using a multiple-breath-hold technique during xenon washout. We recently developed xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique to assess ventilation. We sought to evaluate whether xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique correlates with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results. Twenty-six patients, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, underwent xenon-enhanced CT and PFT. Three of the COPD patients underwent xenon-enhanced CT before and after bronchodilator treatment. Images from xenon-CT were obtained by dual-source CT during a breath-hold after a single vital-capacity inspiration of a xenon–oxygen gas mixture. Image postprocessing by 3-material decomposition generated conventional CT and xenon-enhanced images. Low-attenuation areas on xenon images matched low-attenuation areas on conventional CT in 21 cases but matched normal-attenuation areas in 5 cases. Volumes of Hounsfield unit (HU) histograms of xenon images correlated moderately and highly with vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC), respectively (r = 0.68 and 0.85). Means and modes of histograms weakly correlated with VC (r = 0.39 and 0.38), moderately with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r = 0.59 and 0.56), weakly with the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (r = 0.46 and 0.42), and moderately with the ratio of FEV1 to its predicted value (r = 0.64 and 0.60). Mode and volume of histograms increased in 2 COPD patients after the improvement of FEV1 with bronchodilators. Inhalation of xenon gas caused no adverse effects. Xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique depicted functional abnormalities not detectable on thin-slice CT. Mode, mean, and volume of HU histograms of xenon images

  13. Evaluation of 13CO2 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Kneepkens, C M; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, Y F

    1996-03-01

    Breath hydrogen (H2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar doses of glucose and, as we have found, amino acids (especially L-alanine); the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To study fructose absorption in a more direct way, we combined breath H2 studies with breath 13CO2 studies. Gastric emptying was studied by using L-glycine-1-13C in 4 children from 12.1 to 16.0 years of age. After 25 gm of fructose and 27.5 gm of glucose, when given together, gastric emptying was significantly (p<0.05) slower than with either sugar alone. In a second series of experiments, 5 children from 12.0 to 15.9 years of age were tested with 25 gm of fructose, alone and with equimolar doses of glucose and L-alanine, and 4 younger children from 3.1 to 6.1 years of age were tested with 2 gm/kg (max 37.5 gm) fructose, alone or with an equimolar dose of L-alanine. All fructose solutions were enriched with 15 mg of D-fructose-13C-6. In all 9 children, fructose was malabsorbed as judged by breath H2 increases > or = 20 ppm, and the addition of glucose or L-alanine resulted in significantly lower breath H2 increases (p < or = 0.005 for glucose, p < or = 0.001 for alanine). In contrast, the addition of alanine or glucose did not change the pattern of breath 13CO2 excretion in the 5 older children, whereas in the 4 younger children (with relatively higher doses), L-alanine addition resulted in significantly lower increases in breath 13CO2. In the latter group, for each time point, breath H2 and 13CO2 concentrations after fructose were compared with those after fructose plus L-alanine; in 20 out of 24 points, both H2 and 13CO2 were higher after fructose. These results suggest that 13CO2 not only originated from the oxidation of absorbed substrate

  14. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  15. Meeting Reports for 2013: Recent Advances in Breath Biomarker Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article reports the efforts of the breath research community affiliated with the International Association of Breath Research (IABR) in disseminating research results in high profile technical meetings in the United States (US). Specifically, we describe presentations at a ...

  16. The likelihood of acetone interference in breath alcohol measurement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-09-01

    This report discusses the significance of possible interference of acetone in breath alcohol testing. The following dimensions were considered: 1) what levels of acetone concentration may appear on the breath; 2) what levels of acetone concentration ...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they enter a patient's airway. The device may include a temperature controller. (b) Classification. Class II...

  18. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Tay, Su Ann; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-07-01

    An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs) is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG) but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia.

  19. Electrophysiological abnormalities associated with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Su Ann; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    An observational case report of electrophysiological abnormalities in a patient with anisomyopic amblyopia as a result of unilateral extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MNFs) is illustrated. The electrophysiological readings revealed an abnormal pattern electroretinogram (PERG) but normal full-field electroretinogram readings in the affected eye. The visual-evoked potential was also undetectable in that eye. Our findings suggest that extensive MNFs can be associated with electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular the PERG, which can aid in diagnosing the cause of impaired vision when associated with amblyopia. PMID:22824610

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Methods Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%). Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing), and with varying levels of pressure support. Results Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. Conclusions The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive reduction in inspiratory effort

  2. Association between maternal symptoms of sleep disordered breathing and fetal telomere length.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; King, Lindsey; Patel, Priyanshi; Paothong, Arnut; Pradhan, Anupam; Louis, Judette; Naik, Eknath; Marty, Phillip J; Whiteman, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Our investigation aims to assess the impact of symptoms of maternal sleep-disordered breathing, specifically sleep apnea risk and daytime sleepiness, on fetal leukocyte telomere length. Pregnant women were recruited upon hospital delivery admission. Sleep exposure outcomes were measured using the Berlin Questionnaire to quantify sleep apnea and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to measure daytime sleepiness. Participants were classified as "High Risk" or "Low Risk" for sleep apnea based on responses to the Berlin, while "Normal" or "Abnormal" daytime sleepiness was determined based on responses to the Epworth. Neonatal umbilical cord blood samples (N = 67) were collected and genomic DNA was isolated from cord blood leukocytes using Quantitative PCR. A ratio of relative telomere length was derived by telomere repeat copy number and single copy gene copy number (T/S ratio) and used to compare telomere lengths. Bootstrap and ANOVA statistical procedures were employed. On the Berlin, 68.7% of participants were classified as Low Risk while 31.3% were classified as High Risk for sleep apnea. According to the Epworth scale, 80.6% were determined to have Normal daytime sleepiness, and 19.4% were found to have Abnormal daytime sleepiness. The T/S ratio among pregnant women at High Risk for sleep apnea was significantly shorter than for those at Low Risk (P value < 0.05), and the T/S ratio among habitual snorers was significantly shorter than among non-habitual snorers (P value < 0.05). Although those with Normal Sleepiness had a longer T/S ratio than those with Abnormal Sleepiness, the difference was not statistically significant. Our results provide the first evidence demonstrating shortened telomere length among fetuses exposed to maternal symptoms of sleep disordered breathing during pregnancy, and suggest sleep disordered breathing as a possible mechanism of accelerated chromosomal aging. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  4. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  5. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  6. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  7. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    PubMed

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  8. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hitos, Silvia F; Arakaki, Renata; Solé, Dirceu; Weckx, Luc L M

    2013-01-01

    To assess speech alterations in mouth-breathing children, and to correlate them with the respiratory type, etiology, gender, and age. A total of 439 mouth-breathers were evaluated, aged between 4 and 12 years. The presence of speech alterations in children older than 5 years was considered delayed speech development. The observed alterations were tongue interposition (TI), frontal lisp (FL), articulatory disorders (AD), sound omissions (SO), and lateral lisp (LL). The etiology of mouth breathing, gender, age, respiratory type, and speech disorders were correlated. Speech alterations were diagnosed in 31.2% of patients, unrelated to the respiratory type: oral or mixed. Increased frequency of articulatory disorders and more than one speech disorder were observed in males. TI was observed in 53.3% patients, followed by AD in 26.3%, and by FL in 21.9%. The co-occurrence of two or more speech alterations was observed in 24.8% of the children. Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Seeking Allergy Relief: When Breathing Becomes Bothersome

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with allergies breathes in allergens—such as pollen, mold, pet dander, or dust mites—the resulting ... one allergen,” Salo explains. “Grass, weed, and tree pollens are the most common causes of outdoor allergies.” ...

  10. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  11. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  12. Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling.

    PubMed

    White, Benjamin M; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine η(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Ση(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with η(i) = 0. Extrapolation of η(i)-η(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 - Ση(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. The average Ση(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20

  13. Nighttime oxygen desaturation and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in long-stay nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer L; Mory, Aaron K; Alessi, Cathy A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in older adults and has been implicated as a cause of decreased quality of life and even death. Sparse data exist on SDB in the nursing home setting. The authors evaluated SDB (using attended nocturnal pulse oximetry) in nursing home residents with daytime sleepiness and nighttime sleep disturbance. Pulse oximetry was used to estimate the prevalence of nighttime oxygen desaturation in 109 long-stay nursing home residents (mean [standard deviation] age = 86.2 [9.2] years; 74% women). Pulse oximetry findings were compared to a structured observational measurement of symptoms of SDB, the Observational Sleep Assessment Instrument. Seventy-one participants had concurrent wrist actigraphy to estimate total sleep time during oximetry recording. Using the oxygen desaturation index (ODI; average number of oxygen desaturations 4% or more below the baseline level per hour), the authors found that 40% of the residents had abnormal ODI (ODI more than 5, which is suggestive of SDB). Of all observational variables assessed, only loud breathing during sleep was significantly correlated with ODI (r =.284; p =.003). When ODI was adjusted for estimated total sleep time, higher adjusted ODI was associated with higher body mass index (kg/m(2)). Abnormal ODI is common in nursing home residents. Observed loud breathing at night and high body mass index may suggest that further assessment of SDB is indicated. Future research should determine the importance of SDB and abnormal nocturnal oxygen desaturation on functioning and quality of life in nursing home residents.

  14. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  15. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  17. Timing of the breath analyzer: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine in an emergency room (ER) population the concordance of self-reports of no alcohol consumption prior to injury with breath-analyzer readings in two groups: (1) those patients from whom reports were obtained after they were breath analyzed compared to (2) patients from whom reports were obtained prior to obtaining the breath-analyzer reading. Data were collected on a probability sample of patients attending three health maintenance organization ERs. Among those sampled were 159 patients admitted for initial treatment of an injury, who were breath analyzed within 6 hours of the event and reported no drinking following the event that lead to injury. Of these, 119 were breath analyzed prior to the interview, and none who reported not drinking were positive on the breath analyzer, while of the 37 breath analyzed after the interview, only one was positive who had reported not drinking. Obtaining the breath-analyzer reading following the interview was not found to affect the rate of refusal to provide a breath-analyzer reading; however, it was found to adversely affect obtaining the breath-analyzer reading for other reasons. The data suggest that the concordance of negative self-reports of consumption with breath-analyzer readings remains high in ER populations regardless of when the breath-analyzer reading is obtained; however, it appears best to obtain the reading prior to interviewing the patient for reasons explained below.

  18. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory)...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a patient...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  2. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  3. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  4. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  5. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  8. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...

  9. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...-0044, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC14 Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards AGENCY: Federal... breathing apparatus (EEBA) to the members of the train crew and certain other employees while they are... EEBA--emergency escape breathing apparatus FRA--Federal Railroad Administration FRSA--the former...

  10. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108...

  11. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED...

  12. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108...

  13. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED...

  14. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  16. Exploring the Waveform Characteristics of Tidal Breathing Carbon Dioxide, Measured Using the N-Tidal C Device in Different Breathing Conditions (The General Breathing Record Study): Protocol for an Observational, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rupani, Hitasha; Kalra, Paul R; Adeniji, Kayode; Quint, Matthew; De Vos, Ruth; Begum, Selina; Mottershaw, Mark; Fogg, Carole; Jones, Thomas L; Lanning, Eleanor; Bassett, Paul; Chauhan, Anoop J

    2018-01-01

    Background In an increasingly comorbid population, there are significant challenges to diagnosing the cause of breathlessness, and once diagnosed, considerable difficulty in detecting deterioration early enough to provide effective intervention. The burden of the breathless patient on the health care economy is substantial, with asthma, chronic heart failure, and pneumonia affecting over 6 million people in the United Kingdom alone. Furthermore, these patients often have more than one contributory factor to their breathlessness symptoms, with conditions such as dysfunctional breathing pattern disorders—an under-recognized component. Current methods of diagnosing and monitoring breathless conditions can be extensive and difficult to perform. As a consequence, home monitoring is poorly complied with. In contrast, capnography (the measurement of tidal breath carbon dioxide) is performed during normal breathing. There is a need for a simple, easy-to-use, personal device that can aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory and cardiac causes of breathlessness. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new, handheld capnometer (called the N-Tidal C) in different conditions that cause breathlessness. We will study whether the tidal breath carbon dioxide (TBCO2) waveform, as measured by the N-Tidal C, has different characteristics in a range of respiratory and cardiac conditions. Methods We will perform a longitudinal, observational study of the TBCO2 waveform (capnogram) as measured by the N-Tidal C capnometer. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, breathing pattern disorders, chronic heart failure, motor neurone disease, pneumonia, as well as volunteers with no history of lung disease will be asked to provide twice daily, 75-second TBCO2 collection via the N-Tidal C device for 6 months duration. The collated capnograms will be correlated with the underlying diagnosis and disease state (stable or exacerbation) to determine if there

  17. Exploring the Waveform Characteristics of Tidal Breathing Carbon Dioxide, Measured Using the N-Tidal C Device in Different Breathing Conditions (The General Breathing Record Study): Protocol for an Observational, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Neville, Daniel M; Rupani, Hitasha; Kalra, Paul R; Adeniji, Kayode; Quint, Matthew; De Vos, Ruth; Begum, Selina; Mottershaw, Mark; Fogg, Carole; Jones, Thomas L; Lanning, Eleanor; Bassett, Paul; Chauhan, Anoop J

    2018-05-24

    In an increasingly comorbid population, there are significant challenges to diagnosing the cause of breathlessness, and once diagnosed, considerable difficulty in detecting deterioration early enough to provide effective intervention. The burden of the breathless patient on the health care economy is substantial, with asthma, chronic heart failure, and pneumonia affecting over 6 million people in the United Kingdom alone. Furthermore, these patients often have more than one contributory factor to their breathlessness symptoms, with conditions such as dysfunctional breathing pattern disorders-an under-recognized component. Current methods of diagnosing and monitoring breathless conditions can be extensive and difficult to perform. As a consequence, home monitoring is poorly complied with. In contrast, capnography (the measurement of tidal breath carbon dioxide) is performed during normal breathing. There is a need for a simple, easy-to-use, personal device that can aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory and cardiac causes of breathlessness. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new, handheld capnometer (called the N-Tidal C) in different conditions that cause breathlessness. We will study whether the tidal breath carbon dioxide (TBCO 2 ) waveform, as measured by the N-Tidal C, has different characteristics in a range of respiratory and cardiac conditions. We will perform a longitudinal, observational study of the TBCO 2 waveform (capnogram) as measured by the N-Tidal C capnometer. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, breathing pattern disorders, chronic heart failure, motor neurone disease, pneumonia, as well as volunteers with no history of lung disease will be asked to provide twice daily, 75-second TBCO 2 collection via the N-Tidal C device for 6 months duration. The collated capnograms will be correlated with the underlying diagnosis and disease state (stable or exacerbation) to determine if there are different TBCO 2

  18. A decrease in nasal CO2 stimulates breathing in the tegu lizard.

    PubMed

    Coates, E L; Furilla, R A; Ballam, G O; Bartlett, D

    1991-10-01

    Tegu lizards decrease ventilatory frequency (f) when constant CO2, as low as 0.4%, is delivered to the nasal cavities. In contrast, CO2, as high as 6%, pulsed into the nasal cavities during the expiratory phase of the breathing cycle does not alter f. The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the effect of nasal CO2 pattern on f in tegu lizards. Specifically, we tested: (1) whether f was affected by CO2 delivered to the nasal cavities during the inspiratory phase of the breathing cycle, and (2) whether pulsed decreases in nasal CO2 from 4% to 2% and from 4% to 0% would remove the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2. Ventilation was measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer in-line with an endotracheal T-tube inserted through the glottis. CO2 was delivered to the nasal cavities through small tubes inserted into the external nares. Ventilatory frequency was not significantly altered when 4% CO2 was pulsed into the nasal cavities during inspiration. Dropping the CO2 in the nasal cavities from 4% to 0% at either 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz) or for one cycle stimulated breathing. There was no significant difference between the f response to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 0% and that to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 2%. The failure to link the phasic CO2 ventilatory response to a phase in the respiratory cycle indicates that the nasal CO2 receptors do not participate in the breath-by-breath regulation of breathing in these lizards. The observation that small decreases in nasal CO2 abolished the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2 provides further evidence for the ability of the nasal CO2 receptors to distinguish between pulsed and constant CO2.

  19. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  20. Cerebral hemodynamic changes in stroke during sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Biallas, Martin; Kallweit, Ulf; Wolf, Martin; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2012-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) negatively impacts stroke outcome. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed the acute cerebral hemodynamic effects of SDB. Eleven patients (7 men, age 61±13 years) with acute/subacute middle cerebral artery stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 10±7) and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index 32±28/hour) were assessed with nocturnal polysomnography and bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy recording. Cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration changes during obstructive and central apneas were analyzed. During SDB, near-infrared spectroscopy showed asymmetrical patterns of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentrations with changes significantly larger on the unaffected compared with the affected hemisphere. Brain tissue hypoxia was more severe during obstructive compared with central apneas. Profound cerebral deoxygenation effects of SDB occurred in acute/subacute stroke. These changes may contribute to poor outcome, arising in the possibility of a potential benefit of SDB treatment in stroke management.

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly