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Sample records for abnormal breathing patterns

  1. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  2. Breathing patterns during eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Lechauve, J B; Perrault, H; Aguilaniu, B; Isner-Horobeti, M E; Martin, V; Coudeyre, E; Richard, R

    2014-10-01

    Eccentric (ECC) work is interesting for rehabilitation purposes because it is more efficient than concentric (CON). This study assessed respiratory patterns and electromyographic activity (EMG) during ECC and CON cycling, both at similar power outputs and VO2 in eight healthy male subjects. Measurements include ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (Fb), arterial blood gases, and vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) EMG. At the same mechanical power, VO2 and VE were fivefold lower in ECC as was VL EMG while BB EMG, Vd/Vt, PaO2 and PaCO2, were not different between modalities. At the same VO2, there was no difference in VE but Vt was lower and Fb higher in ECC. VL EMG was not different between modalities while BB EMG was higher in ECC. The latter observation suggests that ECC cycling may result in arm bracing and restricted chest expansion. Since hyperpnea is a known trigger of exaggerated dynamic hyperinflation, the prescription of ECC cycling for patient rehabilitation requires further assessment. PMID:25083913

  3. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Clinical and polygraphic improvement of breathing abnormalities after valproate in a case of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maini, Ilenia; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Turco, Emanuela Claudia; De Paolis, Fernando; Magnani, Cinzia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Pisani, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a rare genetic form of severe psychomotor delay, caused by mutations in transcription cell factor-4 gene and characterized by distinctive dysmorphic features and abnormal breathing pattern. The current report describes the polygraphic features of the syndrome's typical breathing pattern in a patient both in wakefulness and in sleep. The control of these breathing alterations is important to prevent the neurological sequelae linked to chronic cerebral hypoxemia in early ages. No data are available on effective treatment options for breathing abnormalities of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. The authors polygraphically documented a reduction of apneic and hypopneic phenomena, with a significant improvement in saturation values, after the introduction of sodium valproate. PMID:22378662

  6. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

  7. Breathing pattern during exercise in myopathic subjects.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Russo, A K; Piçarro, I C; Tarasantchi, J; Schmidt, B; Gabbai, A; Oliveira, A S

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have described a neurogenic-induced ventilatory tachypneic response during exercise. The present paper compares the breathing pattern of control and myopathic human subjects submitted to exercise. Peripheral neurogenic stimuli (PNS) at the same level of oxygen consumption should be enhanced in myopathic subjects as a consequence of muscular mass loss. Myopathic individuals showed hyperventilation (increased VeO2 and VeCO2) which was mostly due to higher respiratory frequency. The shorter respiratory cycle was due chiefly to Te reduction, since the Ti/TTOT ratio was greater in the myopathic individuals for a VO2 of 1 L. These results are in agreement with previous studies in anesthetized dogs and in unanesthetized humans in which a tachypneic mechanism associated to the relative work load was observed. These results also suggest that PNS may have a facilitatory effect upon the inspiratory off switch mechanism. PMID:3452445

  8. Analysis of breathing air flow patterns in thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel methodology to characterize breathing patterns based on thermal infrared imaging. We have retrofitted a Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO(2) absorption band (4130 - 4427 nm). We use this system to record the radiation information from within the breathing flow region. Based on this information we compute the mean dynamic thermal signal of breath. The breath signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then filter the high frequency noise due to tracking instability. We detect the breathing cycles through zero cross thresholding, which is insensitive to noise around the zero line. We normalize the breathing cycles and align them at the transition point from inhalation to exhalation. Then, we compute the mean breathing cycle. We use the first eight (8) harmonic components of the mean cycle to characterize the breathing pattern. The harmonic analysis highlights the intra-individual similarity of breathing patterns. Our method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of human respiration and may find widespread applications in clinical studies of chronic ailments. It also brings up the intriguing possibility of using breathing patterns as a novel biometric. PMID:17945610

  9. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  10. Breathing pattern and exercise endurance time after exhausting cycling or breathing.

    PubMed

    Spengler, C M; Knöpfli-Lenzin, C; Birchler, K; Trapletti, A; Boutellier, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the changes in breathing pattern that frequently occur towards the end of exhaustive exercise (i.e., increased breathing frequency, fb, with or without decreased tidal volume) may be caused by the respiratory work itself rather than by leg muscle work. Eight healthy, trained subjects performed the following three sessions in random order: (A) two sequential cycling endurance tests at 78% peak O2 consumption (VO2peak) to exhaustion (A1, A2); (B) isolated, isocapnic hyperpnea (B1) at a minute ventilation (VE) and an exercise duration similar to that attained during a preliminary cycling endurance test at 78% VO2peak, followed by a cycling endurance test at 78% VO2peak (B2); (C) isolated, isocapnic hyperpnea (C1) at a VE at least 20% higher than that of the preliminary cycling test and the same exercise duration as the preliminary cycling test, followed by a cycling endurance test at 78% VO2peak (C2). Neither of the two isocapnic hyperventilation tasks (B1 or C1) affected either the breathing pattern or the endurance times of the subsequent cycling tests. Only cycling test A2 was significantly shorter [mean (SD) 26.5 (8.3) min] than tests A1 [41.0(9.0) min], B2 [41.9 (6.0) min], and C2 [42.0 (7.5) min]. In addition, compared to test A1, only the breathing pattern of test A2 was significantly different [i.e., VE: + 10.5 (7.6) 1 min(-1), and fb: + 12.1 (8.5) breaths min(-1)], in contrast to the breathing patterns of cycling tests B2 [VE: -2.5 (6.2) 1 min(-1), f(b): +0.2 (3.6) breaths min(-1)] and C2 [VE: -3.0 (7.0) 1 min(-1), fb: +0.6 (6.1) breaths min(-1)]. In summary, these results suggest that the changes in breathing pattern that occur towards the end of an exhaustive exercise test are a result of changes in the leg muscles rather than in the respiratory muscles themselves. PMID:10751097

  11. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    PubMed

    Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Tara; Darooei, Reza; Nazari, Milad; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Eslaminejad, Ali Reza; Almasnia, Mehdi; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Mani, Ali R; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management. PMID:26824900

  12. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Tara; Darooei, Reza; Nazari, Milad; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Eslaminejad, Ali Reza; Almasnia, Mehdi; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Mani, Ali R.; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management. PMID:26824900

  13. Breathing patterns after mid-cervical spinal contusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Golder, FJ; Fuller, DD; Lovett-Barr, MR; Vinit, S; Resnick, DK; Mitchell, GS

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death after cervical spinal injury. We hypothesized that incomplete cervical spinal injuries would alter respiratory pattern and initiate plasticity in the neural control of breathing. Further, we hypothesized that the severity of cervical spinal contusion would correlate with changes in breathing pattern. Fourteen days after C4–C5 contusions, respiratory frequency and tidal volume were measured in unanesthetized Sprague Dawley rats in a whole body plethysmograph. Phrenic motor output was monitored in the same rats which were anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed and ventilated to eliminate and/or control sensory feedback that could alter breathing patterns. The extent of spinal injury was approximated histologically by measurements of the injury-induced cyst area in transverse sections; cysts ranged from 2 to 28% of spinal cross-sectional area, and had a unilateral bias. In unanesthetized rats, the severity of spinal injury correlated negatively with tidal volume (R2=0.85; p<0.001) and positively with breathing frequency (R2=0.65; p<0.05). Thus, the severity of C4–C5 spinal contusion dictates post-injury breathing pattern. In anesthetized rats, phrenic burst amplitude was decreased on the side of injury, and burst frequency correlated negatively with contusion size (R2=0.51; p<0.05). A strong correlation between unanesthetized breathing pattern and the pattern of phrenic bursts in anesthetized, vagotomized and ventilated rats suggests that changes in respiratory motor output after spinal injury reflect, at least in part, intrinsic neural mechanisms of CNS plasticity initiated by injury. PMID:21683697

  14. Sigh-induced changes of breathing pattern in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Kerstin; Latzin, Philipp; Fouzas, Sotirios; Proietti, Elena; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar W; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2015-01-01

    Sighs are thought to play an important role in control of breathing. It is unclear how sighs are triggered, and whether preterm birth and lung disease influence breathing pattern prior to and after a sigh in infants. To assess whether frequency, morphology, size, and short-term variability in tidal volume (VT) before, during, and after a sigh are influenced by gestational age at birth and lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, BPD) in former preterm infants and healthy term controls measured at equivalent postconceptional age (PCA). We performed tidal breathing measurements in 143 infants during quiet natural sleep at a mean (SD) PCA of 44.8 (1.3) weeks. A total of 233 sighs were analyzed using multilevel, multivariable regression. Sigh frequency in preterm infants increased with the degree of prematurity and severity of BPD, but was not different from that of term controls when normalized to respiratory rate. After a sigh, VT decreased remarkably in all infants (paired t-test: P < 0.001). There was no major effect of prematurity or BPD on various indices of sigh morphology and changes in VT prior to or after a sigh. Short-term variability in VT modestly increased with maturity at birth and infants with BPD showed an earlier return to baseline variability in VT following a sigh. In early infancy, sigh-induced changes in breathing pattern are moderately influenced by prematurity and BPD in preterm infants. The major determinants of sigh-related breathing pattern in these infants remain to be investigated, ideally using a longitudinal study design. PMID:26564066

  15. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  16. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  17. Small reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex area induces abnormal breathing periods in awake goats.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, J M; Pan, L G; Klum, L; Leekley, T; Bastastic, J; Hodges, M R; Feroah, T; Davis, S; Forster, H V

    2004-11-01

    In awake rats, >80% bilateral reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötzC) resulted in hypoventilation and an "ataxic" breathing pattern (Gray PA, Rekling JC, Bocchiaro CM, Feldman JL, Science 286: 1566-1568, 1999). Accordingly, the present study was designed to gain further insight into the role of the pre-BötzC area NK1R-expressing neurons in the control of breathing during physiological conditions. Microtubules were chronically implanted bilaterally into the medulla of adult goats. After recovery from surgery, the neurotoxin saporin conjugated to substance P, specific for NK1R-expressing neurons, was bilaterally injected (50 pM in 10 microl) into the pre-BötzC area during the awake state (n = 8). In unoperated goats, 34 +/- 0.01% of the pre-BötzC area neurons are immunoreactive for the NK1R, but, in goats after bilateral injection of SP-SAP into the pre-BötzC area, NK1R immunoreactivity was reduced to 22.5 +/- 2.5% (29% decrease, P < 0.01). Ten to fourteen days after the injection, the frequency of abnormal breathing periods was sixfold greater than before injection (107.8 +/- 21.8/h, P < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of these periods were breaths of varying duration and volume with an altered respiratory muscle activation pattern, whereas the remaining were rapid, complete breaths with coordinated inspiratory-expiratory cycles. The rate of occurrence and characteristics of abnormal breathing periods were not altered during a CO2 inhalation-induced hyperpnea. Pathological breathing patterns were eliminated during non-rapid eye movement sleep in seven of eight goats, but they frequently occurred on arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. We conclude that a moderate reduction in pre-BötzC NK1R-expressing neurons results in state-dependent transient changes in respiratory rhythm and/or eupneic respiratory muscle activation patterns. PMID:15247160

  18. [Breathing patterns peculiarities as the index of the "animal hypnosis" state in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Levshina, I P; Bogdanov, A V; Galashina, A G; Shuĭkin, N N

    2004-01-01

    Breathing patterns were recorded during "animal hypnosis" in seven Chinchilla rabbits. The state of "animal hypnosis" was evoked by the hand pressure on the thorax and the waist of a rabbit. Breathing pattern was recorded by means of an elastic coal-powder element that was set round the rabbit's thorax. Distortions of the breathing patterns in the active state and in the course of hypnosis development were marked by numbers 0, 1, 2. In all rabbits, modifications of the breathing patterns depended on the features of the animal state: quiet state, tension, and "animal hypnosis". PMID:15326958

  19. In vitro estimations of in vivo jet nebulizer efficiency using actual and simulated tidal breathing patterns.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Andrew P; Rhem, Rod G; Dolovich, Myrna B

    2005-01-01

    In vivo aerosol delivery efficiency was estimated in vitro for two jet nebulizers using a breath monitor (Breathe!; Pari GmbH, Germany) and breath simulator (COMPAS; Pari GmbH) to reproduce subject tidal breathing patterns. The AeroEclipse (Trudell Medical International, Canada), a breath-actuated nebulizer, and the LC Star (Pari GmbH), a breath-enhanced nebulizer, were filled with levalbuterol HCl solution (Sepracor, USA) and operated with compressed O(2) at 8 lpm. Tidal breathing patterns of 20 adult subjects were digitally recorded with the Breathe! Breath Monitor. Subjects then breathed tidally from each nebulizer separately for 1 minute and to nebulizer dryness. Levalbuterol aerosol collected on filters placed between the nebulizer and mouth was chemically assayed to determine the inspired mass (IM), wasted mass (WM) and total emitted mass (TM). Measurements were repeated using the COMPAS Breath Simulator to simulate each subject's tidal breathing pattern. IM, WM, and TM measurements using actual versus simulated tidal breathing were highly comparable for each nebulizer, except the IM (p < 0.05) from LC Star measured at nebulizer dryness. Breath simulation was an inaccurate tool for estimating the time to nebulizer dryness as simulated measurements to nebulizer dryness took significantly longer than measurements preformed with actual tidal breathing (p < 0.001). While breath simulation provides an accurate in vitro tool for estimating in vivo aerosol delivery, it should not completely replace in vivo measurements until inherent limitations in simulator operation can be overcome to provide a more clinically realistic simulation. PMID:16379618

  20. [Investigation of the structure breathing pattern in competitive exercises have athletes kettlebell Lifters].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, V F; Agafonkina, T V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the breathing pattern characteristics of kettlebell athletes. The main indicators were identified: breathing frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (VE). We also searched for the dependence of these parameters using the weight of kettlebells and skill of the athletes.We used the spirograph SMP-21/01-"R-D" for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the miain indicators of kettlebell athletes breathing patterns. Athletes who achieved Masters of Sports (MS) and candidate masters of sport (CMS), their changes in breathing during exercise occurs mainly on two parameters--the frequeincy of breathing and tidal yolume. We found out while the weight of the kettlebell increases the breathing frequen- cy increases and tidal volume decreases. Athletes who achieved International Masters of Sports (MSIC), they dominated the change of one parameter of breathing--on the tidalivolume, which increases from 0.7 +/- 0.11 to 1.2 +/- 0.11 (p < 001). In MSIC athletes tidal volume is approximately to level of 1.2 +/- 0.1, which invariably leads to an increase in breathing frequency. We discovered transition forms of breathing in competition exercises of Kettlebell sport. In our opinion high performance level of athletes is related to undergoing breathing regulation, trying constantly to keep same level of gas composition in functional residual capacity (FRC) at a time ofperforming competition exercises. This research highlights the importance of improving breathing patterns for Kettlebell athletes if they want to improve performance. PMID:25702464

  1. Abnormal patterns of the renal veins

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553

  2. Symmetric Abnormalities in Sulcal Patterning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Csernansky, John G.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Dierker, Donna L.; Anticevic, Alan; Wang, Lei; Barch, Deanna M.; Van Essen, David C.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the morphology of the cerebral cortex and its characteristic pattern of gyri and sulci in individuals with and without schizophrenia, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected, along with clinical and cognitive information, from 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 30 healthy individuals group-matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. Sulcal depth was measured across the entire cerebral cortex by reconstructing surfaces of cortical mid-thickness (layer 4) in each hemisphere and registering them to the human PALS cortical atlas. Group differences in sulcal depth were tested using methods for cluster size analysis and interhemispheric symmetry analysis. A significant group difference was found bilaterally in the parietal operculum, where the average sulcal depth was shallower in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, group differences in sulcal depth showed significant bilateral symmetry across much of the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices. In individuals with schizophrenia, sulcal depth in the left hemisphere was correlated with the severity of impaired performance on tests of working memory and executive function. PMID:18707008

  3. The effect of attentional load on the breathing pattern in children.

    PubMed

    Denot-Ledunois, S; Vardon, G; Perruchet, P; Gallego, J

    1998-06-01

    Experiments designed to establish the effects of video games on breathing patterns have led to contradictory results. Several authors reported that video games tended to increase breathing frequency (i.e. to reduce breath duration), whereas others reported the opposite. We postulated that video games contain different psychophysiological components which may have opposite effects on breathing pattern. On the one hand, arousal and emotion may tend to stimulate breathing. On the other, focusing attention on the game may prompt subject to inhibit any movement--including breathing--which might be a potential nuisance variable. The aim of this study was to assess the specific effects of the attentional load in an experimental environment characterized by its low emotional impact. We measured breathing variables, cardiac frequency and cortisol levels in 10 healthy children (mean age = 9.2 +/- 1.5 years) who were familiar with the environment, the experimenter and the video game. Breath duration rose significantly, from 2.56 to 3.16 s, as a function of game difficulty. Cortisol levels, heart rate and the thoracic contribution to breathing displayed no significant changes. Taken together, these data suggest that focusing attention on the game tended to inhibit breathing and that previous contradictory reports in this respect were due to the confounding effects of emotion. PMID:9641244

  4. Modification of Breath Patterning to Increase Naturalness of a Mildly Dysarthric Speaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellaire, Karen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decreased naturalness of speech in a 20-year-old closed-head injured male was related to short, uniform breath groups, inhalation during every pause, and restricted fundamental frequency. Data related to patterns of breathing and pausing during samples of connected speech along with measures of respiratory control are presented. (Author/CL)

  5. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  6. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  7. The effect of inspiratory muscle fatigue on breathing pattern and ventilatory response to CO2.

    PubMed Central

    Mador, M J; Tobin, M J

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of inducing inspiratory muscle fatigue on the subsequent breathing pattern were examined during resting unstimulated breathing and during CO2 rebreathing. In addition, we examined whether induction of inspiratory muscle fatigue alters CO2 responsiveness. 2. Global inspiratory muscle fatigue and diaphragmatic fatigue were achieved by having subjects breathe against an inspiratory resistive load while generating a predetermined fraction of either their maximal mouth pressure or maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure until they were unable to generate the target pressure. 3. Induction of inspiratory muscle fatigue had no effect on the subsequent breathing pattern during either unstimulated breathing or during CO2 rebreathing. 4. Following induction of inspiratory muscle fatigue, the slope of the ventilatory response to CO2 was significantly decreased from 18.8 +/- 3.3 during control to 13.8 +/- 2.1 l min-1 (% end-tidal CO2 concentration)-1 with fatigue (P < 0.02). PMID:1484352

  8. EFFECT OF BODY SIZE ON BREATHING PATTERN AND FINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-child variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle, lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2um monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy...

  9. Consistency of phonatory breathing patterns in professional operatic singers.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, M; Sundberg, J

    1999-12-01

    Breathing strategy is generally regarded as an important factor in operatic singing, because it is assumed to affect phonation. If so, professional singers should exhibit well-controlled, replicable breathing movements when repeating the same phrase. The purpose of the present study was to investigate to what extent professional opera singers show a consistent, exhalatory breathing behavior in a quasi-realistic concert situation. Respiratory movements were documented in 5 professional operatic singers, two women and three men, by means of respiratory inductive plethysmography. Comparison of respiratory data gathered from 3 renderings of the same phrases revealed high consistency with regard to lung volume (LV) behavior. The same applied to rib cage (RC) movements, suggesting a great relevance of RC control in singing. Consistency in abdominal wall (AW) movement was observed in 2 singers. These observations are in accordance with the idea that the breathing strategy plays an important role in voice production during singing. In addition, the correlation between LV changes, on the one hand, and RC and AW movements on the other, was examined. The contribution to LV changes from the RC and the AW varied across singers, thus suggesting that professional operatic singing does not request a uniform breathing strategy. PMID:10622519

  10. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. PMID:26970571

  11. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  12. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  13. Correlated Variability in the Breathing Pattern and End-Expiratory Lung Volumes in Conscious Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dellaca, Raffaele L.; Aliverti, Andrea; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Pedotti, Antonio; Suki, Bela

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the variability and correlation properties of spontaneous breathing in humans, the breathing pattern of 16 seated healthy subjects was studied during 40 min of quiet breathing using opto-electronic plethysmography, a contactless technology that measures total and compartmental chest wall volumes without interfering with the subjects breathing. From these signals, tidal volume (VT), respiratory time (TTOT) and the other breathing pattern parameters were computed breath-by-breath together with the end-expiratory total and compartmental (pulmonary rib cage and abdomen) chest wall volume changes. The correlation properties of these variables were quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis, computing the scaling exponentα. VT, TTOT and the other breathing pattern variables showed α values between 0.60 (for minute ventilation) to 0.71 (for respiratory rate), all significantly lower than the ones obtained for end-expiratory volumes, that ranged between 1.05 (for rib cage) and 1.13 (for abdomen) with no significant differences between compartments. The much stronger long-range correlations of the end expiratory volumes were interpreted by a neuromechanical network model consisting of five neuron groups in the brain respiratory center coupled with the mechanical properties of the respiratory system modeled as a simple Kelvin body. The model-based α for VT is 0.57, similar to the experimental data. While the α for TTOT was slightly lower than the experimental values, the model correctly predicted α for end-expiratory lung volumes (1.045). In conclusion, we propose that the correlations in the timing and amplitude of the physiological variables originate from the brain with the exception of end-expiratory lung volume, which shows the strongest correlations largely due to the contribution of the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. This cycle-by-cycle variability may have a significant impact on the functioning of adherent cells in the

  14. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  15. Differences in spontaneous breathing pattern and mechanics in patients with severe COPD recovering from acute exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Vitacca, M; Porta, R; Bianchi, L; Clini, E; Ambrosino, N

    1999-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess spontaneous breathing patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recovering from acute exacerbation and to assess the relationship between different breathing patterns and clinical and functional parameters of respiratory impairment. Thirty-four COPD patients underwent assessment of lung function tests, arterial blood gases, haemodynamics, breathing pattern (respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume (VT), inspiratory and expiratory time (tI and tE), duty cycle (tI/ttot), VT/tI) and mechanics (oesophageal pressure (Poes), work of breathing (WOB), pressure-time product and index, and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn)). According to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of Poes swings during the expiratory phase (premature inspiration), 20 (59%) patients were included in group 1 and 14 (41%) in group 2. Premature inspirations were observed 4.5+/-6.4 times x min(-1) (range 1-31), i.e. 20+/-21% (3.7-100%) of total fR calculated from VT tracings. In group 1 the coefficient of variation in VT, tE, tI/ttot, PEEPi,dyn, Poes and WOB of the eight consecutive breaths immediately preceding the premature inspiration was greater than that of eight consecutive breaths in group 2. There were no significant differences in the assessed parameters between the two groups in the overall population, whereas patients with chronic hypoxaemia in group 1 showed a more severe impairment in clinical conditions, mechanics and lung function than hypoxaemic patients in group 2. In spontaneously breathing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recovering from an acute exacerbation, detectable activity of inspiratory muscles during expiration was found in more than half of the cases. This phenomenon was not associated with any significant differences in anthropometric, demographic, physiological or clinical characteristics. PMID:10065683

  16. Breathing pattern and carbon dioxide retention in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, M.; Misuri, G.; Corrado, A.; Duranti, R.; Iandelli, I.; De Paola, E.; Scano, G.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors leading to chronic hypercapnia and rapid shallow breathing in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not completely understood. In this study the interrelations between chronic carbon dioxide retention, breathing pattern, dyspnoea, and the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength in stable COPD patients with severe airflow obstruction were studied. METHODS: Thirty patients with COPD in a clinically stable condition with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of < 1 litre were studied. In each patient the following parameters were assessed: (1) dyspnoea scale rating, (2) inspiratory muscle strength by measuring minimal pleural pressure (PPLmin), and (3) tidal volume (VT), flow, pleural pressure swing (PPLsw), total lung resistance (RL), dynamic lung elastance (ELdyn), and positive end expiratory alveolar pressure (PEEPi) during resting breathing. RESULTS: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) related directly to RL/PPLmin, and ELdyn/PPLmin, and inversely to VT and PPLmin. There was no relationship between PaCO2 and functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC), or minute ventilation. PEEPi was similar in eucapnic and hypercapnic patients. Expressing PaCO2 as a combined function of VT and PPLmin (stepwise multiple regression analysis) explained 71% of the variance in PaCO2. Tidal volume was directly related to inspiratory time (TI), and TI was inversely related to the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength (PPLsw, %PPLmin). There was an association between the severity of dyspnoea and both the increase in PPLsw (%PPLmin) and the shortening in TI. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that, in stable patients with COPD with severe airflow obstruction, hypercapnia is associated with shallow breathing and inspiratory muscle weakness, and rapid and shallow breathing appears to be linked to both a marked increase in the pressure

  17. VARIATION OF LUNG DEPOSITION OF MICRON SIZE PARTICLES WITH LUNG VOLUME AND BREATHING PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung volume and breathing pattern are the source of inter-and intra-subject variability of lung deposition of inhaled particles. Controlling these factors may help optimize delivery of aerosol medicine to the target site within the lung. In the present study we measured total lu...

  18. Abnormal patterns of displacement activities: a review and reinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-1970 about displacement activities -- those 'out-of-context' actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit 'abnormalities' of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model -- the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) -- then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model. PMID:18554824

  19. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): improvement of breathing pattern reproducibility using respiratory coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neicu, Toni; Berbeco, Ross; Wolfgang, John; Jiang, Steve B.

    2006-02-01

    Recently, at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) we proposed a new treatment technique called synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) to account for tumour motion during radiotherapy. The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator with the tumour motion induced by respiration. The two key requirements for being able to successfully use SMART in clinical practice are the precise and fast detection of tumour position during the simulation/treatment and the good reproducibility of the tumour motion pattern. To fulfil the first requirement, an integrated radiotherapy imaging system is currently being developed at MGH. The results of a previous study show that breath coaching techniques are required to make SMART an efficient technique in general. In this study, we investigate volunteer and patient respiratory coaching using a commercial respiratory gating system as a respiration coaching tool. Five healthy volunteers, observed during six sessions, and 33 lung cancer patients, observed during one session when undergoing 4D CT scans, were investigated with audio and visual promptings, with free breathing as a control. For all five volunteers, breath coaching was well tolerated and the intra- and inter-session reproducibility of the breathing pattern was greatly improved. Out of 33 patients, six exhibited a regular breathing pattern and needed no coaching, four could not be coached at all due to the patient's medical condition or had difficulty following the instructions, 13 could only be coached with audio instructions and 10 could follow the instructions of and benefit from audio-video coaching. We found that, for all volunteers and for those patients who could be properly coached, breath coaching improves the duty cycle of SMART treatment. However, about half of the patients could not follow both audio and video instructions simultaneously, suggesting that the current coaching

  20. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade on breathing pattern in newborn cat.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, P; Pierrefiche, O; Foutz, A S; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1990-11-01

    We gave newborn kittens the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker MK-801 systemically while recording their breathing patterns by the barometric method. Unlike pentobarbital, MK-801 at an anaesthetic dose increased the relative length of inspiration within the respiratory cycle. The section of both vagus nerves under MK-801 produced apneustic breathing, whereas vagotomy under pentobarbital had no such effect. We conclude that the central inspiratory-termination mechanism mediated through NMDA receptors and the vagally-mediated mechanism that independently 'switches off' inspiration are both functional at birth. PMID:2148125

  1. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  2. Evaluation of breathing patterns for respiratory-gated radiation therapy using the respiration regularity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, MeYeon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, KyoungJu; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, not to mention the necessity of maintaining that regularity through the following sessions, an effective and simply applicable method by which those goals can be accomplished has rarely been reported. The authors herein propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a cos4( ω( t) · t) wave form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: the sample standard deviation of respiration period ( s f ), the sample standard deviation of amplitude ( s a ) and the results of a simple regression of the baseline drift (slope as β, and standard deviation of residuals as σ r ) of a respiration signal. The overall irregularity ( δ) was defined as , where is a variable newly-derived by using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters and has two principal components ( ω 1, ω 2). The proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ = ln(1 + (1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. We investigated its clinical relevance by comparing it with other known parameters. Subsequently, we applied it to 110 respiration signals acquired from five liver and five lung cancer patients by using real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Additionally, the respiration regularity was compared between the liver and lung cancer patient groups. The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ < 0.3 showed

  3. Lung volumes, chest wall configuration, and pattern of breathing in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paiva, M; Estenne, M; Engel, L A

    1989-10-01

    We studied the changes in functional residual capacity (FRC), thoracoabdominal volume (Vw), and chest wall configuration in five normal subjects seated in an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories resulting in 20-s periods of microgravity. We measured vital capacity (VC), inspiratory capacity, and tidal volume by integrating airflow at the mouth and changes in rib cage and abdominal volume (delta Vrc and delta Vab, respectively, where delta Vrc + delta Vab = delta Vw) using induction plethysmography. During microgravity (0 Gz) FRC decreased by 413 +/- 70 (SE) ml and VC by 0.37 liter. The decrease in Vw did not differ from that in FRC and was entirely the result of reduction of Vab, the Vrc showing no significant change. During tidal breathing the abdominal contribution (delta Vab/delta Vw) increased from 0.39 +/- 0.08 at 1 Gz to 0.57 +/- 0.08 at 0 Gz. During brief periods of hypergravity (approximately 1.8 Gz) all changes were opposite in sign and relatively smaller. Limited data during "roller coaster" flight patterns suggested that, in contrast to configurational changes, the temporal pattern of breathing was uninfluenced by changes in Gz. We conclude that at the onset of weightlessness there are substantial changes in lung volume and thoracoabdominal configuration. Abdominal contribution to tidal excursions increases but the temporal pattern of breathing is unchanged. PMID:2793756

  4. Influence of breathing pattern and lung inflation on impulse oscillometry measurements in horses.

    PubMed

    Van Erck, E; Votion, D; Kirschvink, N; Genicot, B; Lindsey, J; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine if changes in ventilation patterns could influence the outcome of respiratory function measurements performed with our impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in horses. In a first study, IOS tests were performed in vitro on six isolated equine lungs. Lung inflation levels were controlled by modifying depressurisation inside an artificial thorax and different ventilation patterns were imposed. In a second in vivo study, transient variations in breathing pattern were evaluated both with the IOS and a current reference technique (CRT) in five healthy mature horses after an intravenous (i.v.) injection of lobeline hydrochloride. In both studies, respiratory rate (RR, range: 7-42 breaths/min.) and tidal volume (V(T), range: 0.4-25 L) had minor or no influence on IOS parameters. The influence of lung inflation, most marked for resistance at 5 Hz (R(5 Hz)), was limited for the considered physiological range. In vivo, statistical models indicated that maximal changes in pleural pressure (Max Delta Ppl) and peak flows were the main determinants of the variability of the resistance (R(rs)) and the reactance (X(rs)) of the respiratory system. The fourfold increase in baseline Max Delta Ppl and peak flows obtained during hyperpnoea caused a significant increase in R(rs) at 5 and 10 Hz and a decrease in X(rs) at all frequencies. We conclude that IOS parameters are not influenced by tachypnoea, but will reflect alterations in respiratory mechanics caused by hyperpnoeic breathing. PMID:15501143

  5. Stabilizing immature breathing patterns of preterm infants using stochastic mechanosensory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bloch-Salisbury, Elisabeth; Indic, Premananda; Bednarek, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns in preterm infants consist of highly variable interbreath intervals (IBIs) that might originate from nonlinear properties of the respiratory oscillator and its input-output responses to peripheral and central signals. Here, we explore a property of nonlinear control, the potential for large improvement in the stability of breathing using low-level exogenous stochastic stimulation. Stimulation was administered to 10 preterm infants (postconceptional age: mean 33.3 wk, SD 1.7) using a mattress with embedded actuators that delivered small stochastic displacements (0.021 mm root mean square, 0.090 mm maximum, 30–60 Hz); this stimulus was subthreshold for causing arousal from sleep to wakefulness or other detectable changes in the behavioral state evaluated with polysomnography. We used a test-retest protocol with multiple 10-min intervals of stimulation, each paired with 10-min intervals of no stimulation. Stimulation induced an ∼50% reduction (P = 0.003) in the variance of IBIs and an ∼50% reduction (P = 0.002) in the incidence of IBIs > 5 s. The improved stability of eupneic breathing was associated with an ∼65% reduction (P = 0.04) in the duration of O2 desaturation. Our findings suggest that nonlinear properties of the immature respiratory control system can be harnessed using afferent stimuli to stabilize eupneic breathing, thereby potentially reducing the incidence of apnea and hypoxia. PMID:19608934

  6. Breath biomarkers in environmental health science: exploring patterns in the human exposome.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Sobus, Jon R

    2011-12-01

    The human genome is the counterpart to the human exposome with respect to the gene × environment interaction that describes health state and outcome. The genome has already been sequenced and is in the process of being assessed for specific functionality; to similarly decode the exposome will require the measurement and interpretation of suites of biomarker compounds in biological media such as blood, breath and urine. Of these, exhaled breath provides some important advantages for community or population-based studies in that the supply is essentially unlimited, the sampling procedures are non-invasive and can be self-administered, and there are little, if any, infectious wastes generated. The main concerns are to document a variety of compounds in breath, to assess what compounds and concentrations are considered statistically 'normal' in the healthy or unremarkably exposed population, and what graphic and mathematical approaches can be applied to assess outlier measurements as perturbations to the healthy exposome. In this paper, we explore a data set of exhaled breath measurements of exogenous exposures to jet fuel and develop summary statistics and variable clustering methods to establish between-group and intrinsic within-sample patterns that could be used to assess the status of random subjects. PMID:21904020

  7. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  8. Time series prediction of lung cancer patients' breathing pattern based on nonlinear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tolakanahalli, R P; Tewatia, D K; Tomé, W A

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on predicting breathing pattern, which is crucial to deal with system latency in the treatments of moving lung tumors. Predicting respiratory motion in real-time is challenging, due to the inherent chaotic nature of breathing patterns, i.e. sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In this work, nonlinear prediction methods are used to predict the short-term evolution of the respiratory system for 62 patients, whose breathing time series was acquired using respiratory position management (RPM) system. Single step and N-point multi step prediction are performed for sampling rates of 5 Hz and 10 Hz. We compare the employed non-linear prediction methods with respect to prediction accuracy to Adaptive Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) prediction filters. A Local Average Model (LAM) and local linear models (LLMs) combined with a set of linear regularization techniques to solve ill-posed regression problems are implemented. For all sampling frequencies both single step and N-point multi step prediction results obtained using LAM and LLM with regularization methods perform better than IIR prediction filters for the selected sample patients. Moreover, since the simple LAM model performs as well as the more complicated LLM models in our patient sample, its use for non-linear prediction is recommended. PMID:25726478

  9. Obtaining breathing patterns from any sequential thoracic x-ray image set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Anthony; Evans, Philip M.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Webb, Steve

    2009-08-01

    A technique is presented to allow a breathing pattern to be obtained from any multi-slice CT, cone-beam or other series of sequential chest x-ray image sets. The technique requires no extra signals to be recorded and does not need specific external or internal oscillating structures to be visible in the field of view. The breathing pattern is instead acquired from analysing the variation in pixel values between projection images. For cone-beam image sets, slowly varying changes, due to an angular attenuation dependence, must be corrected before the breathing trace analysis can begin. All the results of the new technique were checked visually and were in good agreement. If the studied image set could be analysed using the existing 'Amsterdam shroud' technique, then the results it provided were also used for comparison. In cases that allowed comparison by both techniques, the results were in agreement. The new technique was also shown to provide a usable signal when applied to cardiac motion.

  10. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (p<0.05). The breathing pattern variables, Vt/Ti and Ti/Ttot, did not change significantly over the three year period (ES=0.00; ES=0.03 respectively). These findings suggest that changes in cycling performance in world-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency. PMID:27083403

  11. Vagal-dependent nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, R. R.; Jacono, F. J.; Fishman, M.; Loparo, K. A.; Rybak, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological rhythms, including respiration, exhibit endogenous variability associated with health, and deviations from this are associated with disease. Specific changes in the linear and nonlinear sources of breathing variability have not been investigated. In this study, we used information theory-based techniques, combined with surrogate data testing, to quantify and characterize the vagal-dependent nonlinear pattern variability in urethane-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rats. Surrogate data sets preserved the amplitude distribution and linear correlations of the original data set, but nonlinear correlation structure in the data was removed. Differences in mutual information and sample entropy between original and surrogate data sets indicated the presence of deterministic nonlinear or stochastic non-Gaussian variability. With vagi intact (n = 11), the respiratory cycle exhibited significant nonlinear behavior in templates of points separated by time delays ranging from one sample to one cycle length. After vagotomy (n = 6), even though nonlinear variability was reduced significantly, nonlinear properties were still evident at various time delays. Nonlinear deterministic variability did not change further after subsequent bilateral microinjection of MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in the Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. Reversing the sequence (n = 5), blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors bilaterally in the dorsolateral pons significantly decreased nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern, even with the vagi intact, and subsequent vagotomy did not change nonlinear variability. Thus both vagal and dorsolateral pontine influences contribute to nonlinear respiratory pattern variability. Furthermore, breathing dynamics of the intact system are mutually dependent on vagal and pontine sources of nonlinear complexity. Understanding the structure and modulation of variability provides insight into disease effects on respiratory

  12. Effect of breathing pattern on gas mixing in a model with asymmetrical alveolar ducts.

    PubMed

    Bowes, C L; Richardson, J D; Cumming, G; Horsfield, K

    1985-01-01

    A model of the pulmonary airways was used to study three single-breath indices of gas mixing, dead space (VD), slope of the alveolar plateau, and alveolar mixing inefficiency (AMI). In the model, discrete elements of airway volume were represented by nodes. Using a finite difference technique the differential equation for simultaneous convection and diffusion was solved for the nodal network. Conducting airways and respiratory bronchioles were modeled symmetrically, but alveolar ducts asymmetrically, permitting interaction between convection and diffusion. VD, alveolar slope, and AMI increased with increasing flow. Similar trends were seen with inspired volume, although slope decreased at high inspired volumes with constant flow. VD was affected most by inspiratory flow and AMI and alveolar slope by expiratory time. VD fell approximately exponentially with time of breath holding. Eight different breathing patterns were compared. They had a small effect on alveolar slope and AMI and a greater effect on VD. The model shows how series and parallel inhomogeneity occur together and interact in asymmetrical systems: the old argument as to which is the more important should be abandoned. PMID:3968008

  13. Characterization of free breathing patterns with 5D lung motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tianyu; Lu Wei; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Noel, Camille E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the quiet respiration breathing motion model parameters for lung cancer and nonlung cancer patients. Methods: 49 free breathing patient 4DCT image datasets (25 scans, cine mode) were collected with simultaneous quantitative spirometry. A cross-correlation registration technique was employed to track the lung tissue motion between scans. The registration results were applied to a lung motion model: X-vector=X-vector{sub 0}+{alpha}-vector{beta}-vector f, where X-vector is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position X-vector{sub 0} during a reference breathing phase (zero tidal volume v, zero airflow f). {alpha}-vector is a parameter that characterizes the motion due to air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume v) and {beta}-vector is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation that causes lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow f). The parameters {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector distributions were examined for each patient to determine overall general patterns and interpatient pattern variations. Results: For 44 patients, the greatest values of |{alpha}-vector| were observed in the inferior and posterior lungs. For the rest of the patients, |{alpha}-vector| reached its maximum in the anterior lung in three patients and the lateral lung in two patients. The hysteresis motion {beta}-vector had greater variability, but for the majority of patients, |{beta}-vector| was largest in the lateral lungs. Conclusions: This is the first report of the three-dimensional breathing motion model parameters for a large cohort of patients. The model has the potential for noninvasively predicting lung motion. The majority of patients exhibited similar |{alpha}-vector| maps

  14. Influence of breathing frequency on the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure: old questions revisited.

    PubMed

    Sin, P Y W; Galletly, D C; Tzeng, Y C

    2010-05-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is classically described as a vagally mediated increase and decrease in heart rate concurrent with inspiration and expiration, respectively. However, although breathing frequency is known to alter this temporal relationship, the precise nature of this phase dependency and its relationship to blood pressure remains unclear. In 16 subjects we systematically examined the temporal relationships between respiration, RSA, and blood pressure by graphically portraying cardiac interval (R-R) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variations as a function of the respiratory cycle (pattern analysis), during incremental stepwise paced breathing. The principal findings were 1) the time interval between R-R maximum and expiration onset remained the same ( approximately 2.5-3.0 s) irrespective of breathing frequency (P = 0.10), whereas R-R minimum progressively shifted from expiratory onset into midinspiration with slower breathing (P < 0.0001); 2) there is a clear qualitative distinction between pre- versus postinspiratory cardiac acceleration during slow (0.10 Hz) but not fast (0.20 Hz) breathing; 3) the time interval from inspiration onset to SBP minimum (P = 0.16) and from expiration onset to SBP maximum (P = 0.26) remained unchanged across breathing frequencies; 4) SBP maximum and R-R maximum maintained an unchanged temporal alignment of approximately 1.1 s irrespective of breathing frequency (P = 0.84), whereas the alignment between SBP minimum and R-R minimum was inconstant (P > 0.0001); and 5) beta(1)-adrenergic blockade did not influence the respiration-RSA relationships or distinct RSA patterns observed during slow breathing, suggesting that temporal dependencies associated with alterations in breathing frequency are unrelated to cardiac sympathetic modulation. Collectively, these results illustrate nonlinear respiration-RSA-blood pressure relationships that may yield new insights to the fundamental mechanism of RSA in humans. PMID:20228262

  15. Influence of drive and timing mechanisms on breathing pattern and ventilation during mental task performance.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, C J; Grossman, P; Gaillard, A W

    1998-09-01

    Assessment of multiple respiratory measures may provide insight into how behavioral demands affect the breathing pattern. This is illustrated by data from a study among 44 subjects, in which tidal volume, respiration rate, minute ventilation and indices of central drive and timing mechanisms were assessed via inductive plethysmography, in addition to end-tidal PCO2. After a baseline, three conditions of a memory comparison task were presented. The first two conditions differed only with regard to the presence or absence of feedback of performance (NFB and FB). In the third 'all-or-nothing' (AON) condition, subjects only received a monetary bonus, if their performance exceeded that of the previous two conditions. Minute ventilation increased from baseline to all task conditions, and from NFB and FB to AON. Respiration rate increased in all task conditions, but there were no differences between task conditions. Tidal volume decreased during NFB, but was equal to baseline during FB and AON. Of the respiratory control indices, inspiratory flow rate covaried much more closely with minute ventilation than duty cycle. The task performance induced a minor degree of hyperventilation. The discussion focusses on how behavioral demands affect respiratory control processes to produce alterations in breathing pattern and ventilation. PMID:9792484

  16. Improvement of plastic optical fiber microphone based on moisture pattern sensing in devoiced breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Tomohito; Honma, Satoshi; Morisawa, Masayuki; Muto, Shinzo

    2008-03-01

    Conversation is the most practical and common form in communication. However, people with a verbal handicap feel a difficulty to produce words due to variations in vocal chords. This research leads to develop a new devoiced microphone system based on distinguishes between the moisture patterns for each devoiced breaths, using a plastic optical fiber (POF) moisture sensor. In the experiment, five POF-type moisture sensors with fast response were fabricated by coating swell polymer with a slightly larger refractive index than that of fiber core and were set in front of mouth. When these sensors are exposed into humid air produced by devoiced breath, refractive index in cladding layer decreases by swelling and then the POF sensor heads change to guided type. Based on the above operation principle, the output light intensities from the five sensors set in front of mouth change each other. Using above mentioned output light intensity patterns, discernment of devoiced vowels in Japanese (a,i,u,e,o) was tried by means of DynamicProgramming-Matching (DP-matching) method. As the result, distinction rate over 90% was obtained to Japanese devoiced vowels. Therefore, using this system and a voice synthesizer, development of new microphone for the person with a functional disorder in the vocal chords seems to be possible.

  17. Noise Effects on the Complex Patterns of Abnormal Heartbeats

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Glass, Leon; Goldberger, Ary L.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-08-06

    Patients at high risk for sudden death often exhibit complex heart rhythms in which abnormal heartbeats are interspersed with normal heartbeats. We analyze such a complex rhythm in a single patient over a 12-h period and show that the rhythm can be described by a theoretical model consisting of two interacting oscillators with stochastic elements. By varying the magnitude of the noise, we show that for an intermediate level of noise, the model gives best agreement with key statistical features of the dynamics.

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the supplementary motor area modifies breathing pattern in response to inspiratory loading in normal humans

    PubMed Central

    Nierat, Marie-Cécile; Hudson, Anna L.; Chaskalovic, Joël; Similowski, Thomas; Laviolette, Louis

    2015-01-01

    In awake humans, breathing depends on automatic brainstem pattern generators. It is also heavily influenced by cortical networks. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalographic data show that the supplementary motor area becomes active when breathing is made difficult by inspiratory mechanical loads like resistances or threshold valves, which is associated with perceived respiratory discomfort. We hypothesized that manipulating the excitability of the supplementary motor area with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation would modify the breathing pattern response to an experimental inspiratory load and possibly respiratory discomfort. Seven subjects (three men, age 25 ± 4) were studied. Breathing pattern and respiratory discomfort during inspiratory loading were described before and after conditioning the supplementary motor area with repetitive stimulation, using an excitatory paradigm (5 Hz stimulation), an inhibitory paradigm, or sham stimulation. No significant change in breathing pattern during loading was observed after sham conditioning. Excitatory conditioning shortened inspiratory time (p = 0.001), decreased tidal volume (p = 0.016), and decreased ventilation (p = 0.003), as corroborated by an increased end-tidal expired carbon dioxide (p = 0.013). Inhibitory conditioning did not affect ventilation, but lengthened expiratory time (p = 0.031). Respiratory discomfort was mild under baseline conditions, and unchanged after conditioning of the supplementary motor area. This is the first study to show that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation conditioning of the cerebral cortex can alter breathing pattern. A 5 Hz conditioning protocol, known to enhance corticophrenic excitability, can reduce the amount of hyperventilation induced by inspiratory threshold loading. Further studies are needed to determine whether and under what circumstances rTMS can have an effect on dyspnoea. PMID:26483701

  19. Breathing pattern--gas exchange relation and acute effect of almitrine in severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Damato, S; Bellone, A; Castelli, T; Mendoza, M; Daniele, R

    1988-01-01

    Using a double-blind cross-over design, a single oral dose of 100 mg almitrine bismethylate and placebo were administered to 7 patients with chronic airflow limitation. In all patients, arterial blood gases at rest, ventilation and breathing pattern at rest and on exercise were measured before and 3 h after administration. Ventilation increased and PaCO2 decreased after almitrine; the mean PaO2 increase was statistically significant after active drug but the value increased more when tidal volume increased. It is concluded that in man the well-documented improvement in the V/Q relationship after almitrine is in part related to a pure ventilatory effect though the possibility of increasing ventilation by mainly increasing tidal volume. PMID:2907669

  20. Chemical activation of caudal medullary expiratory neurones alters the pattern of breathing in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, F; Corda, M; Fontana, G A; Pantaleo, T

    1994-02-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to ascertain whether the activation of caudal expiratory neurones located in the caudal part of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) may affect the pattern of breathing via medullary axon collaterals. 2. We used microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) to activate this population of neurones in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. Both phrenic and abdominal nerve activities were monitored; extracellular recordings from medullary and upper cervical cord respiratory neurones were performed. 3. DLH (160 mM) microinjected (10-30 nl for a total of 1.6-4.8 nmol) into the caudal VRG, into sites where expiratory activity was encountered, provoked an intense and sustained activation of the expiratory motor output associated with a corresponding period of silence in phrenic nerve activity. During the progressive decline of the activation of abdominal motoneurones, rhythmic inspiratory activity resumed, displaying a decrease in frequency and a marked reduction or the complete suppression of postinspiratory activity as its most consistent features. 4. Medullary and upper cervical cord inspiratory neurones exhibited inhibitory responses consistent with those observed in phrenic nerve activity, while expiratory neurones in the caudal VRG on the side contralateral to the injection showed excitation patterns similar to those of abdominal motoneurones. On the other hand, in correspondence to expiratory motor output activation, expiratory neurones of the Bötzinger complex displayed tonic discharges whose intensity was markedly lower than the peak level of control breaths. 5. Bilateral lignocaine blockades of neural transmission at C2-C3 affecting the expiratory and, to a varying extent, the inspiratory bulbospinal pathways as well as spinal cord transections at C2-C3 or C1-C2, did not suppress the inhibitory effect on inspiratory neurones of either the ipsi- or contralateral VRG in response to DLH

  1. Fabrication of robust micro-patterned polymeric films via static breath-figure process and vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhong, Yawen; Gong, Jianliang; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Ma, Zhi

    2011-02-15

    Here, we present the preparation of thermally stable and solvent resistant micro-patterned polymeric films via static breath-figure process and sequent vulcanization, with a commercially available triblock polymer, polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (SIS). The vulcanized honeycomb structured SIS films became self-supported and resistant to a wide range of organic solvents and thermally stable up to 350°C for 2h, an increase of more than 300K as compared to the uncross-linked films. This superior robustness could be attributed to the high degree of polyisoprene cross-linking. The versatility of the methodology was demonstrated by applying to another commercially available triblock polymer, polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene (SBS). Particularly, hydroxy groups were introduced into SBS by hydroboration. The functionalized two-dimensional micro-patterns feasible for site-directed grafting were created by the hydroxyl-containing polymers. In addition, the fixed microporous structures could be replicated to fabricate textured positive PDMS stamps. This simple technique offers new prospects in the field of micro-patterns, soft lithography and templates. PMID:21168143

  2. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  3. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  4. Hydrogel Inverse Replicas of Breath Figures Exhibit Superoleophobicity Due to Patterned Surface Roughness.

    PubMed

    Arora, Jaspreet Singh; Cremaldi, Joseph C; Holleran, Mary Kathleen; Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam; He, Jibao; Pesika, Noshir S; John, Vijay T

    2016-02-01

    The wetting behavior of a surface depends on both its surface chemistry and the characteristics of surface morphology and topography. Adding structure to a flat hydrophobic or oleophobic surface increases the effective contact angle and thus the hydrophobicity or oleophobicity of the surface, as exemplified by the lotus leaf analogy. We describe a simple strategy to introduce micropatterned roughness on surfaces of soft materials, utilizing the template of hexagonally packed pores of breath figures as molds. The generated inverse replicas represent micron scale patterned beadlike protrusions on hydrogel surfaces. This added roughness imparts superoleophobic properties (contact angle of the order of 150° and greater) to an inherently oleophobic flat hydrogel surface, when submerged. The introduced pattern on the hydrogel surface changes morphology as it swells in water to resemble morphologies remarkably analogous to the compound eye. Analysis of the wetting behavior using the Cassie-Baxter approximation leads to estimation of the contact angle in the superoleophobic regime and in agreement with the experimental value. PMID:26752016

  5. Migration history of air-breathing fishes reveals Neogene atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, M.

    2004-05-01

    The migration history of an air-breathing fish group (Channidae; snakehead fishes) is used for reconstructing Neogene Eurasian precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. The study shows that snakeheads are sensitive indicators of summer precipitation maxima in subtropical and temperate regions, and are present regularly if the wettest month exceeds 150 mm precipitation and 20 °C mean temperature. The analysis of 515 fossil freshwater fish deposits of the past 50 m.y. from Africa and Eurasia shows two continental-scale migration events from the snakeheads' center of origin in the south Himalayan region, events that can be related to changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation pattern. The first migration, ca. 17.5 Ma, into western and central Eurasia may have been caused by a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone that brought western Eurasia under the influence of trade winds that produced a zonal and meridional precipitation gradient in Europe. During the second migration, between 8 and 4 Ma, into Africa and East Asia, snakeheads reached their present-day distribution. This migration could have been related to the intensification of the Asian monsoon that brought summer precipitation to their migratory pathways in East Africa Arabia and East Asia.

  6. Heat distribution over normal and abnormal joints: thermal pattern and quantification.

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, R S; Parr, G; De Silva, M; Hazleman, B L; Page-Thomas, D P

    1983-01-01

    We have identified regular thermal patterns over normal knee, ankle, and elbow joints and demonstrate how synovitis affecting these joints may be identified by alteration or loss of the thermal pattern. Sixty healthy volunteers were thermographed on a total of 190 occasions, and 614 out of 618 joints conformed to the normal thermal pattern. Eighty-five patients with synovitis of at least one of the specified joints were thermographed on a total of 339 occasions, and 322 out of 1362 thermograms were abnormal. No joint with clinical evidence of synovitis had a normal thermal pattern. As temperature-based parameters have been found to show marked diurnal variation and relative frequency distributions do not have this drawback, we suggest that quantification of synovitis by thermography should in future be based on abnormalities of thermal pattern rather than absolute skin temperature values. PMID:6684900

  7. Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.

    PubMed

    Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

    2000-01-01

    The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers. PMID:10607536

  8. Characterization of Sleep Breathing Pattern in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Sweet Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecube, Albert; Sampol, Gabriel; Hernández, Cristina; Romero, Odile; Ciudin, Andreea; Simó, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132) or not (n = 264) of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2–114.0) vs. 25.6 (10.2–123.4) events/hours; p = 0.002). When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1–87.7) vs. 6.3 (0.0–105.6) e/h; p = 0.044), as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0–97.0) vs. 7.9 (0.0–95.6) %; <0.001)], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0–21.0) vs. 5.0 (0.0–21.0); p = 0.006)] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217), the apnea index (R2 = 0.194), CT90 (R2 = 0.222), and desaturation events. Conclusions/significance T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar. PMID:25760760

  9. Effect of tubing deposition, breathing pattern, and temperature on aerosol mass distribution measured by cascade impactor.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Burak K; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols produced by nebulizers are often characterized on the bench using cascade impactors. We studied the effects of connecting tubing, breathing pattern, and temperature on mass-weighted aerodynamic particle size aerosol distributions (APSD) measured by cascade impaction. Our experimental setup consisted of a piston ventilator, low-flow (1.0 L/min) cascade impactor, two commercially available nebulizers that produced large and small particles, and two "T"-shaped tubes called "Tconnector(cascade)" and "Tconnector(nebulizer)" placed above the impactor and the nebulizer, respectively. Radiolabeled normal saline was nebulized using an airtank at 50 PSIG; APSD, mass balance, and Tconnector(cascade) deposition were measured with a gamma camera and radioisotope calibrator. Flow through the circuit was defined by the air tank (standing cloud, 10 L/min) with or without a piston pump, which superimposed a sinusoidal flow on the flow from the air tank (tidal volume and frequency of breathing). Experiments were performed at room temperature and in a cooled environment. With increasing tidal volume and frequency, smaller particles entered the cascade impactor (decreasing MMAD; e.g., Misty-Neb, 4.2 +/- 0.9 microm at lowest ventilation and 2.7 +/- 0.1 microm at highest, p = 0.042). These effects were reduced in magnitude for the nebulizer that produced smaller particles (AeroTech II, MMAD 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microm; p = 0.0044). Deposition on Tconnector(cascade) increased with ventilation but was independent of cascade impactor flow. Imaging of the Tconnector(cascade) revealed a pattern of deposition unaffected by cascade impactor flow. These measurements suggest that changes in MMAD with ventilation were not artifacts of tubing deposition in the Tconnector(cascade). At lower temperatures, APSD distributions were more polydisperse. Our data suggest that, during patient inhalation, changes in particle distribution occur that are related to conditions in the tubing and

  10. Pattern of electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with hydrocephalus: a study of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Sulaiman, A A; Ismail, H M

    1998-03-01

    The pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities was studied in 68 patients (41 male, 27 female, age range 1 month to 17 years) with hydrocephalus. They all had standardized EEG recordings, which were read by the same electroencephalographer. In 48 children the EEG was performed after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The EEG abnormalities in the shunted group included slow waves in 26 patients [focal 2 (4.2%), generalized asynchronous 22 (45.8%), generalized synchronous 2 (4.2%)]; amplitude abnormalities in 2 (focal 1, generalized 1); epileptiform activity in 26 [partial 11 (22.9%), generalized 15 (31.3%)] and hypsarrhythmia in 4 (8.3%). Only 4 (8.3%) traces were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 92%. In the unshunted group generalized asynchronous slow waves were found in 12 patients (60%), generalized amplitude abnormality in 1, focal epileptiform activity in 3 (15%), and generalized epileptiform activity in 6 (30%); 2 tracings in this group were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 90%. Hydrocephalus in children, regardless of the cause, may be associated with generalized or focal EEG abnormalities. This may reflect the heterogeneity of the neural generator in the underlying disease process. PMID:9579868

  11. Abnormal Patterns of Tongue-Palate Contact in the Speech of Individuals with Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with cleft palate, even those with adequate velopharyngeal function, are at high risk for disordered lingual articulation. This article attempts to summarize current knowledge of abnormal tongue-palate contact patterns derived from electropalatographic (EPG) data in speakers with cleft palate. These data, which have been reported in 23…

  12. Transparent self-cleaning lubricant-infused surfaces made with large-area breath figure patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Liwen; Ran, Tong; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nepenthes pitcher inspired slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces greatly impact the understanding of liquid-repellent surfaces construction and have attracted extensive attention in recent years due to their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-fouling, anti-icing, etc. In this work, we have successfully fabricated transparent slippery lubricant-infused surfaces based on breath figure patterns (BFPs). Large-area BFPs with interconnected pores were initially formed on the glass substrate and then a suitable lubricant was added onto the surfaces. The interconnected pores in BFPs were able to hold the lubricant liquid in place and form a stable liquid/solid composite surface capable of repelling a variety of liquids. The liquid-repellent surfaces show extremely low critical sliding angles for various liquids, thus providing the surfaces with efficient self-cleaning property. It was also found that the liquid droplets' sliding behaviors on the surfaces were significantly influenced by the tilting angle of the substrate, liquid volume, liquid chemical properties, and pore sizes of the surfaces.

  13. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Hasan, Muhammad; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Allan, David; Fraser, Matthew; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Conway, Bernie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:25221505

  14. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  15. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  16. SU-E-J-227: Breathing Pattern Consistency and Reproducibility: Comparative Analysis for Supine and Prone Body Positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Laugeman, E; Weiss, E; Chen, S; Hugo, G; Rosu, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of breathing patterns and their reproducibility over the course of treatment, for supine and prone positioning. Methods: Respiratory traces from 25 patients were recorded for sequential supine/prone 4DCT scans acquired prior to treatment, and during the course of the treatment (weekly or bi-weekly). For each breathing cycle, the average(AVE), end-of-exhale(EoE) and end-of-inhale( EoI) locations were identified using in-house developed software. In addition, the mean values and variations for the above quantities were computed for each breathing trace. F-tests were used to compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of all pairs of sequential supine and prone scans. Analysis of variances was also performed using population means for AVE, EoE and EoI to quantify differences between the reproducibility of prone and supine respiration traces over the treatment course. Results: Consistency: Cycle-to-cycle variations are less in prone than supine in the pre-treatment and during-treatment scans for AVE, EoE and EoI points, for the majority of patients (differences significant at p<0.05). The few cases where the respiratory pattern had more variability in prone appeared to be random events. Reproducibility: The reproducibility of breathing patterns (supine and prone) improved as treatment progressed, perhaps due to patients becoming more comfortable with the procedure. However, variability in supine position continued to remain significantly larger than in prone (p<0.05), as indicated by the variance analysis of population means for the pretreatment and subsequent during-treatment scans. Conclusions: Prone positioning stabilizes breathing patterns in most subjects investigated in this study. Importantly, a parallel analysis of the same group of patients revealed a tendency towards increasing motion amplitude of tumor targets in prone position regardless of their size or location; thus, the choice for body positioning

  17. Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

  18. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Breathing Patterns for Respiratory-Gated Radiation Therapy Using Respiration Regularity Index

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, K; Lee, M; Kang, S; Yoon, J; Park, S; Hwang, T; Kim, H; Kim, K; Han, T; Bae, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, an effective and simply applicable method has rarely been reported. The authors propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. Methods: In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a power of cosine form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: sample standard deviation of respiration period, sample standard deviation of amplitude and the results of simple regression of the baseline drift (slope and standard deviation of residuals of a respiration signal. Overall irregularity (δ) was defined as a Euclidean norm of newly derived variable using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters. Finally, the proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ=ln(1+(1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. Subsequently, we applied it to simulated and clinical respiration signals from real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and investigated respiration regularity. Moreover, correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ<0.3 showed worse regularity than the others, whereas ρ>0.7 was suitable for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). Fluctuations in breathing cycle and amplitude were especially determinative of ρ. If the respiration regularity of a patient's first session was known, it could be estimated through subsequent sessions. Conclusions: Respiration regularity could be objectively determined using a respiration

  19. Detection of abnormal living patterns for elderly living alone using support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone. PMID:21317086

  20. A forward genetic screen in mice identifies mutants with abnormal cortical patterning.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W; Furley, Andrew J; Beier, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain. PMID:23968836

  1. Teachers' knowledge of normal and abnormal elimination patterns in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Boyt, Margaret A

    2005-12-01

    Dysfunctional elimination may be learned, to some degree. Because children spend nearly half of their waking hours at school, there is the potential for school to have a significant impact on their elimination patterns. Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers; 467 of the surveys were returned. Findings indicate that most elementary school teachers are unaware of the potential health problems of elimination dysfunction. One third of respondents indicated that they ask children to wait to go to the bathroom. Suboptimal conditions exist in most of the school bathrooms, with only 35% of the boys' restrooms and 48% of the girls' restrooms reported as "always clean." Those teachers with more experience were more likely to report information about abnormal elimination to the school nurse. Very few teachers (18% of respondents) reported having received information about abnormal elimination and even fewer (8% of respondents) were aware of specialists trained to treat children with these problems. School nurses can have a significant impact on the development of healthy bladder habits in children. Teachers need information about normal and abnormal elimination patterns in children. PMID:16285844

  2. Inter-individual differences in breathing pattern at high levels of incremental cycling exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gravier, Gilles; Delliaux, Stephane; Delpierre, Stephane; Guieu, Regis; Jammes, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Interindividual differences in the rate of changes in tidal volume (V(T)) and respiratory frequency (f(R)) were examined during a maximal incremental cycling exercise. The gain of the inspiratory off-switch reflex was inferred from the V(T) vs. inspiratory duration (T(i)) relationship. Some subjects also executed a static handgrip exercise, used as a "non-dynamic" exercise trial to study patterning of breathing. Above the ventilatory threshold (V(Th)), two patterns of response were identified: in group 1, the rate of change in V(T) significantly increased, while in group 2 the breakpoint of ventilation solely resulted from f(R) increase. After the respiratory compensation point, a tachypnoeic response always occurred. A leftward shift of the V(T) vs. Ti relationship, i.e., an inspiratory off-switch reflex, was measured during the handgrip in group 2 subjects as well as marked f(R) variations. Our study identifies two different patterns of breathing after the V(Th). The subjects who present a tachypnoeic response to exercise above the V(Th) have a higher sensitivity to pulmonary inflation and their tachypnoeic response was ubiquitous during a maximal handgrip test. PMID:23832014

  3. The fictively breathing tadpole brainstem preparation as a model for the development of respiratory pattern generation and central chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Gdovin, M J; Torgerson, C S; Remmers, J E

    1999-11-01

    Spontaneous high-frequency, low-amplitude and low-frequency, high-amplitude efferent bursting patterns of cranial and spinal motor nerve activity in the in vitro brainstem preparation of the bullfrog tadpole Rana catesbeiana have been characterized as fictive gill and lung ventilation, respectively (Gdovin MJ, Torgerson CS, Remmers JE). Characterization of gill and lung ventilatory activity in cranial nerves in the spontaneously breathing tadpole Rana catesbeiana, FASEB J 1996;10(3):A642; Gdovin MJ, Torgerson CS, Remmers JE. Neurorespiratory pattern of gill and lung ventilation in the decerebrate spontaneously breathing tadpole, Respir Physiol 1998;113:135 146; Pack AI, Galante RJ, Walker RE, Kubin LK, Fishman AP. Comparative approach to neural control of respiration, In: Speck DF, Dekin MS, Revelette WR, Frazier DT, editors. Respiratory Control Central and Peripheral Mechanisms. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1993:52-57). In addition, the ontogenetic dependence of central respiratory chemoreceptor stimulation on fictive gill and lung ventilation has been previously described (Torgerson CS, Gdovin MJ, Remmers JE. Fictive gill and lung ventilation in the pre- and post-metamorphic tadpole brainstem, J Neurophysiol 1998, in press). To investigate the neural substrates responsible for central respiratory rhythm generation of gill and lung ventilation in the developing tadpole, we recorded efferent activities of cranial nerve (CN) V, VII, and X and spinal nerve (SN) II during changes in superfusate PCO2 before and after multiple transection of the in vitro brainstem. The brainstem was transected between CN VIII and IX and the response to changes in PCO2 was recorded. A second transection was then made between the caudal margin of CN X and rostral to SN II. Preliminary data reveal that robust gill ventilation was recorded consistently only if the segment of brainstem included CN X, whereas the loci capable of eliciting fictive lung bursting patterns appeared to

  4. Differentiation of abnormal blood flow patterns in coronary arteries based on Doppler catheter recordings.

    PubMed

    Denardo, S J; Yock, P G; Hargrave, V K; Srebro, J P; Ports, T A; Talbot, L

    1991-09-01

    Abnormal arterial blood flow patterns have been implicated as etiologic factors in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Intravascular pulsed Doppler ultrasound techniques with fast-Fourier transform analysis offer the opportunity to measure these abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that statistical analysis of radial-directed beam spectra could be used to distinguish disturbed from non-disturbed flow and that analysis of conventional axial-directed beam spectra could then be used to distinguish laminar high-shear from laminar low-shear flow. They developed a scaled-up in-vitro model of coronary flow consisting of a glycerol/H2O test fluid flowing through an acrylic cylinder at Reynolds numbers spanning the typical physiologic range within the coronary arteries. A scaled-up Doppler catheter with the capacity for 90 degrees reflection of the beam was placed centrally. Disturbed flow was created by introducing a flow screen, and altered shear rates were produced by changing the Reynolds number. For the radial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the disturbed flow states were significantly greater than for the nondisturbed flow states (p less than 0.01). For the axial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the laminar high-shear flow states were significantly greater than for the laminar low-shear flow states (p less than 0.01). They conclude that abnormal blood flow patterns can be differentiated by the selective use of radial-directed and axial-directed Doppler catheter recordings. PMID:1928812

  5. Specific patterns of chromosomal abnormalities are associated with RER status in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L J; Georgiades, I B; White, S; Bird, C C; Harrison, D J; Wyllie, A H

    2000-12-01

    Current opinion of the genetic events driving colorectal tumourigenesis focuses on genomic instability. At least two apparently independent mechanisms are recognized, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability. The genetic defects underlying each type of instability are only partially understood and controversy remains as to the role of p53 in the generation of chromosomal defects in colorectal cancer. This study sought to clarify the relationships between chromosomal abnormalities and defects of both p53 and mismatch repair. Extensive chromosomal analysis was undertaken, using flow cytometry and comparative genomic hybridization, of a series of sporadic colorectal cancers which had been grown to early passage as subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice. Overall levels of chromosomal defects were observed to be low in RER+ cancers compared with RER- and distinctive patterns of chromosomal anomalies were found to be associated with both the RER+ and RER- phenotype. No particular level or pattern of chromosomal anomalies appeared to be associated with p53 status, supporting recent observations that abnormal p53 function is not sufficient to cause chromosomal anomalies in colorectal tumours. PMID:11113860

  6. Diving and foraging patterns of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus): Testing predictions from optimal-breathing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Collopy, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The diving behavior of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was studied using telemetry along the Oregon coast during the 1995 and 1996 breeding seasons and examined in relation to predictions from optimal-breathing models. Duration of dives, pauses, dive bouts, time spent under water during dive bouts, and nondiving intervals between successive dive bouts were recorded. Most diving metrics differed between years but not with oceanographic conditions or shore type. There was no effect of water depth on mean dive time or percent time spent under water even though dive bouts occurred in depths from 3 to 36 m. There was a significant, positive relationship between mean dive time and mean pause time at the dive-bout scale each year. At the dive-cycle scale, there was a significant positive relationship between dive time and preceding pause time in each year and a significant positive relationship between dive time and ensuing pause time in 1996. Although it appears that aerobic diving was the norm, there appeared to be an increase in anaerobic diving in 1996. The diving performance of Marbled Murrelets in this study appeared to be affected by annual changes in environmental conditions and prey resources but did not consistently fit predictions from optimal-breathing models.

  7. Breathing pattern and ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day old Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in relation to its metabolic demands.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adult birds have a ventilatory equivalent (pulmonary ventilation-oxygen consumption ratio, V˙ E/ [Formula: see text] ) lower than mammals because of the superior gas exchange efficiency of their respiratory apparatus. In particular, adult Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) have been reported to have an extraordinary low ventilatory equivalent (~14mL STPD·mL BTPS(-1)). We asked if similar high efficiency was already apparent in duck hatchlings. Breathing pattern and V˙E were measured by the barometric technique and [Formula: see text] by an open-flow methodology in 1-day old Muscovy duck hatchlings (N=21); same measurements were performed on chicken hatchlings (N=21) for purpose of comparison. During air breathing V˙E/ [Formula: see text] was slightly, yet significantly, lower in ducklings (20.8) than in chicks (25.3), mostly because of a lower breathing frequency (f). The hatchlings of both species (N=14 per group) responded to inspired hypoxia (15 or 10% O2) or hypercapnia (2 or 4% CO2) with a clear hyperventilation; however, in ducklings the hypercapnic hyperventilation was smaller than in chicks because of a smaller increase in tidal volume and lower f. We conclude that duck and chicken hatchlings just a few hours old have the high ventilatory efficiency typical of birds, although possibly not as high as their adults. The low f and blunted V˙E response to hypercapnia of the newborn duck could be related to the aquatic habitat of the species. In such a case, it would mean that these characteristics are genetic traits, the phenotypic expression of which does not require diving experience. PMID:24055760

  8. Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2012-04-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O₃, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363 ± 66 μg/m³ P+MSHA and 212 ± 95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  9. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 μg/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 μg/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  10. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  11. Comparison of craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position with different breathing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position between mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) patients. Methods Mouth breathing patients comprised 34 skeletal Class I subjects with a mean age of 12.8 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–15.2 years). Thirty-two subjects with skeletal Class I relationship were included in the NB group (mean 13.5 ± 1.3 years; range: 12.2–14.8 years). Twenty-seven measurements (15 angular and 12 linear) were used for the craniofacial analysis. Additionally, 12 measurements were evaluated for head posture (eight measurements) and hyoid bone position (four measurements). Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Probability values <0.05 were accepted as significant. Results Statistical comparisons showed that sagittal measurements including SNA (p < 0.01), ANB (p < 0.01), A to N perp (p < 0.05), convexity (p < 0.05), IMPA (p < 0.05) and overbite (p < 0.05) measurements were found to be lower in MB patients compared to NB. Vertical measurements including SN-MP (p < 0.01) and PP-GoGn (p < 0.01), S-N (p <0.05) and anterior facial height (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in MB patients, while the odontoid proses and palatal plane angle (OPT-PP) was greater and true vertical line and palatal plane angle (Vert-PP) was smaller in MB patients compared to NB group (p < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were found regarding the hyoid bone position between both groups. Conclusions The maxilla was more retrognathic in MB patients. Additionally, the palatal plane had a posterior rotation in MB patients. However, no significant differences were found in the hyoid bone position between MB and NB patients. PMID:23960542

  12. Individuality of breathing patterns in patients under noninvasive mechanical ventilation evidenced by chaotic global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letellier, Christophe; Rodrigues, Giovani G.; Muir, Jean-François; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous global models based on radial basis functions were obtained from data measured from patients under noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Some of these models, which are discussed in the paper, turn out to have chaotic or quasi-periodic solutions, thus providing a first piece of evidence that the underlying dynamics of the data used to estimate the global models are likely to be chaotic or, at least, have a chaotic component. It is explicitly shown that one of such global models produces attractors characterized by a Horseshoe map, two models produce toroidal chaos, and one model produces a quasi-periodic regime. These topologically inequivalent attractors evidence the individuality of breathing profiles observed in patient under noninvasive ventilation.

  13. Abnormal methylation pattern in constitutive and facultative heterochromatin of ICF patients

    SciTech Connect

    Miniou, P.; Blanquet, V.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.

    1994-09-01

    ICF syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by variable immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial abnormalities. Stretchings and frequent associations of centromeric or juxtacentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and 16 principally, and to a lesser degree, chromosome 9 mimic chromosome features of normal PHA-stimulated lymphocytes treated with 5-azacytidine, an inducer of demethylation. In fact, in these patients we have detected by DNA digestion with methyl-sensitive enzymes a hypomethylation of classical satellites 2 and 3, located in heterochromatin. To assess the role of other satellite DNA in the heterochromatin modifications and chromosome rearrangements, in situ fluorescent method using 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) monoclonal antibody on chromosomes and nuclei were performed in parallel with Southern blot analysis of other satellite sequences located in heterochromatin. 5-MeC reveals that constitutive and facultative heterochromatin (X inactive chromosome) are hypomethylated. Alpha satellite sequences corresponding to centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, 18 and X are mostly methylated in patients G and R, and are undermethylated in patient S. Both molecular and cytogenetic analysis are in agreement. By in situ hybridization, breakpoints of rearranged chromosomes were located in stretched and hypomethylated classical satellites. In euchromatin, 5-MeC antibodies reveal an R-like banding pattern indicating an unequal distribution of DNA methylation, disclosing another aspect of chromosome organization. The underlying hypomethylation, associated with an abnormal chromatin structure, may predispose to chromosome instability.

  14. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588

  15. It Takes a Mouth to Eat and a Nose to Breathe: Abnormal Oral Respiration Affects Neonates' Oral Competence and Systemic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Trabalon, Marie; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian, including human, neonates are considered to be obligate nose breathers. When constrained to breathe through their mouth in response to obstructed or closed nasal passages, the effects are pervasive and profound, and sometimes last into adulthood. The present paper briefly surveys neonates' and infants' responses to this atypical mobilisation of the mouth for breathing and focuses on comparisons between human newborns and infants and the neonatal rat model. We present the effects of forced oral breathing on neonatal rats induced by experimental nasal obstruction. We assessed the multilevel consequences on physiological, structural, and behavioural variables, both during and after the obstruction episode. The effects of the compensatory mobilisation of oral resources for breathing are discussed in the light of the adaptive development of oromotor functions. PMID:22811731

  16. Dysfunctional breathing: a review of the literature and proposal for classification.

    PubMed

    Boulding, Richard; Stacey, Rebecca; Niven, Rob; Fowler, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is a term describing breathing disorders where chronic changes in breathing pattern result in dyspnoea and other symptoms in the absence or in excess of the magnitude of physiological respiratory or cardiac disease. We reviewed the literature and propose a classification system for the common dysfunctional breathing patterns described. The literature was searched using the terms: dysfunctional breathing, hyperventilation, Nijmegen questionnaire and thoraco-abdominal asynchrony. We have summarised the presentation, assessment and treatment of dysfunctional breathing, and propose that the following system be used for classification. 1) Hyperventilation syndrome: associated with symptoms both related to respiratory alkalosis and independent of hypocapnia. 2) Periodic deep sighing: frequent sighing with an irregular breathing pattern. 3) Thoracic dominant breathing: can often manifest in somatic disease, if occurring without disease it may be considered dysfunctional and results in dyspnoea. 4) Forced abdominal expiration: these patients utilise inappropriate and excessive abdominal muscle contraction to aid expiration. 5) Thoraco-abdominal asynchrony: where there is delay between rib cage and abdominal contraction resulting in ineffective breathing mechanics.This review highlights the common abnormalities, current diagnostic methods and therapeutic implications in dysfunctional breathing. Future work should aim to further investigate the prevalence, clinical associations and treatment of these presentations. PMID:27581828

  17. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  18. A Nano-Thin Film-Based Prototype QCM Sensor Array for Monitoring Human Breath and Respiratory Patterns.

    PubMed

    Selyanchyn, Roman; Wakamatsu, Shunichi; Hayashi, Kenshi; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array was developed for multi-purpose human respiration assessment. The sensor system was designed to provide feedback for human respiration. Thorough optimization of measurement conditions: air flow, temperature in the QCM chamber, frequency measurement rate, and electrode position regarding to the gas flow-was performed. As shown, acquisition of respiratory parameters (rate and respiratory pattern) could be achieved even with a single electrode used in the system. The prototype system contains eight available QCM channels that can be potentially used for selective responses to certain breath chemicals. At present, the prototype machine is ready for the assessment of respiratory functions in larger populations in order to gain statistical validation. To the best of our knowledge, the developed prototype is the only respiratory assessment system based on surface modified QCM sensors. PMID:26263994

  19. Normal breathing pattern and arterial blood gases in awake and sleeping goats after near total destruction of the presumed pre-Bötzinger complex and the surrounding region

    PubMed Central

    Krause, K. L.; Forster, H. V.; Kiner, T.; Davis, S. E.; Bonis, J. M.; Qian, B.; Pan, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Abrupt neurotoxic destruction of >70% of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC) in awake goats results in respiratory and cardiac failure (Wenninger JM, Pan LG, Klum L, Leekley T, Bastastic J, Hodges MR, Feroah TR, Davis S, Forster HV. J Appl Physiol 97: 1629–1636, 2004). However, in reduced preparations, rhythmic respiratory activity has been found in other areas of the brain stem (Huang Q, St. John WM. J Appl Physiol 64: 1405–1411, 1988; Janczewski WA, Feldman JL. J Physiol 570: 407–420, 2006; Lieske SP, Thoby-Brisson M, Telgkamo P, Ramierz JM. Nature Neurosci 3: 600–607, 2000; St. John WM, Bledsoe TA. J Appl Physiol 59: 684–690, 1985); thus we hypothesized that, when the preBötzC is destroyed incrementally over weeks, time-dependent plasticity within the respiratory network will result in a respiratory rhythm capable of maintaining normal blood gases. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of seven goats. After recovery from surgery, studies were completed to establish baseline values for respiratory parameters. At weekly intervals, increasing volumes (in order 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μl) of ibotenic acid (IA; 50 mM) were then injected into the preBötzC. All IA injections resulted in an acute tachypnea and dysrhythmia featuring augmented breaths, apneas, and increased breath-to-breath variation in breathing. In studies at night, apneas were nearly all central and occurred in the awake state. Breath-to-breath variation in breathing was greater (P < 0.05) during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, one week after the final IA injection, the breathing pattern, breath-to-breath variation, and arterial blood gases and pH were unchanged from baseline, but there was a 20% decrease in respiratory frequency (f) and CO2 sensitivity (P < 0.05), as well as a 40% decrease in the ventilatory response to hypoxia (P < 0.001). In subsequent histological analysis of the presumed preBötzC region of lesioned goats, it

  20. A Novel Method to Make Breath Figure Patterns by Spin Coating under Dry Environment: One-step Preparation of Porous Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Soo; Kim, Jin Kon

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a novel method for fabricating breath figure patterns on a homopolymer film by spin coating of polymer solutions with various solvents. The homopolymers employed in this study were cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), mono-carboxylated end-functional polystyrene (PS-mCOOH) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Breath figure patterns were generated even when a water-miscible solvent such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) was used as a solvent. We even succeeded in generating breath figure patterns by spin coating even under a dry environment (relative humidity less than 30 With the combination of the spin coating method, pores with few hundreds nanometers to several micrometers have been generated. We found that the pore size becomes larger with increasing water content in THF solution and decreasing rotating speed. This is equivalent to increasing humidity and decreasing evaporation speed, respectively, in the conventional method, direct solvent evaporation under a humid environment. Thus, compared with the conventional method for making breath figure patterns, this method would be very convenient for fabricating large-scale films with various pore sizes.

  1. Target-flow inspiratory muscle training: breathing patterns and metabolic costs.

    PubMed

    Dekhuijzen, P N; Hopman, M T; Binkhorst, R A; Folgering, H T

    1991-01-01

    In target-flow inspiratory muscle training (TF-IMT), the generated inspiratory mouth pressure and the duration of the inspiration and expiration are standardized to given an adequate training stimulus to the inspiratory muscles. The acute effects of TF-IMT on the efficiency of breathing were studied in a group of 12 COPD patients with a ventilatory limitation of their exercise capacity (mean age 58, mean FEV1 46.2% of predicted) and in 15 normal subjects (mean age 30). Also, the effect of a 10 week period of TF-IMT on the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) in the COPD patients was measured. After an unloaded baseline period, the subjects started to inspire through a target-flow device during 15 min, followed by a recovery phase of 5 min. During TF-IMT minute ventilation (VE) decreased only in the COPD group. The ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2) and the dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) decreased in both groups. During recovery, VE, VE/VO2 and VD/VT remained below baseline values in the COPD group, but not in the control group. PCO2 and lactate concentrations did not change during TF-IMT. After the 10 week training period, PImax [means) (SD] increased from 5.7(2.2) to 8.2(2.7) kPa (p less than 0.05). The results indicate that with standardized TF-IMT, the inspiratory muscles can be trained effectively in COPD patients with a ventilatory limitation. The persistence of the decrease in VE, VE/VO2 and VD/VT after a training session may be an additional beneficial effect of TF-IMT. PMID:1783476

  2. A miniature optical breathing sensor

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

  3. Volumes and Breathing Patterns during Speech in Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Robert G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lung volumes and ventilatory patterns used by 10 healthy and 14 asthmatic subjects during conversation, monologue, and counting at two loudness levels were studied. Asthmatics were found to favor respiratory over communications needs. They used a greater percentage of their reduced vital capacity, with slower inspiratory and faster expiratory flow…

  4. Abnormal Tc-99m-MDP/GA-67 scan patterns in association with active chronic osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.

    1985-05-01

    In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.

  5. Take a deep breath: peptide signalling in stomatal patterning and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lynn G L; Torii, Keiko U

    2013-12-01

    Stomata are pores in the leaf surface that open and close to regulate gas exchange and minimize water loss. In Arabidopsis, a pair of guard cells surrounds each stoma and they are derived from precursors distributed in an organized pattern on the epidermis. Stomatal differentiation follows a well-defined developmental programme, regulated by stomatal lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, and stomata are consistently separated by at least one epidermal cell (referred to as the 'one-cell-spacing rule') to allow for proper opening and closure of the stomatal aperture. Peptide signalling is involved in regulating stomatal differentiation and in enforcing the one-cell-spacing rule. The cysteine-rich peptides EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 1 (EPF1) and EPF2 negatively regulate stomatal differentiation in cells adjacent to stomatal precursors, while STOMAGEN/EPFL9 is expressed in the mesophyll of developing leaves and positively regulates stomatal development. These peptides work co-ordinately with the ERECTA family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases and the LRR receptor-like protein TOO MANY MOUTHS. Recently, specific ligand-receptor pairs were identified that function at two different stages of stomatal development to restrict entry into the stomatal lineage, and later to orient precursor division away from existing stomata. These studies have provided the groundwork to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in cell-cell communication during stomatal development. PMID:23997204

  6. Dosimetric consequences of inter-fraction breathing-pattern variation on radiotherapy with personalized motion-assessed margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, A.; McQuaid, D.; Evans, P.; Webb, S.; Guckenberger, M.

    2011-11-01

    The data from eight patients who had undergone stereotactic body radiotherapy were selected due to their 4D-CT planning scans showing that their tumours had respiratory induced motion trajectories of large amplitude (greater than 9 mm in cranio-caudal direction). Radiotherapy plans with personalized motion-assessed margins were generated for these eight patients. The margins were generated by inverse 4D planning on an eight-bin phase-sorted 4D-CT scan. The planning was done on an in-house software system with a non-rigid registration stage being completed using freely available software. The resultant plans were then recalculated on a 4D-CT scan taken later during the course of treatment. Simulated image-guided patient set-up was used to align the geometric centres of the tumour region and minimize any misalignment between the two reconstructions. In general, the variation in the patient breathing patterns was found to be very small. Consequently, the degradation of the mean dose to the tumour region was found to be around a few percent (<3%) and hence was not a large effect.

  7. [A nonlinear multi-compartment lung model for optimization of breathing airflow pattern].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongming; Gu, Lingyan; Chen, Fuhua

    2015-02-01

    It is difficult to select the appropriate ventilation mode in clinical mechanical ventilation. This paper presents a nonlinear multi-compartment lung model to solve the difficulty. The purpose is to optimize respiratory airflow patterns and get the minimum of the work of inspiratory phrase and lung volume acceleration, minimum of the elastic potential energy and rapidity of airflow rate changes of expiratory phrase. Sigmoidal function is used to smooth the respiratory function of nonlinear equations. The equations are established to solve nonlinear boundary conditions BVP, and finally the problem was solved with gradient descent method. Experimental results showed that lung volume and the rate of airflow after optimization had good sensitivity and convergence speed. The results provide a theoretical basis for the development of multivariable controller monitoring critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:25997262

  8. Efficiency index: a new parameter to define breathing patterns during dynamic Xe-127 ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Slosman, D.; Susskind, H.; Bossuyt, A.; Tang, Y.N.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-03-01

    Ventilation imaging can be improved by gating scintigraphic data with the respiratory cycle using temporal Fourier analysis (TFA) to quantify the temporal behavior of the ventilation. Sixteen consecutive images, representing equal-time increments of an average respiratory cycle, were produced by TFA in the posterior view on a pixel-by-pixel basis. An Efficiency Index (EFF), defined as the ratio of the summation of all the differences between maximum and minimum counts for each pixel to that for the entire lung during the respiratory cycle, was derived to describe the pattern of ventilation. The gated ventilation studies were carried out with Xe-127 in 12 subjects: normal lung function (4), small airway disease (2), COPD (5), and restrictive disease (1). EFF for the first three harmonics correlated linearly with FEV1 (r = 0.701, p< 0.01). This approach is suggested as a very sensitive method to quantify the extent and regional distribution of airway obstruction.

  9. Abnormal Brain Areas Common to the Focal Epilepsies: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy. PMID:26537783

  10. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube) in place. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... kidney failure (can cause breath to smell like ammonia ) Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell associated with ...

  11. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  12. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary disease (COPD), such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema Other lung disease Pneumonia Pulmonary hypertension Problems with ... of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea Images Lungs Emphysema References Kraft M. Approach to the patient with ...

  13. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a potentially life-threatening condition. Breath that smells like feces can occur with prolonged vomiting , especially ... renal failure Bowel obstruction (can cause breath to smell like feces) Bronchiectasis Chronic kidney failure (can cause ...

  14. Classification of abnormal fundus autofluorescence patterns in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy in patients with age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bindewald, A; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Jorzik, J J; Dolar-Szczasny, J; Sieber, H; Keilhauer, C; Weinberger, A W A; Dithmar, S; Pauleikhoff, D; Mansmann, U; Wolf, S; Holz, F G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe and classify patterns of abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age related macular degeneration. Methods: Digital FAF images were recorded in 164 eyes of 107 patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; excitation 488 nm, detection above 500 nm) as part of a prospective multicentre natural history study (FAM Study). FAF images were obtained in accordance with a standardised protocol for digital image acquisition and generation of mean images after automated alignment. Results: Image quality was sufficient for classification of FAF patterns in 149 eyes (90.9%) with lens opacities being the most common reason for insufficient image quality. Abnormal FAF outside GA in 149 eyes was classified into four patterns: focal (12.1%), banded (12.8%), patchy (2.0%), and diffuse (57.0%), whereby 12.1% had normal background FAF in the junctional zone. In 4% there was no predominant pattern. The diffuse pattern was subdivided into four groups including reticular (4.7%), branching (27.5%), fine granular (18.1%), and fine granular with peripheral punctate spots (6.7%). Conclusions: Different phenotypic patterns of abnormal FAF in the junctional zone of GA can be identified with cSLO FAF imaging. These distinct patterns may reflect heterogeneity at a cellular and molecular level in contrast with a non-specific ageing process. A refined phenotypic classification may be helpful to identify prognostic determinants for the spread of atrophy and visual loss, for identification of genetic risk factors as well as for the design of future interventional trials. PMID:15965170

  15. A spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments with a time series of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Cunjin; Song, Wanjiao; Qin, Lijuan; Dong, Qing; Wen, Xiaoyang

    2015-06-01

    A spatiotemporal mining framework is a novel tool for the analysis of marine association patterns using multiple remote sensing images. From data pretreatment, to algorithm design, to association rule mining and pattern visualization, this paper outlines a spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments, including pixel-based and object-based mining models. Within this framework, some key issues are also addressed. In the data pretreatment phase, we propose an algorithm for extracting abnormal objects or pixels over marine surfaces, and construct a mining transaction table with object-based and pixel-based strategies. In the mining algorithm phase, a recursion method to construct a direct association pattern tree is addressed with an asymmetric mutual information table, and a recursive mining algorithm to find frequent items. In the knowledge visualization phase, a "Dimension-Attributes" visualization framework is used to display spatiotemporal association patterns. Finally, spatiotemporal association patterns for marine environmental parameters in the Pacific Ocean are identified, and the results prove the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed mining framework.

  16. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  17. Spreading Photoparoxysmal EEG Response is Associated with an Abnormal Cortical Excitability Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J.; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR…

  18. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  19. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

  20. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580

  1. Dirhythmic breathing.

    PubMed

    Flemister, G; Goldberg, N B; Sharp, J T

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease and recent respiratory failure are described in whom two distinct simultaneous respiratory rhythms were identified, one at 8 to 13 breaths per minute and the other at 39 to 65 per minute. Magnetometer measurements of thoracoabdominal motion together with simultaneous electromyograms of multiple inspiratory muscles suggested that both rhythms were the result of coordinated action of several inspiratory muscles. We suggest that this phenomenon, which we have called dirhythmic breathing, results from the conflicting influence upon respiratory centers and motoneurons of two or more stimuli, some favoring rapid shallow breaths and others slow deep breaths. PMID:7449504

  2. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  3. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    When you're short of breath, it's hard or uncomfortable for you to take in the oxygen your body needs. You may feel as if you're ... stuffy nose or hard exercise. But shortness of breath can also be a sign of a serious ...

  4. Diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities are associated with an altered lipid pattern: protective effects of LXR activation[S

    PubMed Central

    Cermenati, Gaia; Abbiati, Federico; Cermenati, Solei; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Volonterio, Alessandro; Cavaletti, Guido; Saez, Enrique; De Fabiani, Emma; Crestani, Maurizio; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Caruso, Donatella; Mitro, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is characterized by myelin abnormalities; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such deficits remain obscure. To uncover the effects of diabetes on myelin alterations, we have analyzed myelin composition. In a streptozotocin-treated rat model of diabetic neuropathy, analysis of sciatic nerve myelin lipids revealed that diabetes alters myelin's phospholipid, FA, and cholesterol content in a pattern that can modify membrane fluidity. Reduced expression of relevant genes in the FA biosynthetic pathway and decreased levels of the transcriptionally active form of the lipogenic factor sterol-regulatory element binding factor-1c (SREBF-1c) were found in diabetic sciatic nerve. Expression of myelin's major protein, myelin protein zero (P0), was also suppressed by diabetes. In addition, we confirmed that diabetes induces sciatic nerve myelin abnormalities, primarily infoldings that have previously been associated with altered membrane fluidity. In a diabetic setting, synthetic activator of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) increased SREBF-1c function and restored myelin lipid species and P0 expression levels to normal. These LXR-modulated improvements were associated with restored myelin structure in sciatic nerve and enhanced performance in functional tests such as thermal nociceptive threshold and nerve conduction velocity. These findings demonstrate an important role for the LXR-SREBF-1c axis in protection from diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities. PMID:22158827

  5. Impact of scanning parameters and breathing patterns on image quality and accuracy of tumor motion reconstruction in 4D CBCT: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Yan, Guanghua; Lu, Bo; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Sanjiv, Samat S

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional, cone-beam CT (4D CBCT) substantially reduces respiration-induced motion blurring artifacts in three-dimension (3D) CBCT. However, the image quality of 4D CBCT is significantly degraded which may affect its accuracy in localizing a mobile tumor for high-precision, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scanning parameters hereinafter collectively referred to as scanning sequence) and breathing patterns on the image quality and the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for a commercial 4D CBCT system, in preparation for its clinical implementation. We simulated a series of periodic and aperiodic sinusoidal breathing patterns with a respiratory motion phantom. The aperiodic pattern was created by varying the period or amplitude of individual sinusoidal breathing cycles. 4D CBCT scans of the phantom were acquired with a manufacturer-supplied scanning sequence (4D-S-slow) and two in-house modified scanning sequences (4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast). While 4D-S-slow used small field of view (FOV), partial rotation (200°), and no imaging filter, 4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast used medium FOV, full rotation, and the F1 filter. The scanning speed was doubled in 4D-M-fast (100°/min gantry rotation). The image quality of the 4D CBCT scans was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and motion blurring ratio (MBR). The trajectory of the moving target was reconstructed by registering each phase of the 4D CBCT with a reference CT. The root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) analysis was used to quantify its accuracy. Significant decrease in CNR and SNR from 3D CBCT to 4D CBCT was observed. The 4D-S-slow and 4D-M-fast scans had comparable image quality, while the 4D-M-slow scans had better performance due to doubled projections. Both CNR and SNR decreased slightly as the breathing period increased, while no dependence on the amplitude was observed. The difference of both CNR and SNR

  6. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D.; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Chen, Jiayu; Patel, Veena; Liu, Jingyu; Segall, Judith; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Fisher, Simon E.; Fernandez, Guillen; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Potkin, Steven; Ford, Judith; Mathalon, Daniel; McEwen, Sarah; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mueller, Bryon A.; Greve, Douglas N.; Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Gollub, Randy L.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Pearlson, Godfrey; Glahn, David C.; Sprooten, Emma; Mayer, Andrew R.; Stephen, Julia; Jung, Rex E.; Canive, Jose; Bustillo, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on GMC images from 784 Sz and 936 controls (Ct) across 23 scanning sites in Europe and the United States. After correcting for age, gender, site, and diagnosis by site interactions, SBM analyses showed 9 patterns of diagnostic differences. They comprised separate cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. Seven patterns showed greater GMC in Ct than Sz, while 2 (brainstem and cerebellum) showed greater GMC for Sz. The greatest GMC deficit was in a single pattern comprising regions in the superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal cortex, which replicated over analyses of data subsets. VBM analyses identified overall cortical GMC loss and one small cluster of increased GMC in Sz, which overlapped with the SBM brainstem component. We found no significant association between the component loadings and symptom severity in either analysis. This mega-analysis confirms that the commonly found GMC loss in Sz in the anterior temporal lobe, insula, and medial frontal lobe form a single, consistent spatial pattern even in such a diverse dataset. The separation of GMC loss into robust, repeatable spatial patterns across multiple datasets paves the way for the application of these methods to identify subtle genetic and clinical cohort effects. PMID:25548384

  7. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Chen, Jiayu; Patel, Veena; Liu, Jingyu; Segall, Judith; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Fisher, Simon E; Fernandez, Guillen; van Erp, Theo G M; Potkin, Steven; Ford, Judith; Mathalon, Daniel; McEwen, Sarah; Lee, Hyo Jong; Mueller, Bryon A; Greve, Douglas N; Andreassen, Ole; Agartz, Ingrid; Gollub, Randy L; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Pearlson, Godfrey; Glahn, David C; Sprooten, Emma; Mayer, Andrew R; Stephen, Julia; Jung, Rex E; Canive, Jose; Bustillo, Juan; Turner, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses on GMC images from 784 Sz and 936 controls (Ct) across 23 scanning sites in Europe and the United States. After correcting for age, gender, site, and diagnosis by site interactions, SBM analyses showed 9 patterns of diagnostic differences. They comprised separate cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. Seven patterns showed greater GMC in Ct than Sz, while 2 (brainstem and cerebellum) showed greater GMC for Sz. The greatest GMC deficit was in a single pattern comprising regions in the superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal cortex, which replicated over analyses of data subsets. VBM analyses identified overall cortical GMC loss and one small cluster of increased GMC in Sz, which overlapped with the SBM brainstem component. We found no significant association between the component loadings and symptom severity in either analysis. This mega-analysis confirms that the commonly found GMC loss in Sz in the anterior temporal lobe, insula, and medial frontal lobe form a single, consistent spatial pattern even in such a diverse dataset. The separation of GMC loss into robust, repeatable spatial patterns across multiple datasets paves the way for the application of these methods to identify subtle genetic and clinical cohort effects. PMID:25548384

  8. Teachers' Knowledge of Normal and Abnormal Elimination Patterns in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyt, Margaret A.

    2005-01-01

    Dysfunctional elimination may be learned, to some degree. Because children spend nearly half of their waking hours at school, there is the potential for school to have a significant impact on their elimination patterns. Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers; 467 of the surveys were returned. Findings…

  9. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  10. Severe mental retardation with breathing abnormalities (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome) is caused by haploinsufficiency of the neuronal bHLH transcription factor TCF4.

    PubMed

    Brockschmidt, Antje; Todt, Unda; Ryu, Soojin; Hoischen, Alexander; Landwehr, Christina; Birnbaum, Stefanie; Frenck, Wilhelm; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Lichter, Peter; Engels, Hartmut; Driever, Wolfgang; Kubisch, Christian; Weber, Ruthild G

    2007-06-15

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PHS) is a rare syndromic mental disorder, which is mainly characterized by severe motor and mental retardation including absent language development, a characteristic facial gestalt and episodes of hyperventilation. We report on a female patient with PHS showing severe mental retardation with absent speech, pronounced muscular hypotonia, ataxia, distinctive facial features, such as a coarse face, a broad nasal bridge and a wide mouth, and hyperventilation attacks. In this patient, genomic profiling by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies detected and confirmed a de novo 0.5 Mb deletion in 18q21.2 containing a single gene, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4. cDNA and genomic analyses in the patient and her parents demonstrated TCF4 haploinsufficiency as the underlying cause of the disease. Analysis of the embryonal expression pattern of the Danio rerio ortholog, tcf4, by whole-mount in situ hybridization showed a highly specific expression domain in the pallium of the telencephalon during late somitogenesis, when the patterning of the zebrafish brain is advanced and neural differentiation commences. Later expression domains were restricted to several regions in the central nervous system, including continued expression in the pallium of the telencephalon, and starting expression in the diencephalon (thalamus, ventral thalamus and posterior tuberculum), the midbrain tegmentum, the hindbrain and the branchial arches. This expression pattern correlates with the clinical phenotype. Our results show that haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes PHS and suggest that D. rerio is a valuable model to study the molecular pathogenesis of PHS and the role of TCF4 in brain development. PMID:17478476

  11. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum ... and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing ...

  12. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles are left in your mouth, they can rot ... Flossing once a day helps get rid of particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist ...

  13. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  14. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns.

    PubMed

    Fraley, E R; Burkett, Z D; Day, N F; Schwartz, B A; Phelps, P E; White, S A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans. PMID:27184477

  15. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, E. R.; Burkett, Z. D.; Day, N. F.; Schwartz, B. A.; Phelps, P. E.; White, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans. PMID:27184477

  16. Spreading photoparoxysmal EEG response is associated with an abnormal cortical excitability pattern.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR with occipital spikes only) or spread to anterior non-visual cortical regions (i.e. PPR with propagation). The mechanisms underlying the PPR and causing its spread remain to be clarified. In unmedicated PPR-positive individuals and PPR-negative control participants without any history of previous seizures, we used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the excitability of the visual or primary motor cortex (M1). In the first experiment [18 healthy control subjects (i.e. without PPR in electroencephalography: 6 females, mean age 26.5 +/- 7.34 years) and 17 healthy participants with PPR (7 females, mean age 25.18 +/- 12.2 years) were studied], occipital TMS was used to elicit phosphenes or to suppress the visual perception of letter trigrams. PPR-positive individuals with propagation had lower phosphene thresholds and steeper stimulus-response curves than individuals without PPR or with occipital spikes only. Occipital TMS also induced a stronger suppression of visual perception in PPR-positive subjects with propagation relative to subjects without PPR or with occipital spikes. In the second experiment, we applied TMS over the right M1 without concurrent IPS and measured the motor threshold, the stimulus response curve, and the duration of the cortical silent period (CSP) in PPR positive individuals with propagation and in PPR-negative control participants [15 right-handed healthy subjects without PPR (3 males, mean age 17.7 +/- 3.6 years) and 14 right-handed healthy individuals showing a PPR with propagation (3 males, mean age 17.4 +/- 3.9 years)]. PPR-positive individuals showed no changes in these

  17. Reliability and Determinants of Self-Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) Score: A Symptoms-Based Measure of Dysfunctional Breathing.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A J; Bacon, C J; Moran, R W

    2016-03-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is characterised by an abnormal breathing pattern leading to respiratory symptoms. The 25-item Self Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) has been developed to measure breathing-related symptoms and their severity but lacks thorough evaluation. To determine reproducibility, internal consistency and predictors of SEBQ score, 180 participants completed an online SEBQ with additional demographic and lifestyle questions. Two weeks later, 155 of those repeated SEBQ. Test-retest correlation of the SEBQ was high [intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1) = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.92]. There was no difference in SEBQ score between test and retest (15.1 (11.6) [mean (SD)] versus 14.7 (12.4); P = 0.4) and the score showed a typical error (standard error of measurement) of 4.0. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α = 0.93), and a single factor structure for items was shown. Smoking status, reported respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender were positively-associated predictors of SEBQ score, and together explained 25.6 % of score variance (P ≤ 0.001). The SEBQ has high test-retest reproducibility and its score may be predicted by current smoking, chronic respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender, thus may be a useful clinical screening tool for dysfunctional breathing. PMID:26400252

  18. The midbrain periaqueductal gray changes the eupneic respiratory rhythm into a breathing pattern necessary for survival of the individual and of the species.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Hari H; Holstege, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of respiration is a prerequisite for survival of the individual and of the species. For example, respiration has to be adjusted in case of speech, strenuous exercise, laughing, crying, or sudden escape from danger. Respiratory centers in pons and medulla generate the basic respiratory rhythm or eupnea, but they cannot modulate breathing in the context of emotional challenges, for which they need input from higher brain centers. In simple terms, the prefrontal cortex integrates visual, auditory, olfactory, and somatosensory information and informs subcortical structures such as amygdala, hypothalamus, and finally the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) about the results. The PAG, in turn, generates the final motor output for basic survival, such as setting the level of all cells in the brain and spinal cord. Best known in this framework is determining the level of pain perception. The PAG also controls heart rate, blood pressure, micturition, sexual behavior, vocalization, and many other basic motor output systems. Within this context, the PAG also changes the eupneic respiratory rhythm into a breathing pattern necessary for basic survival. This review examines the latest developments regarding of how the PAG controls respiration. PMID:25194206

  19. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  20. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead ...

  1. Interocular suppression patterns in binocularly abnormal observers using luminance- and contrast-modulated noise stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chima, Akash S; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-08-01

    In binocular viewing, images presented to the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex to prevent confusion or diplopia. The present study measures depth and extent of interocular suppression across the central circular 24° visual field in observers with strabismus and microstrabismus. Visual stimuli were concentric rings of alternating polarity, each divided into sectors. Rings were defined by luminance (L), luminance-modulated noise (LM), or contrast-modulated noise (CM). They were viewed binocularly except for the tested ring, which was viewed dichoptically, so that the modulation of one sector presented to the weaker or amblyopic eye was adjusted to perceptually match the surrounding ring presented to the preferred eye. A two alternative forced-choice paradigm combined with a staircase procedure allowed for measurement of the point of subjective equality, or perceptual match. Depth of suppression was calculated as the difference between physical modulations presented to the two eyes at this point. Strabismic participants showed suppression deeper centrally than peripherally, and in one hemifield of the visual field more than the other. Suppression was deeper for L than LM, and CM than LM stimuli. Microstrabismic suppression was weaker than that of strabismics, central for L and LM stimuli, with suppression of CM stimuli being broader, deeper and more in one hemifield. Suppression depth was positively correlated with interocular visual acuity difference and stereoacuity reduction. Clinically, LM stimuli could be used for assessment of deeper amblyopes to assess suppression patterns, while more sensitive detection of mild suppression would be possible using CM stimuli. PMID:27580040

  2. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Reiss, Allan L.; Lee, Agatha D.; Bellugi, Ursula; Galaburda, Albert M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Mills, Debra L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deletion of ~20 contiguous genes in chromosome band 7q11.23. Individuals with WS exhibit mild to moderate mental retardation, but are relatively more proficient in specific language and musical abilities. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize the complex pattern of gray/white matter reductions in WS, based on fluid registration of structural brain images. Methods 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 41 WS subjects (age: 29.2±9.2SD years; 23F/18M) and 39 age-matched healthy controls (age: 27.5±7.4 years; 23F/16M) were fluidly registered to a minimum deformation target. Fine-scale volumetric differences were mapped between diagnostic groups. Local regions were identified where regional structure volumes were associated with diagnosis, and with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Brain asymmetry was also mapped and compared between diagnostic groups. Results WS subjects exhibited widely distributed brain volume reductions (~10–15% reduction; P < 0.0002, permutation test). After adjusting for total brain volume, the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, fusiform gyrus and cerebellum were found to be relatively preserved in WS, but parietal and occipital lobes, thalamus and basal ganglia, and midbrain were disproportionally decreased in volume (P < 0.0002). These regional volumes also correlated positively with performance IQ in adult WS subjects (age ≥ 30 years, P = 0.038). Conclusion TBM facilitates 3D visualization of brain volume reductions in WS. Reduced parietal/occipital volumes may be associated with visuospatial deficits in WS. By contrast, frontal lobes, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus are relatively preserved or even enlarged, consistent with unusual affect regulation and language production in WS. PMID:17512756

  3. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  4. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. PMID:27199029

  5. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    PubMed

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  6. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  7. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  8. [SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING AND EPILEPSY: RELATIONSHIPS AND THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS].

    PubMed

    Faludi, Béla; Bóné, Beáta; Komoly, Sámuel; Janszky, József

    2015-11-30

    The importance of the sleep related breathing disorders (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, central sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes breathing) in the pathophysiology crebro- and cardiovascular disorders is well known. The relationship of sleep related breathing abnormalities and epilepsy is also important but underestimated in the daily practice. The relation is bidirectional. The breathing abnormalities in sleep may play important role in generating epileptic seizure, but the adverse effect of seizure and antiepileptic therapy (generation of apneas and hypopneas) may worsen the seizure control. The effect of new therapies (vagal nerve and deep brain stimulation) on the sleep architecture and sleep disordered breathing must be examined and discussed. Here we present a brief case of epileptic patient with deep brain stimulation therapy on sleep as well. The examination of the sleep related breathing abnormalities in epilepsy patient may help improve the effectiveness of antiepileptic therapy. PMID:26821511

  9. Breathing pattern during pharmacological activation and blockade of the intermediate area of the ventrolateral surface of the cat medulla.

    PubMed

    Silva, F R; Campos RR Júnior; Freire, E; Guertzenstein, P G; Piçarro, I C; Rodrigues, L O; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Tarasantchi, J

    1989-01-01

    The present study analyzes the respiratory pattern of chloralose-(50-60 mg/kg, iv) anesthetized cats treated with Nembutal (NE) (30 mg/ml), glycine (GL) (200 mg/ml) or leptazol (LE) (200 mg/ml) topically applied to the intermediate area of the ventrolateral surface of the medulla oblongata in a volume of 20 microliters. Application of NE and GL produced a decrease in ventilation (approximately 24%) and tidal volume (approximately 25%) suggesting that the intermediate area facilitates respiratory drive and inhibits the inspiratory off-switch mechanism. These results are consistent with the view that intermediate area is necessary for the central chemosensitivity to CO2. The topical application of LE produced an increase in inspiration time (12.5%), expiration time (20.8%) and tidal volume (7%). The increased tidal volume caused by LE is compatible with its action as a GL antagonist. PMID:2641360

  10. Breathing Disorders in Rett Syndrome: Progressive Neurochemical Dysfunction in the Respiratory Network after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Katz, David M.; Dutschmann, Mathias; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Hilaire, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of respiratory control are a prominent feature of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severely debilitating condition caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). RTT patients present with a complex respiratory phenotype that can include periods of hyperventilation, apnea, breath holds terminated by Valsalva maneuvers, forced and deep breathing and apneustic breathing, as well as abnormalities of heart rate control and cardiorespiratory integration. Recent studies of mouse models of RTT have begun to shed light on neurologic deficits that likely contribute to respiratory dysfunction including, in particular, defects in neurochemical signaling resulting from abnormal patterns of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator expression. The authors hypothesize that breathing dysregulation in RTT results from disturbances in mechanisms that modulate the respiratory rhythm, acting either alone or in combination with more subtle disturbances in rhythm and pattern generation. This article reviews the evidence underlying this hypothesis as well as recent efforts to translate our emerging understanding of neurochemical defects in mouse models of RTT into preclinical trials of potential treatments for respiratory dysfunction in this disease. PMID:19394452

  11. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Shortness of breath Shortness of breath E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... oxygen your baby gets. Causes of shortness of breath during pregnancy Early pregnancy In the first few ...

  12. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  14. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  16. MEK-ERK1/2-dependent FLNA overexpression promotes abnormal dendritic patterning in tuberous sclerosis independent of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longbo; Bartley, Christopher M; Gong, Xuan; Hsieh, Lawrence S; Lin, Tiffany V; Feliciano, David M; Bordey, Angélique

    2014-10-01

    Abnormal dendritic complexity is a shared feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with neurological defects. Here, we found that the actin-crosslinking protein filamin A (FLNA) is overexpressed in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mice, a PI3K-mTOR model of neurodevelopmental disease that is associated with abnormal dendritic complexity. Both under- and overexpression of FLNA in wild-type neurons led to more complex dendritic arbors in vivo, suggesting that an optimal level of FLNA expression is required for normal dendritogenesis. In Tsc1(null) neurons, knocking down FLNA in vivo prevented dendritic abnormalities. Surprisingly, FLNA overexpression in Tsc1(null) neurons was dependent on MEK1/2 but not mTOR activity, despite both pathways being hyperactive. In addition, increasing MEK-ERK1/2 activity led to dendritic abnormalities via FLNA, and decreasing MEK-ERK1/2 signaling in Tsc1(null) neurons rescued dendritic defects. These data demonstrate that altered FLNA expression increases dendritic complexity and contributes to pathologic dendritic patterning in TSC in an mTOR-independent, ERK1/2-dependent manner. PMID:25277454

  17. MEK-ERK1/2-dependent FLNA overexpression promotes abnormal dendritic patterning in tuberous sclerosis independent of mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longbo; Bartley, Christopher M.; Gong, Xuan; Hsieh, Lawrence S.; Lin, Tiffany V.; Feliciano, David M.; Bordey, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal dendritic complexity is a shared feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with neurological defects. Here, we found that the actin-crosslinking protein filamin A (FLNA) is overexpressed in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mice, a PI3K-mTOR model of neurodevelopmental disease that is associated with abnormal dendritic complexity. Both under-and overexpression of FLNA in wild-type neurons led to more complex dendritic arbors in vivo, suggesting that an optimal level of FLNA expression is required for normal dendritogenesis. In Tsc1null neurons, knocking down FLNA in vivo prevented dendritic abnormalities. Surprisingly, FLNA overexpression in Tsc1null neurons was dependent on MEK1/2 but not mTOR activity despite both pathways being hyperactive. In addition, increasing MEK-ERK1/2 activity led to dendritic abnormalities via FLNA and decreasing MEK-ERK1/2 signaling in Tsc1null neurons rescued dendritic defects. These data demonstrate that altered FLNA expression increases dendritic complexity and contributes to pathologic dendritic patterning in TSC in an mTOR-independent, ERK1/2-dependent manner. PMID:25277454

  18. Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Siva, Shankar

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist's discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.

  19. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process. PMID:25611867

  20. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  1. A breath sampling system assessing the influence of respiratory rate on exhaled breath composition.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, T; Salvo, P; Ghimenti, S; Biagini, D; Bellagambi, F; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a computerized system to monitor mouth pressure, tidal volume, exhaled airflow, respiration rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 during breath collection. The system was used to investigate the effect of different respiratory rates on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations in exhaled breath. For this purpose, VOCs with well-defined biochemical pathways and different chemical and physical properties were selected as biomarkers related to metabolism (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), cholesterol synthesis (isoprene) and intestinal microflora activity (ethanol). Mixed breath was collected from a nominally healthy volunteer in resting conditions by filling a Nalophan bag. The subject followed a regimented breathing pattern at different respiratory rates (10, 30 and 50 breaths per minute). Results highlight that ventilation pattern strongly influences the concentration of the selected compounds. The proposed system allows exhaled breath to be collected also in patients showing dyspnea such as in case of chronic heart failure, asthma and pulmonary diseases. PMID:26738056

  2. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  3. Mouth breathing in allergic children: its relationship to dentofacial development.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, D; Shapiro, P A; Shapiro, G G; Chapko, M K; Dassel, S

    1983-04-01

    While there are many claims that abnormal breathing patterns alter facial growth, there are limited controlled data to confirm this. We evaluated forty-five North American Caucasians of both sexes, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Thirty chronically allergic mouth-breathing subjects were selected from a pediatric allergy practice, and fifteen nonallergic nose breathers were selected from a general pediatric practice. Each subject underwent an intraoral clinical examination and a cephalometric radiograph analysis. Various skeletal and dental relationships were evaluated for statistical differences related to mode of breathing and age. The upper anterior facial height and the total anterior facial height were significantly larger in the mouth breathers. Angular relationships of the sella-nasion, palatal, and occlusal planes to the mandibular plane were greater in the mouth breathers, and their gonial angles were larger. The mouth breathers' maxillae and mandibles were more retrognathic. Palatal height was higher, and overjet was greater in the mouth breathers. Maxillary intermolar width was narrower in the mouth breathers and was associated with a higher prevalence of posterior cross-bite. Over all, mouth breathers had longer faces with narrower maxillae and retrognathic jaws. This supports previous claims that nasal airway obstruction is associated with aberrant facial growth. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of early intervention in preventing these growth alterations. PMID:6573147

  4. [Anatomo-pathologic lesions and gas exchange abnormalities in COPD].

    PubMed

    Barberà, J A; Rodriguez-Roisin, R

    1995-05-15

    Pulmonary emphysema and bronchiolar abnormalities are the most characteristic histological lesions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are mainly due to ventilation-perfusion mismatching. Under stable clinical conditions, both intrapulmonary shunt and limitation of oxygen transport from the alveoli to the capillary do not play a critical role in the observed arterial oxygen pressure. During acute exacerbations, ventilation-perfusion inequality worsens, and some cases show mild to moderate shunting. Under these conditions extrapulmonary factors such as breathing pattern, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake have a crucial role in influencing the arterial oxygen pressure. PMID:7659964

  5. A multiresolution analysis for detection of abnormal lung sounds

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Patil, Kailash; West, James; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Automated analysis and detection of abnormal lung sound patterns has great potential for improving access to standardized diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, especially in low-resource settings. In the current study, we develop signal processing tools for analysis of paediatric auscultations recorded under non-ideal noisy conditions. The proposed model is based on a biomimetic multi-resolution analysis of the spectro-temporal modulation details in lung sounds. The methodology provides a detailed description of joint spectral and temporal variations in the signal and proves to be more robust than frequency-based techniques in distinguishing crackles and wheezes from normal breathing sounds. PMID:23366591

  6. Prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in patients treated for asthma in primary care: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mike; McKinley, R K; Freeman, Elaine; Foy, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in adults with asthma treated in the community. Design Postal questionnaire survey using Nijmegen questionnaire. Setting One general practice with 7033 patients. Participants All adult patients aged 17-65 with diagnosed asthma who were receiving treatment. Main outcome measure Score ⩾23 on Nijmegen questionnaire. Results 227/307 patients returned completed questionnaires; 219 (71.3%) questionnaires were suitable for analysis. 63 participants scored ⩾23. Those scoring ⩾23 were more likely to be female than male (46/132 (35%) v 17/87 (20%), P=0.016) and were younger (mean (SD) age 44.8 (14.7) v 49.0 (13.8, (P=0.05). Patients at different treatment steps of the British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines were affected equally. Conclusions About a third of women and a fifth of men had scores suggestive of dysfunctional breathing. Although further studies are needed to confirm the validity of this screening tool and these findings, these prevalences suggest scope for therapeutic intervention and may explain the anecdotal success of the Buteyko method of treating asthma. What is already known on this topicAbnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of lifeEffective interventions exist for dysfunctional breathingDysfunctional breathing has been described in patients attending hospital respiratory clinicsWhat this study adds29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathingAffected patients were more likely to be female and younger, but no differences were found with severity of asthmaSome patients with asthma may benefit from breathing therapy PMID:11337441

  7. Transition from acute to chronic hypercapnia in patients with periodic breathing: predictions from a computer model.

    PubMed

    Norman, Robert G; Goldring, Roberta M; Clain, Jeremy M; Oppenheimer, Beno W; Charney, Alan N; Rapoport, David M; Berger, Kenneth I

    2006-05-01

    Acute hypercapnia may develop during periodic breathing from an imbalance between abnormal ventilatory patterns during apnea and/or hypopnea and compensatory ventilatory response in the interevent periods. However, transition of this acute hypercapnia into chronic sustained hypercapnia during wakefulness remains unexplained. We hypothesized that respiratory-renal interactions would play a critical role in this transition. Because this transition cannot be readily addressed clinically, we modified a previously published model of whole-body CO2 kinetics by adding respiratory control and renal bicarbonate kinetics. We enforced a pattern of 8 h of periodic breathing (sleep) and 16 h of regular ventilation (wakefulness) repeated for 20 days. Interventions included varying the initial awake respiratory CO2 response and varying the rate of renal bicarbonate excretion within the physiological range. The results showed that acute hypercapnia during periodic breathing could transition into chronic sustained hypercapnia during wakefulness. Although acute hypercapnia could be attributed to periodic breathing alone, transition from acute to chronic hypercapnia required either slowing of renal bicarbonate kinetics, reduction of ventilatory CO2 responsiveness, or both. Thus the model showed that the interaction between the time constant for bicarbonate excretion and respiratory control results in both failure of bicarbonate concentration to fully normalize before the next period of sleep and persistence of hypercapnia through blunting of ventilatory drive. These respiratory-renal interactions create a cumulative effect over subsequent periods of sleep that eventually results in a self-perpetuating state of chronic hypercapnia. PMID:16384839

  8. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... confronted Breath holding spells are more common in children with: Genetic conditions, such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells (parents ...

  9. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  10. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  11. Fundamentals of breath malodour.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Roldán, S; Herrera, D

    2001-11-15

    Breath malodour is a condition that has health and social implications. The origin of breath malodour problems are related to both systemic and oral conditions. The advice of dental professionals for treatment of this condition occurs with regularity since 90% of breath odor problems emanate from the oral cavity. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the etiology of breath odor, its prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for the condition. PMID:12167916

  12. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en ... Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  13. Circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen in young women.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, M; Iwata, M; Toda, Y; Nakae, Y; Kondo, T

    1998-08-01

    Breath hydrogen levels, which reflect colonic fermentation of undigested starches, are usually low in the fasted state. Fasting levels of breath hydrogen are important for estimation of oro-cecal transit time and diagnosis of lactase deficiency. In young women, however, fasting levels of breath hydrogen are high. To clarify the reason for this, we studied the circadian pattern of breath hydrogen and the effect of alpha-D-galactosidase on fasting breath hydrogen in one study, and the effect of sleep deprivation on fasting breath hydrogen in another study, in 13 women students aged 21-23 years. In the first study, two breath samples were collected, one in the evening and the other the next morning. On another occasion, alpha-D-galactosidase was given before dinner and breath samples were collected the next morning. In the second study, the circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen was assessed for 3 days and the subjects were deprived of sleep on the second night. Breath samples were collected every 30 min, except during the second night when samples were collected at 1-h intervals. Fasting breath hydrogen was 24 +/- 3.9 ppm (mean +/- SE), which did not differ from the value for the previous night. Alpha-D-galactosidase significantly decreased fasting breath hydrogen levels, to 17 +/- 2.4 ppm (P < 0.05). There was a clear circadian pattern of breath hydrogen, high in the morning and decreasing to the nadir by 16:00. After dinner, the level increased again and stayed high during the night. Sleep deprivation did not affect fasting levels of breath hydrogen. High fasting breath hydrogen levels in young women followed a circadian pattern and this may have been due, in part, to an high intake of dietary fiber on the previous day. PMID:9719227

  14. Abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replication in radioresistant fibroblast strains from affected members of a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, R.; Aubin, R. A.; Bosnich, W.; Blattner, W. A.; Paterson, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Non-malignant dermal fibroblast strains, cultured from affected members of a Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) family with diverse neoplasms associated with radiation exposure, display a unique increased resistance to the lethal effects of gamma-radiation. In the studies reported here, this radioresistance (RR) trait has been found to correlate strongly with an abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replicative synthesis, as monitored by radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and S-phase cell autoradiography. In particular, the time interval between the gamma-ray-induced shutdown of DNA synthesis and its subsequent recovery was greater in all four RR strains examined and the post-recovery replication rate was much higher and was maintained longer than in normal and spousal controls. Alkaline sucrose sedimentation profiles of pulse-labelled cellular DNA indicated that the unusual pattern of DNA replication in irradiated RR strains may be ascribed to anomalies in both replicon initiation and DNA chain elongation processes. Moreover, the RR strain which had previously displayed the highest post-gamma-ray clonogenic survival was found to harbour a somatic (codon 234) mutation (presumably acquired during culture in vitro) in the same conserved region of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene as the germline (codon 245) mutation in the remaining three RR strains from other family members, thus coupling the RR phenotype and abnormal post-gamma-ray DNA synthesis pattern with faulty p53 expression. Significantly, these two aberrant radioresponse end points, along with documented anomalies in c-myc and c-raf-1 proto-oncogenes, are unprecedented among other LFS families carrying p53 germline mutations. We thus speculate that this peculiar cancer-prone family may possess in its germ line a second, as yet unidentified, genetic defect in addition to the p53 mutation. Images Figure 8 PMID:7779715

  15. THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF THE COM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION.

    PubMed

    Frey, Lorraine; Green, Shari; Fabbie, Paula; Hockenbury, Dana; Foran, Marge; Elder, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    The origins of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy began in the early 1960's by orthodontists who recognized the importance of functional nasal breathing, proper swallowing, and more ideal oral rest postures. Re-patterning these functions through myofunctional therapy assisted with better orthodontic outcomes and improved stability. Experts in orofacial myology have concluded that improper oral rest postures and tongue thrusting may be the result of hypertrophy of the lymphatic tissues in the upper airway. Orthodontists are aware of the deleterious effects these habits have on the developing face and dentition. Sleep disordered breathing is a major health concern that affects people from infancy into adulthood. Physicians who treat sleep disorders are now referring patients for orofacial myofunctional therapy. Researchers have concluded that removal of tonsils and adenoids, along with expansion orthodontics, may not fully resolve the upper airway issues that continue to plague patients' health. Sleep researchers report that the presence of mouth breathing, along with hypotonia of the orofacial muscular complex, has been a persistent problem in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) coexist in a large population of people with sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnea. Advances in 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging offer the dental and medical communities the opportunity to identify, assess, and treat patients with abnormal growth patterns. These undesirable changes in oral structures can involve the upper airway, as well as functional breathing, chewing and swallowing. Leading researchers have advocated a multidisciplinary team approach. Sleep physicians, otolaryngologists, dentists, myofunctional therapists, and other healthcare professionals are working together to achieve these goals. The authors have compiled research articles that support incorporating the necessary education on sleep disordered

  16. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  17. Direct Comparison of Measured and Calculated Total Knee Replacement Force Envelopes during Walking in the Presence of Normal and Abnormal Gait Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint forces measured from instrumented implants provide important information for testing the validity of computational models that predict knee joint forces. The purpose of this study was to validate a parametric numerical model for predicting knee joint contact forces against measurements from four subjects with instrumented TKRs during the stance phase of gait. Model sensitivity to abnormal gait patterns was also investigated. The results demonstrated good agreement for three subjects with relatively normal gait patterns, where the difference between the mean measured and calculated forces ranged from 0.05 to 0.45 body weights, and the envelopes of measured and calculated forces (from three walking trials) overlapped. The fourth subject, who had a “quadriceps avoidance” external moment pattern, initially had little overlap between the measured and calculated force envelopes. When additional constraints were added, tailored to the subject’s gait pattern, the model predictions improved to complete force envelope overlap. Coefficient of multiple determination analysis indicated that the shape of the measured and calculated force waveforms were similar for all subjects (adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation values between 0.88 and 0.92). The parametric model was accurate in predicting both the magnitude and waveform of the contact force, and the accuracy of model predictions was affected by deviations from normal gait patterns. Equally important, the envelope of forces generated by the range of solutions substantially overlapped with the corresponding measured envelope from multiple gait trials for a given subject, suggesting that the variable strategic processes of in vivo force generation are covered by the solution range of this parametric model. PMID:22284431

  18. Abnormal N-glycosylation pattern for brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 (NPP-5) in Mecp2-mutant murine models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Guerranti, Roberto; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Scalabrì, Francesco; Madonna, Michele; Filosa, Stefania; Della Giovampaola, Cinzia; Capone, Antonietta; Durand, Thierry; Mirasole, Cristiana; Zolla, Lello; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Guy, Jacky; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Hayek, Joussef

    2016-04-01

    Neurological disorders can be associated with protein glycosylation abnormalities. Rett syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Although its pathogenesis appears to be closely associated with a redox imbalance, no information on glycosylation is available. Glycoprotein detection strategies (i.e., lectin-blotting) were applied to identify target glycosylation changes in the whole brain of Mecp2 mutant murine models of the disease. Remarkable glycosylation pattern changes for a peculiar 50kDa protein, i.e., the N-linked brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 were evidenced, with decreased N-glycosylation in the presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice. Glycosylation changes were rescued by selected brain Mecp2 reactivation. Our findings indicate that there is a causal link between the amount of Mecp2 and the N-glycosylation of NPP-5. PMID:26476268

  19. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Barker, Harlan R.; Saralahti, Anni K.; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Ortutay, Csaba; Pan, Peiwen; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder. PMID:26218428

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims The reader will be able to: Understand normal sleep patterns in infancyAppreciate disorders of breathing in infancyAppreciate disorders of respiratory control Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central) as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail. PMID:27064478

  2. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Hervé; Brugière, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can

  3. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  4. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  5. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  6. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  7. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  8. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  9. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  10. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  11. Breathing-metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

  12. Simulated breath waveform control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Subsystem was developed which provides twelve waveform controls to breath drive mechanism. Twelve position, magnetically actuated rotary switch is connected to one end of crankshaft drive, such that it makes one complete revolution for each simulated breath. Connections with common wired point are included in modifications made to standard motor speed controller.

  13. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with: Genetic conditions, such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breathing Problems Rett Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  14. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Steinfort, Christopher Louis; Caelli, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and strengthens the possibility of employing Doppler radar in long-term respiration detection, and monitoring applications such as sleep studies. This paper presents an evaluation in the of use of microwave Doppler radar for capturing different dynamics of breathing patterns in addition to the respiration rate. Although finding the respiration rate is essential, identifying abnormal breathing patterns in real-time could be used to gain further insights into respiratory disorders and refine diagnostic procedures. Several known breathing disorders were professionally role played and captured in a real-time laboratory environment using a noncontact Doppler radar to evaluate the feasibility of this noncontact form of measurement in capturing breathing patterns under different conditions associated with certain breathing disorders. In addition to that, inhalation and exhalation flow patterns under different breathing scenarios were investigated to further support the feasibility of Doppler radar to accurately estimate the tidal volume. The results obtained for both experiments were compared with the gold standard measurement schemes, such as respiration belt and spirometry readings, yielding significant correlations with the Doppler radar-based information. In summary, Doppler radar is highlighted as an alternative approach not only for determining respiration rates, but also for identifying breathing patterns and tidal volumes as a preferred nonwearable alternative to the conventional

  15. Pediatric sleep-disordered breathing: New evidence on its development.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, Christian; Akhtar, Farah

    2015-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children could be resolved by adenotonsillectomy (T&A). However, incomplete results are often noted post-surgery. Because of this partial resolution, long-term follow-up is needed to monitor for reoccurrence of SDB, which may be diagnosed years later through reoccurrence of complaints or in some cases, through systematic investigations. Children undergoing T&A often have small upper airways. Genetics play a role in the fetal development of the skull, the skull base, and subsequently, the size of the upper airway. In non-syndromic children, specific genetic mutations are often unrecognized early in life and affect the craniofacial growth, altering functions such as suction, mastication, swallowing, and nasal breathing. These developmental and functional changes are associated with the development of SDB. Children without genetic mutations but with impairment of the above said functions also develop SDB. When applied early in life, techniques involved in the reeducation of these functions, such as myofunctional therapy, alter the craniofacial growth and the associated SDB. This occurs as a result of the continuous interaction between cartilages, bones and muscles involved in the growth of the base of the skull and the face. Recently collected data show the impact of the early changes in craniofacial growth patterns and how these changes lead to an impairment of the developmental functions and consequent persistence of SDB. The presence of nasal disuse and mouth breathing are abnormal functions that are easily amenable to treatment. Understanding the dynamics leading to the development of SDB and recognizing factors affecting the craniofacial growth and the resulting functional impairments, allows appropriate treatment planning which may or may not include T&A. Enlargement of lymphoid tissue may actually be a consequence as opposed to a cause of these initial dysfunctions. PMID:26500024

  16. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    PubMed

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. PMID:24814033

  17. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p = 0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p = 0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p = 0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised. PMID:15148211

  18. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  19. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  20. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... a high altitude Blood clot in the lung Collapsed lung (pneumothorax) Heart attack Injury to the neck, chest wall, ... cavity with each breath. This can cause a collapsed lung . Bandage the wound with plastic wrap, a plastic ...

  1. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with obstructive sleep apnea, for example. Prolonged apnea means a person has stopped breathing. If ... that requires immediate medical attention and first aid. Prolonged apnea with no heart activity in a person ...

  2. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  3. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen in blood (obesity hypoventilation ... for anemia), and oximetry or blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels. Your doctor also may obtain a chest ...

  4. Clinico-laboratory profile of breath-holding spells in children in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Abdelrahim Abdrabou; Mohamed, Montaser Mohamed; Sharaf, El-Zahraa El-Said Ahmed; Magdy, Rofaida Mohamed; Allam, Ahmed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breath-holding spells (BHSs) are involuntary pauses of breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. They usually occur in response to an upsetting or surprising situation. Breath-holding spells are usually caused by either a change in the usual breathing pattern or a slowing of the heart rate. In some children, BHSs may be related to iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the work was to study the clinical and laboratory profile of BPHs in children presented to the Neuropediatric Clinic at Sohag University Hospital. Methods An observational prospective study was done at Sohag University Hospital over a period of one year on children diagnosed as having BHSs by clinical history and laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and Electroencephalography (EEG). Results During the period of study (one year), we reviewed data of 32 children who had been diagnosed as having BHSs. We found that cyanotic spells (71.88%) predominated over pallid spells. There were positive family histories (31.25%) and consanguinity (53.135) in the studied patients. We found a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia (62.5%) in association with BHS. Abnormal EEGs were found in (65.63%) of studied children. Conclusion BHS is a common, important problem associated with iron deficiency anemia, which is, in turn, a common nutritional problem in our country. PMID:27279996

  5. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  6. Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    . DB is a poorly understood disorder with features that overlap with VCD and asthma. The dysfunctional pattern may reflect abnormalities in the rate or depth of breathing or in breathing mechanics that may involve the nasal passages, oropharynx, larynx, or chest wall muscles. Not unlike VCD, patients with DB are often diagnosed with asthma, and their symptoms do not improve on asthma medicines. There is no consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or appropriate testing for DB. The pathophysiology of DB is poorly understood, but psychological or physiological stress may precipitate episodes in some patients. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach (including speech therapy and psychological support). Prognosis is usually good. PMID:23047311

  7. The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Niinimaa, V; Cole, P; Mintz, S; Shephard, R J

    1980-10-01

    The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing during incrementally graded submaximal exercise was determined in 30 (14 M, 16 F) healthy adult volunteers. Nasal airflow was measured by a pneumotachograph attached to a nasal mask. Oral airflow was determined as the difference between nasal airflow and total pulmonary airflow, the latter being measured by a head-out exercise body plethysmograph. The airflow and pressure signals were sampled every 20 msec by a micropressor, which calculated respiratory volumes and nasal work of breathing, and produced an on-line print-out. Twenty of the 30 subjects (normal augmenters) switched from nasal to oronasal breathing at submaximal exercise of 105.0 W (SD = 30.1), four subjects (mouth breathers) breathed habitually oronasally, five subjects (nose breathers) persistently breathed through the nose only, and one subject showed no consistent nose/mouth breathing pattern. In normal augmenters, the onset of oronasal breathing (VE 35.3 +/- 10.81 . min-1) was quite consistent individually, but varied considerably between inividuals without showing a significant sex difference. The factors most closely related to the switching point were rating of perceived exertion of breathing and nasal work of breathing. PMID:7444224

  8. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    PubMed Central

    Zope, Sameer A.; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  9. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    PubMed

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  10. Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2010-01-01

    Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

  11. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  12. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  13. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  14. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  15. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer.

  16. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  17. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cain, Mary Ashley; Louis, Judette M

    2016-06-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) occurs in 0.6% to 15% of reproductive-aged women. Because of an overlap in symptoms of SDB and normal pregnancy findings, the diagnosis of SDB in pregnancy is challenging. The repetitive arousals, sleep fragmentation, and hypoxias experienced by patients with SDB lead to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. In the nonpregnant population SDB is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and stroke. Increasing evidence identifies an association between SDB in pregnancy and gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and fetal growth abnormalities. PMID:27235923

  18. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB), more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23) and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65%) females were evaluated. 27 (29.67%) subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58%) were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002), frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01) and uncontrolled asthma (p < 0.000001). Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA) had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing. PMID:22992302

  19. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  20. Assessment of the 14C-Glycocholic Acid Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    James, O. F. W.; Agnew, J. E.; Bouchier, I. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The 1-(14C)-glycine-glycocholic-acid breath test has been performed on 104 subjects and a normal range established. Abnormal results due to bacterial deconjugation of bile salts were found not only in patients with the “contaminated bowel” syndrome and in those with ileal resection but also in a third group, patients with cholangitis. Abnormal results were also found in patients with gastrocolic fistula and staphylococcal enterocolitis, while mildly abnormal results were also found in some patients with liver disease. PMID:4718834

  1. REGIONAL DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS DURING CONTROLLED NORMAL BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION

    One of the key factors for affecting respiratory

    deposition of particles is the breathing pattern of

    individual subjects. Although idealized breathing

    patterns
    (square or sine wave form) are frequently used

    for studying lung deposit...

  2. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24249884

  3. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  4. Quantification of periodic breathing in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Mary A.; Fairchild, Karen D.; Patel, Manisha; Sinkin, Robert A.; Clark, Matthew T.; Moorman, J. Randall; Lake, Douglas E.; Kattwinkel, John; Delos, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodic breathing (PB), regular cycles of short apneic pauses and breaths, is common in newborn infants. To characterize normal and potentially pathologic PB, we used our automated apnea detection system and developed a novel method for quantifying PB. We identified a preterm infant who died of SIDS and who, on review of her breathing pattern while in the NICU, had exaggerated PB. Methods We analyzed the chest impedance signal for short apneic pauses and developed a wavelet transform method to identify repetitive 10–40 second cycles of apnea/breathing. Clinical validation was performed to distinguish PB from apnea clusters and determine the wavelet coefficient cutoff having optimum diagnostic utility. We applied this method to analyze the chest impedance signals throughout the entire NICU stays of all 70 infants born at 32 weeks’ gestation admitted over a two-and-a-half year period. This group includes an infant who died of SIDS and her twin. Results For infants of 32 weeks’ gestation, the fraction of time spent in PB peaks 7–14 days after birth at 6.5%. During that time the infant that died of SIDS spent 40% of each day in PB and her twin spent 15% of each day in PB. Conclusions This wavelet transform method allows quantification of normal and potentially pathologic PB in NICU patients. PMID:26012526

  5. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality

    PubMed Central

    Klingel, Michelle; Pizarro, Maria Ester; Hall, Graham L.; Ramsey, Kathryn; Foong, Rachel; Saunders, Clare; Robinson, Paul D.; Webster, Hailey; Hardaker, Kate; Kane, Mica; Ratjen, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW) outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria. Methods 50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic). Results Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53–0.83%) to (κ 0.73–0.97%), but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis. Conclusions The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes. PMID:27304432

  6. Understanding the rhythm of breathing: so near yet so far

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Del Negro, Christopher A.; Gray, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    , responding rapidly (in less than one second) and with considerable precision, over an order of magnitude in metabolic demand for O2 (~0.25 to ~5 liters of O2/min). Breathing does indeed persist! Finally, breathing is genetically determined to work at birth, with a well-defined developmental program underlying a neuroanatomical organization with apparent segregation of function, i.e., rhythmogenesis is separate from motor pattern (burst shape and coordination) generation. Importantly, single human gene mutations can affect breathing, and several neurodegenerative disorders compromise breathing by direct effects on brainstem respiratory circuits (See below). PMID:23121137

  7. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  8. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  9. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  10. TU-F-17A-04: Respiratory Phase-Resolved 3D MRI with Isotropic High Spatial Resolution: Determination of the Average Breathing Motion Pattern for Abdominal Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Z; Pang, J; Yang, W; Yue, Y; Tuli, R; Fraass, B; Li, D; Fan, Z

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a retrospective 4D-MRI technique (respiratory phase-resolved 3D-MRI) for providing an accurate assessment of tumor motion secondary to respiration. Methods: A 3D projection reconstruction (PR) sequence with self-gating (SG) was developed for 4D-MRI on a 3.0T MRI scanner. The respiration-induced shift of the imaging target was recorded by SG signals acquired in the superior-inferior direction every 15 radial projections (i.e. temporal resolution 98 ms). A total of 73000 radial projections obtained in 8-min were retrospectively sorted into 10 time-domain evenly distributed respiratory phases based on the SG information. Ten 3D image sets were then reconstructed offline. The technique was validated on a motion phantom (gadolinium-doped water-filled box, frequency of 10 and 18 cycles/min) and humans (4 healthy and 2 patients with liver tumors). Imaging protocol included 8-min 4D-MRI followed by 1-min 2D-realtime (498 ms/frame) MRI as a reference. Results: The multiphase 3D image sets with isotropic high spatial resolution (1.56 mm) permits flexible image reformatting and visualization. No intra-phase motion-induced blurring was observed. Comparing to 2D-realtime, 4D-MRI yielded similar motion range (phantom: 10.46 vs. 11.27 mm; healthy subject: 25.20 vs. 17.9 mm; patient: 11.38 vs. 9.30 mm), reasonable displacement difference averaged over the 10 phases (0.74mm; 3.63mm; 1.65mm), and excellent cross-correlation (0.98; 0.96; 0.94) between the two displacement series. Conclusion: Our preliminary study has demonstrated that the 4D-MRI technique can provide high-quality respiratory phase-resolved 3D images that feature: a) isotropic high spatial resolution, b) a fixed scan time of 8 minutes, c) an accurate estimate of average motion pattern, and d) minimal intra-phase motion artifact. This approach has the potential to become a viable alternative solution to assess the impact of breathing on tumor motion and determine appropriate treatment margins

  11. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  12. Spatially directed vesicle capture in the ordered pores of breath-figure polymer films.

    PubMed

    Arora, J S; Ponnusamy, T; Zheng, R; Venkataraman, P; Raghavan, S R; Blake, D; John, V T

    2015-07-14

    This work describes a new method to selectively capture liposomes and other vesicle entities in the patterned pores of breath-figure polymer films. The process involves the deposition of a hydrophobe containing biopolymer in the pores of the breath figure, and the tethering of vesicles to the biopolymer through hydrophobic interactions. The process is versatile, can be scaled up and extended to the deposition of other functional materials in the pores of breath figures. PMID:26021456

  13. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  14. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  15. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  16. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  17. Abnormal patterns of equine leucocyte differentiation antigen expression in severe combined immunodeficiency foals suggests the phenotype of normal equine natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, D P; McClure, J T; Schobert, C S; Holmes, M A

    1995-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a fatal autosommal disease of Arabian horses that leads to failure of maturation of T- and B-lymphocyte populations, although natural killer (NK) cells are unaffected. Thymic and lymph node tissues from two foals suffering from SCID were examined in an immunohistological study using a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognising equine leucocyte differentiation antigens. In both foals, the majority of cells in lymphoid tissues had an EqCD3-EqCD4-EqCD8+ phenotype, although rare EqCD3+ cells were also detected. The EqCD3-EqCD4-EqCD8+ cells may represent an abnormal lymphocyte differentiation product resulting from the SCID defect, or alternatively may be a normal equine NK cell population. We suggest that the evidence favours the latter proposal, and that equine NK cells in normal horses therefore may be identified by an EqCD3-EqCD8+ phenotype. The implications for the nature of the equine SCID defect are discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751035

  18. Breathing challenges in Rett Syndrome: Lessons learned from humans and animal models✩,✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Ward, Christopher Scott; Neul, Jeffrey Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Breathing disturbances are a major challenge in Rett Syndrome (RTT). These disturbances are more pronounced during wakefulness; but irregular breathing occurs also during sleep. During the day patients can exhibit alternating bouts of hypoventilation and irregular hyperventilation. But there is significant individual variability in severity, onset, duration and type of breathing disturbances. Research in mouse models of RTT suggests that different areas in the ventrolateral medulla and pons give rise to different aspects of this breathing disorder. Pre-clinical experiments in mouse models that target different neuromodulatory and neurotransmitter receptors and MeCP2 function within glia cells can partly reverse breathing abnormalities. The success in animal models raises optimism that one day it will be possible to control or potentially cure the devastating symptoms also in human patients with RTT. PMID:23816600

  19. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  20. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  1. Breathing rhythms and emotions.

    PubMed

    Homma, Ikuo; Masaoka, Yuri

    2008-09-01

    Respiration is primarily regulated for metabolic and homeostatic purposes in the brainstem. However, breathing can also change in response to changes in emotions, such as sadness, happiness, anxiety or fear. Final respiratory output is influenced by a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centres, including the limbic system and cortical structures. Respiration is important in maintaining physiological homeostasis and co-exists with emotions. In this review, we focus on the relationship between respiration and emotions by discussing previous animal and human studies, including studies of olfactory function in relation to respiration and the piriform-amygdala in relation to respiration. In particular, we discuss oscillations of piriform-amygdala complex activity and respiratory rhythm. PMID:18487316

  2. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  3. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  4. Newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in China (I): abnormal genetic patterns in 1346 childhood and adult cases and their comparison with the reports from Western countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Wang, Y-Y; Shen, Y; Zhang, W-N; He, H-Y; Zhu, Y-M; Chen, H-M; Gu, C-H; Fan, X; Chen, J-M; Cao, Q; Yang, G; Jiang, C-L; Weng, X-Q; Zhang, X-X; Xiong, S-M; Shen, Z-X; Jiang, H; Gu, L-J; Chen, Z; Mi, J-Q; Chen, S-J

    2012-07-01

    It has been generally acknowledged that the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation of leukemia largely rely on an adequate identification of genetic abnormalities. A systemic analysis of genetic aberrations was performed in a cohort of 1346 patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in China. The pediatric patients had higher incidence of hyperdiploidy and t(12;21) (p13;q22)/ETV6-RUNX1 than adults (P<0.0001); in contrast, the occurrence of Ph and Ik6 variant of IKZF1 gene was much more frequent in adult patients (all P<0.0001). In B-ALL, the existence of Ik6 and that of BCR-ABL were statistically correlated (P<0.0001). In comparison with Western cohorts, the incidence of t(9;22) (q34;q11)/BCR-ABL (14.60%) in B-ALL and HOX11 expression in T-ALL (25.24%) seemed to be much higher in our group, while the incidence of t(12;21) (p13;q22)/ETV6-RUNX1 (15.34%) seemed to be lower in Chinese pediatric patients. The occurrence of hyperdiploidy was much lower either in pediatric (10.61% vs 20-38%) or adult patients (2.36% vs 6.77-12%) in our study than in Western reports. In addition, the frequencies of HOX11L2 in adult patients were much higher in our cohort than in Western countries (20.69% vs 4-11%). In general, it seems that Chinese ALL patients bear more adverse prognostic factors than their Western counterparts do. PMID:22382891

  5. The Cellular Building Blocks of Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, J.M.; Doi, A.; Garcia, A.J.; Elsen, F.P.; Koch, H.; Wei, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory brainstem neurons fulfill critical roles in controlling breathing: they generate the activity patterns for breathing and contribute to various sensory responses including changes in O2 and CO2. These complex sensorimotor tasks depend on the dynamic interplay between numerous cellular building blocks that consist of voltage-, calcium-, and ATP-dependent ionic conductances, various ionotropic and metabotropic synaptic mechanisms, as well as neuromodulators acting on G-protein coupled receptors and second messenger systems. As described in this review, the sensorimotor responses of the respiratory network emerge through the state-dependent integration of all these building blocks. There is no known respiratory function that involves only a small number of intrinsic, synaptic, or modulatory properties. Because of the complex integration of numerous intrinsic, synaptic, and modulatory mechanisms, the respiratory network is capable of continuously adapting to changes in the external and internal environment, which makes breathing one of the most integrated behaviors. Not surprisingly, inspiration is critical not only in the control of ventilation, but also in the context of “inspiring behaviors” such as arousal of the mind and even creativity. Far-reaching implications apply also to the underlying network mechanisms, as lessons learned from the respiratory network apply to network functions in general. PMID:23720262

  6. The immune response to resistive breathing.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, T; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2004-12-01

    Resistive breathing is an "immune challenge" for the body, initiating an inflammatory response consisting of an elevation of plasma cytokines, and the recruitment and activation of lymphocyte subpopulations. These cytokines do not originate from monocytes, but are, instead, produced within the diaphragm, secondary to the increased muscle activation. Oxidative stress is a major stimulus for the cytokine induction, secondary to resistive breathing. The production of cytokines within the diaphragm may be mediating the diaphragm muscle fibre injury that occurs with strenuous contractions, or contributing towards the expected repair process. These cytokines may also compromise diaphragmatic contractility or contribute towards the development of muscle cachexia. They may also have systemic effects, mobilising glucose from the liver and free fatty acid from the adipose tissue to the strenuously working respiratory muscles. At the same time, they stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to production of adrenocorticotropin and beta-endorphins. The adrenocorticotropin response may represent an attempt of the organism to reduce the injury occurring in the respiratory muscles via the production of glucocorticoids and the induction of the acute phase-response proteins. The beta-endorphin response would decrease the activation of the respiratory muscles and change the pattern of breathing, which becomes more rapid and shallow, possibly in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent further injury to the respiratory muscles. PMID:15572550

  7. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  8. Repeated stress-induced expression pattern alterations of the hippocampal chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 associated with behavioral abnormalities in female mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takao; Masuhara, Masaaki; Iwai, Haruki; Sonomura, Takahiro; Sato, Tomoaki

    2015-09-11

    The balance of cation-chloride co-transporters, particularly KCC2 and NKCC1, is critical for GABAergic inhibitory signaling. However, KCC2/NKCC1 balance is disrupted in many neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, correlations between chronic stress, KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Despite the fact that emotional disorders in humans are far more prevalent in women, there have been relatively few studies about female subjects. Here we investigated behaviors and expression patterns of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampi of female mice under chronic stress. Repeated stress (RS) was induced in experimental mice by repeated forced water administration. Then, expression patterns of GABAergic signaling molecules were identified by immunohistochemical analysis and performance was assessed using several behavioral tests. The results of semi-quantitative analysis showed that RS decreased KCC2 expression and increased NKCC1 expression in membranes of granular and pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. The novel object recognition (NOR) test and sociability test revealed that RS induced cognitive and sociability deficits, whereas RS increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test and induced attention deficits in other tests. In summary, RS induced alterations in membrane KCC2/NKCC1 balance in the hippocampus of female mice, which may contribute to GABAergic disinhibition associated with cognitional, sociability and attention deficits. PMID:26239662

  9. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient's body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as "gold standard" for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1-3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages. PMID:26601003

  10. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient’s body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as “gold standard” for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1–3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages. PMID:26601003

  11. A 14-day elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing the lactulose breath test.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark; Constantino, Tess; Kong, Yuthana; Bajwa, Meera; Rezaei, Abolghasem; Park, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive subjects with IBS and abnormal LBT suggesting the presence of bacterial overgrowth underwent a 2-week exclusive elemental diet. The diet consisted of Vivonex Plus (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Minneapolis, MN) in a quantity based on individual caloric requirement. On day 15 (prior to solid food), subjects returned for a follow-up breath test and those with an abnormal LBT were continued on the diet for an additional 7 days. The ability of an elemental diet to normalize the LBT was determined for days 15 and 21. A chart review was then conducted to evaluate any clinical benefit 1 month later. Of the 93 subjects available for analysis, 74 (80%) had a normal LBT on day 15 of the elemental diet. When those who continued to day 21 were included, five additional patients normalized the breath test (85%). On chart review, subjects who successfully normalized their breath test had a 66.4 +/- 36.1% improvement in bowel symptoms, compared to 11.9 +/- 22.0% in those who failed to normalize (P < 0.001). An elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing an abnormal LBT in IBS subjects, with a concomitant improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:14992438

  12. Can brain impairment be detected by in utero behavioural patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, N; Koyanagi, T; Maeda, H; Satoh, S; Takashima, T; Minami, T; Nakano, H

    1993-01-01

    Fetal behavioural patterns were examined to test whether they could be used to localise sites of brain damage antenatally. Decreased fetal movement, persistent nonreactive fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern, and/or central nervous system malformation were used as indicators of possible neurological impairment. Ten fetuses tested in this way underwent further ultrasound examination observing movement of the extremities, chest wall (breathing), and eye and mouth, and active/quiet FHR patterns. Eight of these 10 fetuses were found on postnatal examination to have a brain impairment. The fetuses having potential in utero brain impairment were divided into four groups: those with (1) lesion sites at, or caudal to, the pons-medulla that were specifically identified by fetal behaviour, (2) diffuse lesions in the brain which, although resulting in abnormal behaviour, could not be localised by this behaviour, (3) lesions localised in the cerebral hemisphere(s) but with no abnormal behaviour and (4) temporally abnormal behaviour in utero, finally changing over to a normal pattern with no neonatal neurological abnormality. A screening system for the antenatal assessment of brain impairment is thus proposed. PMID:8346949

  13. Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

  14. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control shortness of breath: Call your doctor, palliative care team, or hospice nurse for advice Call 911 ... Bicanovsky L. Comfort care: symptom control in the dying. In: Walsh ... . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 181.

  15. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  16. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  17. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  18. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  19. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tewatia, Dinesh; Zhang Tiezhi; Tome, Wolfgang; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Metha, Minesh

    2006-11-15

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of target tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and without

  20. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  2. Central role of carotid body chemoreceptors in disordered breathing and cardiorenal dysfunction in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory breathing (OB) patterns are observed in pre-term infants, patients with cardio-renal impairment, and in otherwise healthy humans exposed to high altitude. Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these abnormal patterns by destabilizing the respiratory control system. OB patterns in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients are associated with greater levels of tonic and chemoreflex-evoked sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which is associated with greater morbidity and poor prognosis. Enhanced chemoreflex drive may contribute to tonic elevations in SNA by strengthening the relationship between respiratory and sympathetic neural outflow. Elimination of CB afferents in experimental models of CHF has been shown to reduce OB, respiratory-sympathetic coupling, and renal SNA, and to improve autonomic balance in the heart. The CB chemoreceptors may play an important role in progression of CHF by contributing to respiratory instability and OB, which in turn further exacerbates tonic and chemoreflex-evoked increases in SNA to the heart and kidney. PMID:25505417

  3. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    subjects, and healthy subjects. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone, under a specifically controlled condition fast (<1 min) and portable breath acetone measurement can be used for screening abnormal metabolic status including diabetes, for point-of-care monitoring status of ketone bodies which have the signature smell of breath acetone, and for breath acetone related clinical studies requiring a large number of tests. PMID:27483281

  4. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  5. Towards the Development of a Mobile Phonopneumogram: Automatic Breath-Phase Classification Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bersain A; Reljin, Natasa; Kong, Youngsun; Nam, Yunyoung; Ha, Sangho; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Correct labeling of breath phases is useful in the automatic analysis of respiratory sounds, where airflow or volume signals are commonly used as temporal reference. However, such signals are not always available. The development of a smartphone-based respiratory sound analysis system has received increased attention. In this study, we propose an optical approach that takes advantage of a smartphone's camera and provides a chest movement signal useful for classification of the breath phases when simultaneously recording tracheal sounds. Spirometer and smartphone-based signals were acquired from N = 13 healthy volunteers breathing at different frequencies, airflow and volume levels. We found that the smartphone-acquired chest movement signal was highly correlated with reference volume (ρ = 0.960 ± 0.025, mean ± SD). A simple linear regression on the chest signal was used to label the breath phases according to the slope between consecutive onsets. 100% accuracy was found for the classification of the analyzed breath phases. We found that the proposed classification scheme can be used to correctly classify breath phases in more challenging breathing patterns, such as those that include non-breath events like swallowing, talking, and coughing, and alternating or irregular breathing. These results show the feasibility of developing a portable and inexpensive phonopneumogram for the analysis of respiratory sounds based on smartphones. PMID:26847825

  6. Sleep and Cognitive Abnormalities in Acute Minor Thalamic Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Cui, Linyang; Fu, Ying; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Du, Ning; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Zhijun; Song, Yijun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Xue, Rong

    2016-08-01

    In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep architecture was disrupted as indicated by decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 2 and 3; more sleep-related breathing disorders occurred; and cognitive functions were worse, especially memory. While sleep apnea and long-delay memory recovered to a large extent in the patients, other sleep and cognitive function deficit often persisted. Patients with AMTI are at an increased risk for hyposomnia, sleep structure disturbance, sleep apnea, and memory deficits. Although these abnormalities improved over time, the slow and incomplete improvement suggest that early management should be considered in these patients. PMID:27237578

  7. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  8. The Buteyko breathing technique for asthma: a review.

    PubMed

    Bruton, A; Lewith, G T

    2005-03-01

    Breathing exercises and breathing retraining are often used in the management of asthma. One specific form of breathing therapy, known as the Buteyko breathing technique (BBT) has received considerable attention, but there is a paucity of rigorous research evidence to support its recommendation for asthma patients. There are only four published clinical trials and two conference abstracts evaluating BBT. Although all have reported improvements in one or more outcome measures, results have not been consistent. This article provides the background to the BBT, reviews the available evidence for its use and examines the physiological hypothesis claimed to underpin it. In common with other therapies, BBT is not a standardised treatment modality. The BBT 'package' is complex, as it also includes advice and education about medication use, nutrition and exercise, and general relaxation. This makes it difficult, and possibly inappropriate, to attempt to tease out a single mechanism. Buteyko's theory relating to carbon dioxide levels and airway calibre is an attractive one, and has some basis in evidence from experimental studies. However, it is not known whether altering breathing patterns can raise carbon dioxide levels significantly, and there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm that this is the mechanism behind any effect that BBT may exert. Further research is necessary to establish unequivocally whether BBT is effective, and if so, how it may work. PMID:15907677

  9. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    PubMed

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. PMID:26159687

  10. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  11. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  12. Amplitude gating for a coached breathing approach in respiratory gated 10 MV flattening filter-free VMAT delivery.

    PubMed

    Viel, Francis; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amplitude gating combined with a coached breathing strategy for 10 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam linac. Ten patient plans for VMAT SABR liver were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The verification plans were then transferred to a CT-scanned Quasar phantom and delivered on a TrueBeam linac using a 10 MV FFF beam and Varian's real-time position management (RPM) system for respiratory gating based on breathing amplitude. Breathing traces were acquired from ten patients using two kinds of breathing patterns: free breathing and an interrupted (~ 5 s pause) end of exhale coached breathing pattern. Ion chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were acquired for a gated delivery while the phantom moved under the described breathing patterns, as well as for a nongated stationary phantom delivery. The gate window was set to obtain a range of residual target motion from 2-5 mm. All gated deliveries on a moving phantom have been shown to be dosimetrically equivalent to the nongated deliveries on a static phantom, with differences in point dose measurements under 1% and average gamma 2%/2 mm agreement above 98.7%. Comparison with the treatment planning system also resulted in good agreement, with differences in point-dose measurements under 2.5% and average gamma 3%/3 mm agreement of 97%. The use of a coached breathing pattern significantly increases the duty cycle, compared with free breathing, and allows for shorter treatment times. Patients' free-breathing patterns contain considerable variability and, although dosimetric results for gated delivery may be acceptable, it is difficult to achieve efficient treatment delivery. A coached breathing pattern combined with a 5 mm amplitude gate, resulted in both high-quality dose distributions and overall shortest gated beam delivery times. PMID:26219000

  13. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  14. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  17. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  18. Breathing during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Kearon, M C; Summers, E; Jones, N L; Campbell, E J; Killian, K J

    1991-01-01

    1. Six normal subjects cycled to endurance or for 60 min at four work rates (WR 1-4): mean of 34% working capacity (93 watts for 60 min); 43% (120 watts for 56 min); 63% (177 watts for 37 min); and 84% (233 watts for 12 min), to determine how breathing pattern and dyspnoea change during prolonged activity. Four to six minutes were allowed to establish steady state and subsequent changes were considered to be endurance related. 2. Dyspnoea (Borg scale, 0-10) increased with the duration of activity at all work rates. 3. Ventilation (VE) did not change at WR1; increased from 44 to 47 l min-1 at WR2; from 60 to 88 l min-1 at WR3; and from 111 to 132 l min-1 at WR4. Dyspnoea was significantly and independently related to ventilation and duration of activity: dyspnoea = 0.004 VE1.36 time 0.25 (r = 0.81; partial F 202 and 26 respectively). 4. Inspiratory resistance did not increase at any work rate. Dynamic elastance remained constant during WR1, WR2 and WR3 but increased from 7.4 to 9.1 cmH2O l-1 during WR4. 5. Peak inspiratory pressure did not increase, and the increase in VE was accomplished by an increased breathing frequency without change in duty cycle. 6. Duration of activity is an important contributor to dyspnoea independent of changes in respiratory muscle contractile activity. PMID:1798038

  19. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( ... time your likelihood of having a serious lung problem increases, especially if you smoke. Lung problems that ...

  20. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  1. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  2. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Exhaled Breath Analysis with a Colorimetric Sensor Array for the Identification and Characterization of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Peter J; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yaomin; Mekhail, Tarek; Beukemann, Mary C; Na, Jie; Kemling, Jonathan W; Suslick, Kenneth S; Sasidhar, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The pattern of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds represents a metabolic biosignature with the potential to identify and characterize lung cancer. Breath biosignature-based classification of homogeneous subgroups of lung cancer may be more accurate than a global breath signature. Combining breath biosignatures with clinical risk factors may improve the accuracy of the signature. Objectives Develop an exhaled breath biosignature of lung cancer using a colorimetric sensor array. Determine the accuracy of breath biosignatures of lung cancer characteristics with and without the inclusion of clinical risk factors. Methods The exhaled breath of 229 study subjects, 92 with lung cancer and 137 controls, was drawn across a colorimetric sensor array. Logistic prediction models were developed and statistically validated based on the color changes of the sensor. Age, sex, smoking history, and COPD were incorporated in the prediction models. Results The validated prediction model of the combined breath and clinical biosignature was moderately accurate at distinguishing lung cancer from control subjects (C-statistic 0.811). The accuracy improved when the model focused on only one histology (C-statistic 0.825 – 0.890). Individuals with different histologies could be accurately distinguished from one another (C-statistic 0.889 for adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma). Moderate accuracies were noted for validated breath biosignatures of stage and survival (C-statistic 0.793, 0.770 respectively). Conclusions A colorimetric sensor array is capable of identifying exhaled breath biosignatures of lung cancer. The accuracy of breath biosignatures can be optimized by evaluating specific histologies and incorporating clinical risk factors. PMID:22071780

  4. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  6. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  7. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  8. Hierarchy of orofacial rhythms revealed through whisking and breathing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey D.; Deschênes, Martin; Furuta, Takahiro; Huber, Daniel; Smear, Matthew C.; Demers, Maxime; Kleinfeld, David

    2014-01-01

    Whisking and sniffing are predominant aspects of exploratory behavior in rodents, yet the neural mechanisms that generate their motor patterns remain largely uncharacterized. We use anatomical, behavioral, electrophysiological, and pharmacological tools to demonstrate that these patterns are coordinated by respiratory centers in the ventral medulla. We delineate a distinct region in the ventral medulla that provides rhythmic input to the facial motoneurons that drive protraction of the vibrissae. Neuronal output from this region is reset at each inspiration by direct input from the preBötzinger complex, such that high frequency sniffing has a one-to-one coordination with whisking while basal respiration is accompanied by intervening whisks that occur between breaths. We conjecture that the respiratory nuclei, which project to other premotor regions for oral and facial control, function as a master clock for behaviors that coordinate with breathing. PMID:23624373

  9. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Heather; Vandoni, Matteo; deBarbieri, Giacomo; Codrons, Erwan; Ugargol, Veena; Bernardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/unequal inspiration/expiration at 6 breath/min, with/without ujjayi), in 17 yoga-naive young healthy participants. BRS increased with slow breathing techniques with or without expiratory ujjayi (P < 0.05 or higher) except with inspiratory + expiratory ujjayi. The maximal increase in BRS and decrease in blood pressure were found in slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration. This corresponded with a significant improvement in oxygen saturation without increase in heart rate and ventilation. Ujjayi showed similar increase in oxygen saturation but slightly lesser improvement in baroreflex sensitivity with no change in blood pressure. The slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration seems the best technique for improving baroreflex sensitivity in yoga-naive subjects. The effects of ujjayi seems dependent on increased intrathoracic pressure that requires greater effort than normal slow breathing. PMID:23710236

  10. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  14. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  15. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  16. The athlete "out of breath".

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Moreira, A

    2016-03-01

    Athletes often complain about breathing problems. This is a crucial issue due to potential implications not only on their general health, but also on their competing performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction are prevalent conditions in elite athletes, which leads doctors to rely most of the times on asthma medication to treat athletes feeling "out of breath". However, there are several other conditions that may mimic asthma and cause dyspnea in athletes. Effective treatment of dyspnea requires appropriate identification and treatment of all disorders. Proper knowledge and accurate diagnosis of such entities is mandatory, since asthma medication is not effective in those conditions. Herein we review the most common differential diagnosis of dyspnea in athletes, and describe the diagnostic strategies in order to increase awareness and to improve doctor's confidence on dealing with these patients. PMID:26934737

  17. Exhaled Breath Analysis for the Monitoring of Elderly COPD Patients Health-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Chiurco, Domenica; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2011-09-01

    This pilot study assesses how effectively a gas sensors array can follow the evolution of elderly patients with COPD, the most common chronic respiratory disease. In particular, reproducibility of breath analysis (calculated for each subject along three weekly measurements) resulted comparable to spirometry, except for a larger spread for breath analysis, whose patterns was significantly correlated with other heath status parameters (such as eosinophiles and Barthel index).

  18. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  19. Differentiation between genetic mutations of breast cancer by breath volatolomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Kayal, Haneen; Khoury, Kayan; Liu, Hu; Davies, Michael P.A.; Haick, Hossam

    2015-01-01

    Mapping molecular sub-types in breast cancer (BC) tumours is a rapidly evolving area due to growing interest in, for example, targeted therapy and screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis. We report a new concept for profiling BC molecular sub-types based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this purpose, breath samples were collected from 276 female volunteers, including healthy, benign conditions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and malignant lesions. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and artificially intelligent nanoarray technology. Applying the non-parametric Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test, GC-MS analysis found 23 compounds that were significantly different (p < 0.05) in breath samples of BC patients with different molecular sub-types. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) of the nanoarray identified unique volatolomic signatures between cancer and non-cancer cases (83% accuracy in blind testing), and for the different molecular sub-types with accuracies ranging from 82 to 87%, sensitivities of 81 to 88% and specificities of 76 to 96% in leave-one-out cross-validation. These results demonstrate the presence of detectable breath VOC patterns for accurately profiling molecular sub-types in BC, either through specific compound identification by GC-MS or by volatolomic signatures obtained through statistical analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray responses. PMID:26540569

  20. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Casagrande, Camila Ferreira; Teixeira, Lícia Pacheco; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB) is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools. RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood. PMID:26352843

  1. Sleep-disordered breathing: effects on brain structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is accompanied by neural injury that affects a wide range of physiological systems which include processes for sensing chemoreception and airflow, driving respiratory musculature, timing circuitry for coordination of breathing patterning, and integration of blood pressure mechanisms with respiration. The damage also occurs in regions mediating emotion and mood, as well as areas regulating memory and cognitive functioning, and appears in structures that serve significant glycemic control processes. The injured structures include brain areas involved in hormone release and action of major neurotransmitters, including those playing a role in depression. The injury is reflected in a range of structural magnetic resonance procedures, and also appears as functional distortions of evoked activity in brain areas mediating vital autonomic and breathing functions. The damage is preferentially unilateral, and includes axonal projections; the asymmetry of the injury poses unique concerns for sympathetic discharge and potential consequences for arrhythmia. Sleep-disordered breathing should be viewed as a condition that includes central nervous system injury and impaired function; the processes underlying injury remain unclear. PMID:23643610

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  3. (13)C-5-FU breath test current status and future directions: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ezzeldin, Hany H; Acosta, Edward P; Mattison, Lori K; Fourie, Jeanne; Modak, Anil; Diasio, Robert B

    2009-12-01

    Breath tests (BTs) represent a safe non-invasive alternative strategy that could provide valuable diagnostic information in conditions like fat malabsorption, carbohydrate (lactose and fructose) malabsorption, liver dysfunction, impaired gastric emptying, abnormal small bowel transit time, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. To date, despite the availability of a number of breath tests, only three have gained approval by the FDA for application in a clinical setting ((13)C-urea breath test for the detection of H. pylori; NO breath test for monitoring asthma and alkane breath test for heart transplant rejection). Unfortunately, none of these tests investigate cancer patients or response to cancer chemotherapy. Several years ago it was realized that the presence of a reliable non-invasive approach could assist in the detection of patients at risk of developing severe life-threatening toxicities prior to the administration of fluoropyrimidines (e.g. 5-FU) or related cancer chemotherapy. 5-FU toxicity results mainly from deficient uracil catabolism. This review discusses the development of a BT that utilizes an orally administered pyrimidine ([2-(13)C]-uracil) which is metabolized via the same catabolic pathway as 5-FU. This ([2-(13)C]-uracil) breath test could provide a valuable addition to the patients' standard of care. PMID:21386199

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  5. Breathing Mode in Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Bonitz, M.; Melzer, A.; Vitkalov, S.

    2007-11-01

    The breathing mode is a fundamental normal mode present in Coulomb systems, and may have utility in identifying particle charge and the Debye length of certain systems. The question remains whether this mode can be extended to strongly coupled Yukawa balls [1]. These systems are characterized by particles confined within a parabolic potential well and interacting through a shielded Coulomb potential [2,3]. The breathing modes for a variety of systems in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions are computed by solving the eigenvalue problem given by the dynamical (Hesse) matrix. These results are compared to theoretical investigations that assume a strict definition for a breathing mode within the system, and an analysis is made of the most fitting model to utilize in the study of particular systems of complex plasmas [1,4]. References [1] T.E. Sheridan, Phys. of Plasmas. 13, 022106 (2006)[2] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)[3] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)[4] C. Henning et al., submitted for publication

  6. Breathing Dynamics in Heteropolymer DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Banik, Suman K.; Krichevsky, Oleg; Metzler, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    While the statistical mechanical description of DNA has a long tradition, renewed interest in DNA melting from a physics perspective is nourished by measurements of the fluctuation dynamics of local denaturation bubbles by single molecule spectroscopy. The dynamical opening of DNA bubbles (DNA breathing) is supposedly crucial for biological functioning during, for instance, transcription initiation and DNA's interaction with selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Motivated by this, we consider the bubble breathing dynamics in a heteropolymer DNA based on a (2+1)-variable master equation and complementary stochastic Gillespie simulations, providing the bubble size and the position of the bubble along the sequence as a function of time. We utilize new experimental data that independently obtain stacking and hydrogen bonding contributions to DNA stability. We calculate the spectrum of relaxation times and the experimentally measurable autocorrelation function of a fluorophore-quencher tagged basepair, and demonstrate good agreement with fluorescence correlation experiments. A significant dependence of opening probability and waiting time between bubble events on the local DNA sequence is revealed and quantified for a promoter sequence of the T7 phage. The strong dependence on sequence, temperature and salt concentration for the breathing dynamics of DNA found here points at a good potential for nanosensing applications by utilizing short fluorophore-quencher dressed DNA constructs. PMID:17237209

  7. Exhaled breath analysis and sleep.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E

    2011-10-15

    It is currently estimated that the economic burden for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) cases not coming to medical attention is steadily increasing, thus making OSAS a major public health concern. For its increasing incidence among the common population, the interest of researchers and clinicians has been recently directed to the study of pathological mechanisms underlying sleep disorders. Current opinion is that airway inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of OSAS. Recently there has been increasing interest in the investigation of lungs by non-invasive means measuring the exhaled breath volatile mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ethane and pentane and finally the non-volatile substances in the liquid phase of exhalate, termed breath condensate. The non-invasiveness of these techniques for the study of airways affected by different respiratory disorders and among those, the OSAS, makes these ideally suited for the evaluation and serial monitoring of patients. Notwithstanding the increasing number of scientific contributions on the use of the exhaled markers in sleep disorders, at the moment, their use is not completely suitable for clinical application. An important contribution to the increase of our knowledge on exhaled markers and for their possible concrete application in clinical practice may come from future studies using proteomics, genomics and metabolomics. In this review, we focus on exhaled breath analysis giving an update on its general aspects, its application in OSAS, and finally its actual clinical applicability and areas for future direction. PMID:22003329

  8. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  9. Observing the human exposome as reflected in breath biomarkers: heat map data interpretation for environmental and intelligence research.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Sobus, Jon R; Liu, Qian; Madden, Michael C

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade, the research of human system biology and the interactions with the external environment has permeated all phases of environmental, medical and public health research. Similar to the fields of genomics and proteomics research, the advent of new instrumentation for measuring breath biomarkers and their associated meta-data also provide very useful, albeit complex, data structures. The biomarker research community is beginning to invoke tools from system biology to assess the impact of environmental exposures, as well as from internal health states, on the expression of suites of chemicals in exhaled breath. This new approach introduces the concept of the exposome as a complement to the genome in exploring the environment-gene interaction. In addition to answering questions regarding health status for the medical community, breath biomarker patterns are useful for assessing public health risks from environmental exposures. Furthermore, breath biomarker patterns can inform security risks from suspects via covert interrogation of blood borne chemical levels that reflect previous activities. This paper discusses how different classes of exhaled breath biomarker measurements can be used to rapidly assess patterns in complex data. We present exhaled breath data sets to demonstrate the value of the graphical 'heat map' approach for hypothesis development and subsequent guidance for stochastic and mixed effect data interpretation. We also show how to graphically interpret exhaled breath measurements of exogenous jet fuel components, as well as exhaled breath condensate measurements of endogenous chemicals. PMID:21654022

  10. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  11. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  12. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Obesity: Pathophysiology, Complications and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leinum, Corey J.; Dopp, John M.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a medical condition that has increasingly recognized adverse health effects. Obesity is the primary risk factor for the development of SDB and contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in this population. However, accumulating evidence suggests that SDB may be related to the development of these abnormalities independent of obesity. Periodic apneas and hypopneas during sleep result in intermittent hypoxemia, arousals and sleep disturbances. These pathophysiologic characteristics of SDB are likely mechanisms underlying cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities including hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, altered adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. It appears that treatment of SDB with continuous positive airway pressure reverses some but not all of these abnormalities; however, studies to date have demonstrated inconsistent findings. Weight loss strategies, including diet, exercise, medications and bariatric surgery have been evaluated as a treatment strategy for SDB. In preliminary studies, dietary intervention and exercise have reduced severity of SDB. One study demonstrated mild reductions in weight and subsequent improvements in SDB severity using the weight-reducing medication, sibutramine. In morbidly obese subjects, bariatric surgery effectively induces weight loss and improvement in SDB severity and symptoms, but long-term benefits remain uncertain. Large randomized trials are required to determine the utility of these strategies as long-term approaches to improving SDB and reducing associated complications. PMID:19955545

  13. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  14. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  15. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  16. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient's exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients' exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients' breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  17. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  18. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breath-Hold Divers with Cerebral Decompression Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Ryu; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Arakawa, Shuji; Furuta, Yoshihiko; Kanazawa, Yuka; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of cerebral decompression sickness (DCS) is still unclear. We report 2 cases of breath-hold divers with cerebral DCS in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated distinctive characteristics. One case presented right hemiparesthesia, diplopia, and gait disturbance after breath-hold diving into the sea at a depth of 20 m. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right frontal lobe, bilateral thalamus, pons, and right cerebellar hemisphere. The second case presented visual and gait disturbance after repetitive breath-hold diving into the sea. FLAIR imaging showed hyperintense areas in the bilateral occipito-parietal lobes. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping revealed hyperintense areas in the lesions identified by FLAIR. Moreover, follow-up MRI showed attenuation of the FLAIR signal abnormalities. These findings are suggestive of transient hyperpermeability in the microvasculature as a possible cause of cerebral DCS. PMID:24575029

  20. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    PubMed Central

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an overview of the neuroanatomy of the major compartments comprising brainstem respiratory circuits, and a synopsis of the transmitters used by their constituent respiratory neurons. PMID:18706532

  1. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  3. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

  4. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) which branches into smaller structures ... the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the ...

  5. Sleep physiology and sleep-disordered breathing: the essentials.

    PubMed

    Primhak, Robert; Kingshott, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential, but poses a risk to breathing in some children. We have outlined the developmental changes in sleep patterns and physiology, and the evidence of deleterious effects of sleep deprivation and of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD). Some factors increase the risk of adenotonsillar surgery and should be excluded before contemplating surgery in a secondary care setting. Screening for SRBD is indicated in some conditions, which are discussed. Although simple studies may suffice for many patients, there are a few who need more detailed assessment with polysomnography. A managed clinical network would be the most appropriate model to ensure appropriate organisation and utilisation of scarce resources in this area. PMID:21357242

  6. Resonant breathing biofeedback training for stress reduction among manufacturing operators.

    PubMed

    Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini; Wahab, Muhammad Nubli Abdul; Zin, Nora Mat

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of resonant breathing biofeedback training for reducing stress among manufacturing operators. Resonant breathing biofeedback works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary heart rate variability and to control patterns of this physiological response. Thirty-six female operators from an electronic manufacturing factory were randomly assigned as the experimental group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 17). The participants of the intervention received 5 weekly sessions of biofeedback training. Physiological stress profiles and self-perceived depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that depression, anxiety, and stress significantly decreased after the training in the experimental group; they were supported by a significant increase in physiological measures. Overall, these results support the potential application of resonant biofeedback training to reduce negative emotional symptoms among industrial workers. PMID:23294659

  7. Laser 3-D measuring system and real-time visual feedback for teaching and correcting breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povšič, Klemen; Fležar, Matjaž; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel method for real-time 3-D body-shape measurement during breathing based on the laser multiple-line triangulation principle. The laser projector illuminates the measured surface with a pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes. Simultaneously, the camera records the distorted light pattern from a different viewpoint. The acquired images are transferred to a personal computer, where the 3-D surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and display are performed in real time. The measured surface displacements are displayed with a color palette, which enables visual feedback to the patient while breathing is being taught. The measuring range is approximately 400×600×500 mm in width, height, and depth, respectively, and the accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is +/-0.7 mm. The system was evaluated by means of its capability to distinguish between different breathing patterns. The accuracy of the measured volumes of chest-wall deformation during breathing was verified using standard methods of volume measurements. The results show that the presented 3-D measuring system with visual feedback has great potential as a diagnostic and training assistance tool when monitoring and evaluating the breathing pattern, because it offers a simple and effective method of graphical communication with the patient.

  8. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  9. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  11. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  12. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  13. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  14. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  15. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  16. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality. PMID:25490975

  17. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  18. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  19. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  20. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  1. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  2. Tracheomalacia and breath holding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, H; Doull, I; Williams, R G; Marnane, C

    2000-10-01

    A child with a long standing history of cyanotic breath holding attacks presented with acute respiratory distress. Subsequent investigation established that her clinical condition was caused by tracheomalacia. We hypothesise that tracheomalacia might be an under recognised contributor to cyanotic breath holding attacks, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. PMID:10999873

  3. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  4. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  5. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver. PMID:27157952

  6. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  7. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  9. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  10. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  11. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed. PMID:24256765

  12. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. PMID:9769764

  13. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  14. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  15. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  16. Bio-magnetic signatures of fetal breathing movement.

    PubMed

    Ulusar, U D; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Govindan, R B; Preissl, H; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is to record and analyze fetal brain activity. Unavoidably, these recordings consist of a complex mixture of bio-magnetic signals from both mother and fetus. The acquired data include biological signals that are related to maternal and fetal heart function as well as fetal gross body and breathing movements. Since fetal breathing generates a significant source of bio-magnetic interference during these recordings, the goal of this study was to identify and quantify the signatures pertaining to fetal breathing movements (FBM). The fMEG signals were captured using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) The existence of FBM was verified and recorded concurrently by an ultrasound-based video technique. This simultaneous recording is challenging since SQUIDs are extremely sensitive to magnetic signals and highly susceptible to interference from electronic equipment. For each recording, an ultrasound-FBM (UFBM) signal was extracted by tracing the displacement of the boundary defined by the fetal thorax frame by frame. The start of each FBM was identified by using the peak points of the UFBM signal. The bio-magnetic signals associated with FBM were obtained by averaging the bio-magnetic signals time locked to the FBMs. The results showed the existence of a distinctive sinusoidal signal pattern of FBM in fMEG data. PMID:21252416

  17. Bio-magnetic signatures of fetal breathing movement

    PubMed Central

    Ulusar, U D; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Govindan, R B; Preissl, H; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is to record and analyze fetal brain activity. Unavoidably, these recordings consist of a complex mixture of bio-magnetic signals from both mother and fetus. The acquired data include biological signals that are related to maternal and fetal heart function as well as fetal gross body and breathing movements. Since fetal breathing generates a significant source of bio-magnetic interference during these recordings, the goal of this study was to identify and quantify the signatures pertaining to fetal breathing movements (FBM). The fMEG signals were captured using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) The existence of FBM was verified and recorded concurrently by an ultrasound-based video technique. This simultaneous recording is challenging since SQUIDs are extremely sensitive to magnetic signals and highly susceptible to interference from electronic equipment. For each recording, an ultrasound-FBM (UFBM) signal was extracted by tracing the displacement of the boundary defined by the fetal thorax frame by frame. The start of each FBM was identified by using the peak points of the UFBM signal. The bio-magnetic signals associated with FBM were obtained by averaging the bio-magnetic signals time locked to the FBMs. The results showed the existence of a distinctive sinusoidal signal pattern of FBM in fMEG data. PMID:21252416

  18. Fiber optic sensor for the assessment of breathing effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babchenko, Anatoly; Turinvenko, Sergei; Khanokh, Boris; Nitzan, Meir

    1995-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of breathing effort. The most useful kind of breathing pattern monitor includes devices for recording chest and abdomen dimension changes, such as impedance plethysmography and respiratory induction plethysmography. These devices can measure the tidal volume in relative terms, and even measure it in absolute terms after suitable calibration. In this study a novel method for measuring chest circumference based on an optical fiber is presented. The sensor is based on the measurement of light transmitted through a bent optical fiber, which is connected to an elastic band, wrapped around the chest, and whose radius of curvature changes due to the respiratory act. The amount of transmitted light is related to the radius of curvature of the fiber which depends on the chest circumference. The output of the respiratory sensor was checked qualitatively by changing the respiration rate and depth. The changes in breathing effort were clearly demonstrated in the sensor output recording. The respiratory effort was also correlated with the heart rate, measured by photoplethysmography. Statistically significant correlation was found between the lungs' volume and the heart rate, but the correlation coefficient was not high.

  19. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  20. Sleep disordered breathing in children with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Ricardo A; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B; Chevallier, Justyna; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mitchell, Sarah E; Pacheco, Susan E; Jon, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review study was performed to determine the presence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children with primary mitochondrial disease (MD). The symptoms, sleep-related breathing, and movement abnormalities are described for 18 subjects (ages 1.5 to 18 years, 61% male) with MD who underwent polysomnography in our pediatric sleep center from 2007 to 2012. Of the 18 subjects with MD, the common indications for polysomnography were excessive somnolence or fatigue (61%, N = 11), snoring (44%, N = 8), and sleep movement complaints (17%, N = 3). Polysomnographic measurements showed SDB in 56% (N = 10) (obstructive sleep apnea in 60% (N = 6), hypoxemia in 40% (N = 4), and sleep hypoventilation in 20% (N = 2)). There was a significant association between decreased muscle tone and SDB (P: 0.043) as well as obese and overweight status with SDB (P = 0.036). SDB is common in subjects with MD. Early detection of SDB, utilizing polysomnography, should be considered to assist in identification of MD patients who may benefit from sleep-related interventions. PMID:25587443

  1. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children with Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Ricardo A.; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Hashmi, S. Shahrukh; Mitchell, Sarah E.; Pacheco, Susan E.; Jon, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review study was performed to determine the presence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children with primary mitochondrial disease (MD). The symptoms, sleep-related breathing, and movement abnormalities are described for 18 subjects (ages 1.5 to 18 years, 61% male) with MD who underwent polysomnography in our pediatric sleep center from 2007 to 2012. Of the 18 subjects with MD, the common indications for polysomnography were excessive somnolence or fatigue (61%, N = 11), snoring (44%, N = 8), and sleep movement complaints (17%, N = 3). Polysomnographic measurements showed SDB in 56% (N = 10) (obstructive sleep apnea in 60% (N = 6), hypoxemia in 40% (N = 4), and sleep hypoventilation in 20% (N = 2)). There was a significant association between decreased muscle tone and SDB (P: 0.043) as well as obese and overweight status with SDB (P = 0.036). SDB is common in subjects with MD. Early detection of SDB, utilizing polysomnography, should be considered to assist in identification of MD patients who may benefit from sleep-related interventions. PMID:25587443

  2. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee; Noirhomme, Quentin; Ziegler, Erik; Chatelle, Camille; Plotkin, Anton; Sobel, Noam; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based “sniff controller” that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Methods: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients’ resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. Results: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. Discussion: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. PMID:25566035

  3. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  4. Breath analysis: translation into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Brodrick, Emma; Davies, Antony; Neill, Paul; Hanna, Louise; Williams, E Mark

    2015-06-01

    Breath analysis in respiratory disease is a non-invasive technique which has the potential to complement or replace current screening and diagnostic techniques without inconvenience or harm to the patient. Recent advances in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) have allowed exhaled breath to be analysed rapidly, reliably and robustly thereby facilitating larger studies of exhaled breath profiles in clinical environments. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compound (VOC) breath profiles of people with respiratory disease can be distinguished from healthy control groups but there is a need to validate, standardise and ensure comparability between laboratories before real-time breath analysis becomes a clinical reality. It is also important that breath sampling procedures and methodologies are developed in conjunction with clinicians and the practicalities of working within the clinical setting are considered to allow the full diagnostic potential of these techniques to be realised. A protocol is presented, which has been developed over three years and successfully deployed for quickly and accurately collecting breath samples from 323 respiratory patients recruited from 10 different secondary health care clinics. PMID:25971863

  5. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  6. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  7. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  8. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Microgel photonics: a breathing cavity onto optical fiber tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardi, A.; Aliberti, A.; Giaquinto, M.; Micco, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel multifunctional optical fiber probe resulting from the integration between two rapidly emerging technologies such as Lab-on-Fiber and Microgel Photonics. The device consists of a microgel based cavity formed by metallic slabs supporting plasmonic resonances, directly integrated on the optical fiber tip. By exploiting the multiresponsivity of microgel systems, variations of temperature, PH, ionic strength, as well as molecular binding events, make the cavity to `breath', thus modulating the interference pattern in the reflection spectrum. The microgel layer can be synthetized in such a way to obtain different thicknesses, corresponding to different operating regimes, opening new avenues for the realization of advanced multifunctional nanoprobes.

  11. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo

    2015-10-01

    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible. PMID:26520355

  12. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  13. Central respiratory pattern generation in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Milsom, W K; Reid, S G; Meier, J T; Kinkead, R

    1999-11-01

    There are two components to breathing pattern generation the production of the pattern of neural discharge associated with individual breaths, and the pattern in which breaths are produced to effect ventilation. Bullfrogs typically breathe with randomly distributed breaths. When respiratory drive is elevated, breathing becomes more regular and often episodic. Studies on in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations of the adult bullfrog and in situ preparations of decerebrate, paralyzed, unidirectionally ventilated animals suggest that output from the central rhythm generator in frogs is conditional on receiving some input and that a host of central inputs remain even in the most reduced preparations. There appear to be descending inputs from sites in the dorsal brainstem just caudal to the optic chiasma that cluster breaths into episodes, a strong excitatory input caudal to this site but rostral to the origin of the Vth cranial nerve and, possibly, segmental rhythm generators throughout the medulla that are normally entrained to produce the normal breathing pattern. The data also suggest that the shape of the discharge pattern (augmenting, decrementing) and timing of outputs (alternating vs synchronous) associated with motor outflow during each breath are also dependent on the interconnections between these various sites. PMID:10665378

  14. Experimental and modeling study of thermal exposure of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Michelle K; Yang, Jiann C

    2015-08-01

    An experimental apparatus designed to study firefighter safety equipment exposed to a thermal environment was developed. The apparatus consisted of an elevated temperature flow loop with the ability to heat the air stream up to 200°C. The thermal and flow conditions at the test section were characterized using thermocouples and bi-directional probes. The safety equipment examined in this study was a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), including a facepiece and an air cylinder. The SCBA facepiece was placed on a mannequin headform and coupled to a breathing simulator that was programmed with a prescribed breathing pattern. The entire SCBA assembly was placed in the test section of the flow loop for these thermal exposure experiments. Three air stream temperatures, 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C, were used with the average air speed at the test section set at 1.4m/s and thermal exposure durations up to 1200 s. Measurements were made using type-K bare-bead thermocouples located in the mannequin's mouth and on the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. The experimental results indicated that increasing the thermal exposure severity and duration increased the breathing air temperatures supplied by the SCBA. Temperatures of breathing air from the SCBA cylinder in excess of 60°C were observed over the course of the thermal exposure conditions used in most of the experiments. A mathematical model for transient heat transfer was developed to complement the thermal exposure experimental study. The model took into consideration forced convective heat transfer, quasi-steady heat conduction through the composite layers of the SCBA cylinder wall, the breathing pattern and action of the breathing simulator, and predicted air temperatures from the thermally exposed SCBA cylinder and temperatures at the outer surface of the SCBA cylinder. Model predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements. PMID:25681021

  15. The cerebral cost of breathing: an FMRI case-study in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mike; Gallea, Cécile; Lehongre, Katia; Galanaud, Damien; Nicolas, Nathalie; Similowski, Thomas; Cohen, Laurent; Straus, Christian; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Certain motor activities--like walking or breathing--present the interesting property of proceeding either automatically or under voluntary control. In the case of breathing, brainstem structures located in the medulla are in charge of the automatic mode, whereas cortico-subcortical brain networks--including various frontal lobe areas--subtend the voluntary mode. We speculated that the involvement of cortical activity during voluntary breathing could impact both on the "resting state" pattern of cortical-subcortical connectivity, and on the recruitment of executive functions mediated by the frontal lobe. In order to test this prediction we explored a patient suffering from central congenital hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a very rare developmental condition secondary to brainstem dysfunction. Typically, CCHS patients demonstrate efficient cortically-controlled breathing while awake, but require mechanically-assisted ventilation during sleep to overcome the inability of brainstem structures to mediate automatic breathing. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings to compare patterns of brain activity between these two types of ventilation during wakefulness. As compared with spontaneous breathing (SB), mechanical ventilation (MV) restored the default mode network (DMN) associated with self-consciousness, mind-wandering, creativity and introspection in healthy subjects. SB on the other hand resulted in a specific increase of functional connectivity between brainstem and frontal lobe. Behaviorally, the patient was more efficient in cognitive tasks requiring executive control during MV than during SB, in agreement with her subjective reports in everyday life. Taken together our results provide insight into the cognitive and neural costs of spontaneous breathing in one CCHS patient, and suggest that MV during waking periods may free up frontal lobe resources, and make them available for cognitive recruitment. More generally, this study reveals how the active

  16. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  17. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  18. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  19. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  20. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air... employed in lieu of the breathing tubes required. (c)(1) A flexible, nonkinking type breathing tube...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daxa M; Rocque, Brandon G; Hopson, Betsy; Arynchyna, Anastasia; Bishop, E Ralee'; Lozano, David; Blount, Jeffrey P

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT A paucity of literature examines sleep apnea in patients with myelomeningocele, Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II), and related hydrocephalus. Even less is known about the effect of hydrocephalus treatment or CM-II decompression on sleep hygiene. This study is an exploratory analysis of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with myelomeningocele and the effects of neurosurgical treatments, in particular CM-II decompression and hydrocephalus management, on sleep organization. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients seen in their multidisciplinary spina bifida clinic (approximately 435 patients with myelomeningocele) to evaluate polysomnographs obtained between March 1999 and July 2013. They analyzed symptoms prompting evaluation, results, and recommended interventions by using descriptive statistics. They also conducted a subset analysis of 9 children who had undergone polysomnography both before and after neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS Fifty-two patients had polysomnographs available for review. Sleep apnea was diagnosed in 81% of these patients. The most common presenting symptom was "breathing difficulties" (18 cases [43%]). Mild sleep apnea was present in 26 cases (50%), moderate in 10 (19%), and severe in 6 (12%). Among the 42 patients with abnormal sleep architecture, 30 had predominantly obstructive apneas and 12 had predominantly central apneas. The most common pulmonology-recommended intervention was adjustment of peripheral oxygen supplementation (24 cases [57%]), followed by initiation of peripheral oxygen (10 cases [24%]). In a subset analysis of 9 patients who had sleep studies before and after neurosurgical intervention, there was a trend toward a decrease in the mean number of respiratory events (from 34.8 to 15.9, p = 0.098), obstructive events (from 14.7 to 13.9, p = 0.85), and central events (from 20.1 to 2.25, p = 0.15) and in the apnea-hypopnea index (from 5.05 to 2.03, p = 0.038, not significant when

  7. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  8. Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandolah, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

  9. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... overnight on the surface of the tongue when saliva production is diminished." ; Tips to combat halitosis: ; 1. Drink ... after meals can help keep bad breath away. Saliva production increases during chewing and this can help neutralize ...

  10. Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... object? Yes Any small object can block an airway and cause shortness of breath or CHOKING. Take ... remove the object). If necessary, carefully clear the airway with a sweeping motion of your finger. If ...

  11. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  12. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  13. Haemoptysis after breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Boussuges, A; Pinet, C; Thomas, P; Bergmann, E; Sainty, J M; Vervloet, D

    1999-03-01

    Pulmonary oedema has been described in swimmers and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba) divers. This study reports three cases of haemoptysis secondary to alveolar haemorrhage in breath-hold divers. Contributory factors, such as haemodynamic modifications secondary to immersion, cold exposure, exercise and exposure to an increase in ambient pressure, could explain this type of accident. Furthermore, these divers had taken aspirin, which may have aggravated the bleeding. PMID:10232449

  14. Breathing hospital air can make you sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    1999-12-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:10787631

  15. nuMoM2b Sleep Disordered Breathing Study: Objectives and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Facco, Francesca L.; Parker, Corette B.; Reddy, Uma M.; Silver, Robert M.; Louis, Judette M.; Basner, Robert C.; Chung, Judith H.; Schubert, Frank P.; Pien, Grace W.; Redline, Susan; Mobley, Daniel; Koch, Matthew A.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Chia-Ling, Nhan-Chang; Parry, Samuel; Grobman, William A.; Haas, David M.; Wing, Deborah A.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the Sleep Disordered Breathing substudy of the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study Monitoring Mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b) is to determine whether sleep disordered breathing during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods nuMoM2b is a prospective cohort study of 10,037 nulliparous women with singleton gestations, conducted across 8 sites, with a central Data Coordinating and Analysis Center. The Sleep Disordered Breathing substudy recruited 3702 women from the cohort to undergo objective, overnight in-home assessments of sleep disordered breathing. A standardized Level 3 home sleep test was performed between 60–150 weeks of pregnancy (Visit 1) and again between 220–310 weeks of pregnancy (Visit 3). Scorings of tests were conducted by a central Sleep Reading Center. Participants and their health care providers were notified if test results met “urgent referral” criteria based on threshold levels of apnea hypopnea indices, oxygen saturation levels or ECG abnormalities, but otherwise were not notified of test results. The primary pregnancy outcomes to be analyzed in relation to maternal sleep disordered breathing are preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. Results Objective data were obtained at Visit 1 on 3261 women, 88.1% of studies attempted; and at Visit 3 on 2511 women, 87.6% of studies attempted. Basic characteristics of the substudy cohort are reported in this methods paper. Conclusion The substudy is designed to address important questions regarding the relationship of sleep disordered breathing on the risk of preeclampsia and other outcomes of relevance to maternal and child health. PMID:25746730

  16. Influence of Mouth Breathing on the Dentofacial Growth of Children: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Bahija; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Umar, Dilshad; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The involvement of mouth breathing, facial, and structural growth alterations, especially during childhood has been discussed in medical and dental literature. The relevance of airway obstruction and its assumed effect on facial growth continues to be debated. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at assessing the dental and soft tissue abnormalities in mouth breathing children with and without adenoid hypertrophy. Fifty children aged between 6 and 12 years following otolaryngological examination were divided into three groups: Group I (MBA): Twenty mouth breathing children with enlarged adenoids and 60% of nasopharynx obstruction; Group II (MB): Twenty mouth breathing children without any nasal obstruction; Group III (nasal breathers [NB]): Ten nose breathing healthy individuals (control group). Digital lateral cephalograms were obtained and the dental and soft tissue parameters were assessed using the cephalometric software, Dolphin Imaging 11.5 version. Comparison was done using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results: There was a significant increase in IMPA (P = 0.001 and 0.007 respectively), interlabial gap (P = 0.007 and 0.002 respectively) and facial convexity (P < 0.001 and 0.001 respectively) in both MBA and MB groups when compared to NB. The upper incisor proclination (P = 0.012) and facial convexity (P = 0.003) were significantly higher in mouthbreathers with adenoid hypertrophy. However, upper incisor proclination (P = 0.009) was statistically signifi cant only in group MB when compared to NB. Conclusion: All subjects with mouth-breathing habit exhibited a significant increase in lower incisor proclination, lip incompetency and convex facial profile. The presence of adenoids accentuated the facial convexity and mentolabial sulcus depth. PMID:25628484

  17. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  18. Breath tests and airway gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Measuring soluble gas in the exhaled breath is a non-invasive technique used to estimate levels of respiratory, solvent, and metabolic gases. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the assumption that the measured gases exchange in the alveoli. While the respiratory gases have a low blood-solubility and exchange in the alveoli, high blood-soluble gases exchange in the airways. The effect of airway gas exchange on the interpretation of these exhaled breath measurements can be significant. We describe airway gas exchange in relation to exhaled measurements of soluble gases that exchange in the alveoli. The mechanisms of airway gas exchange are reviewed and criteria for determining if a gas exchanges in the airways are provided. The effects of diffusion, perfusion, temperature and breathing maneuver on airway gas exchange and on measurement of exhaled soluble gas are discussed. A method for estimating the impact of airway gas exchange on exhaled breath measurements is presented. We recommend that investigators should carefully control the inspired air conditions and type of exhalation maneuver used in a breath test. Additionally, care should be taken when interpreting breath tests from subjects with pulmonary disease. PMID:16413216

  19. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  20. Monitoring breath markers under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, Marco; Ragnoni, Alessandro; Güntner, Andreas T; Loccioni, Claudio; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Risby, Terence H

    2015-12-01

    Breath analysis has the potential to detect and monitor diseases as well as to reduce the corresponding medical costs while improving the quality of a patient's life. Herein, a portable prototype, consisting of a commercial breath sampler modified to work as a platform for solid-state gas sensors was developed. The sensor is placed close to the mouth (<10 cm) and minimizes the mouth-to-sensor path to avoid contamination and dilution of the target breath marker. Additionally with an appropriate cooling concept, even high sensor operating temperatures (e.g. 350 °C) could be used. Controlled sampling is crucial for accurate repeatable analysis of the human breath and these concerns have been addressed by this novel prototype. The device helps a subject control their exhaled flow rate which increases reproducibility of intra-subject breath samples. The operation of this flame-made selective chemo-resistive gas sensor is demonstrated by the detection of breath acetone. PMID:26469378

  1. A free-breathing lung motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianyu

    Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+αv+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. α is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters α and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

  2. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  3. Abnormal spirometry after the Fontan procedure is common and associated with impaired aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Landzberg, Michael J; Earing, Michael G; Wu, Fred M; Triedman, John K; Casey, Alicia; Ericson, Dawn A; Systrom, David; Paridon, Stephen M; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Impaired exercise capacity is common after the Fontan procedure and is attributed to cardiovascular limits. The Fontan circulation, however, is also distinctively vulnerable to unfavorable lung mechanics. This study aimed to define the prevalence and physiological relevance of pulmonary dysfunction in patients with Fontan physiology. We analyzed data from the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study to assess the prevalence and pattern of abnormal spirometry in Fontan patients (6-18 yr old) and investigated the relationship between low forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum exercise variables, including peak O2 consumption (Vo2peak), among those who demonstrated adequate effort (n = 260). Average ages at the time of exercise testing and Fontan completion were 13.2 ± 3.0 and 3.5 ± 2.2 yr old, respectively. Aerobic capacity was reduced (Vo2peak: 67.3 ± 15.6% predicted). FVC averaged 79.0 ± 14.8% predicted, with 45.8% having a FVC less then the lower limit of normal. Only 7.8% demonstrated obstructive spirometry. Patients with low FVC had lower Vo2peak (64.4 ± 15.9% vs. 69.7 ± 14.9% predicted, P < 0.01); low FVC independently predicted lower Vo2peak after adjusting for relevant covariates. Among those with Vo2peak < 80% predicted (n = 204/260), 22.5% demonstrated a pulmonary mechanical contribution to exercise limitation (breathing reserve < 20%). Those with both low FVC and ventilatory inefficiency (minute ventilation/CO2 production > 40) had markedly reduced Vo2peak (61.5 ± 15.3% vs. 72.0 ± 14.9% predicted, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of pulmonary mechanical limit compared with patients with normal FVC and efficient ventilation (36.1% vs. 4.8%). In conclusion, abnormal FVC is common in young patients after the Fontan procedure and is independently associated with reduced exercise capacity. A large subset has a pathologically low breathing reserve, consistent with a pulmonary mechanical contribution to exercise limitation. PMID:24791784

  4. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of p<0.05 accepted as significant. Swimmers were slower (3%) when breathing. Within the entry phase, swimmers had a slower COM horizontal velocity (3.3%), less shoulder flexion (8%), abduction (33%) and roll (4%) when breathing. The pull phase was longer in duration (14%) swimmers had a shallower hand path (11%), less shoulder abduction (11%), a slower hand vertical acceleration (30%) and slower centre of mass (COM) horizontal velocity (3%) when breathing. In the push phase, swimmers had a smaller elbow range of motion (ROM) (38%), faster backwards hand speed (25%) and faster hand vertical acceleration (33%) when breathing. Swimmers rolled their shoulders more (12%) in the recovery phase when breathing. This study confirms that swim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale. PMID:26456423

  5. Effect of ketamine on control of breathing in cats.

    PubMed

    Jaspar, N; Mazzarelli, M; Tessier, C; Milic-Emili, J

    1983-09-01

    We studied minute ventilation, breathing pattern, end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PACO2), and tracheal occlusion pressure in cats anesthetized with ketamine (40 and 80 mg/kg) before and after CO2 inhalation. Before CO2 administration ventilation was reduced and PACO2 increased relative to unanesthetized cats at both ketamine doses. Breathing pattern was of the "apneustic" type, being characterized by 1) prolonged inspiratory duration and relatively short expiratory time and 2) markedly curvilinear (convex upward) inspiratory volume-time profile. The latter reflected a similar curvilinearity in the tracheal occlusion pressure waveform. During CO2 inhalation, the ventilatory response to CO2 was similar to that in unanesthetized cats in spite of a depressed tracheal occlusion pressure response. This discrepancy was due to the fact that in the presence of a convex upward inspiratory volume-time profile, the shortening of inspiratory duration with increasing CO2 results in a marked increase of mean inspiratory flow, and hence the ventilatory response to CO2 remains high. PMID:6415013

  6. Hypoglossal nerve dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chervin, Ronald D.; Wolfe, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Concannon, MaryAnn; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Gruis, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study of acute ischemic stroke patients examined relationships between hypoglossal nerve conduction, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and its severity. Methods: Patients within 7 days of stroke underwent nocturnal respiratory monitoring with the ApneaLink device and hypoglossal nerve conduction studies. Results: Eighteen of 52 subjects (35% [95% confidence interval: 22%, 49%]) had an abnormal hypoglossal amplitude and 23 (44% [95% confidence interval: 30%, 59%]) had an abnormal hypoglossal latency. No differences were identified in hypoglossal nerve latency or amplitude between those with (n = 26) and without (n = 26) significant SDB, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15. However, hypoglossal nerve conduction latency was associated (linear regression p < 0.05) with SDB severity as reflected by the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: Acute ischemic stroke patients have a high prevalence of hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. Further studies are needed to explore whether hypoglossal nerve dysfunction may be a cause or consequence of SDB in stroke patients and whether this association can provide further insight into the pathophysiology of SDB in this population. PMID:24587476

  7. [Sleep and autonomic function: sleep related breathing disorders in Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD), including obstructive and central sleep apnea, vocal cord abductor paralysis and dysrhythmic breathing pattern, are frequently observed. SRBD may have a considerable impact on variation of autonomic nervous activity during sleep. The previous studies correlated upper airway muscle dysfunction related parkinsonism with increased prevalence of SRBD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recently, the clinical significance of SRBD and its impact on sleepiness and disease severity have been debated. In this review, we discuss sleep and autonomic function, especially, SRBD in PD and related disorders, including the previous studies from our department. PMID:25672703

  8. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Shankar, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Participants were ≥age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98–1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06–1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98–7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. PMID:26064690

  9. Breathing dysfunction in Rett syndrome: Understanding epigenetic regulation of the respiratory network

    PubMed Central

    Ogier, Michael; Katz, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Severely arrhythmic breathing is a hallmark of Rett syndrome (RTT) and profoundly affects quality of life for patients and their families. The last decade has seen the identification of the disease-causing gene, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) and the development of mouse models that phenocopy many aspects of the human syndrome, including breathing dysfunction. Recent studies have begun to characterize the breathing phenotype of Mecp2 mutant mice and to define underlying electrophysiological and neurochemical deficits. The picture that is emerging is one of defects in synaptic transmission throughout the brainstem respiratory network associated with abnormal expression in several neurochemical signaling systems, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), biogenic amines and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Based on such findings, potential therapeutic strategies aimed at improving breathing by targeting deficits in neurochemical signaling are being explored. This review details our current understanding of respiratory dysfunction and underlying mechanisms in RTT with a particular focus on insights gained from mouse models. PMID:18534925

  10. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

  11. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  12. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

  13. eAMI: A Qualitative Quantification of Periodic Breathing Based on Amplitude of Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Migeotte, P. F.; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Meeusen, Romain; Neyt, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Periodic breathing is sleep disordered breathing characterized by instability in the respiratory pattern that exhibits an oscillatory behavior. Periodic breathing is associated with increased mortality, and it is observed in a variety of situations, such as acute hypoxia, chronic heart failure, and damage to respiratory centers. The standard quantification for the diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders is the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), which measures the proportion of apneic/hypopneic events during polysomnography. Determining the AHI is labor-intensive and requires the simultaneous recording of airflow and oxygen saturation. In this paper, we propose an automated, simple, and novel methodology for the detection and qualification of periodic breathing: the estimated amplitude modulation index (eAMI). Patients or Participants: Antarctic cohort (3,800 meters): 13 normal individuals. Clinical cohort: 39 different patients suffering from diverse sleep-related pathologies. Measurements and Results: When tested in a population with high levels of periodic breathing (Antarctic cohort), eAMI was closely correlated with AHI (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). When tested in the clinical setting, the proposed method was able to detect portions of the signal in which subclinical periodic breathing was validated by an expert (n = 93; accuracy = 0.85). Average eAMI was also correlated with the loop gain for the combined clinical and Antarctica cohorts (r = 0.58, P < 0.001). Conclusions: In terms of quantification and temporal resolution, the eAMI is able to estimate the strength of periodic breathing and the underlying loop gain at any given time within a record. The impaired prognosis associated with periodic breathing makes its automated detection and early diagnosis of clinical relevance. Citation: Fernandez Tellez H, Pattyn N, Mairesse O, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Migeotte PF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Meeusen R, Neyt X. eAMI: a qualitative

  14. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    pores facilitates cell infiltration and tissue remodelling in vitro, suggesting its high potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. In the second part of the dissertation, the versatility of breath figure polymers was explored as a reverse template to create micropatterned soft materials. Unlike traditional lithographic masters, the breath figure assembly is a simple and cost-effective approach to create micro/nano sized "bead" like uniform patterns on the surface of hydrogels and biopolymers. By incorporating iron nanoparticles into the pores, this technique was extended to form hydrogels decorated with nanoparticles specifically in the pattern. The morphology features and the functional characteristics were demonstrated through scanning electron microscopy. The potential applications of these micro-fabricated materials in biosensors and cell culture substrates are outlined.

  15. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: breath study on a control group.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, P; Zingaro, L; Finiguerra, A; Cristoni, S

    2011-03-01

    individual breath patterns and (ii) the breath pattern for a given subject is relatively stable in time. This is consistent with previous NMR-based studies indicating the existence of stable individual metabolic phenotypes. PMID:21383424

  16. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide restores normal breathing stability and improves autonomic control during experimental heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Marcus, Noah J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance and breathing instability are major contributors to the progression of heart failure (CHF). Potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been shown to contribute to these effects. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently has been proposed to mediate CB hypoxic chemoreception. We hypothesized that H2S synthesis inhibition should decrease CB chemoreflex activation and improve breathing stability and autonomic function in CHF rats. Using the irreversible inhibitor of cystathione γ-lyase dl-propargylglycine (PAG), we tested the effects of H2S inhibition on resting breathing patterns, the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and the hypoxic sensitivity of CB chemoreceptor afferents in rats with CHF. In addition, heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) were calculated as an index of autonomic function. CHF rats, compared with sham rats, exhibited increased breath interval variability and number of apneas, enhanced CB afferent discharge and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, decreased HRV, and increased low-frequency SBPV. Remarkably, PAG treatment reduced the apnea index by 90%, reduced breath interval variability by 40–60%, and reversed the enhanced hypoxic CB afferent and chemoreflex responses observed in CHF rats. Furthermore, PAG treatment partially reversed the alterations in HRV and SBPV in CHF rats. Our results show that PAG treatment restores breathing stability and cardiac autonomic function and reduces the enhanced ventilatory and CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia in CHF rats. These results support the idea that PAG treatment could potentially represent a novel pathway to control sympathetic outflow and breathing instability in CHF. PMID:23449938

  17. Horses Auto-Recruit Their Lungs by Inspiratory Breath Holding Following Recovery from General Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mosing, Martina; Waldmann, Andreas D.; MacFarlane, Paul; Iff, Samuel; Auer, Ulrike; Bohm, Stephan H.; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Bardell, David

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the breathing pattern and distribution of ventilation in horses prior to and following recovery from general anaesthesia using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Six horses were anaesthetised for 6 hours in dorsal recumbency. Arterial blood gas and EIT measurements were performed 24 hours before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after horses stood following anaesthesia. At each time point 4 representative spontaneous breaths were analysed. The percentage of the total breath length during which impedance remained greater than 50% of the maximum inspiratory impedance change (breath holding), the fraction of total tidal ventilation within each of four stacked regions of interest (ROI) (distribution of ventilation) and the filling time and inflation period of seven ROI evenly distributed over the dorso-ventral height of the lungs were calculated. Mixed effects multi-linear regression and linear regression were used and significance was set at p<0.05. All horses demonstrated inspiratory breath holding until 5 hours after standing. No change from baseline was seen for the distribution of ventilation during inspiration. Filling time and inflation period were more rapid and shorter in ventral and slower and longer in most dorsal ROI compared to baseline, respectively. In a mixed effects multi-linear regression, breath holding was significantly correlated with PaCO2 in both the univariate and multivariate regression. Following recovery from anaesthesia, horses showed inspiratory breath holding during which gas redistributed from ventral into dorsal regions of the lungs. This suggests auto-recruitment of lung tissue which would have been dependent and likely atelectic during anaesthesia. PMID:27331910

  18. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  20. Hypothyroidism affects D2 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-03-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age-matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. PMID:24434437

  1. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  2. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  3. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  4. Role of parafacial nuclei in control of breathing in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Henderson, Lauren E; Feldman, Jack L

    2015-01-21

    Contiguous brain regions associated with a given behavior are increasingly being divided into subregions associated with distinct aspects of that behavior. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarizing technologies, we functionally dissect the parafacial region in the medulla, which contains key elements of the central pattern generator for breathing that are important in central CO2-chemoreception and for gating active expiration. By transfecting different populations of neighboring neurons with allatostatin or HM4D Gi/o-coupled receptors, we analyzed the effect of their hyperpolarization on respiration in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized rats. We identify two functionally separate parafacial nuclei: ventral (pFV) and lateral (pFL). Disinhibition of the pFL with bicuculline and strychnine led to active expiration. Hyperpolarizing pFL neurons had no effect on breathing at rest, or changes in inspiratory activity induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia; however, hyperpolarizing pFL neurons attenuated active expiration when it was induced by hypercapnia, hypoxia, or disinhibition of the pFL. In contrast, hyperpolarizing pFV neurons affected breathing at rest by decreasing inspiratory-related activity, attenuating the hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced increase in inspiratory activity, and when present, reducing expiratory-related abdominal activity. Together with previous observations, we conclude that the pFV provides a generic excitatory drive to breathe, even at rest, whereas the pFL is a conditional oscillator quiet at rest that, when activated, e.g., during exercise, drives active expiration. PMID:25609622

  5. Role of Parafacial Nuclei in Control of Breathing in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huckstepp, Robert T.R.; Cardoza, Kathryn P.; Henderson, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Contiguous brain regions associated with a given behavior are increasingly being divided into subregions associated with distinct aspects of that behavior. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarizing technologies, we functionally dissect the parafacial region in the medulla, which contains key elements of the central pattern generator for breathing that are important in central CO2-chemoreception and for gating active expiration. By transfecting different populations of neighboring neurons with allatostatin or HM4D Gi/o-coupled receptors, we analyzed the effect of their hyperpolarization on respiration in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized rats. We identify two functionally separate parafacial nuclei: ventral (pFV) and lateral (pFL). Disinhibition of the pFL with bicuculline and strychnine led to active expiration. Hyperpolarizing pFL neurons had no effect on breathing at rest, or changes in inspiratory activity induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia; however, hyperpolarizing pFL neurons attenuated active expiration when it was induced by hypercapnia, hypoxia, or disinhibition of the pFL. In contrast, hyperpolarizing pFV neurons affected breathing at rest by decreasing inspiratory-related activity, attenuating the hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced increase in inspiratory activity, and when present, reducing expiratory-related abdominal activity. Together with previous observations, we conclude that the pFV provides a generic excitatory drive to breathe, even at rest, whereas the pFL is a conditional oscillator quiet at rest that, when activated, e.g., during exercise, drives active expiration. PMID:25609622

  6. Blood and breath profiles of volatile organic compounds in patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath shows great potential as a non-invasive method for assessing hemodialysis efficiency. In this work we aim at identifying and quantifying of a wide range of VOCs characterizing uremic breath and blood, with a particular focus on species responding to the dialysis treatment. Methods Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection coupled with solid-phase microextraction as pre-concentration method. Results A total of 60 VOCs were reliably identified and quantified in blood and breath of CKD patients. Excluding contaminants, six compounds (isoprene, dimethyl sulfide, methyl propyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, thiophene and benzene) changed their blood and breath levels during the hemodialysis treatment. Conclusions Uremic breath and blood patterns were found to be notably affected by the contaminants from the extracorporeal circuits and hospital room air. Consequently, patient exposure to a wide spectrum of volatile species (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics, heterocyclic compounds) is expected during hemodialysis. Whereas highly volatile pollutants were relatively quickly removed from blood by exhalation, more soluble ones were retained and contributed to the uremic syndrome. At least two of the species observed (cyclohexanone and 2-propenal) are uremic toxins. Perhaps other volatile substances reported within this study may be toxic and have negative impact on human body functions. Further studies are required to investigate if VOCs responding to HD treatment could be used as markers for monitoring hemodialysis efficiency. PMID:24607025

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome and abnormal metabolism of thiamin.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Derrick

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been generally accepted that moving the infant from the prone to the supine position has solved the problem of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), it has been hypothesized that this is an insufficient explanation and that a mixture of genetic risk, some form of stressful incident and marginal brain metabolism is proportionately required. It is suggested that each of these three variables, with dominance in one or more of them, act together in the common etiology. Much has been written about the association of thiamin and magnesium but the finding of extremely high concentrations of serum thiamin in SIDs victims has largely caused rejection of thiamin as being involved in the etiology. The publication of abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials strongly suggests that there are electrochemical changes in the brainstem affecting the mechanisms of automatic breathing and the control of cardiac rhythm. The brainstem, cerebellum and limbic system of the brain are known to be highly sensitive to thiamin deficiency (pseudo-hypoxia) and the pathophysiology is similar to a mild continued deprivation of oxygen. Little attention has been paid to the complex metabolism of thiamin. Dietary thiamin requires the cooperation of the SLC19 family of thiamin transporters for its absorption into cells and recent information has shown that transporter SNPs may be relatively common and can be expected to increase genetic risk. Thiamin must be phosphorylated to synthesize thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), well established in its vital action in glucose metabolism. TPP is also a cofactor for the enzyme 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) in the peroxisome, emphasizing its importance in alpha oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis in cell membrane physiology. The importance of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) in energy metabolism is still largely unknown. Thiamin metabolism has been implicated in hyperemesis gravidarum and iatrogenic Wernicke encephalopathy has been reported when the

  8. Impact Loading and Locomotor-Respiratory Coordination Significantly Influence Breathing Dynamics in Running Humans

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Monica A.; Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because ‘step-driven flows’ (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms−1) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally ‘preferred’ and ‘avoided’ entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls−1 (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in ‘preferred’ phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in ‘avoided’ phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential

  9. Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Bramble, Dennis M; Carrier, David R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because 'step-driven flows' (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms(-1)) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally 'preferred' and 'avoided' entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls(-1) (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in 'preferred' phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in 'avoided' phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential consequences of

  10. Electronic Nose and Exhaled Breath NMR-based Metabolomics Applications in Airways Disease.

    PubMed

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Penas, Andreu; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mondino, Chiara; Trové, Andrea; Macagno, Francesco; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Martinelli, Eugenio; Motta, Andrea; Macis, Giuseppe; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Breathomics, the multidimensional molecular analysis of exhaled breath, includes analysis of exhaled breath with gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic noses (e-noses), and metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive technique which provides information on the composition of airway lining fluid, generally by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or MS methods. Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of small molecular weight metabolites in a biofluid. Specific profiles of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and metabolites in EBC (breathprints) are potentially useful surrogate markers of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Electronic noses (e-noses) are artificial sensor systems, usually consisting of chemical cross-reactive sensor arrays for characterization of patterns of breath volatile compounds, and algorithms for breathprints classification. E-noses are handheld, portable, and provide real-time data. E-nose breathprints can reflect respiratory inflammation. E-noses and NMR-based metabolomics of EBC can distinguish patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, or diseases with a clinically relevant respiratory component including cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, and healthy individuals. Breathomics has also been reported to identify patients affected by different types of respiratory diseases. Patterns of breath volatile compounds detected by e-nose and EBC metabolic profiles have been associated with asthma phenotypes. In combination with other -omics platforms, breathomics might provide a molecular approach to respiratory disease phenotyping and a molecular basis to tailored pharmacotherapeutic strategies. Breathomics might also contribute to identify new surrogate markers of respiratory inflammation, thus, facilitating drug discovery. Validation in newly recruited, prospective independent cohorts is essential for development of e

  11. Circulating bubbles and breath-hold underwater fishing divers: a two-dimensional echocardiography and continuous wave Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Boussuges, A; Abdellaoui, S; Gardette, B; Sainty, J M

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1960s, decompression illness after breath-hold diving has been widely debated. The aim of this study was to detect circulating bubbles after breath-hold diving in underwater fishing divers. We used continuous Doppler (DUG, COMEX Pro) and transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (Kontron Sigma 1). This study was conducted during a training course organized by the French Federation of Subaquatic Sports at Minorca (Balearic Islands). Ten breath-hold divers performed repeated breath-hold dives for periods ranging from 2 to 6 h [mean maximum depth 35 meters of seawater (msw)]. A dive computer (Maestro Pro Beuchat, analyst PC interface) was used to record diving patterns. No circulating bubbles were detected in the right heart cavities (2D echocardiography) or in the pulmonary artery (continuous Doppler). However, this study had some limits: only 10 subjects were studied and the earliest detection was 3 min after immersion, further studies will thus be required. PMID:9444062

  12. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  13. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thalakkotur Lazar; Pownraj, Prabhahari; Abdulla, Sukhananazerin; Pullithadathil, Biji

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques. PMID:26854142

  14. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Frisch, Tobias; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD) and bronchial

  15. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Frisch, Tobias; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD) and bronchial

  16. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  17. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  18. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  19. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  20. Exhaled Breath Analysis in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana G; Batista, Guilherme Lopes; Bacal, Fernando; Gutz, Ivano

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical condition that presents high morbidity and mortality and is one of the main reasons for hospital admissions all over the world. Although biochemical processes that occur in the body during heart failure are known, this syndrome is still associated to poor prognosis. Exhaled breath analysis has emerged as a promising noninvasive tool in different clinical conditions and, recently, it has been also tested in patients with HF. This review presents the main breath HF biomarkers, which reflect metabolic changes that occur in this complex syndrome. It also discusses the diagnostic and prognostic value of exhaled breath compounds for HF and makes a short description of the main technologies involved in this analysis. Some perspectives on the area are presented as well. PMID:27287200

  1. Modeling of deep breath vasoconstriction reflex.

    PubMed

    Chalacheva, Patjanaporn; Khoo, Michael C K

    2015-08-01

    Deep breaths akin to sighs have been reported to cause peripheral vasoconstriction. Our previous simulation studies have shown that this phenomenon cannot be reproduced in existing circulatory control models without inclusion of a respiratory-vascular coupling mechanism. To better understand this "sigh-vasoconstriction reflex", we investigated the effect of spontaneous and passively induced sighs as well as spontaneous breathing on peripheral vasoconstriction during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep in human subjects. We found that both spontaneous and induced sighs caused vasoconstriction during wakefulness and sleep. The coupling between respiration and vasoconstriction is also present even in an absence of deep breaths. The coupling mechanism is largely linear with increased nonlinearity during induced sighs. Since peripheral vascular resistance modulation is known to be sympathetically mediated, investigation of this coupling could potentially allow us to assess sympathetic function through non-invasive measurements and simple interventions. PMID:26738099

  2. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Karla Kristine Dames; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may

  3. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

  4. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  5. Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández

    2007-08-01

    Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish); http://hdl.handle.net/10016/655] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

  6. A breathing mode for warped compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Bret

    2011-10-01

    In general warped compactifications, non-trivial backgrounds for the warp factor and the dilaton break D-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance, so that dilaton fluctuations can be gauged away completely and eaten by the metric. More specifically, the warped volume modulus and the dilaton are not independent, but combine into a single gauge-invariant degree of freedom in the lower dimensional effective theory, the warped breathing mode. This occurs for all strengths of the warping, even the weakly warped limit. This warped breathing mode appears as a natural zero mode deformation of backgrounds sourced by p-branes and affects the identification of the independent degrees of freedom of flux compactifications.

  7. Environmental testing of escape breathing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stengel, J W

    1982-05-03

    A new generation of 60-minute self-contained breathing apparatus was being introduced into the underground coal mining industry for use as respiratory protection during fires and mine disasters. Little field experience existed from which to predict the survivability of this new life-support equipment. A series of environmental tests was proposed consisting of exposure to heat, cold, shock, and vibration. Treated and untreated apparatus were evaluated and compared by use on human subjects and a mechanical breathing simulator. Results are reported. After field data have been collected, information may be able to be correlated with environmental testing and used as a predictor of survivability.

  8. Breathing air trailer acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-09-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0251 Rev. 0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment being tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity for use in the core sampling program. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller`s location. This test procedure is to verify that the American Bristol Industries, Inc., Model 5014-0001 low pressure Mobile Breathing Air Trailer, meets or exceeds the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford specification.

  9. 13C labelled cholesteryl octanoate breath test for assessing pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ventrucci, M; Cipolla, A; Ubalducci, G; Roda, A; Roda, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—A non-invasive test for assessment of fat digestion has been developed based on the intraluminal hydrolysis of cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate by pancreatic esterase. 
Aims—To determine the diagnostic performance of this breath test in the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function. 
Methods—The test was performed in 20 healthy controls, 22 patients with chronic pancreatic disease (CPD), four with biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), and 32 with non-pancreatic digestive diseases (NPD); results were compared with those of other tubeless tests (faecal chymotrypsin and fluorescein dilaurate test). 
Results—Hourly recoveries of 13CO2 were significantly lower in CPD when compared with healthy controls or NPD. In patients with CPD with mild to moderate insufficiency, the curve of 13CO2 recovery was similar to that of healthy controls, while in those with severe insufficiency it was flat. In three patients with CPD with severe steatorrhoea, a repeat test after pancreatic enzyme supplementation showed a significant rise in 13CO2 recovery. The four BPD patients had low and delayed 13CO2 recovery. Only eight of the 32 patients with NPD had abnormal breath test results. There was a significant correlation between the results of the breath test and those of faecal chymotrypsin, the fluorescein dilaurate test, and faecal fat measurements. For the diagnosis of pancreatic disease using the three hour cumulative 13CO2 recovery test, the sensitivity was 68.2% and specificity 75.0%; values were similar to those of the other two tubeless pancreatic function tests. In seven healthy controls, nine patients with CPD, and nine with NPD a second breath test was performed using Na-[1-13C]octanoate and a pancreatic function index was calculated as the ratio of 13C recovery obtained in the two tests: at three hours this index was abnormal in eight patients with CPD and in three with NPD. 
Conclusion—The cholesteryl-[1-13C]octanoate breath test can be useful for the

  10. A Joint Computational Respiratory Neural Network-Biomechanical Model for Breathing and Airway Defensive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Russell; Segers, Lauren S.; Morris, Kendall F.; Nuding, Sarah C.; Pitts, Teresa; Bolser, Donald C.; Davenport, Paul W.; Lindsey, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Data-driven computational neural network models have been used to study mechanisms for generating the motor patterns for breathing and breathing related behaviors such as coughing. These models have commonly been evaluated in open loop conditions or with feedback of lung volume simply represented as a filtered version of phrenic motor output. Limitations of these approaches preclude assessment of the influence of mechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system and motivated development of a biomechanical model of the respiratory muscles, airway, and lungs using published measures from human subjects. Here we describe the model and some aspects of its behavior when linked to a computational brainstem respiratory network model for breathing and airway defensive behavior composed of discrete “integrate and fire” populations. The network incorporated multiple circuit paths and operations for tuning inspiratory drive suggested by prior work. Results from neuromechanical system simulations included generation of a eupneic-like breathing pattern and the observation that increased respiratory drive and operating volume result in higher peak flow rates during cough, even when the expiratory drive is unchanged, or when the expiratory abdominal pressure is unchanged. Sequential elimination of the model’s sources of inspiratory drive during cough also suggested a role for disinhibitory regulation via tonic expiratory neurons, a result that was subsequently supported by an analysis of in vivo data. Comparisons with antecedent models, discrepancies with experimental results, and some model limitations are noted. PMID:22934020

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  12. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...

  13. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply... for noxious or offensive odor before each diving operation....

  14. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply... for noxious or offensive odor before each diving operation....

  15. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply... for noxious or offensive odor before each diving operation....

  16. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply... for noxious or offensive odor before each diving operation....

  17. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply... for noxious or offensive odor before each diving operation....

  18. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  19. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  20. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  1. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  2. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... you cough a lot, wheeze, are short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might ...

  3. Meeting Reports for 2013: Recent Advances in Breath Biomarker Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article reports the efforts of the breath research community affiliated with the International Association of Breath Research (IABR) in disseminating research results in high profile technical meetings in the United States (US). Specifically, we describe presentations at a ...

  4. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities.…

  7. Online sample conditioning for portable breath analyzers.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Amlendu; Iglesias, Rodrigo A; Shan, Xiaonan; Xian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S; Tao, Nongjian

    2012-08-21

    Various innovative chemical sensors have been developed in recent years to sense dangerous substances in air and trace biomarkers in breath. However, in order to solve real world problems, the sensors must be equipped with efficient sample conditioning that can, e.g., control the humidity, which is discussed much less in the literature. To meet the demand, a miniaturized mouthpiece was developed for personal breath analyzers. A key function of the mouthpiece is to condition the humidity in real breath samples without changing the analyte concentrations and introducing substantial backpressure, which is achieved with optimized packing of desiccant particles. Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the performance of the mouthpiece in terms of various controllable parameters, such as the size, density, and geometry of the packing. Mouthpieces with different configurations were built and tested, and the experimental data validated the simulation findings. A mouthpiece with optimized performance reducing relative humidity from 95% (27,000 ppmV) to 29% (8000 ppmV) whereas retaining 92% nitric oxide (50 ppbV to 46 ppbV) was built and integrated into a hand-held exhaled nitric oxide sensor, and the performance of exhaled nitric oxide measurement was in good agreement with the gold standard chemiluminescence technique. Acetone, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ammonia samples were also measured after passing through the desiccant mouthpiece using commercial sensors to examine wide applicability of this breath conditioning approach. PMID:22812638

  8. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible. PMID:23596893

  9. Nocturnal periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Baseler, G; Ghofrani, H A; Grimminger, F; Olschewski, H; Seeger, W

    2002-04-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration is frequently observed in congestive heart failure. Among other factors, prolongation of circulation time, hypocapnia and hypoxia are thought to underlie this sleep-related breathing disorder. Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is also characterized by reduced cardiac output and blood gas alterations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether a nocturnal periodic breathing (PB) occurs in PPH. A total of 20 consecutive patients with PPH who had been admitted for pharmacological investigation of pulmonary vasoreactivity were investigated by lung function testing, right heart catheterization and full-night attended polysomnography. PB was detected in six patients (30%) (mean +/- SEM: apnoea/hypopnoea index 37 +/- 5 h(-1); arterial oxygen saturation was <90% during 56 +/- 6.5% of total sleep time). The patients with PB had more severe haemodynamic impairment than those without. They also had a more marked reduction in the pulmonary diffusion capacity and greater arterial hypoxia. PB was markedly improved or even eradicated by nasal oxygen during the night. Periodic breathing occurs in patients with advanced primary pulmonary hypertension and can be reversed by nocturnal nasal oxygen. The clinical and prognostic significance of periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension needs to be determined by further studies. PMID:11998995

  10. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  11. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  12. Breathing Your Way to a Better Chorus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Susan D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a series of breathing exercises designed to produce a more focused and cohesive choral group. Maintains that these exercises will improve singing, develop body awareness, and result in a more vital and responsive class. Exercises are illustrated by accompanying photographs. (MJP)

  13. The Physics of Breath-Hold Diving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilella, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcelo

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes physical features of breath-hold diving. Considers the diver's descent and the initial surface dive and presents examples that show the diver's buoyancy equilibrium varying with depth, the driving force supplied by finning, and the effect of friction between the water and the diver. (Author/JRH)

  14. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  15. Online sample conditioning for portable breath analyzers

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Amlendu; Iglesias, Rodrigo A.; Xian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Tsow, Francis; Forzani, Erica S.; Tao, Nongjian

    2013-01-01

    Various innovative chemical sensors have been developed in recent years to sense dangerous substances in air and trace biomarkers in breath. However, in order to solve real world problems, the sensors must be equipped with efficient sample conditioning that can, e.g., control the humidity, which is much less discussed in literatures. To meet the demand, a miniaturized mouthpiece was developed for personal breath analyzers. A key function of the mouthpiece is to condition the humidity in real breath samples without changing the analyte concentrations and introducing substantial backpressure, which is achieved with optimized packing of desiccant particles. Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the performance of the mouthpiece in terms of various controllable parameters, such as the size, density and geometry of the packing. Mouthpieces with different configurations were built and tested, and the experimental data validated the simulation findings. A mouthpiece with optimized performance reducing relative humidity from 95% (27,000 ppmV) to 29% (8000 ppmV) whereas retaining 92% nitric oxide (50ppbV to 46ppbV) was built and integrated into a handheld exhaled nitric oxide sensor, and the performance of exhaled nitric oxide measurement was in good agreement with the gold standard chemiluminescence technique. Acetone, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, oxygen and ammonia samples were also measured after passing through the desiccant mouthpiece using commercial sensors to examine wide applicability of this breath conditioning approach. PMID:22812638

  16. Single Breath-Hold Physiotherapy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mevada, Surekha T.; Al-Mahruqi, Najma; El-Beshlawi, Ismail; El-Shinawy, Mohamed; Zachariah, Mathew; Al-Rawas, Abdul H.; Daar, Shahina; Wali, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging using T2* (MRI T2*) is a highly sensitive and non-invasive technique for the detection of tissue iron load. Although the single breath-hold multi-echo T2* technique has been available at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, since 2006, it could not be performed on younger patients due to their inability to hold their breath after expiration. This study was carried out between May 2007 and May 2015 and assessed 50 SQUH thalassaemic patients aged 7–17 years old. Seven of these patients underwent baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans before receiving physiotherapy training. Subsequently, all patients were trained by a physiotherapist to hold their breath for approximately 15–20 seconds at the end of expiration before undergoing baseline and one-year follow-up MRI T2* scans. Failure rates for the pre- and post-training groups were 6.0% and 42.8%, respectively. These results indicate that the training of thalassaemic patients in breath-hold techniques is beneficial and increases rates of compliance for MRI T2* scans. PMID:26909218

  17. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  18. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  19. METHODS FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures used to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human breath. Methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well as cost, accuracy, and precision. During the evaluation, a secon...

  20. SU-C-210-03: Impact of Breathing Irregularities On Gated Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Schiuma, D; Arheit, M; Schmelzer, P; Scheib, S; Buchsbaum, T; Pemler, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of breathing irregularities on target location in gated treatments using amplitude and phase gating. Methods: 111 breathing patterns acquired using RPM system were categorized based on period and amplitude STD as regular (STD period ≤ 0.5 s, STD amplitude ≤ 1.5 mm), medium (0.5 s < STD period ≤ 1 s, 1.5 mm < STD amplitude ≤ 3 mm) and irregular (STD period > 1 s, STD amplitude > 3 mm). One pattern representative of the average defined population was selected per category and corresponding target motion reproduced using Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom. Phantom in motion underwent 4D-CT scan with phase reconstruction. Gated window was defined at end of exhale and DRRs reconstructed in treatment planning at 40% (beam on) and 60% phase (beam off). Target location uncertainty was assessed by comparing gated kV triggered images continuously acquired at beam on/off on a True Beam 2.0 with corresponding DRRs. Results: Average target uncertainty with amplitude gating was in [0.4 – 1.9] mm range for the different scenarios with maximum STD of 1.2 mm for the irregular pattern. Average target uncertainty with phase gating was [1.1 – 2.2] mm for regular and medium patterns, while it increased to [3.6 – 9.6] mm for the irregular pattern. Live gated motion was stable with amplitude gating, while increasing with phase gating for the irregular pattern. Treatment duration range was [68 – 160] s with amplitude and [70 – 74] s with phase gating. Conclusion: Breathing irregularities were found to affect gated treatments only when using phase gating. For regular and medium patterns no significant difference was found between the two gating strategies. Amplitude gating ensured stable gated motion within the different patterns, thus reducing intra-fraction target location variability for the irregular pattern and resulting in longer treatment duration.

  1. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a...

  3. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section...

  7. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  8. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a)...

  9. Hands-Off Approaches to Teaching Breath Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stufft, William David

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the importance of using a hands-off approach in today's world when teaching music students breath support techniques since any kind of touching might be seen as improper. Provides three different approaches in which students learn intercostal breathing methods. Considers the role of good posture in breath control. (CMK)

  10. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  15. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for...

  16. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  18. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section...

  19. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section...