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Sample records for abnormal calcium homeostasis

  1. Exacerbated immune stress response during experimental magnesium deficiency results from abnormal cell calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Rock, E; Astier, C; Nowacki, W; Mazur, A; Rayssiguier, Y

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential mechanism underlying the enhanced inflammatory processes during magnesium deficit. In this study, exacerbated response to live bacteria and platelet activating factors was shown in rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet. Peritoneal cells from these animals also showed enhanced superoxide anion production and calcium mobilising potency following in vitro stimulation. The latter effect occurred very early in the course of magnesium deficiency. These studies first showed that an abnormal calcium handling induced by extracellular magnesium depression in vivo may be at the origin of exacerbated inflammatory response.

  2. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Ji-Houn; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research. There are consistent results supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of DM. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids, and some meta-analyses support an increase in insulin sensitivity, following vitamin D supplementation. This review provides an overview of the calcium and vitamin D disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. Such elucidation will help indicate potential pathophysiology-based precautionary and therapeutic approaches and contribute to lowering the incidence of DM.

  4. Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2017-01-12

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.

  5. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the aetiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention, but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have, however, emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca 2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progress towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  6. Calcium homeostasis in intraerythrocytic malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C R; Dluzewski, A R; Catalani, L H; Burting, R; Hoyland, J; Mason, W T

    1996-12-01

    The fluorescent indicator, fura-2, AM, was used to measure free calcium concentrations in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasites of Plasmodium chabaudi and Plasmodium falciparum. In both species the free cytosolic calcium concentration was maintained at low levels (between 40 and 100 nM throughout the maturation process. Digital image analysis of the indicator fluorescence was performed on parasites and evaluated with the aid of a calibration of the calcium response, based on permeabilized parasites, exposed to calcium buffers. This again revealed that free calcium concentrations in the intact parasite are maintained at a predetermined level, regardless of the free calcium in the surrounding milieu. Both species of parasites are thus capable of regulating their internal free calcium levels with high precision, presumably by means of calcium pump ATPases. A small but significant elevation of the cytosolic free calcium concentration by the tumor promoter, thapsigargin, may be taken to reflect the presence of calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum in P. falciparum.

  7. Energy Homeostasis and Abnormal RNA Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chern, Yijuang

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness and impaired voluntary movement due to the loss of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. To date, no effective treatment is available. Ample evidence suggests that impaired RNA homeostasis and abnormal energy status are two major pathogenesis pathways in ALS. In the present review article, we focus on recent studies that report molecular insights of both pathways, and discuss the possibility that energy dysfunction might negatively regulate RNA homeostasis via the impairment of cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling in motor neurons and subsequently contribute to the development of ALS. PMID:28522961

  8. Calcium, Synaptic Plasticity and Intrinsic Homeostasis in Purkinje Neuron Models

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Pablo; De Schutter, Erik

    2008-01-01

    We recently reproduced the complex electrical activity of a Purkinje cell (PC) with very different combinations of ionic channel maximum conductances, suggesting that a large parameter space is available to homeostatic mechanisms. It has been hypothesized that cytoplasmic calcium concentrations control the homeostatic activity sensors. This raises many questions for PCs since in these neurons calcium plays an important role in the induction of synaptic plasticity. To address this question, we generated 148 new PC models. In these models the somatic membrane voltages are stable, but the somatic calcium dynamics are very variable, in agreement with experimental results. Conversely, the calcium signal in spiny dendrites shows only small variability. We demonstrate that this localized control of calcium conductances preserves the induction of long-term depression for all models. We conclude that calcium is unlikely to be the sole activity-sensor in this cell but that there is a strong relationship between activity homeostasis and synaptic plasticity. PMID:19129937

  9. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  10. Space medicine considerations: Skeletal and calcium homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor B.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the information obtained from space missions, particularly Skylab and the longer Salyut missions, it is clear that bone and mineral metabolism is substantially altered during space flight. Calcium balance becomes increasingly more negative throughout the flight, and the bone mineral content of the os calcis declines. The major health hazards associated with skeletal changes include the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia with rapid bone turnover, the risk of kidney stones because of hypercalciuria, the lengthy recovery of lost bone mass after flight, the possibility of irreversible bone loss (particularly the trabecular bone), the possible effects of metastated calcification in the soft tissues, and the possible increase in fracture potential. For these reasons, major efforts need to be directed toward elucidating the fundamental mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures to prevent both short-term and long-term complications.

  11. Calcium homeostasis in identified rat gonadotrophs.

    PubMed Central

    Tse, A; Tse, F W; Hille, B

    1994-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage clamp was used in conjunction with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator indo-1 to measure extracellular Ca2+ entry and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in rat gonadotrophs identified with the reverse haemolytic plaque assay. 2. Depolarizations to potentials more positive than -40 mV elicited inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and transient elevations of [Ca2+]i. 3. The relationship between [Ca2+]i elevations and Ca2+ entry with different Ca2+ buffer concentrations in the pipette showed that endogenous Ca2+ buffers normally bind approximately 99% of the Ca2+ entering the cell. 4. With [Ca2+]i elevations less than 500 nM, decay of [Ca2+]i could be approximated by an exponential whose time constant increased with the concentration of exogenous Ca2+ buffers. 5. Inhibitors of intracellular Ca(2+)-ATPases, thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), caused [Ca2+]i to rise. Application of BHQ during [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) terminated the oscillation in a slowly decaying elevation. BHQ slowed the decay of depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i elevations about 3-fold. 6. Taking into account the Ca2+ buffering properties of the cytoplasm permitted estimation of the fluxes and rate constants for Ca2+ movements in gonadotrophs. The intracellular store is a major determinant of Ca2+ homeostasis in gonadotrophs. PMID:7932239

  12. Calcium homeostasis during oral glucose load in healthy women.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Ragno, A; Raejntroph, N; Vecci, E; Acca, M

    1999-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that in healthy subjects during oral glucose tolerance test, serum calcium declines, while urinary calcium excretion increases, even if there is not a general agreement in this regard. The study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of glucose oral load on calcium homeostasis in eight healthy adult women, also considering ionized calcium, plasma insulin and parathyroid hormone changes. The results showed a decline of total and ionized serum calcium (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively; maximum of the decrease at time 120'), in parallel with the increase of urinary calcium/ creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). Serum glucose and insulin increase (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0005 respectively; maximum value at time 60'), while the parathyroid hormone level decreases (maximum decline at time 120', p < 0.01). No changes were observed in fasting control subjects for all parameters considered. The changes of these parameters with time suggest that the effects of glucose oral load on calcium metabolism in healthy adult women may be the consequence of parathyroid hormone suppression induced by acute hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia. The results confirm in vivo the PTH behaviour in vitro, on cultured bovine parathyroid cells, with high glucose concentration.

  13. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  14. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-07

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29451229

  16. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis During Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (Appendix A). 15. SUBJECT TERMS calcium homeostasis, exercise, bone resorption, parathyroid hormone ... hormone (PTH). PTH can defend serum Ca by reducing urinary Ca excretion, increasing intestinal Ca absorption, and increasing mobilization of skeletal Ca...certain conditions. It is our contention that disruptions in calcium homeostasis during exercise lead to increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and

  18. Redox and Activation of Protein Kinase A Dysregulates Calcium Homeostasis in Pulmonary Vein Cardiomyocytes of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Chen, Yao-Chang; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2017-07-12

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the occurrence of atrial fibrillation and pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. Calcium dysregulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance PV arrhythmogenic activity. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether CKD modulates PV electrical activity through dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and ROS. Biochemical and electrocardiographic studies were conducted in rabbits with and without CKD (induced by 150 mg/kg per day neomycin sulfate and 500 mg/kg per day cefazolin). Confocal microscopy with fluorescence and a whole-cell patch clamp were applied to study calcium homeostasis and electrical activities in control and CKD isolated single PV cardiomyocytes with or without treatment with H89 (1 μmol/L, a protein kinase A inhibitor) and MPG (N-[2-mercaptopropionyl]glycine; 100 μmol/L, a ROS scavenger). The ROS in mitochondria and cytosol were evaluated via intracellular dye fluorescence and lipid peroxidation. CKD rabbits had excessive atrial premature captures over those of control rabbits. Compared with the control, CKD PV cardiomyocytes had a faster beating rate and larger calcium transient amplitudes, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium contents, sodium/calcium exchanger currents, and late sodium currents but smaller L-type calcium current densities. CKD PV cardiomyocytes had a higher frequency and longer duration of calcium sparks and more ROS in the mitochondria and cytosol than did controls. Moreover, H89 suppressed all calcium sparks in CKD PV cardiomyocytes, and H89- and MPG-treated CKD PV cardiomyocytes had similar calcium transients compared with control PV cardiomyocytes. CKD increases PV arrhythmogenesis with enhanced calcium-handling abnormalities through activation of protein kinase A and ROS. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-09-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed. (auth)

  20. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  1. Coupling between phosphate and calcium homeostasis: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Granjon, David; Bonny, Olivier; Edwards, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    We developed a mathematical model of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO 4 ) homeostasis in the rat to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Ca and PO 4 balance. The model represents the exchanges of Ca and PO 4 between the intestine, plasma, kidneys, bone, and the intracellular compartment, and the formation of Ca-PO 4 -fetuin-A complexes. It accounts for the regulation of these fluxes by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D 3 , fibroblast growth factor 23, and Ca 2+ -sensing receptors. Our results suggest that the Ca and PO 4 homeostatic systems are robust enough to handle small perturbations in the production rate of either PTH or vitamin D 3 The model predicts that large perturbations in PTH or vitamin D 3 synthesis have a greater impact on the plasma concentration of Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] p ) than on that of PO 4 ([PO 4 ] p ); due to negative feedback loops, [PO 4 ] p does not consistently increase when the production rate of PTH or vitamin D 3 is decreased. Our results also suggest that, following a large PO 4 infusion, the rapidly exchangeable pool in bone acts as a fast, transient storage PO 4 compartment (on the order of minutes), whereas the intracellular pool is able to store greater amounts of PO 4 over several hours. Moreover, a large PO 4 infusion rapidly lowers [Ca 2+ ] p owing to the formation of CaPO 4 complexes. A large Ca infusion, however, has a small impact on [PO 4 ] p , since a significant fraction of Ca binds to albumin. This mathematical model is the first to include all major regulatory factors of Ca and PO 4 homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Feline chronic renal failure: calcium homeostasis in 80 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1995.

    PubMed

    Barber, P J; Elliott, J

    1998-03-01

    Eighty cats with chronic renal failure (CRF) were evaluated in a prospective study to investigate the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPTH), using routine plasma biochemistry and assays of parathyroid hormone (PTH), blood ionised calcium and 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3). Hyperparathyroidism was a frequent sequela of CRF, affecting 84 per cent of cats with CRF, the severity and prevalence of RHPTH increasing with the degree of renal dysfunction. Compared with an age-matched control population, plasma concentrations of phosphate and PTH were significantly higher and 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were significantly lower in the two groups of cats presenting with clinical signs of CRF. Significant ionised hypocalcaemia was present only in cats with end-stage renal failure. However, a number of cats were hyperparathyroid in the absence of abnormalities in the parameters of calcium homeostasis measured in this study. There was a significant correlation between plasma phosphate and PTH concentrations.

  3. TMEM203 Is a Novel Regulator of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Is Required for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shambharkar, Prashant B.; Bittinger, Mark; Latario, Brian; Xiong, ZhaoHui; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Davis, Vanessa; Lin, Victor; Yang, Yi; Valdez, Reginald; Labow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium signaling is critical for initiating and sustaining diverse cellular functions including transcription, synaptic signaling, muscle contraction, apoptosis and fertilization. Trans-membrane 203 (TMEM203) was identified here in cDNA overexpression screens for proteins capable of modulating intracellular calcium levels using activation of a calcium/calcineurin regulated transcription factor as an indicator. Overexpression of TMEM203 resulted in a reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) calcium stores and elevation in basal cytoplasmic calcium levels. TMEM203 protein was localized to the ER and found associated with a number of ER proteins which regulate ER calcium entry and efflux. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Tmem203 deficient mice had reduced ER calcium stores and altered calcium homeostasis. Tmem203 deficient mice were viable though male knockout mice were infertile and exhibited a severe block in spermiogenesis and spermiation. Expression profiling studies showed significant alternations in expression of calcium channels and pumps in testes and concurrently Tmem203 deficient spermatocytes demonstrated significantly altered calcium handling. Thus Tmem203 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cellular calcium homeostasis, is required for spermatogenesis and provides a causal link between intracellular calcium regulation and spermiogenesis. PMID:25996873

  4. Abnormal vascularization in mouse retina with dysregulated retinal cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Omarova, Saida; Charvet, Casey D.; Reem, Rachel E.; Mast, Natalia; Zheng, Wenchao; Huang, Suber; Peachey, Neal S.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a link between age-related macular degeneration and retinal cholesterol maintenance. Cytochrome P450 27A1 (CYP27A1) is a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase that plays an important role in the metabolism of cholesterol and cholesterol-related compounds. We conducted a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation of mice lacking CYP27A1. We found that the loss of CYP27A1 led to dysregulation of retinal cholesterol homeostasis, including unexpected upregulation of retinal cholesterol biosynthesis. Cyp27a1–/– mice developed retinal lesions characterized by cholesterol deposition beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Further, Cyp27a1-null mice showed pathological neovascularization, which likely arose from both the retina and the choroid, that led to the formation of retinal-choroidal anastomosis. Blood flow alterations and blood vessel leakage were noted in the areas of pathology. The Cyp27a1–/– retina was hypoxic and had activated Müller cells. We suggest a mechanism whereby abolished sterol 27-hydroxylase activity leads to vascular changes and identify Cyp27a1–/– mice as a model for one of the variants of type 3 retinal neovascularization occurring in some patients with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22820291

  5. Increased LDL electronegativity in chronic kidney disease disrupts calcium homeostasis resulting in cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Lee, An-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Yen-Nien; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Pan, Chia-Chi; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Chang, Chi-Tzong; Su, Ming-Jai; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is associated with abnormal lipoprotein metabolism. We examined whether electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is mechanistically linked to cardiac dysfunction in patients with early CKD. We compared echocardiographic parameters between patients with stage 2 CKD (n = 88) and normal controls (n = 89) and found that impaired relaxation was more common in CKD patients. Reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate was an independent predictor of left ventricular relaxation dysfunction. We then examined cardiac function in a rat model of early CKD induced by unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) by analyzing pressure-volume loop data. The time constant of isovolumic pressure decay was longer and the maximal velocity of pressure fall was slower in UNx rats than in controls. When we investigated the mechanisms underlying relaxation dysfunction, we found that LDL from CKD patients and UNx rats was more electronegative than LDL from their respective controls and that LDL from UNx rats induced intracellular calcium overload in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. Furthermore, chronic administration of electronegative LDL, which signals through lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), induced relaxation dysfunction in wild-type but not LOX-1(-/-) mice. In in vitro and in vivo experiments, impaired cardiac relaxation was associated with increased calcium transient resulting from nitric oxide (NO)-dependent nitrosylation of SERCA2a due to increases in inducible NO synthase expression and endothelial NO synthase uncoupling. In conclusion, LDL becomes more electronegative in early CKD. This change disrupts SERCA2a-regulated calcium homeostasis, which may be the mechanism underlying cardiorenal syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  7. Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Ellis, Stephen G; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Serum chloride was measured in 1673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102 ± 4 mEq/L. Over 6772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.49; P < 0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P = 0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P = 0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥ 101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥ 138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.69; P = 0.008) or higher (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.85; P = 0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P = 0.67). Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited.

    PubMed

    Kerstetter, Jane E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Insogna, Karl L

    2003-09-01

    High dietary protein intakes are known to increase urinary calcium excretion and, if maintained, will result in sustained hypercalciuria. To date, the majority of calcium balance studies in humans have not detected an effect of dietary protein on intestinal calcium absorption or serum parathyroid hormone. Therefore, it is commonly concluded that the source of the excess urinary calcium is increased bone resorption. Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that alterations in dietary protein can, in fact, profoundly affect intestinal calcium absorption. In short-term dietary trials in healthy adults, we fixed calcium intake at 20 mmol/d while dietary protein was increased from 0.7 to 2.1 g/kg. Increasing dietary protein induced hypercalciuria in 20 women [from 3.4 +/- 0.3 ( +/- SE) during the low-protein to 5.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/d during the high-protein diet]. The increased dietary protein was accompanied by a significant increase in intestinal calcium absorption from 18.4 +/- 1.3% to 26.3 +/- 1.5% (as determined by dual stable isotopic methodology). Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet-induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both.

  9. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease: bad genes and bad habits.

    PubMed

    Mattson, M P; Chan, S L

    2001-10-01

    Calcium is one of the most important intracellular messengers in the brain, being essential for neuronal development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and the regulation of various metabolic pathways. The findings reviewed in the present article suggest that calcium also plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between the pathological hallmarks ofAD (neurofibrillary tangles [NFT] and amyloid plaques) and perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis have been established in studies of patients, and in animal and cell culture models of AD. Studies of the effects of mutations in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins on neuronal plasticity and survival have provided insight into the molecular cascades that result in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal degeneration in AD. Central to the neurodegenerative process is the inability of neurons to properly regulate intracellular calcium levels. Increased levels of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induce oxidative stress, which impairs cellular ion homeostasis and energy metabolism and renders neurons vulnerable to apoptosis and excitotoxicity. Subtoxic levels of Abeta may induce synaptic dysfunction by impairing multiple signal transduction pathways. Presenilin mutations perturb calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum in a way that sensitizes neurons to apoptosis and excitotoxicity; links between aberrant calcium regulation and altered APP processing are emerging. Environmental risk factors for AD are being identified and may include high calorie diets, folic acid insufficiency, and a low level of intellectual activity (bad habits); in each case, the environmental factor impacts on neuronal calcium homeostasis. Low calorie diets and intellectual activity may guard against AD by stimulating production of neurotrophic factors and chaperone proteins. The emerging picture of the cell and molecular biology of AD is revealing novel preventative and therapeutic

  10. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  12. Calcium homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism and expression in strongly calcifying laying birds.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arie

    2008-12-01

    Egg laying and shell calcification impose severe extra demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis; especially in birds characterized by their long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"). These demands induce vitamin D metabolism and expression. The metabolism of vitamin D is also altered indirectly, by other processes associated with increased demands for calcium, such as growth, bone formation and egg production. A series of intestinal, renal or bone proteins are consequently expressed in the target organs via mechanisms involving a vitamin D receptor. Some of these proteins (carbonic anhydrase, calbindin and calcium-ATPase) are also found in the uterus (eggshell gland) or are believed to be involved in calcium transport in the intestine or kidney (calcium channels). The present review deals with vitamin D metabolism and the expression of the above-mentioned proteins in birds, with special attention to the strongly calcifying laying bird.

  13. FGF-23 dysregulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological properties in HL-1 atrial cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Shiu, Rong-Jie; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Higher FGF-23 levels are correlated with poor outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. FGF-23 can produce cardiac hypertrophy and increase intracellular calcium, which can change cardiac electrical activity. However, it is not clear whether FGF-23 possesses arrhythmogenic potential through calcium dysregulation. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate the electrophysiological effects of FGF-23 and identify the underlying mechanisms. Patch clamp, confocal microscope with Fluo-4 fluorescence, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics, calcium homeostasis and calcium regulatory proteins in HL-1 atrial myocytes with and without FGF-23 (10 and 25 ng/mL) incubation for 24 h. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL) increased L-type calcium currents, calcium transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in HL-1 cells. FGF-23 (25 ng/mL)-treated cells (n = 14) had greater incidences (57%, 17% and 15%, P < 0·05) of delayed afterdepolarizations than control (n = 12) and FGF-23 (10 ng/mL)-treated cells (n = 13). Compared with control cells, FGF-23 (25 ng/mL)-treated cells (n = 14) exhibited increased phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ and phospholamban (PLB) at threonine 17 but had similar phosphorylation extents of PLB at serine 16, total PLB and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase protein. Moreover, the FGF receptor inhibitor (PD173074, 10 nM), calmodulin inhibitor (W7, 5 μM) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 1 μM) attenuated the effects of FGF-23 on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation. FGF-23 increases HL-1 cells arrhythmogenesis with calcium dysregulation through modulating calcium-handling proteins. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  14. Effects of microgravity on bone and calcium homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zérath, E.

    Mechanical function is known to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of bone tissue. Gravity on one hand and muscular effort on the other hand are required for normal skeletal structure. It has been shown by numerous experimental studies that loss of total-body calcium, and marked skeletal changes occur in people who have flown in space. However, most of the pertinent investigations have been conducted on animal models, including rats and non-human primates, and a reasonably clear picture of bone response to spaceflight has emerged during the past few years. Osteopenia induced by microgravity was found to be associated with reduction in both cortical and trabecular bone formation, alteration in mineralization patterns, and disorganization of collagen, and non-collagenous protein metabolism. Recently, cell-culture techniques have offered a direct approach of altered gravity effects at the osteoblastic-cell level. But the fundamental mechanisms by which bone and calcium are lost during spaceflight are not yet fully known. Infrequenccy and high financial cost of flights have created the necessity to develop on-Earth models designed to mimic weightlessness effects. Antiorthostatic suspension devices are now commonly used to obtain hindlimb unloading in rats, with skeletal effects similar to those observed after spaceflight. Therefore, actual and ``simulated'' spaceflights, with investigations conducted at whole body and cellular levels, are needed to elucidate pathogeny of bone loss in space, to develop effective countermeasures, and to study recovery processes of bone changes after return to Earth.

  15. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5–1660 μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3},more » serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25 μg/L (range 1.9–145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (−6.1 nmol/L [95%CI −9.5; −2.6] for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30 nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. - Highlights: • Elevated drinking water lithium (Li) concentrations are increasingly reported. • We studied

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calreticulin is required for calcium homeostasis and proper pollen tube tip growth in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Suwińska, Anna; Wasąg, Piotr; Zakrzewski, Przemysław; Lenartowska, Marta; Lenartowski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Calreticulin is involved in stabilization of the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient and the actin cytoskeleton arrangement and function that is required for several key processes driving Petunia pollen tube tip growth. Although the precise mechanism is unclear, stabilization of a tip-focused calcium (Ca 2+ ) gradient seems to be critical for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We hypothesize that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding/buffering chaperone typically residing in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, is an excellent candidate to fulfill this role. We previously showed that in Petunia pollen tubes growing in vitro, CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes that are abundant in the subapical zone of the tube, where CRT's Ca 2+ -buffering and chaperone activities might be particularly required. Here, we sought to determine the function of CRT using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to, for the first time in pollen tubes growing in vitro, knockdown expression of a gene. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing of Petunia hybrida CRT gene (PhCRT) expression strongly impairs pollen tube growth, cytoplasmic zonation, actin cytoskeleton organization, and the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient. Moreover, reduction of CRT alters the localization and disturbs the structure of the ER in abnormally elongating pollen tubes. Finally, cytoplasmic streaming is inhibited, and most of the pollen tubes rupture. Our data clearly show an interplay between CRT, Ca 2+ gradient, actin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming, organelle positioning, and vesicle trafficking during pollen tube elongation. Thus, we suggest that CRT functions in Petunia pollen tube growth by stabilizing Ca 2+ homeostasis and acting as a chaperone to assure quality control of glycoproteins passing through the ER.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental stimuli such as UV, pathogen attack, and gravity can induce rapid changes in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, leading to a variety of physiological responses in plants. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, is the major H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme in all aerobic organisms. A close interaction exists between intracellular H(2)O(2) and cytosolic calcium in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies indicate that an increase in cytosolic calcium boosts the generation of H(2)O(2). Here we report that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, binds to and activates some plant catalases in the presence of calcium, but calcium/CaM does not have any effect on bacterial, fungal, bovine, or human catalase. These results document that calcium/CaM can down-regulate H(2)O(2) levels in plants by stimulating the catalytic activity of plant catalase. Furthermore, these results provide evidence indicating that calcium has dual functions in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis, which in turn influences redox signaling in response to environmental signals in plants.

  19. Calcium Homeostasis and Cone Signaling Are Regulated by Interactions between Calcium Stores and Plasma Membrane Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Huang, Wei; Akopian, Abram; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Krizaj, David

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a messenger ion that controls all aspects of cone photoreceptor function, including synaptic release. The dynamic range of the cone output extends beyond the activation threshold for voltage-operated calcium entry, suggesting another calcium influx mechanism operates in cones hyperpolarized by light. We have used optical imaging and whole-cell voltage clamp to measure the contribution of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) to Ca2+ homeostasis and its role in regulation of neurotransmission at cone synapses. Mn2+ quenching of Fura-2 revealed sustained divalent cation entry in hyperpolarized cones. Ca2+ influx into cone inner segments was potentiated by hyperpolarization, facilitated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, unaffected by pharmacological manipulation of voltage-operated or cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca2+ channels and suppressed by lanthanides, 2-APB, MRS 1845 and SKF 96365. However, cation influx through store-operated channels crossed the threshold for activation of voltage-operated Ca2+ entry in a subset of cones, indicating that the operating range of inner segment signals is set by interactions between store- and voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Exposure to MRS 1845 resulted in ∼40% reduction of light-evoked postsynaptic currents in photopic horizontal cells without affecting the light responses or voltage-operated Ca2+ currents in simultaneously recorded cones. The spatial pattern of store-operated calcium entry in cones matched immunolocalization of the store-operated sensor STIM1. These findings show that store-operated channels regulate spatial and temporal properties of Ca2+ homeostasis in vertebrate cones and demonstrate their role in generation of sustained excitatory signals across the first retinal synapse. PMID:19696927

  20. Minireview: The Intimate Link Between Calcium Sensing Receptor Trafficking and Signaling: Implications for Disorders of Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates organismal Ca2+ homeostasis. Dysregulation of CaSR expression or mutations in the CASR gene cause disorders of Ca2+ homeostasis and contribute to the progression or severity of cancers and cardiovascular disease. This brief review highlights recent findings that define the CaSR life cycle, which controls the cellular abundance of CaSR and CaSR signaling. A novel mechanism, termed agonist-driven insertional signaling (ADIS), contributes to the unique hallmarks of CaSR signaling, including the high degree of cooperativity and the lack of functional desensitization. Agonist-mediated activation of plasma membrane-localized CaSR increases the rate of insertion of CaSR at the plasma membrane without altering the constitutive endocytosis rate, thereby acutely increasing the maximum signaling response. Prolonged CaSR signaling requires a large intracellular ADIS-mobilizable pool of CaSR, which is maintained by signaling-mediated increases in biosynthesis. This model provides a rational framework for characterizing the defects caused by CaSR mutations and the altered functional expression of wild-type CaSR in disease states. Mechanistic dissection of ADIS of CaSR should lead to optimized pharmacological approaches to normalize CaSR signaling in disorders of Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:22745192

  1. Effects of zearalenone on calcium homeostasis of splenic lymphocytes of chickens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y C; Deng, J L; Xu, S W; Peng, X; Zuo, Z C; Cui, H M; Wang, Y; Ren, Z H

    2012-08-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin. It is produced by several Fusarium species and can contaminate food and feed. To investigate the role of calcium homeostasis in ZEA-induced toxicity of poultry and elucidate its cytotoxic mechanism, splenic lymphocytes isolated from chickens were exposed to ZEA (0-25 μg/mL) for 48 h. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), pH, calmodulin (CaM) mRNA levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities and Ca2+-ATPase activities were detected by the fluorescent dyes Fluo-3/AM and BCECF/AM, quantitative real-time PCR, and chromatometry. Supernatant CaM concentrations were simultaneously detected by ELISA. As the ZEA exposure concentration increased, the [Ca2+]i and CaM mRNA levels gradually increased, while intracellular pH, CaM concentrations of supernatants, and intracellular Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities gradually decreased in a dose-dependent manner. There were significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) between the treatment groups and the control group. These results indicate that ZEA cytotoxicity arises by causing an imbalance in calcium homeostasis and intracellular acidification in lymphocytes.

  2. Calcium and Bone Homeostasis During 4-6 Months Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K.; Wastney, M.; Morukov, B.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S.; Lane, H.; Nillen, J.; Davis-Street, J.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bone and calcium homeostasis are altered by weightlessness. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects from the first joint US/Russian mission to Mir. We report here data on an additional three male subjects, whose stays on Mir were 4 (n= 1) and 6 (n=2) mos. Data were collected before, during, and after the missions. Inflight studies were conducted at 2-3 mos. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured, along with 3-wk calcium tracer studies. Percent differences are reported compared to preflight. Ionized calcium was unchanged (2.8 +/-2.1 %) during flight. Calcium absorption was variable inflight, but was decreased after landing. Vitamin D stores were decreased 35 +/-24% inflight, similar to previous reports. Serum PTH was decreased 59 +/-9% during flight (greater than we previously reported), while 1,25(OH)(sub 2)-Vitamin D was decreased in 2 of 3 subjects. Markers of bone resorption (e.g., crosslinks) were increased in all subjects. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was decreased (n=1) or unchanged (n=2), while osteocalcin was decreased 34 +/-23%. Previously presented data showed that inflight bone loss is associated with increased resorption and unchanged/decreased formation. The data reported here support these earlier findings. These studies will help to extend our understanding of space flight-induced bone loss, and of bone loss associated with diseases such as osteoporosis or paralysis.

  3. Mechanisms of intracellular calcium homeostasis in developing and mature bovine corpora lutea.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marietta F; Bowdridge, Elizabeth; McDermott, Erica L; Richardson, Samuel; Scheidler, James; Syed, Qaisar; Bush, Taylor; Inskeep, E Keith; Flores, Jorge A

    2014-03-01

    Although calcium (Ca(2+)) is accepted as an intracellular mediator of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) actions on luteal cells, studies defining mechanisms of Ca(2+) homeostasis in bovine corpora lutea (CL) are lacking. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) induced by PGF2alpha in steroidogenic cells from mature CL is greater than in those isolated from developing CL. Our hypothesis is that differences in signal transduction associated with developing and mature CL contribute to the increased efficacy of PGF2alpha to induce a Ca(2+) signal capable of inducing regression in mature CL. To test this hypothesis, major genes participating in Ca(2+) homeostasis in the bovine CL were identified, and expression of mRNA, protein, or activity, in the case of phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta), in developing and mature bovine CL was compared. In addition, we examined the contribution of external and internal Ca(2+) to the PGF2alpha stimulated rise in [Ca(2+)]i in LLCs isolated from developing and mature bovine CL. Three differences were identified in mechanisms of calcium homeostasis between developing and mature CL, which could account for the lesser increase in [Ca(2+)]i in response to PGF2alpha in developing than in mature CL. First, there were lower concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) after similar PGF2alpha challenge, indicating reduced phospholipase C beta (PLCbeta) activity, in developing than mature CL. Second, there was an increased expression of sorcin (SRI) in developing than in mature CL. This cytoplasmic Ca(2+) binding protein modulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) release channel, ryanodine receptor (RyR), to be in the closed configuration. Third, there was greater expression of ATP2A2 or SERCA, which causes calcium reuptake into the ER, in developing than in mature CL. Developmental differences in expression detected in whole CL were confirmed by Western blots using protein samples from steroidogenic cells

  4. CaSR-mediated interactions between calcium and magnesium homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Stephen J; Thomsen, Alex R B; Egbuna, Ogo; Pang, Jian; Baxi, Khanjan; Goltzman, David; Pollak, Martin; Brown, Edward M

    2013-04-01

    Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) homeostasis are interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in Mg homeostasis in vivo is not well understood. We sought to investigate the interactions between Mg and Ca homeostasis using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) (double knockout, DKO). Serum Mg is lower in PTH KO and DKO mice than in WT mice on standard chow, whereas supplemental dietary Ca leads to equivalent Mg levels for all three genotypes. Mg loading increases serum Mg in all genotypes; however, the increase in serum Mg is most pronounced in the DKO mice. Serum Ca is increased with Mg loading in the PTH KO and DKO mice but not in the WT mice. Here, too, the hypercalcemia is much greater in the DKO mice. Serum and especially urinary phosphate are reduced during Mg loading, which is likely due to intestinal chelation of phosphate by Mg. Mg loading decreases serum PTH in WT mice and increases serum calcitonin in both WT and PTH KO mice but not DKO mice. Furthermore, Mg loading elevates serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in all genotypes, with greater effects in PTH KO and DKO mice, possibly due to reduced levels of serum phosphorus and FGF23. These hormonal responses to Mg loading and the CaSR's role in regulating renal function may help to explain changes in serum Mg and Ca found during Mg loading.

  5. Cardioprotection Via Modulation of Calcium Homeostasis by Thiopental in Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Ca2+ homeostasis plays an important role in myocardial cell injury induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation, and prevention of intracellular Ca2+ overload is key to cardioprotection. Even though thiopental is a frequently used anesthetic agent, little is known about its cardioprotective effects, particulary in association with Ca2+ homeostasis. We investigated whether thiopental protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury by regulating Ca2+ homeostasis. Materials and Methods Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to different concentrations of thiopental and immediately replaced in the hypoxic chamber to maintain hypoxia. After 1 hour of exposure, a culture dish was transferred to the CO2 incubator and cells were incubated at 37℃ for 5 hours. At the end of the experiments, the authors assessed cell protection using immunoblot analysis and caspase activity. The mRNA of genes involved in Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular Ca2+ levels were examined. Results In thiopental-treated cardiomyocytes, there was a decrease in expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, caspase-3 activation, and intracellular Ca2+ content. In addition, both enhancement of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and activation of Erk concerned with survival were shown. Furthermore, thiopental attenuated alterations of genes involving Ca2+ regulation and significantly modulated abnormal changes of NCX and SERCA2a genes in hypoxia-reoxygenated neonatal cardiomyocytes. Thiopental suppressed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. Conclusion Thiopental is likely to modulate expression of genes that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis, which reduces apoptotic cell death and results in cardioprotection. PMID:20191008

  6. Calcium Dysregulation and Homeostasis of Neural Calcium in the Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases Provide Multiple Targets for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zündorf, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The intracellular free calcium concentration subserves complex signaling roles in brain. Calcium cations (Ca2+) regulate neuronal plasticity underlying learning and memory and neuronal survival. Homo- and heterocellular control of Ca2+ homeostasis supports brain physiology maintaining neural integrity. Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane and between intracellular organelles and compartments integrate diverse cellular functions. A vast array of checkpoints controls Ca2+, like G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, Ca2+ binding proteins, transcriptional networks, and ion exchangers, in both the plasma membrane and the membranes of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Interactions between Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species signaling coordinate signaling, which can be either beneficial or detrimental. In neurodegenerative disorders, cellular Ca2+-regulating systems are compromised. Oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and alterations of disease-related proteins result in Ca2+-dependent synaptic dysfunction, impaired plasticity, and neuronal demise. We review Ca2+ control processes relevant for physiological and pathophysiological conditions in brain tissue. Dysregulation of Ca2+ is decisive for brain cell death and degeneration after ischemic stroke, long-term neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, inflammatory processes, such as in multiple sclerosis, epileptic sclerosis, and leucodystrophies. Understanding the underlying molecular processes is of critical importance for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent neurodegeneration and confer neuroprotection. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1275–1288. PMID:20615073

  7. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin‐induced cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean‐Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose‐limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium‐dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS‐R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Methods By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast‐twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin‐induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Results Cisplatin‐treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up‐regulation of atrogin1/Murf‐1 genes and a down‐regulation of Pgc1‐a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two‐fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store‐operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin‐treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo

  8. Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tue H; Madsen, Marie T B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Cohen, Arieh S; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2018-01-23

    A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores. When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P < 0.001) compared to omnivores, whereas CTX (30 [95% CI: -1, 72]%, P = 0.06) and osteocalcin (21.8 [95% CI: -9.3, 63.7]%, P = 0.2) concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P < 0.001) and lower 25(OH)-D serum concentration (-33 [95% CI: -45, -19]%; P < 0.001), but similar serum calcium concentration (-1 [95% CI: -3, 1]%, P = 0.18 compared to omnivores. Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

  9. The oxidative damage and disbalance of calcium homeostasis in brain of chicken induced by selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi-Wen; Yao, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Jiang, Zhi-Hui

    2013-02-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency can influence the function of the brain. Our objective was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on oxidative damage and calcium (Ca) homeostasis in brain of chicken. In the present study, 1-day-old chickens were fed either a commercial diet (as control group) with 0.15 mg/kg Se or a Se-deficient diet (as L group) with 0.033 mg/kg Se for 75 days. Then, brain injury biomarkers were examined, including histological analysis, ultrastructure assay, and apoptosis assay. We also examined the effect of Se deficiency on the Se-containing antioxidative enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the level of glutathione (GSH), and the Ca homeostasis in brain of chicken. The results showed that the levels of Se and GSH and activity of GSH-Px are seriously reduced by 33.8-96 % (P < 0.001), 24.51-27.84 % (P < 0.001), and 20.70-64.24 % (P < 0.01), respectively. In the present study, we also perform histological analysis and ultrastructure assay and find that Se deficiency caused disorganized histological structure, damage to the mitochondria, fusion of nuclear membrane and nucleus shrinkage, higher apoptosis rate (P < 0.001), and increase of Ca homeostasis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) in the brain of chicken. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Se deficiency induced oxidative damage and disbalance of Ca homeostasis in the brain of chicken. Similar to mammals, chickens brain is also extremely susceptible to oxidative damage and selenium deficiency.

  10. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphate abnormalities in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Radin, Bethany; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Derangements of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These minerals have vital roles in the cellular physiology of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. This article describes the pathophysiology of these mineral disorders. It aims to provide the emergency practitioner with an overview of the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the autonomic nervous system on calcium homeostasis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stern, J E; Cardinali, D P

    1994-01-01

    The local surgical manipulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating the thyroid-parathyroid territory was employed to search for the existence of a peripheral neuroendocrine link controlling parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) release. From 8 to 24 h after superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), at the time of wallerian degeneration of thyroid-parathyroid sympathetic nerve terminals, an alpha-adrenergic inhibition, together with a minor beta-adrenergic stimulation, of hypercalcemia-induced CT release, and an alpha-adrenoceptor inhibition of hypocalcemia-induced PTH release were found. In chronically SCGx rats PTH response to EDTA was slower, and after CaCl2 injection, serum calcium attained higher levels in face of normal CT levels. SCGx blocked the PTH increase found in sham-operated rats stressed by a subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, but did not affect the greater response to EDTA. The higher hypocalcemia seen after turpentine oil was no longer observed in SCGx rats. The effects of turpentine oil stress on calcium and CT responses to a bolus injection of CaCl2 persisted in rats subjected to SCGx 14 days earlier. Interruption of thyroid-parathyroid parasympathetic input conveyed by the thyroid nerves (TN) and the inferior laryngeal nerves (ILN) caused a fall in total serum calcium, an increase of PTH levels and a decrease of CT levels, when measured 10 days after surgery. Greater responses of serum CT and PTH were detected in TN-sectioned, and in TN- or ILN-sectioned rats, respectively. Physiological concentrations of CT decreased, and those of PTH increased, in vitro cholinergic activity in rat SCG, measured as specific choline uptake, and acetylcholine synthesis and release. The results indicate that cervical autonomic nerves constitute a pathway through which the brain modulates calcium homeostasis.

  12. Effects of draught load exercise and training on calcium homeostasis in horses.

    PubMed

    Vervuert, I; Coenen, M; Zamhöfer, J

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of draught load exercise on calcium (Ca) homeostasis in young horses. Five 2-year-old untrained Standardbred horses were studied in a 4-month training programme. All exercise workouts were performed on a treadmill at a 6% incline and with a constant draught load of 40 kg (0.44 kN). The training programme started with a standardized exercise test (SET 1; six incremental steps of 5 min duration each, first step 1.38 m/s, stepwise increase by 0.56 m/s). A training programme was then initiated which consisted of low-speed exercise sessions (LSE; constant velocity at 1.67 m/s for 60 min, 48 training sessions in total). After the 16th and 48th LSE sessions, SETs (SET 2: middle of training period, SET 3: finishing training period) were performed again under the identical test protocol of SET 1. Blood samples for blood lactate, plasma total Ca, blood ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), blood pH, plasma inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected before, during and after SETs, and before and after the first, 16th, 32nd and 48th LSE sessions. During SETs there was a decrease in ionized Ca(2+) and a rise in lactate, P(i) and intact PTH. The LSEs resulted in an increase in pH and P(i), whereas lactate, ionized Ca(2+), total Ca and intact PTH were not affected. No changes in Ca metabolism were detected in the course of training. Results of this study suggest that the type of exercise influences Ca homeostasis and intact PTH response, but that these effects are not influenced in the course of the training period.

  13. Lactate calcium salt affects the viability of colorectal cancer cells via betaine homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeong-Su; Jo, Young-Kwon; Sim, Jae Jun; Ji, Eunhee; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2016-02-15

    Betaine plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. However, the physiological roles of betaine-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (BGT-1) are still being disputed in cancer. In this study, we tried to find the possibility of the antitumor effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) cell via lactate calcium salt (CaLa)-induced BGT-1 downregulation. The CRC cell viability and clonogenic assay was performed using different doses of BGT-1 inhibitor. The expression level of BGT-1 was measured following the treatment of 2.5mM CaLa. Betaine was treated to confirm the resistance of the antitumor activity by CaLa. Tumor growth was also measured using a xenograft animal model. Long-term exposure of 2.5mM CaLa clearly decreased the expression of BGT-1 in the CRC cells. As a result of the downregulation of BGT-1 expression, the clonogenic ability of CRC cells was also decreased in the 2.5mM CaLa-treated group. Reversely, the number of colonies and cell viability was increased by combination treatment with betaine and 2.5mM CaLa, as compared with a single treatment of 2.5mM CaLa. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the xenograft model depending on BGT-1 downregulation by 2.5mM CaLa treatment. These results support the idea that long-lasting calcium supplementation via CaLa contributes to disruption of betaine homeostasis in the CRC cells and is hypothesized to reduce the risk of CRC. In addition, it indicates the possibility of CaLa being a potential incorporating agent with existing therapeutics against CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disrupting mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis causes tumor-selective TRAIL sensitization through mitochondrial network abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yohei; Takata, Natsuhiko; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has emerged as a promising anticancer agent with high tumor-selective cytotoxicity. The congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer types including malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma impede the current TRAIL therapy of these cancers. Since fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ level is essential for cell function and survival, Ca2+ dynamics could be a promising target for cancer treatment. Recently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial Ca2+ removal increased TRAIL efficacy toward malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma cells. Here we report that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload leads to tumor-selective sensitization to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Treatment with the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor CGP-37157 and oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor antimycin A and FCCP resulted in a rapid and persistent mitochondrial Ca2+ rise. These agents also increased TRAIL sensitivity in a tumor-selective manner with a switching from apoptosis to a nonapoptotic cell death. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload led to increased mitochondrial fragmentation, while mitochondrial Ca2+ removal resulted in mitochondrial hyperfusion. Regardless of their reciprocal actions on the mitochondrial dynamics, both interventions commonly exacerbated TRAIL-induced mitochondrial network abnormalities. These results expand our previous study and suggest that an appropriate level of mitochondrial Ca2+ is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial dynamics and the survival of these cells. Thus, disturbing mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis may serve as a promising approach to overcome the TRAIL resistance of these cancers with minimally compromising the tumor-selectivity.

  15. Putative Nanobacteria Represent Physiological Remnants and Culture By-Products of Normal Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Lena; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    described earlier as NB may thus represent remnants and by-products of physiological mechanisms used for calcium homeostasis, a concept which explains the vast body of NB literature as well as explains the true origin of NB as lifeless protein-mineralo entities with questionable role in pathogenesis. PMID:19198665

  16. The effect of enriched chicory inulin on liver enzymes, calcium homeostasis and hematological parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Javid, Ahmad Zare; Dehghan, Parvin

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) as one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality is associated with immune system disturbances and metabolic abnormalities. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the effects of enriched chicory inulin supplementation on liver enzymes, serum calcium and phosphorous concentrations and hematological parameters in patients with T2DM. Forty-six diabetic females patients were randomly allocated into intervention (n=27) and control (n=22) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received a daily dose of 10g of chicory and subjects in control group received a placebo for two months. Anthropometric variables, glucose homeostasis, hematological parameters and metabolic indices including serum alanine aminotransfersae (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium and phosphorous as well as creatinine concentrations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and blood pressure were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Significant reductions in fasting serum glucose (FSG), Hb A1C, AST and ALP concentrations were observed in chicory-treated group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also reduced in chicory-treated group. Serum calcium significantly increased after chicory supplementation but no change in placebo treated group has been occurred (P=0.014). Supplementation with enriched chicory for two months significantly reduced hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (P<0.05). Changes in serum insulin, creatinine and GFR were not significant. The present study showed beneficial effects of oligofructose-enriched chicory on the improvement of the glucose and calcium homeostasis, liver function tests, blood pressure and reduction in hematologic risk factors of diabetes in female patients with T2DM. Further studies in both genders are needed to generalize these findings to total population. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal oxygen homeostasis in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Hosford, Patrick S; Millar, Julian; Ramage, Andrew G; Marina, Nephtali

    2017-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Arterial hypertension is associated with impaired neurovascular coupling in the somatosensory cortex. Abnormalities in activity-dependent oxygen consumption in brainstem regions involved in the control of cardiovascular reflexes have not been explored previously. What is the main finding and its importance? Using fast-cyclic voltammetry, we found that changes in local tissue PO2 in the nucleus tractus solitarii induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve are significantly impaired in spontaneously hypertensive rats. This is consistent with previous observations showing that brainstem hypoxia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. The effects of arterial hypertension on cerebral blood flow remain poorly understood. Haemodynamic responses within the somatosensory cortex have been shown to be impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. However, it is unknown whether arterial hypertension affects oxygen homeostasis in vital brainstem areas that control cardiovascular reflexes. In this study, we assessed vagus nerve stimulation-induced changes in local tissue PO2 (PtO2) in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) of SHRs and normotensive Wistar rats. Measurements of PtO2 were performed using a novel application of fast-cyclic voltammetry, which allows higher temporal resolution of O 2 changes than traditional optical fluorescence techniques. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the vagus nerve (ESVN) caused profound reductions in arterial blood pressure along with biphasic changes in PtO2 in the cNTS, characterized by a rapid decrease in PtO2 ('initial dip') followed by a post-stimulus overshoot above baseline. The initial dip was found to be significantly smaller in SHRs compared with normotensive Wistar rats even after ganglionic blockade. The post-ESVN overshoot was similar in both groups but was reduced in Wistar rats after ganglionic blockade. In

  18. [Classical actions of vitamin D: insights from human genetics and from mouse models on calcium and phosphate homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Jehan, Frédéric; Voloc, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, the discovery of vitamin D by Sir EV McCollum allowed a better comprehension of its origin and its role, and made it possible to cure rickets, a largely prevalent disease at that time. The main role of vitamin D3 is to maintain calcium and phosphate homeostasis through the action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, its active form. This underlies physiological functions related to calcium and phosphate, such as bone mineralization or muscle function. Progress in basic research for the last 40 years led to the discovery of the main hydroxylation steps that produce and catabolize the active form of vitamin D. It also uncovered the molecular aspects of vitamin D action, from its nuclear receptor, VDR, to the various target genes of this hormone. Recent progress in human genetics pointed out mutations in genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 actions. It also helped to understand the role of the major actors that control vitamin D production and effects, through 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 actions on phosphate and calcium homeostasis, and on bone biology. Genetical engineering targeting the whole animal or defined tissues or cell types have yielded many mouse models in the past decades. When targeted to tissues important for vitamin D metabolism and activity, these models allowed a more detailed comprehension of vitamin effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  19. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yue; Seah, Tingting; Xu, Jun; Radda, George K; Südhof, Thomas C; Han, Weiping

    2010-11-09

    Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X) mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  20. Bone Is a Major Target of PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling in Regulation of Fetal Blood Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takao; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Nishimori, Shigeki; Karaplis, Andrew C.; Goltzman, David

    2015-01-01

    The blood calcium concentration during fetal life is tightly regulated within a narrow range by highly interactive homeostatic mechanisms that include transport of calcium across the placenta and fluxes in and out of bone; the mechanisms of this regulation are poorly understood. Our findings that endochondral bone-specific PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of fetal blood calcium concentration compared with that of control littermates at embryonic day 18.5 led us to focus on bone as a possibly major determinant of fetal calcium homeostasis. We found that the fetal calcium concentration of Runx2 KO mice was significantly higher than that of control littermates, suggesting that calcium flux into bone had a considerable influence on the circulating calcium concentration. Moreover, Runx2:PTH double mutant fetuses showed calcium levels similar to those of Runx2 KO mice, suggesting that part of the fetal hypocalcemia in PTH KO mice was caused by the increment of the mineralized bone mass allowed by the formation of osteoblasts. Finally, Rank:PTH double mutant mice had a blood calcium concentration even lower than that of the either Rank KO or PTH KO mice alone at embryonic day 18.5. These observations in our genetic models suggest that PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in bones has a significant role of the regulation of fetal blood calcium concentration and that both placental transport and osteoclast activation contribute to PTH's hypercalcemic action. They also show that PTH-independent deposition of calcium in bone is the major controller of fetal blood calcium level. PMID:26052897

  1. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

    PubMed

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana; Liantonio, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin-induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Cisplatin-treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up-regulation of atrogin1/Murf-1 genes and a down-regulation of Pgc1-a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two-fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca 2+ ] i , compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store-operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin-treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo (excitability and resting macroscopic conductance) and in

  2. Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Picard, Brigitte; Kammoun, Malek; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barboiron, Christiane; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-05-04

    Hsp27-encoded by HspB1- is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12-43 kDa (kilodalton)) family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse . Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1 -null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1), contraction (TnnT3), energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1) and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9). These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps.

  3. Calcium homeostasis in crustacea: the evolving role of branchial, renal, digestive and hypodermal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Wheatly, M G

    1999-06-01

    Crustaceans serve as an ideal model for the study of calcium homeostasis due to their natural molting cycle. Demineralization and remineralization of the calcified cuticle is accompanied by bidirectional Ca transfer across the primary Ca transporting epithelia: gills, antennal gland (kidney), digestive system, and cuticular hypodermis. The review will demonstrate how a continuum of crustaceans can be used as a paradigm for the evolution of Ca transport mechanisms. Generally speaking, aquatic crustaceans rely primarily on branchial Ca uptake and accordingly are affected by water Ca content; terrestrial crustaceans rely on intake of dietary Ca across the digestive epithelium. Synchrony of mineralization at the cuticle vs. storage sites will be presented Physiological and behavioral adaptations have evolved to optimize Ca balance during the molting cycle in different Ca environments. Intracellular Ca regulation reveals common mechanisms of apical and basolateral membrane transport as well as intracellular sequestration. Regulation of cell Ca concentration will be discussed in intermolt and during periods of the molting cycle when transepithelial Ca flux is significantly elevated. Molecular characterization of the sarco-/endoplasmic reticular Ca pump in aquatic species reveals the presence of two isoforms that originate from a single gene. This gene is differentially expressed during the molting cycle. Gene expression may be regulated by a suite of hormones including ecdysone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. Perspectives for future research are presented.

  4. Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Brigitte; Kammoun, Malek; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barboiron, Christiane; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Hsp27—encoded by HspB1—is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12–43 kDa (kilodalton)) family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse. Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1-null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1), contraction (TnnT3), energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1) and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9). These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps. PMID:28248227

  5. Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Howe; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Guohui; Mason, David C

    2016-08-26

    Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca(2+) is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca(2+)-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca(2+) mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation (IPIRM) of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the injured HSKMCs. The normal HSKMCs was used as control normal group (CNG), while the injured HSKMCs were further divided into five different groups: control injured group (CIG), Rolling manipulation group (RMG), Rolling manipulation-Verapamil group (RMVG), static pressure group (SPG) and static pressure-Verapamil group (SPVG). RMG and RMVG cells were cyclically exposed to 9.5-12.5 N/cm(2) of IPIRM at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 10 min. SPG and SPVG were loaded to a continuous pressure of 12.5 N/cm(2) for 10 min. Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, was added into the culture mediums of both RMVG and SPVG groups to block the influx of calcium ion. Compared with the CNG (normal cells), SOD activity was remarkably decreased while both MDA content and CK activity were significantly increased in the CIG (injured cells). When the injured cells were treated with the intermittent rolling manipulation pressure (RMG), the SOD activity was significantly increased and MDA content and CK activity were remarkably decreased. These effects were suppressed by adding the calcium antagonist Verapamil into the culture medium in RMVG. On the other hand, exposure to static pressure in SPG and SPVG

  6. Glutathione homeostasis as an important and novel factor controlling blossom-end rot development in calcium-deficient tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Teresa C; Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco; Rubio, Francisco; Martinez, Vicente; Rivero, Rosa M

    2012-11-15

    Based on previous results in which oxidative metabolism was suggested as a possible inducer of blossom-end rot (BER), the main questions addressed here were whether calcium deficiency is the main factor that induces BER or whether this physiological disorder a general stress-related phenomenon? Tomato plants were grown under optimal or deficient calcium concentrations. Only the application of 0.1mM calcium resulted in BER induction, although only half of the fruits grown under this treatment had this disorder. Having fruits showing or not showing BER in the same plant and treatment provided us with a powerful tool that we used to investigate whether calcium deficiency operates alongside another mechanism in the induction of BER. Whether or not this other mechanism was the one controlling BER incidence was also investigated. We performed a complete study of the oxidative metabolism in the pericarp of healthy fruits and in the healthy portion of BER-affected fruits. Calcium deficiency led to an induction of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, dehydro- and monodehydroascorbate reductase, and to an inhibition of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, with a concomitant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and an increase in lipid peroxidation. While the ascorbate redox state was not affected by calcium deficiency, the glutathione redox state was markedly reduced. We conclude that calcium deficiency fundamentally affected the activity of the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes, with special importance to the inhibition of GR, which lead to a reduction of the glutathione redox state. This could cause the breakdown of cellular homeostasis, the inhibition of other enzymes responsible for H(2)O(2) detoxification, and ultimately an increase of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, BER is defined here as the visual symptom of a massive lipid peroxidation event caused by the breakdown of cellular glutathione homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium: Importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZM, Sara Zafaranchi; Khoshaman, Kazem; Masoudi, Raheleh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The imbalance of the calcium homeostasis in the lenticular tissues of diabetic patients is an important risk factor for development of cataract diseases. In the current study, the impact of elevated levels of calcium ions were investigated on structure and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins using gel electrophoresis and spectroscopic assessments. The glycated proteins indicated significant resistance against calcium-induced structural insults and aggregation. While, glycated crystallins revealed an increased conformational stability; a slight instability was observed for these proteins upon interaction with calcium ions. Also, in the presence of calcium, the proteolytic pattern of native crystallins was altered and that of glycated protein counterparts remained almost unchanged. According to results of this study it is suggested that the structural alteration of lens crystallins upon glycation may significantly reduce their calcium buffering capacity in eye lenses. Therefore, under chronic hyperglycemia accumulation of this cataractogenic metal ion in the lenticular tissues may subsequently culminate in activation of different pathogenic pathways, leading to development of lens opacity and cataract diseases.

  8. PCV2 induces apoptosis and modulates calcium homeostasis in piglet lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingjun; Dai, Lei; Han, Huili; Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the process of PCV2-induced apoptosis and the effect of PCV2 inoculation on calcium homeostasis in piglet lymphocytes in vitro. PCV2-inoculated lymphocytes exhibited chromatin condensation, chromatin segregation, the appearance of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased significantly in PCV2-inoculated lymphocytes compared with controls. These results demonstrate that PCV2 induces lymphocyte apoptosis. Some evidence suggests that an alteration in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) could cause apoptosis. We measured elevated [Ca2+]i in PCV2-inoculated lymphocytes for 12 or 24 h compared with controls. Our results support that PCV2-induced apoptosis may be relative to [Ca2+]i. In addition, calmodulin (CaM) was increased in PCV2-inoculated lymphocytes for 12 h compared with controls. The amount of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) did not change with PCV2 inoculation. We infer that the increased [Ca2+]i can bind CaM protein, but functions independently of CaMKII. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-1 mRNA expression increased with PCV2 inoculation, whereas plasma Ca2+-ATP4 mRNA expression decreased. A decreased Ca2+-ATP4 level may inhibit Ca2+ efflux, and the increased IP3R-1 may trigger Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Both of these changes may contribute to increased [Ca2+]i. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of neurotrophin-3 precursor on glutamate-induced calcium homeostasis deregulation in rat cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Safina, Dina R; Surin, Alexander M; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Kostrov, Sergey V

    2015-12-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) belongs to the family of highly conserved dimeric growth factors that controls the differentiation and activity of various neuronal populations. Mammals contain both the mature (NT-3) and the precursor (pro-NT-3) forms of neurotrophin. Members of the neurotrophin family are involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in neurons; however, the role of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 in this process remains unclear. The current study explores the effects of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 on disturbed calcium homeostasis and decline of mitochondrial potential induced by a neurotoxic concentration of glutamate (Glu; 100 µM) in the primary culture of rat cerebellar granule cells. In this Glu excitotoxicity model, mature NT-3 had no effect on the induced changes in Ca²⁺ homeostasis. In contrast, pro-NT-3 decreased the period of delayed calcium deregulation (DCD) and concurrent strong mitochondrial depolarization. According to the amplitude of the increase in the intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i ) and Fura-2 fluorescence quenching by Mn²⁺ within the first 20 sec of exposure to Glu, pro-NT-3 had no effect on the initial rate of Ca²⁺ entry into neurons. During the lag period preceding DCD, the mean amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i rise was 1.2-fold greater in the presence of pro-NT-3 than in the presence of Glu alone (1.67 ±  0.07 and 1.39 ± 0.04, respectively, P < 0.05). The Glu-induced changes in Са²⁺ homeostasis in the presence of pro-NT-3 likely are due to the decreased rate of Са²⁺ removal from the cytosol during the DCD latency period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adjustment of ionized calcium concentration for serum pH is not a valid marker of calcium homeostasis: implications for identifying individuals at risk of calcium metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginie; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mamo, John C

    2013-05-01

    Ionized calcium (iCa) is the biologically active form of this micronutrient. Serum determination of iCa is measured via ion-electrode potentiometry (IEP) and reporting iCa relative to pH 7.4 is normally utilized to avoid the potential confounding effects of ex vivo changes to serum pH. Adjustment of iCa for pH has not been adequately justified. In this study, utilizing carefully standardized protocols for blood collection, the preparation of serum and controlling time of collection-to-analysis, we determined serum iCa and pH utilizing an IEP-analyser hosted at an accredited diagnostic laboratory. Regression analysis of unadjusted-iCa (iCa(raw)) concentration versus pH was described by linear regression and accounted for 37% of serum iCa(raw) variability. iCa(raw) was then expressed at pH 7.4 by either adjusting iCa(raw) based on the linear regression equation describing the association of iCa with serum pH (iCa(regr)) or using IEP coded published normative equations (iCa(pub)). iCa(regr) was comparable to iCa(raw), indicating that blood collection and processing methodologies were sound. However, iCa(pub) yielded values that were significantly lower than iCa(raw). iCa(pub) did not identify 15% subjects who had greater than desirable serum concentration of iCa based on iCa(raw). Sixty percent of subjects with low levels of iCa(raw) were also not detected by iCa(pub). Determination of the kappa value measure of agreement for iCa(raw) versus iCa(pub) showed relatively poor concordance (κ = 0.42). With simple protocols that avoid sampling artefacts, expressing iCa(raw) is likely to be a more valid and physiologically relevant marker of calcium homeostasis than is iCa(pub).

  11. The common inhaled anesthetic isoflurane increases aggregation of huntingtin and alters calcium homeostasis in a cell model of Huntington's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiujun; Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Clinical Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051; Liang Ge

    2011-02-01

    Isoflurane is known to increase {beta}-amyloid aggregation and neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane will have similar effects on the polyglutamine huntingtin protein and will cause alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis in striatal cells from the expanded glutamine huntingtin knock-in mouse (STHdh{sup Q111/Q111}) and wild type (STHdh{sup Q7/Q7}) striatal neurons. The primary cultured neurons were exposed for 24 h to equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in the presence or absence of extracellular calcium and with or without xestospongin C, a potent endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP{sub 3}) receptor antagonist. Aggregation of huntingtin protein, cellmore » viability, and calcium concentrations were measured. Isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane all increased the aggregation of huntingtin in STHdh{sup Q111/Q111} cells, with isoflurane having the largest effect. Isoflurane induced greater calcium release from the ER and relatively more cell damage in the STHdh{sup Q111/Q111} huntingtin cells than in the wild type STHdh{sup Q7/Q7} striatal cells. However, sevoflurane and desflurane caused less calcium release from the ER and less cell damage. Xestospongin C inhibited the isoflurane-induced calcium release from the ER, aggregation of huntingtin, and cell damage in the STHdh{sup Q111/Q111} cells. In summary, the Q111 form of huntingtin increases the vulnerability of striatal neurons to isoflurane neurotoxicity through combined actions on the ER IP{sub 3} receptors. Calcium release from the ER contributes to the anesthetic induced huntingtin aggregation in STHdh{sup Q111/Q111} striatal cells.« less

  12. Longitudinal monitoring of Gaussia and Nano luciferase activities to concurrently assess ER calcium homeostasis and ER stress in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wires, Emily S; Henderson, Mark J; Yan, Xiaokang; Bäck, Susanne; Trychta, Kathleen A; Lutrey, Molly H; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential to many cellular processes including protein processing, lipid metabolism and calcium storage. The ability to longitudinally monitor ER homeostasis in the same organism would offer insight into progressive molecular and cellular adaptations to physiologic or pathologic states, but has been challenging. We recently described the creation of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based secreted ER calcium-modulated protein (SERCaMP or GLuc-SERCaMP) to longitudinally monitor ER calcium homeostasis. Here we describe a complementary tool to measure the unfolded protein response (UPR), utilizing a UPRE-driven secreted Nano luciferase (UPRE-secNLuc) to examine the activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathways of the UPR. We observed an upregulation of endogenous ATF6- and XBP1-regulated genes following pharmacologically-induced ER stress that was consistent with responsiveness of the UPRE sensor. Both GLuc and NLuc-based reporters have favorable properties for in vivo studies, however, they are not easily used in combination due to overlapping substrate activities. We describe a method to measure the enzymatic activities of both reporters from a single sample and validated the approach using culture medium and rat blood samples to measure GLuc-SERCaMP and UPRE-secNLuc. Measuring GLuc and NLuc activities from the same sample allows for the robust and quantitative measurement of two cellular events or cell populations from a single biological sample. This study is the first to describe the in vivo measurement of UPRE activation by sampling blood, using an approach that allows concurrent interrogation of two components of ER homeostasis.

  13. Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis Using a Gaussia Luciferase SERCaMP.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mark J; Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Yan, Xiaokang; Harvey, Brandon K

    2015-09-06

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains the highest level of intracellular calcium, with concentrations approximately 5,000-fold greater than cytoplasmic levels. Tight control over ER calcium is imperative for protein folding, modification and trafficking. Perturbations to ER calcium can result in the activation of the unfolded protein response, a three-prong ER stress response mechanism, and contribute to pathogenesis in a variety of diseases. The ability to monitor ER calcium alterations during disease onset and progression is important in principle, yet challenging in practice. Currently available methods for monitoring ER calcium, such as calcium-dependent fluorescent dyes and proteins, have provided insight into ER calcium dynamics in cells, however these tools are not well suited for in vivo studies. Our lab has demonstrated that a modification to the carboxy-terminus of Gaussia luciferase confers secretion of the reporter in response to ER calcium depletion. The methods for using a luciferase based, secreted ER calcium monitoring protein (SERCaMP) for in vitro and in vivo applications are described herein. This video highlights hepatic injections, pharmacological manipulation of GLuc-SERCaMP, blood collection and processing, and assay parameters for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium.

  14. Interaction of Mitochondria with the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane in Calcium Homeostasis, Lipid Trafficking and Mitochondrial Structure.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Jędrzej; Janikiewicz, Justyna; Michalska, Bernadeta; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Perrone, Mariasole; Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Duszyński, Jerzy; Pinton, Paolo; Dobrzyń, Agnieszka; Więckowski, Mariusz R

    2017-07-20

    Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles. From these studies, findings emerged showing that these contacts are involved in various processes, such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, modulation of mitochondrial morphology, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and Ca 2 + handling. In this review, we focused on the physical interactions of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane and summarized present knowledge regarding the role of mitochondria-associated membranes in calcium homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

  15. [Aging and homeostasis. Management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with ageing.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis.

  16. High prevalence of abnormal glucose homeostasis secondary to decreased insulin secretion in individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    McClain, D A; Abraham, D; Rogers, J; Brady, R; Gault, P; Ajioka, R; Kushner, J P

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of diabetes in hereditary haemochromatosis are not known. We therefore measured glucose tolerance, insulin secretory capacity and insulin sensitivity in adults with haemochromatosis. Subjects recruited from referrals to a haemochromatosis clinic underwent OGTT and frequently sampled IVGTT. A chart review of former clinic patients was also performed. The prevalence of diabetes (23%) and IGT (30%) was increased in haemochromatosis compared with matched control subjects (0% diabetes and 14% IGT). Subjects with haemochromatosis and diabetes were overweight (14%) or obese (86%). The prevalence of diabetes, as determined by chart review of fasting glucose values, in subjects who had haemochromatosis and were in the 40-79 years age range was 26%. Overall, patients with haemochromatosis and control subjects had similar values for acute insulin response to glucose and insulin sensitivity. However, patients with haemochromatosis and IGT had a 68% decrease in acute insulin response to glucose (p<0.02) compared with those with NGT. They were not insulin-resistant, exhibiting instead a 62% increase in insulin sensitivity (NS). Haemochromatosis subjects with diabetes exhibited further declines in acute insulin response to glucose, insulin resistance, or both. Diabetes and IGT are common in haemochromatosis, justifying screening for diabetes and therapeutic phlebotomy. The major abnormality associated with IGT is decreased insulin secretory capacity. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity and concomitant insulin resistance.

  17. The Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, Justin L.; Verbrugge, Frederik H.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Wilson Tang MD, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Methods and Results Serum chloride was measured in 1,673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102±4 mEq/L. Over 6,772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.12–1.49, P<0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P=0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P=0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.08–1.69, P=0.008) or higher (HR 1.43, 95%CI 1.12–1.85, P=0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P=0.67). Conclusions Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. PMID:26721916

  18. A molecular signaling model of platelet phosphoinositide and calcium regulation during homeostasis and P2Y1 activation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Jeremy E; Chatterjee, Manash S; Brass, Lawrence F; Diamond, Scott L

    2008-11-15

    To quantify how various molecular mechanisms are integrated to maintain platelet homeostasis and allow responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), we developed a computational model of the human platelet. Existing kinetic information for 77 reactions, 132 fixed kinetic rate constants, and 70 species was combined with electrochemical calculations, measurements of platelet ultrastructure, novel experimental results, and published single-cell data. The model accurately predicted: (1) steady-state resting concentrations for intracellular calcium, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; (2) transient increases in intracellular calcium, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and G(q)-GTP in response to ADP; and (3) the volume of the platelet dense tubular system. A more stringent test of the model involved stochastic simulation of individual platelets, which display an asynchronous calcium spiking behavior in response to ADP. Simulations accurately reproduced the broad frequency distribution of measured spiking events and demonstrated that asynchronous spiking was a consequence of stochastic fluctuations resulting from the small volume of the platelet. The model also provided insights into possible mechanisms of negative-feedback signaling, the relative potency of platelet agonists, and cell-to-cell variation across platelet populations. This integrative approach to platelet biology offers a novel and complementary strategy to traditional reductionist methods.

  19. Abnormalities in intracellular calcium regulation and contractile function in myocardium from dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, C. L.; Shannon, R. P.; Komamura, K.; Vatner, S. F.; Morgan, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    24 d of rapid ventricular pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy with both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. We studied mechanical properties and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) transients of trabeculae carneae isolated from 15 control dogs (n = 32) and 11 dogs with pacing-induced cardiac failure (n = 26). Muscles were stretched to maximum length at 30 degrees C and stimulated at 0.33 Hz; a subset (n = 17 control, n = 17 myopathic) was loaded with the [Ca2+]i indicator aequorin. Peak tension was depressed in the myopathic muscles, even in the presence of maximally effective (i.e., 16 mM) [Ca2+] in the perfusate. However, peak [Ca2+]i was similar (0.80 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.05 microM; [Ca2+]o = 2.5 mM), suggesting that a decrease in Cai2+ availability was not responsible for the decreased contractility. The time for decline from the peak of the Cai2+ transient was prolonged in the myopathic group, which correlated with prolongation of isometric contraction and relaxation. However, similar end-diastolic [Ca2+]i was achieved in both groups (0.29 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 microM), indicating that Cai2+ homeostasis can be maintained in myopathic hearts. The inotropic response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was depressed compared with the controls. However, when cAMP production was stimulated by pretreatment with forskolin, the response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was improved. Our findings provide direct evidence that abnormal [Ca2+]i handling is an important cause of contractile dysfunction in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure and suggest that deficient production of cAMP may be an important cause of these changes in excitation-contraction coupling.

  20. Atxn2 Knockout and CAG42-Knock-in Cerebellum Shows Similarly Dysregulated Expression in Calcium Homeostasis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Melanie Vanessa; Gispert, Suzana; Stehning, Tanja; Damrath, Ewa; Walter, Michael; Auburger, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder with preferential affection of Purkinje neurons, which are known as integrators of calcium currents. The expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in the RNA-binding protein ataxin-2 (ATXN2) is responsible for this disease, but the causal roles of deficient ATXN2 functions versus aggregation toxicity are still under debate. Here, we studied mouse mutants with Atxn2 knockout (KO) regarding their cerebellar global transcriptome by microarray and RT-qPCR, in comparison with data from Atxn2-CAG42-knock-in (KIN) mouse cerebellum. Global expression downregulations involved lipid and growth signaling pathways in good agreement with previous data. As a novel effect, downregulations of key factors in calcium homeostasis pathways (the transcription factor Rora, transporters Itpr1 and Atp2a2, as well as regulator Inpp5a) were observed in the KO cerebellum, and some of them also occurred subtly early in KIN cerebellum. The ITPR1 protein levels were depleted from soluble fractions of cerebellum in both mutants, but accumulated in its membrane-associated form only in the SCA2 model. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated no association of ITPR1 with Q42-expanded or with wild-type ATXN2. These findings provide evidence that the physiological functions and protein interactions of ATXN2 are relevant for calcium-mediated excitation of Purkinje cells as well as for ATXN2-triggered neurotoxicity. These insights may help to understand pathogenesis and tissue specificity in SCA2 and other polyQ ataxias like SCA1, where inositol regulation of calcium flux and RORalpha play a role.

  1. Structural and Functional Similarities of Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1 (CALHM1) Ion Channel with Connexins, Pannexins, and Innexins*

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Adam P.; Ma, Zhongming; Grevet, Jeremy D.; Demuro, Angelo; Parker, Ian; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    CALHM1 (calcium homeostasis modulator 1) forms a plasma membrane ion channel that mediates neuronal excitability in response to changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Six human CALHM homologs exist with no homology to other proteins, although CALHM1 is conserved across >20 species. Here we demonstrate that CALHM1 shares functional and quaternary and secondary structural similarities with connexins and evolutionarily distinct innexins and their vertebrate pannexin homologs. A CALHM1 channel is a hexamer, comprised of six monomers, each of which possesses four transmembrane domains, cytoplasmic amino and carboxyl termini, an amino-terminal helix, and conserved extracellular cysteines. The estimated pore diameter of the CALHM1 channel is ∼14 Å, enabling permeation of large charged molecules. Thus, CALHMs, connexins, and pannexins and innexins are structurally related protein families with shared and distinct functional properties. PMID:23300080

  2. IMPAIRMENT OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS BY HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) EXPOSURE IN FISCHER 344 RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has resulted in demineralization of bone with osteoporosis resulting. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effects of HCB on the homeostatic mechanism of calcium metabolism. Fischer 344 rats were dosed with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 or ...

  3. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  4. A voltage-gated calcium channel regulates lysosomal fusion with endosomes and autophagosomes and is required for neuronal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuejun; Gala, Upasana; Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Weina; Nagarkar Jaiswal, Sonal; di Ronza, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sandoval, Hector; Duraine, Lita; Sardiello, Marco; Sillitoe, Roy V; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Fan, Hengyu; Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant alleles. They exhibit an age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in photoreceptor terminals and eventually a degeneration of the terminals and surrounding glia. cac encodes an α1 subunit of a Drosophila voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) that is required for synaptic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane and neurotransmitter release. Here, we show that cac mutant photoreceptor terminals accumulate AV-lysosomal fusion intermediates, suggesting that Cac is necessary for the fusion of AVs with lysosomes, a poorly defined process. Loss of another subunit of the VGCC, α2δ or straightjacket (stj), causes phenotypes very similar to those caused by the loss of cac, indicating that the VGCC is required for AV-lysosomal fusion. The role of VGCC in AV-lysosomal fusion is evolutionarily conserved, as the loss of the mouse homologues, Cacna1a and Cacna2d2, also leads to autophagic defects in mice. Moreover, we find that CACNA1A is localized to the lysosomes and that loss of lysosomal Cacna1a in cerebellar cultured neurons leads to a failure of lysosomes to fuse with endosomes and autophagosomes. Finally, we show that the lysosomal CACNA1A but not the plasma-membrane resident CACNA1A is required for lysosomal fusion. In summary, we present a model in which the VGCC plays a role in autophagy by regulating the fusion of AVs with lysosomes through its calcium channel activity and hence functions in maintaining neuronal homeostasis.

  5. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Pascal; Douillard, Aymerick; Galbes, Olivier; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Py, Guillaume; Candau, Robin; Lacampagne, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle), as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls) for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  6. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to high-protein diets during energy deficit in healthy young adults: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although consuming dietary protein above current recommendations during energy deficit enhances blood lipid profiles and preserves lean body mass, concerns have been raised regarding effects of high-protein diets on bone health. To determine whether calcium homeostasis and bone turnover are affected...

  7. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channel 2 (TRPC2) as a Major Regulator of Calcium Homeostasis in Rat Thyroid FRTL-5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Pramod; Löf, Christoffer; Kemppainen, Kati; Kankaanpää, Pasi; Pulli, Ilari; Näsman, Johnny; Viitanen, Tero; Törnquist, Kid

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian non-selective transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) are important in the regulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. In thyroid cells, including rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, calcium regulates a multitude of processes. RT-PCR screening of FRTL-5 cells revealed the presence of TRPC2 channels only. Knockdown of TRPC2 using shRNA (shTRPC2) resulted in decreased ATP-evoked calcium peak amplitude and inward current. In calcium-free buffer, there was no difference in the ATP-evoked calcium peak amplitude between control cells and shTRPC2 cells. Store-operated calcium entry was indistinguishable between the two cell lines. Basal calcium entry was enhanced in shTRPC2 cells, whereas the level of PKCβ1 and PKCδ, the activity of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, and the calcium content in the endoplasmic reticulum were decreased. Stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 2, but not STIM1, was arranged in puncta in resting shTRPC2 cells but not in control cells. Phosphorylation site Orai1 S27A/S30A mutant and non-functional Orai1 R91W attenuated basal calcium entry in shTRPC2 cells. Knockdown of PKCδ with siRNA increased STIM2 punctum formation and enhanced basal calcium entry but decreased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity in wild-type cells. Transfection of a truncated, non-conducting mutant of TRPC2 evoked similar results. Thus, TRPC2 functions as a major regulator of calcium homeostasis in rat thyroid cells. PMID:23144458

  8. Homeostasis and secretion of calcium in the oviductal mucosa of toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia N

    2014-10-01

    The presence of a calcium pump, calbindin D-28KD, and calmodulin in the secretory cells (SC) of the oviductal pars convoluta (PC) of Rhinella arenarum was established for the first time in amphibians using immunohistochemical techniques. Marked variations were observed in the localization and degree of expression of these proteins according to the duct segment and the period of the sexual cycle analyzed. During the preovulatory and ovulatory periods the calcium pump colocalized with calbindin D-28KD can be seen mainly in the apical border of the SC, which are located in the first zones of PC and synthesize and secrete the components of the inner jelly coat layers. These envelopes, which surround the oocytes, contain the molecules indispensable for fertilization, probably inducing the sperm acrosome reaction (AR). Our results suggest that calmodulin, colocalized with the calcium pump at the SC cytoplasmic level, would be involved in the active transport of the cation inside the secretory granules, maintaining adequate levels of intracellular Ca(2+) . During the postreproductive period, a calcium pump colocalized with calbindin D-28KD appears for the first time in the cycle in the basal zones of the SC. This system may be related to the replenishing of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. In contrast, in R. arenarum the Ca(2+) present in the jelly coats that surround the oocytes participates in the AR during fertilization, suggesting that this secretion system of the cation provided by the oviductal mucosa is functionally more active during the reproductive period of this species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of deoxynivalenol on calcium homeostasis of concanavalin A--Stimulated splenic lymphocytes of chickens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yachao; Deng, Huidan; Deng, Youtian; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Wang, Ya; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Shen, Liuhong; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the in vitro effects of the treatment of concanavalin A (Con A)--stimulated splenic lymphocytes with DON were examined. Splenic lymphocytes isolated from chickens were stimulated with 12.5 μg/mL Con A and exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) (0-50 μg/mL) for 48 h. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), pH, calmodulin (CaM) mRNA levels, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were detected. With the DON exposure concentrations increased, the [Ca(2+)]i and CaM mRNA levels gradually increased in a dose-dependent manner, and all the evaluated conconcentrations affected ATPase activity to the same extent. There were significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) between the treatment groups and the control group. These results indicate that an imbalance in calcium homeostasis and intracellular acidification are components of DON cytotoxicity in chicken lymphocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium Signaling during Salt Stress and in the Regulation of Ion Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Manishankar, P; Wang, N; Köster, P; Alatar, A A; Kudla, J

    2018-05-24

    Soil composition largely defines the living conditions of plants and represents one of their most relevant, dynamic and complex environmental cues. The effective concentrations of many either tolerated or essential ions and compounds in the soil usually differ from the optimum that would be most suitable for plants. In this regard, salinity - caused by excess of NaCl - represents a widespread adverse growth condition but also shortage of ions like K+, NO3- and Fe2+ restrains plant growth. During the past years many components and mechanisms that function in the sensing and establishment of ion homeostasis have been identified and characterized. Here, we reflect on recent insights that extended our understanding of components and mechanisms, which govern and fine-tune plant salt stress tolerance and ion homeostasis. We put special emphasis on mechanisms that allow for interconnection of the salt overly sensitivity pathway with plant development and discuss newly emerging functions of Ca2+ signaling in salinity tolerance. Moreover, we review and discuss accumulating evidence for a central and unifying role of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ dependent protein phosphorylation in regulating sensing, uptake, transport and storage processes of various ions. Finally, based on this cross-field inventory, we deduce emerging concepts and arising questions for future research.

  11. Mechanisms of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in MC3T3-E1 Cells and Bone Tissues of Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed to Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-qin; Li, Yan-hui; Zhang, Xiu-yun; Zhao, Zhi-tao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Li, Guang-sheng; Jing, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Calcium homeostasis of osteoblasts (OBs) has an important role in the physiology and pathology of bone tissue. In order to study the mechanisms of intracellular calcium homeostasis, MC3T3-E1 cells and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different concentrations of fluoride. Then, we examined intracellular-free calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) in MC3T3-E1 cells as well as mRNA and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange carriers (NCS), and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b)/ATP2A2 in vitro, and rat bone tissues in vivo. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i of fluoride-treated OBs increased in a concentration-dependent manner with an increase in the concentration of fluoride. We also found that the low dose of fluoride led to high expression levels of Cav1.2, NCS-1, and PMCA and low expression levels of IP3R and SERCA2b/ATP2A2, while the high dose of fluoride induced an increase in SERCA2b/ATP2A2 levels and decrease in Cav1.2, PMCA, NCS-1, and IP3R levels. These results demonstrate that calcium channels and calcium pumps of plasma and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes keep intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulating Cav1.2, NCS-1, PMCA, IP3R, and SERCA2b/ATP2A2 expression.

  12. Calcium homeostasis and organelle function in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of chronic metabolic pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and cancer cluster together to present the greatest threat to human health. As research in this field has advanced, it has become clear that unresolved metabolic inflammation, organelle dysfunction, and other cellular and metabolic stresses underlie the development of these chronic metabolic diseases. However, the relationship between these systems and pathological mechanisms is poorly understood. Here, we will discuss the role of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis as a critical mechanism integrating the myriad of cellular and subcellular dysfunctional networks found in metabolic tissues such as liver and adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease particularly in obesity and diabetes. PMID:26190652

  13. Physical contact between human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells modulates cytosolic and nuclear calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghada S; Jacques, Danielle; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Magder, Sheldon; Bkaily, Ghassan

    2018-05-14

    The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is, however, no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and (or) human VSMCs (hVSMCs). Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and nuclear calcium ([Ca 2+ ] n ) levels via physical contact and (or) factors released by both cell types. Quantitative 3D confocal microscopy for [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n measurement was performed in cultured hVECs or hVSMCs or in co-culture of hVECs-hVSMCs. Our results show that: (1) physical contact between hVECs-hVECs or hVSMCs-hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n in these 2 cell types; (2) physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs induces a significant increase only of [Ca 2+ ] n of hVECs without affecting the level of [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of hVSMCs; and (3) preconditioned culture medium of hVECs or hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of both types of cells. We concluded that physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs only modulates [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs. The increase of [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs may modulate nuclear functions that are calcium dependent.

  14. Calcium homeostasis in the outer segments of retinal rods from the tiger salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Lagnado, L; Cervetto, L; McNaughton, P A

    1992-01-01

    1. The processes regulating intracellular calcium in the outer segments of salamander rods have been investigated. The main preparation used was the isolated rod loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein aequorin, from which outer segment membrane current and free [Ca2+]i could be recorded simultaneously. Two other preparations were also used: outer segment membrane current was recorded from intact, isolated rods using a suction pipette, and from detached outer segments using a whole-cell pipette. 2. Measurements of free intracellular [Ca2+] in Ringer solution were obtained from two aequorin-loaded rods. Mean [Ca2+]i in darkness was 0.41 microM, and after a bright flash [Ca2+]i fell to below detectable levels ( < 0.3 microM). No release of intracellular Ca2+ by a bright flash of light could be detected ( < 0.2 microM). 3. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) caused an increase in the size of the light-sensitive current and a rise in [Ca2+]i, but application of IBMX either when the light-sensitive channels had been closed by a bright light or in the absence of external Ca2+ caused no detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. It is concluded that IBMX increases [Ca2+]i by opening light-sensitive channels, and does not release Ca2+ from stores within the outer segment. 4. Removal of external Na+ caused a rise in [Ca2+]i to around 2 microM and completely suppressed the light-sensitive current. 5. The Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchange current in aequorin-loaded rods was activated in first-order manner by internal free calcium, with a mean Michaelis constant, KCa, of 1.6 microM. 6. The KCa of the Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchange was increased by elevating internal [Na+]. 7. The Michaelis relation between [Ca2+]i and the activity of the Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchange was used to calculate the change in [Ca2+]i occurring during the response to a bright light. In aequorin-loaded rods in Ringer solution the mean change in free [Ca2+]i after a bright flash was 0

  15. Restoring the impaired cardiac calcium homeostasis and cardiac function in iron overload rats by the combined deferiprone and N-acetyl cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Wongjaikam, Suwakon; Kumfu, Sirinart; Khamseekaew, Juthamas; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i dysregulation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although either iron chelators or antioxidants provide cardioprotection, a comparison of the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DFX), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or a combination of DFP plus NAC on cardiac [Ca2+]i homeostasis in chronic iron overload has never been investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed with either a normal diet or a high iron (HFe) diet for 4 months. At 2 months, HFe rats were divided into 6 groups and treated with either a vehicle, DFO (25 mg/kg/day), DFP (75 mg/kg/day), DFX (20 mg/kg/day), NAC (100 mg/kg/day), or combined DFP plus NAC. At 4 months, the number of cardiac T-type calcium channels was increased, whereas cardiac sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) was decreased, leading to cardiac iron overload and impaired cardiac [Ca2+]i homeostasis. All pharmacological interventions restored SERCA levels. Although DFO, DFP, DFX or NAC alone shared similar efficacy in improving cardiac [Ca2+]i homeostasis, only DFP + NAC restored cardiac [Ca2+]i homeostasis, leading to restoring left ventricular function in the HFe-fed rats. Thus, the combined DFP + NAC was more effective than any monotherapy in restoring cardiac [Ca2+]i homeostasis, leading to restored myocardial contractility in iron-overloaded rats. PMID:28287621

  16. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    PubMed

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Role of mitochondrial calcium uptake homeostasis in resting state fMRI brain networks.

    PubMed

    Kannurpatti, Sridhar S; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake influences both brain energy metabolism and neural signaling. Given that brain mitochondrial organelles are distributed in relation to vascular density, which varies considerably across brain regions, we hypothesized different physiological impacts of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake across brain regions. We tested the hypothesis by monitoring brain "intrinsic activity" derived from the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in different functional networks spanning the somatosensory cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus and thalamus, in normal and perturbed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake states. In anesthetized rats at 11.7 T, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited or enhanced respectively by treatments with Ru360 or kaempferol. Surprisingly, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition by Ru360 and enhancement by kaempferol led to similar dose-dependent decreases in brain-wide intrinsic activities in both the frequency domain (spectral amplitude) and temporal domain (resting state functional connectivity; RSFC). The fact that there were similar dose-dependent decreases in the frequency and temporal domains of the resting state fMRI-BOLD fluctuations during mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake inhibition or enhancement indicated that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and its homeostasis may strongly influence the brain's functional organization at rest. Interestingly, the resting state fMRI-derived intrinsic activities in the caudate putamen and thalamic regions saturated much faster with increasing dosage of either drug treatment than the drug-induced trends observed in cortical and hippocampal regions. Regional differences in how the spectral amplitude and RSFC changed with treatment indicate distinct mitochondrion-mediated spontaneous neuronal activity coupling within the various RSFC networks determined by resting state fMRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quantitative Mineralogical Composition of Calculi and Urine Abnormalities for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers: A Single-Center Results.

    PubMed

    Kustov, Andrey V; Strelnikov, Alexander I

    2018-05-03

    The paper focuses on the relationship of risk factors and metabolic disorders with mineralogical composition of calculi, age and gender of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stone mineralogical composition, 24 hour biochemistry and pH-profile of urine were examined for sixty four stone formers using powder X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. The analysis indicated that 44 % of calculi were composed of pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, whereas other 56 % contained both monohydrate and dihydrate or usually their mixtures with hydroxyl apatite. Hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria were identified as the most frequent disorders. Patients with pure calcium oxalate stones and calcium oxalate mixed with apatite revealed different patterns including age, acid-base balance of urine, calcium, citrate excretion etc.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that most patients simultaneously reveal several risk factors. The special attention should be paid to normalize the daily citrate, calcium and urate excretion. High risk patients, such as postmenopausal females or stone formers with a high apatite content require a specific metabolic evaluation towards in highlighting abnormalities associated with stone formation.

  19. Cytosolic calcium homeostasis in bovine parathyroid cells and its modulation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Racke, F K; Nemeth, E F

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activators and inhibitors on the mechanisms regulating cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis in dissociated bovine parathyroid cells loaded with fura-2 were examined. 2. Stepwise increases in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ (from 0.5 to 2 or 3 mM) elicited transient followed by sustained increases in the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Cytosolic Ca2+ transients reflected the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and influx of extracellular Ca2+ whereas sustained increases in [Ca2+]i resulted from the influx of extracellular Ca2+. Brief (1-2 min) pretreatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) shifted the concentration-response curve for extracellular Ca(2+)-induced cytosolic Ca2+ transients to the right without affecting the maximal response. Cytosolic Ca2+ transients elicited by extracellular Mg2+ were similarly affected by PMA. 3. These effects of PMA were mimicked by various other activators of PKC with the rank order of potency PMA > phorbol dibutyrate > bryostatin , > (-)indolactam V > mezerein. Isomers or analogues of these compounds that do not alter PKC activity (4 alpha-phorbols and (+)indolactam V) did not alter [Ca2+]i. 4. PKC activators depressed evoked increases in [Ca2+]i when influx of extracellular Ca2+ was blocked with Gd3+. Cytosolic Ca2+ transients elicited by extracellular Mg2+ in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ were similarly inhibited by PKC activators. Activation of PKC thus inhibits the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ elicited by extracellular divalent cations. 5. Increases in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ caused corresponding increases in the formation of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]InsP3). Pretreatment with PMA shifted the concentration-response curve for extracellular Ca(2+)-induced [3H]InsP3 formation to the right without affecting the maximal response. 6. PKC activators also caused some depression of steady-state increases in [Ca2+]i elicited by

  20. Mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 in premature aging and age-related pathologies: critical roles of calcium and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Uzhachenko, Roman; Boyd, Kelli; Olivares-Villagomez, Danyvid; Zhu, Yueming; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Rana, Tanu; Shanker, Anil; Tan, Winston J.T.; Bondar, Tanya; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Ivanova, Alla V.

    2017-01-01

    Decreased energy production and increased oxidative stress are considered to be major contributors to aging and aging-associated pathologies. The role of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis has also been highlighted as an important factor affecting different pathological conditions. Here, we present evidence that loss of a small mitochondrial protein Fus1 that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis results in premature aging, aging-associated pathologies, and decreased survival. We showed that Fus1KO mice develop multiple early aging signs including lordokyphosis, lack of vigor, inability to accumulate fat, reduced ability to tolerate stress, and premature death. Other prominent pathological changes included low sperm counts, compromised ability of adult stem cells to repopulate tissues, and chronic inflammation. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that mitochondria of Fus1 KO cells have low reserve respiratory capacity (the ability to produce extra energy during sudden energy demanding situations), and show significantly altered dynamics of cellular calcium response. Our recent studies on early hearing and memory loss in Fus1 KO mice combined with the new data presented here suggest that calcium and energy homeostasis controlled by Fus1 may be at the core of its aging-regulating activities. Thus, Fus1 protein and Fus1-dependent pathways and processes may represent new tools and targets for anti-aging strategies. PMID:28351997

  1. Mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 in premature aging and age-related pathologies: critical roles of calcium and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Uzhachenko, Roman; Boyd, Kelli; Olivares-Villagomez, Danyvid; Zhu, Yueming; Goodwin, J Shawn; Rana, Tanu; Shanker, Anil; Tan, Winston J T; Bondar, Tanya; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Ivanova, Alla V

    2017-03-26

    Decreased energy production and increased oxidative stress are considered to be major contributors to aging and aging-associated pathologies. The role of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis has also been highlighted as an important factor affecting different pathological conditions. Here, we present evidence that loss of a small mitochondrial protein Fus1 that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis results in premature aging, aging-associated pathologies, and decreased survival. We showed that Fus1KO mice develop multiple early aging signs including lordokyphosis, lack of vigor, inability to accumulate fat, reduced ability to tolerate stress, and premature death. Other prominent pathological changes included low sperm counts, compromised ability of adult stem cells to repopulate tissues, and chronic inflammation. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that mitochondria of Fus1 KO cells have low reserve respiratory capacity (the ability to produce extra energy during sudden energy demanding situations), and show significantly altered dynamics of cellular calcium response.Our recent studies on early hearing and memory loss in Fus1 KO mice combined with the new data presented here suggest that calcium and energy homeostasis controlled by Fus1 may be at the core of its aging-regulating activities. Thus, Fus1 protein and Fus1-dependent pathways and processes may represent new tools and targets for anti-aging strategies.

  2. C-Terminal Truncation of α-COP Affects Functioning of Secretory Organelles and Calcium Homeostasis in Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Chechenova, Maria B.; Romanova, Nina V.; Deev, Alexander V.; Packeiser, Anna N.; Smirnov, Vladimir N.; Agaphonov, Michael O.; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, COPI vesicles retrieve resident proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and mediate intra-Golgi transport. Here, we studied the Hansenula polymorpha homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RET1 gene, encoding α-COP, a subunit of the COPI protein complex. H. polymorpha ret1 mutants, which expressed truncated α-COP lacking more than 300 C-terminal amino acids, manifested an enhanced ability to secrete human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and an inability to grow with a shortage of Ca2+ ions, whereas a lack of α-COP expression was lethal. The α-COP defect also caused alteration of intracellular transport of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein Gas1p, secretion of abnormal uPA forms, and reductions in the levels of Pmr1p, a Golgi Ca2+-ATPase. Overexpression of Pmr1p suppressed some ret1 mutant phenotypes, namely, Ca2+ dependence and enhanced uPA secretion. The role of COPI-dependent vesicular transport in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is discussed. PMID:14871936

  3. Rapid Electrical Stimulation Increased Cardiac Apoptosis Through Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Le; Wang, Zidun; Cui, Chang; Zhu, Yue; Shi, Jiaojiao; Wang, Jiaxian; Chen, Minglong

    2018-06-15

    Heart failure induced by tachycardia, the most common arrhythmia, is frequently observed in clinical practice. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Rapid electrical stimulation (RES) at a frequency of 3 Hz was applied on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) for 7 days, with 8 h/day and 24 h/day set to represent short-term and long-term tachycardia, respectively. Age-matched hiPSC-CMs without electrical stimulation or with slow electrical stimulation (1 Hz) were set as no electrical stimulation (NES) control or low-frequency electrical stimulation (LES) control. Following stimulation, JC-1 staining flow cytometry analysis was performed to examine mitochondrial conditions. Apoptosis in hiPSC-CMs was evaluated using Hoechst staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) staining flow cytometry analysis. Calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were recorded to evaluate calcium homeostasis. Western blotting and qPCR were performed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and calcium homeostasis-regulated genes. Compared to the controls, hiPSC-CMs following RES presented mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased apoptotic percentage. Amplitudes of calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were significantly decreased in hiPSC-CMs with RES. Molecular analysis demonstrated upregulated expression of Caspase3 and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Genes related to calcium re-sequence were downregulated, while phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was significantly upregulated following RES. There was no significant difference between the NES control and LES control groups in these aspects. Inhibition of CaMKII with 1 µM KN93 partly reversed these adverse effects of RES. RES on hiPSC-CMs disturbed calcium homeostasis, which led to mitochondrial stress, promoted cell apoptosis and caused electrophysiological remodeling in a time

  4. Effect of toluene diisocyanate on homeostasis of intracellular-free calcium in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.-S.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

    2006-03-01

    The mechanisms of TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate)-induced occupational asthma are not fully established. Previous studies have indicated that TDI induces non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and induces contraction of smooth muscle tissue by activating 'capsaicin-sensitive' nerves resulting asthma. Cytosolic-free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) are elevated when either capsaicin acts at vanilloid receptors, or methacholine at muscarinic receptors. This study therefore investigated the effects of TDI on Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. TDI was found to elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} by releasing Ca{sup 2+} from the intracellular stores and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. 500 {mu}M TDI inducedmore » a net [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} increase of 112 {+-} 8 and 78 {+-} 6 nM in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, respectively. In Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer, TDI induced Ca{sup 2+} release from internal stores to reduce their Ca{sup 2+} content and this reduction was evidenced by a suppression occurring on the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} rise induced by thapsigargin, ionomycin, and methacholine after TDI incubation. In the presence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, simultaneous exposure to TDI and methacholine led a higher level of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} compared to single methacholine stimulation, that might explain that TDI induces bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. We conclude that TDI is capable of interfering the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} homeostasis including releasing Ca{sup 2+} from internal stores and inducing extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. The interaction of this novel character and bronchial hyperreactivity need further investigation.« less

  5. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

    PubMed

    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23, α-Klotho and Furin Protease in Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis : A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Mattoo, Roshan L

    2014-01-01

    The roles of calcitonin, parathormone and calcitriol in the regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate are well-established. However, in autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickety patients, studies have revealed normal plasma levels of calcium, associated with normal thyroid and parathyroid functions, but decreased levels of phosphate and calcitriol despite adequate reserves of vitamin D. Also, in tumoral calcinosis, persistent hyperphosphatemia with increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 have been observed. These studies indicate the involvement of factors other than the ones already known. The first decade of this century/millennium has led to the discovery of the involvement of fibroblast growth factor-23, furin protease and α-klotho in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate, which is the subject of this mini-review.

  7. Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in the Substancia Nigra Pars Reticulata Contributes to Locomotor Deficiency in a Model of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yan-Yan; Chen, Jing; Dou, Ke-Feng; Wang, Ya-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. Methods Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. Results In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. Conclusion Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure. PMID:23741482

  8. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  10. TRPV4 and AQP4 Channels Synergistically Regulate Cell Volume and Calcium Homeostasis in Retinal Müller Glia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Andrew O.; Phuong, Tam T.T.; Verkman, Alan S.; Yarishkin, Oleg; MacAulay, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    fine-tunes astroglial volume regulation by integrating osmosensing, calcium signaling, and water transport and, when overactivated, triggers pathological swelling. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We characterize the physiological features of interactions between the astroglial swelling sensor transient receptor potential isoform 4 (TRPV4) and the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel in retinal Müller cells. Our data reveal an elegant and complex set of mechanisms involving reciprocal interactions at the level of glial gene expression, calcium homeostasis, swelling, and volume regulation. Specifically, water influx through AQP4 drives calcium influx via TRPV4 in the glial end foot, which regulates expression of Aqp4 and Kir4.1 genes and facilitates the time course and amplitude of hypotonicity-induced swelling and regulatory volume decrease. We confirm the crucial facets of the signaling mechanism in heterologously expressing oocytes. These results identify the molecular mechanism that contributes to dynamic regulation of glial volume but also provide new insights into the pathophysiology of glial reactivity and edema formation. PMID:26424896

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  12. Involvement of the cervical sympathetic nervous system in the changes of calcium homeostasis during turpentine oil-induced stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Stern, J E; Ladizesky, M G; Keller Sarmiento, M I; Cardinali, D P

    1993-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common finding during stress. The objective of this study was to examine: (a) the changes in circulating calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) concentration in rats stressed by being given a subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, and (b) the involvement of the sympathetic cervical pathway in stress-induced changes of calcium homeostasis. Four hours after receiving turpentine oil or vehicle, rats were subjected either to hypocalcemia, by being given EDTA intraperitoneally, or to hypercalcemia, by being injected CaCl2 intraperitoneally. Significant changes in serum calcium (10% decrease), serum PTH (28% increase) and CT levels (40% decrease) were observed in stressed rats. EDTA administration brought about a significantly greater hypocalcemia, and a higher PTH secretory response in turpentine oil-stressed rats. During stress, the increase of serum calcium after CaCl2 was significantly smaller, and the rise of CT was greater than in controls. In the case of CT the changes were still observed in rats subjected to superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) 14 days earlier. In the case of PTH, the increase found in stressed rats, but not the augmented response after EDTA, was blunted by SCGx. The potentiation of hypocalcemia brought about by turpentine oil was no longer observed in SCGx rats. In vehicle-treated controls, SCGx delayed PTH response to hypocalcemia, but did not affect the increased response of CT to CaCl2 challenge. The results indicate that a number of changes in calcium homeostasis arise during turpentine oil stress in rats. SCGx was effective to modify the set point for PTH release, but played a minor role in affecting the augmentation of CT release during stress.

  13. Alternative indices of glucose homeostasis as biochemical diagnostic tests for abnormal glucose tolerance in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Levitt, Naomi S; Matsha, Tandi E

    2017-04-01

    Accurate diabetes diagnosis is important in Africa, where rates are increasing, and the disease largely undiagnosed. The cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remains the reference standard, while alternative diagnostic methods are not yet established in Africans. We assessed the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and fructosamine, to diagnose OGTT-based abnormal glucose tolerance in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Mixed-ancestry adults, residing in Cape Town were examined between February and November 2015. OGTT values were used to classify glucose tolerance status as: screen-detected diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycaemia (combination of diabetes and prediabetes) and normal glucose tolerance. Of the 793 participants included, 65 (8.2%) had screen-detected diabetes, 157 (19.8%) prediabetes and 571 (72.0%) normal glucose tolerance. Correlations of FPG and 2-h glucose with HbA1c (r=0.51 and 0.52) were higher than those with fructosamine (0.34 and 0.30), both p<0.0001. The highest c-statistic for the prediction of abnormal glucose tolerance was recorded with 2-h glucose [c-statistic=0.997 (screen-detected diabetes), 0.979 (prediabetes) and 0.984 (dysglycaemia)] and the lowest with fructosamine (0.865, 0.596 and 0.677). At recommended or data-specific optimal cut-offs, no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine did better than 2-h glucose, while FPG was better than HbA1c and fructosamine on a range of performance measures. Abnormal glucose tolerance in this population is overwhelmingly expressed through 2-h glucose's abnormalities; and no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine was effective at accurately discriminating OGTT-defined abnormal glucose tolerance. Tested non-glucose based strategies are unreliable alternatives to OGTT for dysglycaemia diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of calcium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for calcium ( ...

  15. The pmr gene, encoding a Ca2+-ATPase, is required for calcium and manganese homeostasis and normal development of hyphae and conidia in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Barry J; Abreu, Stephen; Johl, Jessica K; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2012-11-01

    The pmr gene is predicted to encode a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the secretory pathway. We examined two strains of Neurospora crassa that lacked PMR: the Δpmr strain, in which pmr was completely deleted, and pmr(RIP), in which the gene was extensively mutated. Both strains had identical, complex phenotypes. Compared to the wild type, these strains required high concentrations of calcium or manganese for optimal growth and had highly branched, slow-growing hyphae. They conidiated poorly, and the shape and size of the conidia were abnormal. Calcium accumulated in the Δpmr strains to only 20% of the wild-type level. High concentrations of MnCl(2) (1 to 5 mM) in growth medium partially suppressed the morphological defects but did not alter the defect in calcium accumulation. The Δpmr Δnca-2 double mutant (nca-2 encodes a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane) accumulated 8-fold more calcium than the wild type, and the morphology of the hyphae was more similar to that of wild-type hyphae. Previous experiments failed to show a function for nca-1, which encodes a SERCA-type Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (B. J. Bowman, S. Abreu, E. Margolles-Clark, M. Draskovic, and E. J. Bowman, Eukaryot. Cell 10:654-661, 2011). The pmr(RIP) Δnca-1 double mutant accumulated small amounts of calcium, like the Δpmr strain, but exhibited even more extreme morphological defects. Thus, PMR can apparently replace NCA-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, but NCA-1 cannot replace PMR. The morphological defects in the Δpmr strain are likely caused, in part, by insufficient concentrations of calcium and manganese in the Golgi compartment; however, PMR is also needed to accumulate normal levels of calcium in the whole cell.

  16. The effects of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis on the expression and binding of muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Sherin, Antony; Peeyush, Kumar T; Naijil, George; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Jes, Paul; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2011-01-25

    Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Both hypo and hyperglycemia contributes to neuronal functional deficit. In the present study, effect of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on muscarinic receptor binding, cholinergic enzymes; AChE, ChAT expression and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of experimental rats were analysed. Total muscarinic, muscarinic M(1) receptor showed a significant decrease and muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype showed a significant increased binding in the cerebral cortex of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control. Real-Time PCR analysis of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptor subtypes confirmed the receptor binding studies. Immunohistochemistry of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptors using specific antibodies were also carried out. AChE and GLUT3 expression up regulated and ChAT expression down regulated in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Our results showed that hypo/hyperglycemia caused impaired glucose transport in neuronal cells as shown by altered expression of GLUT3. Increased AChE and decreased ChAT expression is suggested to alter cortical acetylcholine metabolism in experimental rats along with altered muscarinic receptor binding in hypo/hyperglycemic rats, impair cholinergic transmission, which subsequently lead to cholinergic dysfunction thereby causing learning and memory deficits. We observed a prominent cholinergic functional disturbance in hypoglycemic condition than in hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurochemical changes in cerebral cortex induced by hyperglycemia. These findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TRP channels in calcium homeostasis: from hormonal control to structure-function relationship of TRPV5 and TRPV6.

    PubMed

    van Goor, Mark K C; Hoenderop, Joost G J; van der Wijst, Jenny

    2017-06-01

    Maintaining plasma calcium levels within a narrow range is of vital importance for many physiological functions. Therefore, calcium transport processes in the intestine, bone and kidney are tightly regulated to fine-tune the rate of absorption, storage and excretion. The TRPV5 and TRPV6 calcium channels are viewed as the gatekeepers of epithelial calcium transport. Several calciotropic hormones control the channels at the level of transcription, membrane expression, and function. Recent technological advances have provided the first near-atomic resolution structural models of several TRPV channels, allowing insight into their architecture. While this field is still in its infancy, it has increased our understanding of molecular channel regulation and holds great promise for future structure-function studies of these ion channels. This review will summarize the mechanisms that control the systemic calcium balance, as well as extrapolate structural views to the molecular functioning of TRPV5/6 channels in epithelial calcium transport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Treatment of mcf-7 breast cancer cells with a red grape wine polyphenol fraction results in disruption of calcium homeostasis and cell cycle arrest causing selective cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hakimuddin, Fatima; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Meckling, Kelly

    2006-10-04

    Food components influence the physiology by modulating gene expression and biochemical pathways within the human body. The disease-preventive roles of several fruit and vegetable components have been related to such properties. Polyphenolic components such as flavonoids are strong antioxidants and induce the expression of several xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes. The mechanism of selective cytotoxicity induced by red grape wine polyphenols against MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated in relation to their interference with calcium homeostasis. MCF-7 cells showed an increase in cytosolic calcium levels within 10 min of treatment with the polyphenols. Immunohistochemical localization of calmodulin with secondary gold-labeled antibodies showed similar levels of gold labeling in both MCF-7 cells and the spontaneously immortalized, normal MCF-10A cell line. MCF-7 cells treated with the red wine polyphenol fraction (RWPF) showed swelling of endoplasmic reticulum, dissolution of the nucleus, and loss of plasma membrane integrity as well as reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. These cells were arrested at the G2/M interphase. By contrast, MCF-10A cells did not show such changes after RWPF treatment. The results suggest that polyphenol-induced calcium release may disrupt mitochondrial function and cause membrane damage, resulting in selective cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cells. This property could further be developed toward breast cancer prevention strategies either independently or in conjunction with conventional prevention therapies where a positive drug-nutrient interaction can be demonstrated.

  19. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  20. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as ...

  1. C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Are Associated with Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis and Stress Granule Formation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Dafinca, Ruxandra; Scaber, Jakub; Ababneh, Nida'a; Lalic, Tatjana; Weir, Gregory; Christian, Helen; Vowles, Jane; Douglas, Andrew G L; Fletcher-Jones, Alexandra; Browne, Cathy; Nakanishi, Mahito; Turner, Martin R; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cowley, Sally A; Talbot, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in a noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene is a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accounting for up to 40% of familial cases and 7% of sporadic ALS in European populations. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of patients carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, differentiated these to functional motor and cortical neurons, and performed an extensive phenotypic characterization. In C9orf72 iPSC-derived motor neurons, decreased cell survival is correlated with dysfunction in Ca(2+) homeostasis, reduced levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, C9orf72 motor neurons, and also cortical neurons, show evidence of abnormal protein aggregation and stress granule formation. This study is an extensive characterization of iPSC-derived motor neurons as cellular models of ALS carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats, which describes a novel pathogenic link between C9orf72 mutations, dysregulation of calcium signaling, and altered proteostasis and provides a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of ALS and the related neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementia. Stem Cells 2016;34:2063-2078. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  2. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D 1974: Present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.; Swenson, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    The role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D in the control of calcium and bone metabolism was studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and, as a potential model for this purpose, on the immobilization characteristic of space flight or prolonged bed rest. The biosynthesis, control of secretion, and metabolism of these hormonal agents is considered.

  3. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson’s patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: A [11C] FLB-457 and PET study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Nicola J.; Miyasaki, Janis M.; Zurowski, Mateusz; Ko, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Antonelli, Francesca; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2012-01-01

    Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait. PMID:22766031

  4. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC1(2) cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H(2)O(2), catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction.

  5. Something more to say about calcium homeostasis: the role of vitamin K2 in vascular calcification and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Flore, R; Ponziani, F R; Di Rienzo, T A; Zocco, M A; Flex, A; Gerardino, L; Lupascu, A; Santoro, L; Santoliquido, A; Di Stasio, E; Chierici, E; Lanti, A; Tondi, P; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-09-01

    Vascular calcification and osteoporosis share similar etiopathogenetic mechanisms. Vitamin K2 deficiency could be responsible of the so called "calcium paradox", that is the lack of calcium in the bone and its storage in the vessel wall. These events may have clinically relevant consequences, such as cardiovascular accidents, and bone fractures. To review the biological function of vitamin K2 metabolism, the main factors related to its deficiency and the consequent clinical significance. Vitamin K2 is essential for the function of several proteins, involved in the maintenance of the normal structure of arterial wall, osteoarticular system, teeth, and for the regulation of cell growth. It has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the inhibition of vascular foci of calcification, and in the regulation of calcium deposition in the bone. Vitamin K2 deficiency is often subclinic in a large part of healthy population. This deficiency is related to the interaction of various factors, such as the reduced dietary intake, the alteration of intestinal absorption or production, with a possible role of intestinal microbiota and the increased consumption at the vessel wall. Vitamin K2 deficiency has recently been recognized as a protagonist in the development of vascular calcification and osteoporosis. Data reported so far are promising and, dietary supplementation seems a useful tool to contrast these diseases. However, large studies or solid clinical correlations regarding vitamin K2 deficiency and its pathologic consequences are needed to confirm these preliminary experiences.

  6. Calcium homeostasis and protein kinase/phosphatase balance participate in nicotine-induced memory improvement in passive avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2017-01-15

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) depend on specific postsynaptic Ca 2+ /calmodulin concentration. LTP results from Ca 2+ influx through the activated NMDA receptors or voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and is linked with activation of protein kinases including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Weaker synaptic stimulation, as a result of low Ca 2+ influx, leads to activation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase (calcineurin - CaN) and triggers LTD. Interestingly, both memory formation and drug addiction share similar neuroplastic changes. Nicotine, which is one of the most common addictive drugs, manifests its memory effects through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Because nAChRs may also gate Ca 2+ , it is suggested that calcium signaling pathways are involved in nicotine-induced memory effects. Within the scope of the study was to evaluate the importance of calcium homeostasis and protein kinase/phosphatase balance in nicotine-induced short- and long-term memory effects. To assess memory function in mice passive avoidance test was used. The presented results confirm that acute nicotine (0.1mg/kg) improves short- and long-term memory. Pretreatment with L-type VGCC blockers (amlodipine, nicardipine verapamil) increased nicotine-induced memory improvement in the context of short- and long-term memory. Pretreatment with FK-506 (a potent CaN inhibitor) enhanced short- but not long-term memory effects of nicotine, while SL-327 (a selective MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor) attenuated both nicotine-induced short- and long-term memory improvement. Acute nicotine enhances both types of memory via L-type VGCC blockade and via ERK1/2 activation. Only short- but not long-term memory enhancement induced by nicotine is dependent on CaN inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Ishikawa, Masaki; Garten, Matthias; Makareeva, Elena N.; Sargent, Brandi M.; Weis, MaryAnn; Barnes, Aileen M.; Webb, Emma A.; Shaw, Nicholas J.; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Lacbawan, Felicitas L.; Högler, Wolfgang; Leikin, Sergey; Blank, Paul S.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Eyre, David R.; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Marini, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50–70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes. PMID:27441836

  8. Vitamin D status in growing dairy goats and sheep: Influence of ultraviolet B radiation on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, M V; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk. One group of each species was exposed to UVB lamps daily during individual feeding; the other groups served as controls. Serum, urine, and feces samples were taken at the start and at a monthly interval. Serum was analyzed for vitD metabolites, bone markers, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, Ca, and P. Apparent digestibility and urinary excretion of Ca and P were determined. The left metatarsus was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computer tomography for bone mineral density before starting and at the end of the trial. In wk 13, all animals were slaughtered and samples of skin, rumen, duodenum, kidney, and bone (metatarsus) were collected. Content of sterols of vitD synthesis in the skin, Ca flux rates in rumen and duodenum, expression of vitD receptor in duodenum and kidney, renal and intestinal gene expression of Ca transport proteins, and renal enzymes related to vitD metabolism were determined. The UVB exposure led to lower 7-dehydrocholesterol content in the skin and a better vitD status (higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D), but no signs of vitD deficiency were seen in the control groups and no effect of irradiation was detected in the analyzed parameters of Ca homeostasis. Differences between the 2 species were detected: lambs had a higher increase of bone mineral density, lower values of bone markers, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in

  9. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  10. Curcumin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells via disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Xu, Shichen; Bao, Jiandong; Yu, Huixin

    2018-06-01

    MKII) signaling, leading to mitochondrial apoptosis pathway activation. Ca chelator BAPTA partially reversed curcumin-induced ER stress and growth suppression, confirming the possible involvement of calcium homeostasis disruption in this response. Curcumin inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth, at least partially, through ER stress-associated apoptosis. Our observations provoked that ER stress activation may be a promising therapeutic target for thyroid cancer treatment.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  11. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Centre for Environmental Studies, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235

    2011-10-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 {mu}M) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 andmore » interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: > Altered Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. > ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. > Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.« less

  12. The impact of LRP5 polymorphism (rs556442) on calcium homeostasis, bone mineral density, and body composition in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Ashouri, Elham; Meimandi, Elham Mahmoodi; Saki, Forough; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Omrani, Gholamhossein Ranjbar; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Failure to achieve optimal bone mass in childhood is the primary cause of decreased adult bone mineral density (BMD) and increased bone fragility in later life. Activating and inactivating LRP5 gene mutations has been associated with extreme bone-related phenotypes. Our aim was to investigate the role of LRP5 polymorphism on BMD, mineral biochemical parameters, and body composition in Iranian children. This cross-sectional study was performed on 9-18 years old children (125 boys, 137 girls). The serum level of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D parameters were checked. The body composition and BMD variables were measured by the Hologic system DXA. The rs566442 (V1119V) coding polymorphism in exon 15 of LRP5 was performed using PCR-RFLP method. Linear regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender, body size parameters, and pubertal status was used to determine the association between LRP5 polymorphism (rs556442) and bone and body composition parameters. The allele frequency of the rs566442 gene was 35.5 % A and 63.9 % G. Our study revealed that LRP5 (rs556442) has not any significant influence on serum calcium, phosphorus, 25OHvitD, and serum alkaline phosphatase (P > 0.05). Total lean mass was greater in GG genotype (P = 0.028). Total body less head area (P = 0.044), spine BMD (P = 0.04), and total femoral BMC (P = 0.049) were lower in AG heterozygote genotype. This study show LRP5 polymorphism may associate with body composition and BMD in Iranian children. However, further investigations should be done to evaluate the role of other polymorphism.

  13. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A novel network analysis approach reveals DNA damage, oxidative stress and calcium/cAMP homeostasis-associated biomarkers in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Graziano, Francesca; Novelli, Valeria; Rossi, Giacomina; Galimberti, Daniela; Rainero, Innocenzo; Benussi, Luisa; Nacmias, Benedetta; Bruni, Amalia C.; Cusi, Daniele; Salvi, Erika; Borroni, Barbara; Grassi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is the form of neurodegenerative dementia with the highest prevalence after Alzheimer’s disease, equally distributed in men and women. It includes several variants, generally characterized by behavioural instability and language impairments. Although few mendelian genes (MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72) have been associated to the FTD phenotype, in most cases there is only evidence of multiple risk loci with relatively small effect size. To date, there are no comprehensive studies describing FTD at molecular level, highlighting possible genetic interactions and signalling pathways at the origin FTD-associated neurodegeneration. In this study, we designed a broad FTD genetic interaction map of the Italian population, through a novel network-based approach modelled on the concepts of disease-relevance and interaction perturbation, combining Steiner tree search and Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis. Our results show a strong connection between Calcium/cAMP metabolism, oxidative stress-induced Serine/Threonine kinases activation, and postsynaptic membrane potentiation, suggesting a possible combination of neuronal damage and loss of neuroprotection, leading to cell death. In our model, Calcium/cAMP homeostasis and energetic metabolism impairments are primary causes of loss of neuroprotection and neural cell damage, respectively. Secondly, the altered postsynaptic membrane potentiation, due to the activation of stress-induced Serine/Threonine kinases, leads to neurodegeneration. Our study investigates the molecular underpinnings of these processes, evidencing key genes and gene interactions that may account for a significant fraction of unexplained FTD aetiology. We emphasized the key molecular actors in these processes, proposing them as novel FTD biomarkers that could be crucial for further epidemiological and molecular studies. PMID:29020091

  15. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in sheep fed diets either adequate or restricted in calcium content.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, M R; Mrochen, N; Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2010-04-01

    It was the aim of the present study to collect basic data on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) homoeostasis in sheep. Two series of experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitammin D(3) (calcitriol) in supraphysiological dosage in combination with varying alimentary Ca supply. In the first series, blood samples were collected over 72 h to determine the concentrations of total Ca (Ca), ionized Ca (Ca(2+)), inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and the bone resorption marker CrossLaps (CL). In the second series, measurements were carried out over 12h. In addition, urine samples were collected to calculate the fractional excretions (FE) of Ca and P(i). Changes in plasma macromineral concentrations (P<0.01) as well as in CL (P<0.001) and endogenous calcitriol (P<0.05) were observed in the alimentary Ca-restricted animals, indicating that the reduction of daily Ca intake challenged the animals' macromineral homeostatic mechanisms. However, the Ca-restricted diet had an effect on neither FE of Ca nor on FE of P(i). The treatment resulted in peak serum calcitriol concentrations between 1,900 and 2,500 pg/mL, and supraphysiological concentrations were maintained for the next 48 h. Irrespective of dietary Ca, calcitriol had hypercalcemic and hyperphosphatemic effects. An increase in CL was revealed only in the Ca-restricted, calcitriol-treated sheep (P<0.01), reflecting a remarkable enhancement of Ca mobilization from the bone by calcitriol exclusively in this group. From these data, it can be concluded that the sheep can be a suitable animal model for studying catabolic effects of Ca deficiency and calcitriol on bone metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual actions of lindane ({gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane) on calcium homeostasis and exocytosis in rat PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heusinkveld, Harm J., E-mail: H.J.Heusinkveld@uu.n; Thomas, Gareth O.; Department of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ

    2010-10-01

    The persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane is still abundantly found in the environment and in human and animal tissue samples. Lindane induces a wide range of adverse health effects, which are at least partially mediated via the known inhibition of GABA{sub A} and glycine receptors. Additionally, lindane has been reported to increase the basal intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). As Ca{sup 2+} triggers many cellular processes, including cell death and vesicular neurotransmitter release (exocytosis), we investigated whether lindane affects exocytosis, Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Amperometric recordings and [Ca{supmore » 2+}]{sub i} imaging experiments with fura-2 demonstrated that lindane ({>=} 10 {mu}M) rapidly increases basal exocytosis and basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Additional imaging and electrophysiological recordings revealed that this increase was largely due to a lindane-induced membrane depolarization and subsequent opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels (VGCC). On the other hand, lindane ({>=} 3 {mu}M) induced a concentration-dependent but non-specific inhibition of VGCCs, thereby limiting the lindane-induced increase in basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. Importantly, the non-specific inhibition of VGCCs also reduced stimulation-evoked exocytosis and Ca{sup 2+} influx. Though lindane exposure concentration-dependently increased ROS production, cell viability was not affected indicating that the used concentrations were not acute cytotoxic. These combined findings indicate that lindane has two, partly counteracting effects. Lindane causes membrane depolarization, thereby increasing basal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. In parallel, lindane inhibits VGCCs, thereby limiting the basal effects and reducing stimulation-evoked [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and exocytosis. This study further underlines the need to consider

  17. Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of BDE-47 to affect exocytosis and calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Milou M L; de Groot, Aart; van Kleef, Regina G D M; Bergman, Ake; van den Berg, Martin; Vijverberg, Henk P M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2008-05-01

    Oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) metabolites, may enhance the neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a hydroxylated metabolite of 2,2',4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47; 6-OH-BDE-47) on changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and vesicular catecholamine release in PC12 cells. We measured vesicular catecholamine release and [Ca2+]i using amperometry and imaging of the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura-2, respectively. Acute exposure of PC12 cells to 6-OH-BDE-47 (5 microM) induced vesicular catecholamine release. Catecholamine release coincided with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i, which was observed shortly after the onset of exposure to 6-OH-BDE-47 (120 microM). An additional late increase in [Ca2+]i was often observed at > or =1 microM 6-OH-BDE-47. The initial transient increase was absent in cells exposed to the parent compound BDE-47, whereas the late increase was observed only at 20 microM. Using the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and thapsigargin to empty intracellular Ca2+ stores, we found that the initial increase originates from emptying of the endoplasmic reticulum and consequent influx of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the late increase originates primarily from mitochondria. The hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is more potent in disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis and neurotransmitter release than the parent compound BDE-47. The present findings indicate that bioactivation by oxidative metabolism adds considerably to the neurotoxic potential of PBDEs. Additionally, based on the observed mechanism of action, a cumulative neurotoxic effect of PBDEs and ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls on [Ca2+]i cannot be ruled out.

  18. Selective effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osteoporotic and healthy bone formation correlates with intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Xie, Pengfei; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Zhurong; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-09-01

    Adequate bone substitutes osseointegration has been difficult to achieve in osteoporosis. Hydroxyapatite of the osteoporotic bone, secreted by pathologic osteoblasts, had a smaller crystal size and lower crystallinity than that of the normal. To date, little is known regarding the interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with osteoblasts born in bone rarefaction. The present study investigated the biological effects of HANPs on osteoblastic cells derived from osteoporotic rat bone (OVX-OB), in comparison with the healthy ones (SHM-OB). A selective effect of different concentrations of HANPs on the two cell lines was observed that the osteoporotic osteoblasts had a higher tolerance. Reductions in cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen secretion and osteoblastic gene expressions were found in the SHM-OB when administered with HANPs concentration higher than 25µg/ml. In contrast, those of the OVX-OB suffered no depression but benefited from 25 to 250µg/ml HANPs in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that the different effects of HANPs on osteoblasts were associated with the intracellular calcium influx into the endoplasmic reticulum. The in vivo bone defect model further confirmed that, with a critical HANPs concentration administration, the osteoporotic rats had more and mechanically matured new bone formation than the non-treated ones, whilst the sham rats healed no better than the natural healing control. Collectively, the observed epigenetic regulation of osteoblastic cell function by HANPs has significant implication on defining design parameters for a potential therapeutic use of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) on osteoporotic rat bone and the derived osteoblast. Our findings revealed a previously unrecognized phenomenon that the osteoporotic individuals could benefit from higher concentrations of HANPs, as compared with the healthy individuals. The in

  19. Study on ATP concentration changes in cytosol of individual cultured neurons during glutamate-induced deregulation of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Surin, A M; Gorbacheva, L R; Savinkova, I G; Sharipov, R R; Khodorov, B I; Pinelis, V G

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, simultaneous monitoring of changes in the concentration of cytosolic ATP ([ATP]c), pH (pHc), and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of the individual neurons challenged with toxic glutamate (Glu) concentrations was performed. To this end, the ATP-sensor AT1.03, which binds to ATP and therefore enhances the efficiency of resonance energy transfer between blue fluorescent protein (energy donor) and yellow-green fluorescent protein (energy acceptor), was expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons isolated from 1-2-day-old rat pups. Excitation of fluorescence in the acceptor protein allowed monitoring changes in pHc. Cells were loaded with fluorescent low-affinity Ca2+ indicators Fura-FF or X-rhod-FF to register [Ca2+]i. It was shown that Glu (20 µM, glycine 10 µM, Mg2+-free) produced a rapid acidification of the cytosol and decrease in [ATP]c. An approximately linear relationship (r(2) = 0.56) between the rate of [ATP]c decline and latency of glutamate-induced delayed calcium deregulation (DCD) was observed: higher rate of [ATP]c decrease corresponded to shorter DCD latency period. DCD began with a decrease in [ATP]c of as much as 15.9%. In the phase of high [Ca2+]i, the plateau of [ATP]c dropped to 10.4% compared to [ATP]c in resting neurons (100%). In the presence of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (0.5 mM), glutamate-induced reduction in [ATP]c in the phase of the high [Ca2+]i plateau was only 36.6%. Changes in [ATP]c, [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial potential, and pHc in calcium-free or sodium-free buffers, as well as in the presence of the inhibitor of Na+/K+-ATPase ouabain (0.5 mM), led us to suggest that in addition to increase in proton conductivity and decline in [ATP]c, one of the triggering factors of DCD might be a reversion of the neuronal plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchange.

  20. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Calcium Homeostasis are Involved in the Rescue of Bupivacaine Induced Cardiotoxicity by Lipid Emulsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lipid Emulsion (LE) has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine induced cardiotoxicity by LE in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with LE. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING University Research Laboratory. SUBJECTS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10mg/kg over 20seconds, i.v.) and 20% LE infusion (5ml/kg bolus, and 0.5ml/kg/min maintenance) with cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125 or 0.0625mg/kg bolus i.v.) 5min prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), the threshold for opening of mPTP, oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured. The values are Mean±SEM. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. ILP infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the EF was fully recovered within 5min (EF=64±4% and FS=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10min. LE was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625mg/kg) (HR=~181±11 beats/min at 10 min, recovery of 56%; EF=50±1%; FS=26±0.6% at 5min, n=3) but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25 or 0.125mg/kg). The calcium retention capacity in response to Ca2+ overload was significantly higher in cardiac mitochondria isolated from rats resuscitated with 20% LE compared to the group that did not receive ILP after bupivacaine

  1. The bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol impairs mitochondrial function and affects calcium homeostasis in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Troppens, Danielle M; Chu, Meiling; Holcombe, Lucy J; Gleeson, Olive; O'Gara, Fergal; Read, Nick D; Morrissey, John P

    2013-07-01

    The bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is of interest as an active ingredient of biological control strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and as a potential lead pharmaceutical molecule because of its capacity to inhibit growth of diverse microbial and non-microbial cells. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown and in this study the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was used as a model to investigate the effects of DAPG on a eukaryotic cell. Colony growth, conidial germination and cell fusion assays confirmed the inhibitory nature of DAPG towards N. crassa. A number of different fluorescent dyes and fluorescent protein reporters were used to assess the effects of DAPG treatment on mitochondrial and other cellular functions. DAPG treatment led to changes in mitochondrial morphology, and rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects are likely to be responsible for the toxicity of DAPG. It was also found that DAPG treatment caused extracellular calcium to be taken up by conidial germlings leading to a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) with a distinct concentration dependent Ca(2+) signature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TMBIM3/GRINA is a novel unfolded protein response (UPR) target gene that controls apoptosis through the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rivera, D; Armisén, R; Colombo, A; Martínez, G; Eguiguren, A L; Díaz, A; Kiviluoto, S; Rodríguez, D; Patron, M; Rizzuto, R; Bultynck, G; Concha, M L; Sierralta, J; Stutzin, A; Hetz, C

    2012-01-01

    Transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM)-6, also known as BAX-inhibitor 1 (BI-1), is an anti-apoptotic protein that belongs to a putative family of highly conserved and poorly characterized genes. Here we report the function of TMBIM3/GRINA in the control of cell death by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tmbim3 mRNA levels are strongly upregulated in cellular and animal models of ER stress, controlled by the PERK signaling branch of the unfolded protein response. TMBIM3/GRINA synergies with TMBIM6/BI-1 in the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis and apoptosis, associated with physical interactions with inositol trisphosphate receptors. Loss-of-function studies in D. melanogaster demonstrated that TMBIM3/GRINA and TMBIM6/BI-1 have synergistic activities against ER stress in vivo. Similarly, manipulation of TMBIM3/GRINA levels in zebrafish embryos revealed an essential role in the control of apoptosis during neuronal development and in experimental models of ER stress. These findings suggest the existence of a conserved group of functionally related cell death regulators across species beyond the BCL-2 family of proteins operating at the ER membrane. PMID:22240901

  3. TMBIM3/GRINA is a novel unfolded protein response (UPR) target gene that controls apoptosis through the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rivera, D; Armisén, R; Colombo, A; Martínez, G; Eguiguren, A L; Díaz, A; Kiviluoto, S; Rodríguez, D; Patron, M; Rizzuto, R; Bultynck, G; Concha, M L; Sierralta, J; Stutzin, A; Hetz, C

    2012-06-01

    Transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM)-6, also known as BAX-inhibitor 1 (BI-1), is an anti-apoptotic protein that belongs to a putative family of highly conserved and poorly characterized genes. Here we report the function of TMBIM3/GRINA in the control of cell death by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tmbim3 mRNA levels are strongly upregulated in cellular and animal models of ER stress, controlled by the PERK signaling branch of the unfolded protein response. TMBIM3/GRINA synergies with TMBIM6/BI-1 in the modulation of ER calcium homeostasis and apoptosis, associated with physical interactions with inositol trisphosphate receptors. Loss-of-function studies in D. melanogaster demonstrated that TMBIM3/GRINA and TMBIM6/BI-1 have synergistic activities against ER stress in vivo. Similarly, manipulation of TMBIM3/GRINA levels in zebrafish embryos revealed an essential role in the control of apoptosis during neuronal development and in experimental models of ER stress. These findings suggest the existence of a conserved group of functionally related cell death regulators across species beyond the BCL-2 family of proteins operating at the ER membrane.

  4. A Putative Chloroplast-Localized Ca(2+)/H(+) Antiporter CCHA1 Is Involved in Calcium and pH Homeostasis and Required for PSII Function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Weitao; Jin, Honglei; Zhang, Taijie; Lai, Jianbin; Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Shengchun; Liu, Shengjie; Duan, Xuewu; Wang, Hongbin; Peng, Changlian; Yang, Chengwei

    2016-08-01

    Calcium is important for chloroplast, not only in its photosynthetic but also nonphotosynthetic functions. Multiple Ca(2+)/H(+) transporters and channels have been described and studied in the plasma membrane and organelle membranes of plant cells; however, the molecular identity and physiological roles of chloroplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters have remained unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the UPF0016 family, CCHA1 (a chloroplast-localized potential Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter), in Arabidopsis thaliana. We observed that the ccha1 mutant plants developed pale green leaves and showed severely stunted growth along with impaired photosystem II (PSII) function. CCHA1 localizes to the chloroplasts, and the levels of the PSII core subunits and the oxygen-evolving complex were significantly decreased in the ccha1 mutants compared with the wild type. In high Ca(2+) concentrations, Arabidopsis CCHA1 partially rescued the growth defect of yeast gdt1Δ null mutant, which is defective in a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter. The ccha1 mutant plants also showed significant sensitivity to high concentrations of CaCl2 and MnCl2, as well as variation in pH. Taken these results together, we propose that CCHA1 might encode a putative chloroplast-localized Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter with critical functions in the regulation of PSII and in chloroplast Ca(2+) and pH homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Delphinidin, an active compound of red wine, inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via nitric oxide pathway and regulation of calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sophie; Giannone, Grégory; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Carmen Martinez, M

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of natural dietary polyphenolic compounds might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and also protect against cancer. The present study investigates the effects of delphinidin, an anthocyanin present in red wine, on bovine aortic endothelial cells apoptosis. Based on flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis and detection of mitochondrial cytochrome c release, we show that delphinidin (10−2 g l−1) alone had no effect either on necrosis or on apoptosis, but it significantly reduced apoptosis elicited by actinomycin D (1 μg ml−1, 24 h) and 7β-hydroxycholesterol (10 μg ml−1, 18 h). The protective effect of delphinidin was abolished by inhibitors of nitric oxide-synthase (NOS) (L-NA, 100 μM and SMT, 100 μM), guanylyl cyclase (ODQ, 100 μM) and MAP kinase (PD98059, 30 μM). Western blot analysis and protein detection by confocal microscopy demonstrate that the antiapoptotic effect of delphinidin was associated with an increased endothelial NOS expression mediated by a MAP kinase pathway. Finally, delphinidin alone had no effect on cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca2+]i), but normalized the changes in [Ca2+]i produced by actinomycin D towards the control values, suggesting that the antiapoptotic effect of delphinidin is associated with the maintenance of [Ca2+]i in the physiological range. All of the observed effects of delphinidin may preserve endothelium integrity, the alteration of which lead to pathologies including cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and is often associated with cancers. In conclusion, the protective effect of delphinidin against endothelial cell apoptosis contributes to understand the potential benefits of a consumption rich in polyphenols. PMID:12871827

  6. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akundi, Ravi S; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A; Sullivan, Patrick G; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-13

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice. Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice showed impaired Ca²+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca²+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1⁻/⁻ mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1⁻/⁻ mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1⁻/⁻ embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1⁻/⁻ mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Increased mitochondrial Ca²+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1⁻/⁻ mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate innate

  7. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  8. The SH2B1 obesity locus and abnormal glucose homeostasis: lack of evidence for association from a meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Prudente, S; Copetti, M; Morini, E; Mendonca, C; Andreozzi, F; Chandalia, M; Baratta, R; Pellegrini, F; Mercuri, L; Bailetti, D; Abate, N; Frittitta, L; Sesti, G; Florez, J C; Doria, A; Trischitta, V

    2013-11-01

    The development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is influenced both by environmental and by genetic determinants. Obesity is an important risk factor for T2D, mostly mediated by obesity-related insulin resistance. Obesity and insulin resistance are also modulated by the genetic milieu; thus, genes affecting risk of obesity and insulin resistance might also modulate risk of T2D. Recently, 32 loci have been associated with body mass index (BMI) by genome-wide studies, including one locus on chromosome 16p11 containing the SH2B1 gene. Animal studies have suggested that SH2B1 is a physiological enhancer of the insulin receptor and humans with rare deletions or mutations at SH2B1 are obese with a disproportionately high insulin resistance. Thus, the role of SH2B1 in both obesity and insulin resistance makes it a strong candidate for T2D. However, published data on the role of SH2B1 variability on the risk for T2D are conflicting, ranging from no effect at all to a robust association. The SH2B1 tag SNP rs4788102 (SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism) was genotyped in 6978 individuals from six studies for abnormal glucose homeostasis (AGH), including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or T2D, from the GENetics of Type 2 Diabetes in Italy and the United States (GENIUS T2D) consortium. Data from these studies were then meta-analyzed, in a Bayesian fashion, with those from DIAGRAM+ (n = 47,117) and four other published studies (n = 39,448). Variability at the SH2B1 obesity locus was not associated with AGH either in the GENIUS consortium (overall odds ratio (OR) = 0.96; 0.89-1.04) or in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.01; 0.98-1.05). Our data exclude a role for the SH2B1 obesity locus in the modulation of AGH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yajin; Dong, Yuan; Cheng, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28208618

  10. GUCY2D Cone-Rod Dystrophy-6 Is a "Phototransduction Disease" Triggered by Abnormal Calcium Feedback on Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinya; Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Dizhoor, Alexander M

    2018-03-21

    The Arg838Ser mutation in retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) has been linked to autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy type 6 (CORD6). It is believed that photoreceptor degeneration is caused by the altered sensitivity of RetGC1 to calcium regulation via guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs). To determine the mechanism by which this mutation leads to degeneration, we investigated the structure and function of rod photoreceptors in two transgenic mouse lines, 362 and 379, expressing R838S RetGC1. In both lines, rod outer segments became shorter than in their nontransgenic siblings by 3-4 weeks of age, before the eventual photoreceptor degeneration. Despite the shortening of their outer segments, the dark current of transgenic rods was 1.5-2.2-fold higher than in nontransgenic controls. Similarly, the dim flash response amplitude in R838S + rods was larger, time to peak was delayed, and flash sensitivity was increased, all suggesting elevated dark-adapted free cGMP in transgenic rods. In rods expressing R838S RetGC1, dark-current noise increased and the exchange current, detected after a saturating flash, became more pronounced. These results suggest disrupted Ca 2+ phototransduction feedback and abnormally high free-Ca 2+ concentration in the outer segments. Notably, photoreceptor degeneration, which typically occurred after 3 months of age in R838S RetGC1 transgenic mice in GCAP1,2 +/+ or GCAP1,2 +/- backgrounds, was prevented in GCAP1,2 -/- mice lacking Ca 2+ feedback to guanylyl cyclase. In summary, the dysregulation of guanylyl cyclase in RetGC1-linked CORD6 is a "phototransduction disease," which means it is associated with increased free-cGMP and Ca 2+ levels in photoreceptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In a mouse model expressing human membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1, GUCY2D ), a mutation associated with early progressing congenital blindness, cone-rod dystrophy type 6 (CORD6), deregulates calcium-sensitive feedback of phototransduction to

  11. Impact of Sustained Exposure to β-Amyloid on Calcium Homeostasis and Neuronal Integrity in Model Nerve Cell System Expressing α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Komal; Alfulaij, Naghum; Higa, Jason K.; Panee, Jun; Nichols, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the interaction between β-amyloid (Aβ) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors has been widely studied, the impact of prolonged exposure to Aβ on nAChR expression and signaling is not known. In this study, we employed a neuronal culture model to better understand the impact of sustained exposure of Aβ on the regulation of cellular and synaptic function. The differentiated rodent neuroblastoma cell line NG108-15 expressing exogenous high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs was exposed to soluble oligomeric Aβ for several days. Ca2+ responses, expression levels of α4β2 nAChRs, rate of mitochondrial movement, mitochondrial fission, levels of reactive oxygen species, and nuclear integrity were compared between Aβ-treated and untreated cells, transfected or not (mock-transfected) with α4β2 nAChRs. Sustained exposure of Aβ1–42 to α4β2 nAChR-transfected cells for several days led to increased Ca2+ responses on subsequent acute stimulation with Aβ1–42 or nicotine, paralleled by increased expression levels of α4β2 nAChRs, likely the result of enhanced receptor recycling. The rate of mitochondrial movement was sharply reduced, whereas the mitochondrial fission protein pDrp-1 was increased in α4β2 nAChR-transfected cells treated with Aβ1–42. In addition, the presence of α4β2 nAChRs dramatically enhanced Aβ1–42-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species and nuclear fragmentation, eventually leading to apoptosis. Our data thus show disturbed calcium homeostasis coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of neuronal integrity on prolonged exposure of Aβ in cells transfected with α4β2 nAChRs. Together, the results suggest that the presence of nAChRs sensitizes neurons to the toxic actions of soluble oligomeric Aβ, perhaps contributing to the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer disease. PMID:23479730

  12. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  13. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  14. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-associated deoxysphingolipids cause neurotoxicity, acute calcium handling abnormalities and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma R; Kugathasan, Umaiyal; Abramov, Andrey Y; Clark, Alex J; Bennett, David L H; Reilly, Mary M; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2018-05-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism. In this study, we show that exogenous application of these deoxysphingoid bases causes dose- and time-dependent neurotoxicity in primary mammalian neurons, as determined by analysis of cell survival and neurite length. Acutely, deoxysphingoid base neurotoxicity manifests in abnormal Ca 2+ handling by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as dysregulation of cell membrane store-operated Ca 2+ channels. The changes in intracellular Ca 2+ handling are accompanied by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in deoxysphingoid base-treated motor and sensory neurons. Thus, these results suggest that exogenous deoxysphingoid base application causes neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca 2+ handling deficits, which may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HSN-1. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    PubMed

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  16. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-02

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  17. Melatonin prevents abnormal mitochondrial dynamics resulting from the neurotoxicity of cadmium by blocking calcium-dependent translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Nixian; Li, YuMing; Zhang, Huiliang; Tang, Ju; Li, Huijuan; Feng, Min; Deng, Ping; Guo, Pan; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Wang; Reiter, Russel J; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental toxin and occupational pollutant that is considered to be a potential risk factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics are increasingly implicated in mitochondrial damage in various neurological pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics contributed to Cd-induced neurotoxicity and whether melatonin has any neuroprotective properties. After cortical neurons were exposed to 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr), the morphology of their mitochondria significantly changed from the normal tubular networks into punctuated structures within 3 hr. Following this pronounced mitochondrial fragmentation, Cd treatment led to signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased ATP content, and mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) loss. However, 1 mM melatonin pretreatment efficiently attenuated the Cd-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which improved the turnover of mitochondrial function. In the brain tissues of rats that were intraperitoneally given 1 mg/kg CdCl2 for 7 days, melatonin also ameliorated excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial damage in vivo. Melatonin's protective effects were attributed to its roles in preventing cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload, which blocked the recruitment of Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is involved in cadmium-induced neurotoxicity. Melatonin has significant pharmacological potential in protecting against the neurotoxicity of Cd by blocking the disbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Muscle-specific inositide phosphatase (MIP/MTMR14) is reduced with age and its loss accelerates skeletal muscle aging process by altering calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Shen, Jinhua; Brotto, Leticia; Hall, Todd; Mo, Chenglin; Valdivia, Héctor H; Andresen, Jon; Wacker, Michael; Nosek, Thomas M; Qu, Cheng-Kui; Brotto, Marco

    2010-08-01

    We have recently reported that a novel muscle-specific inositide phosphatase (MIP/MTMR14) plays a critical role in [Ca2+]i homeostasis through dephosphorylation of sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). Loss of function mutations in MIP have been identified in human centronuclear myopathy. We developed a MIP knockout (MIPKO) animal model and found that MIPKO mice were more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage, a trademark of muscle functional changes in older subjects. We used wild-type (Wt) mice and MIPKO mice to elucidate the roles of MIP in muscle function during aging. We found MIP mRNA expression, MIP protein levels, and MIP phosphatase activity significantly decreased in old Wt mice. The mature MIPKO mice displayed phenotypes that closely resembled those seen in old Wt mice: i) decreased walking speed, ii) decreased treadmill activity, iii) decreased contractile force, and iv) decreased power generation, classical features of sarcopenia in rodents and humans. Defective Ca2+ homeostasis is also present in mature MIPKO and old Wt mice, suggesting a putative role of MIP in the decline of muscle function during aging. Our studies offer a new avenue for the investigation of MIP roles in skeletal muscle function and as a potential therapeutic target to treat aging sarcopenia.

  19. Skin Barrier and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Seung Hun

    2018-06-01

    Epidermal barrier formation and the maintenance of barrier homeostasis are essential to protect us from the external environments and organisms. Moreover, impaired keratinocytes differentiation and dysfunctional skin barrier can be the primary causes or aggravating factors for many inflammatory skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Therefore, understanding the regulation mechanisms of keratinocytes differentiation and skin barrier homeostasis is important to understand many skin diseases and establish an effective treatment strategy. Calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) and their concentration gradient in the epidermis are essential in regulating many skin functions, including keratinocyte differentiation, skin barrier formation, and permeability barrier homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that the intracellular Ca 2+ stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are the major components that form the epidermal calcium gradient and the ER calcium homeostasis is crucial for regulating keratinocytes differentiation, intercellular junction formation, antimicrobial barrier, and permeability barrier homeostasis. Thus, both Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores, such as the ER and Ca 2+ influx mechanisms are important in skin barrier. In addition, growing evidences identified the functional existence and the role of many types of calcium channels which mediate calcium flux in keratinocytes. In this review, the origin of epidermal calcium gradient and their role in the formation and regulation of skin barrier are focused. We also focus on the role of ER calcium homeostasis in skin barrier. Furthermore, the distribution and role of epidermal calcium channels, including transient receptor potential channels, store-operated calcium entry channel Orai1, and voltage-gated calcium channels in skin barrier are discussed.

  20. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and Mn2+ attenuate Cd2+-induced disturbance of the intracellular free calcium homeostasis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Avilkina, Svetlana; Golyshev, Sergey A; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Alexandrova, Olga P; Kapkaeva, Marina R; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2018-01-15

    Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal that is capable of accumulating in the body via direct exposure or through the alimentary and respiratory tract, leading to neurodegeneration. In this article, we show that the application of CdCl 2 (0.001-0.005mM) for 48h induced high dose-dependent death rate of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Unlike Trolox or vitamin E, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 1mM) and Mn 2+ (0.0025-0.005mM) significantly protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Using Fluo-4 AM, measurements of intracellular calcium ions demonstrated that 24h-exposure to Cd 2+ induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 fluorescence in neurons accompanied by mitochondria swelling. These data imply that the cadmium-induced Ca 2+ increase is an important element in the death of neurons due to toxic effect of cadmium and the mechanism of protective action of manganese and NAC is mediated by the prevention of increase in calcium levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  2. Osmotic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in water homeostasis can disturb cell size and function. Although most cells can internally regulate cell volume in response to osmolar stress, neurons are particularly at risk given a combination of complex cell function and space restriction within the calvarium. Thus, regulating water balance is fundamental to survival. Through specialized neuronal “osmoreceptors” that sense changes in plasma osmolality, vasopressin release and thirst are titrated in order to achieve water balance. Fine-tuning of water absorption occurs along the collecting duct, and depends on unique structural modifications of renal tubular epithelium that confer a wide range of water permeability. In this article, we review the mechanisms that ensure water homeostasis as well as the fundamentals of disorders of water balance. PMID:25078421

  3. Effect of serum on intracellular calcium homeostasis and survival of primary cortical and hippocampal CA1 neurons following brief glutamate treatment.

    PubMed

    Uto, A; Dux, E; Hossmann, K A

    1994-12-01

    Glutamate neurotoxicity was studied in primary neuronal cultures prepared from rat cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 sector. Neurons were cultivated with 5% native horse serum and then exposed to 0.1 or 1.0 mM glutamate for 5 min. Subsequently, neurons were allowed to recover for 24 hours either in the presence or in the absence of 5% native horse serum. In the absence of serum, neurons showed morphological signs of degeneration and exhibited marked loss of vitality as tested by vital staining and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, when neurons were cultivated in the presence of serum, no degenerative changes were seen and the neurons survived. Heat inactivated serum did not prevent neuronal death but addition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) had the same protective effect as native serum. Measurements of intracellular calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) with the indicator dye fura-2 revealed a sharp increase during glutamate exposure. In the absence of serum, [Ca2+]i returned to near control within 5 min but it secondarily increased after 1 hour to almost the same level as during glutamate exposure. This delayed increase was more pronounced in CA1 than in cortical neurons, it correlated linearly with the initial rise during glutamate exposure, and it was greatly reduced in the presence of serum. These observations suggest that glutamate neurotoxicity in vitro is a function of the delayed and not of the primary rise of intracellular calcium activity, and that trophic factors prevent neurotoxicity by attenuating this delayed response.

  4. Salubrinal protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced cell death by blocking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and regulating calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Yang, Bo; Huang, Shu-Ying; Huang, Jin-Wen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-12-02

    The role of UVB in skin photo damages has been widely reported. Overexposure to UVB will induce severe DNA damages in epidermal cells and cause most cytotoxic symptoms. In the present study, we tested the potential activity of salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2) -alpha phosphatase, against UV-induced skin cell damages. We first exposed human fibroblasts to UVB radiation and evaluated the cytosolic Ca 2+ level as well as the induction of ER stress. We found that UVB radiation induced the depletion of ER Ca 2+ and increased the expression of ER stress marker including phosphorylated PERK, CHOP, and phosphorylated IRE1α. We then determined the effects of salubrinal in skin cell death induced by UVB radiation. We observed that cells pre-treated with salubrinal had a higher survival rate compared to cells treated with UVB alone. Pre-treatment with salubrinal successfully re-established the ER function and Ca 2+ homeostasis. Our results suggest that salubrinal can be a potential therapeutic agents used in preventing photoaging and photo damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  6. Fatty-acid oxidation and calcium homeostasis are involved in the rescue of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity by lipid emulsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-08-01

    Lipid emulsion has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty-acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity by lipid emulsion in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with lipid emulsion. Prospective, randomized animal study. University research laboratory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10 mg/kg over 20 secs, intravenously) and 20% lipid emulsion infusion (5 mL/kg bolus, and 0.5 mL/kg/min maintenance), and cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT-4325 (CVT) group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty-acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, or 0.0625 mg/kg bolus intravenously) 5 mins prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, the threshold for opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were measured. The values are mean ± SEM. Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. Lipid Emulsion infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the ejection fraction was fully recovered within 5 mins (ejection fraction=64±4% and fractional shortening=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10 mins. Lipid emulsion was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625 mg/kg; heart rate~181±11 beats/min at 10 mins, recovery of 56%; ejection fraction=50±1%; fractional shortening=26±0.6% at 5 mins, n=3), but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25, or 0.125 mg/kg). The calcium-retention capacity in response to Ca²⁺ overload was significantly higher in cardiac

  7. Calcium metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Munro

    2010-01-01

    This brief review focuses on calcium balance and homeostasis and their relationship to dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). Calcium balance refers to the state of the calcium body stores, primarily in bone, which are largely a function of dietary intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone remodeling. Bone calcium balance can be positive, neutral, or negative, depending on a number of factors, including growth, aging, and acquired or inherited disorders. Calcium homeostasis refers to the hormonal regulation of serum ionized calcium by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum ionized calcium itself, which together regulate calcium transport at the gut, kidney, and bone. Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia indicate serious disruption of calcium homeostasis but do not reflect calcium balance on their own. Calcium balance studies have determined the dietary and supplemental calcium requirements needed to optimize bone mass in healthy subjects. However, similar studies are needed in CKD-MBD, which disrupts both calcium balance and homeostasis, because these data in healthy subjects may not be generalizable to this patient group. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may enhance soft tissue calcification and cardiovascular disease in CKD-MBD. Further research is needed to elucidate the risks and mechanisms of soft tissue calcification with calcium supplementation in both healthy subjects and CKD-MBD patients.

  8. The control of calcium metabolism by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in analysis of chemistry and physiology of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and Vitamin D are described along with development of techniques in radioassay methods. Emphasis is placed on assessment of normal and abnormal patterns of secretion of these hormones in specific relation to the physiological adaptations of weightlessness and space flight. Related diseases that involve perturbations in normal skeletal and calcium homeostasis are also considered.

  9. Fluoride Alters Serum Elemental (Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc) Homeostasis Along with Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Fluorosis Endemic Villages and Restores on Supply of Safe Drinking Water in School-Going Children of Nalgonda District, India.

    PubMed

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Boiroju, Naveen

    2018-02-17

    The present study aimed to determine the serum trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)) along with erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and effect of intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in the school children of fluorosis endemic area. For this purpose, three categories of villages were selected based on drinking water fluoride (F): Category I (control, F = 1.68 mg/L), category II (affected F = 3.77 mg/L), and category III (intervention village) where initial drinking water F was 4.51 mg/L, and since the last 5 years, they were drinking water containing < 1.0 mg/L F. The results revealed that urinary F was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in category II compared to categories I and III. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum Cu and Mg was observed in category II compared to category I. Serum Zn and Ca was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in categories II and III compared to category I. The erythrocyte CA activity was decreased in the category II compared to category I. However, in the category III, erythrocyte CA activity was comparable to the control group. In conclusion, F exposure altered elemental homeostasis which has restored to some extent on intervention by safe drinking water for 5 years in school-going children.

  10. Mitofusin 1 degradation is induced by a disruptor of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, CGP37157: a role in apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vivek; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Alaisami, Rabei; Kumar, M Vijay; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondria constantly divide (mitochondrial fission) and fuse (mitochondrial fusion) in a normal cell. Disturbances in the balance between these two physiological processes may lead to cell dysfunction or to cell death. Induction of cell death is the prime goal of prostate cancer chemotherapy. Our previous study demonstrated that androgens increase the expression of a mitochondrial protein involved in fission and facilitate an apoptotic response to CGP37157 (CGP), an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium efflux, in prostate cancer cells. However, the regulation and role of mitochondrial fusion proteins in the death of these cells have not been examined. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effect of CGP on a key mitochondrial fusion protein, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), and the role of Mfn1 in prostate cancer cell apoptosis. We used various prostate cancer cell lines and western blot analysis, qRT-PCR, siRNA, M30 apoptosis assay and immunoprecipitation techniques to determine mechanisms regulating Mfn1. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with CGP resulted in selective degradation of Mfn1. Mfn1 ubiquitination was detected following immunoprecipitation of overexpressed Myc-tagged Mfn1 protein from CGP-treated cells, and treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin, as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of the E3 ubiquitin ligase March5, protected Mfn1 from CGP-induced degradation. These data indicate the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in CGP-induced degradation of Mfn1. We also demonstrated that downregulation of Mfn1 by siRNA enhanced the apoptotic response of LNCaP cells to CGP, suggesting a likely pro-survival role for Mfn1 in these cells. Our results suggest that manipulation of mitofusins may provide a novel therapeutic advantage in treating prostate cancer.

  11. Calcium dynamics in cardiac excitatory and non-excitatory cells and the role of gap junction.

    PubMed

    Das, Phonindra Nath; Mehrotra, Parul; Mishra, Aseem; Bairagi, Nandadulal; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2017-07-01

    Calcium ions aid in the generation of action potential in myocytes and are responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling of heart. The heart muscle has specialized patches of cells, called excitatory cells (EC) such as the Sino-atrial node cells capable of auto-generation of action potential and cells which receive signals from the excitatory cells, called non-excitatory cells (NEC) such as cells of the ventricular and auricular walls. In order to understand cardiac calcium homeostasis, it is, therefore, important to study the calcium dynamics taking into account both types of cardiac cells. Here we have developed a model to capture the calcium dynamics in excitatory and non-excitatory cells taking into consideration the gap junction mediated calcium ion transfer from excitatory cell to non-excitatory cell. Our study revealed that the gap junctional coupling between excitatory and non-excitatory cells plays important role in the calcium dynamics. It is observed that any reduction in the functioning of gap junction may result in abnormal calcium oscillations in NEC, even when the calcium dynamics is normal in EC cell. Sensitivity of gap junction is observed to be independent of the pacing rate and hence a careful monitoring is required to maintain normal cardiomyocyte condition. It also highlights that sarcoplasmic reticulum may not be always able to control the amount of cytoplasmic calcium under the condition of calcium overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

  13. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  14. Mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase type 8 exhibit motor dysfunctions and abnormal calcium dynamics in the somatic region of cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Matthew G; Weber, John T

    2015-06-01

    The waddles (wdl) mouse is characterized by a namesake "side-to-side" waddling gait due to a homozygous mutation of the Car8 gene. This mutation results in non-functional copies of the protein carbonic anhydrase type 8. Rota-rod testing was conducted to characterize the wdl mutations' effect on motor output. Results indicated that younger homozygotes outperformed their older cohorts, an effect not seen in previous studies. Heterozygotes, which were thought to be free of motor impairment, displayed motor learning deficiencies when compared with wild type performance. Acute cerebellar slices were then utilized for fluorescent calcium imaging experiments, which revealed significant alterations in cerebellar granule cell somatic calcium signaling when exposed to glutamate. The contribution of GABAergic signaling to these alterations was also verified using bath application of bicuculline. Changes in somatic calcium signals were found to be applicable to an in vivo scenario by comparing group responses to electrical stimulation of afferent mossy fiber projections. Finally, intracellular calcium store function was also found to be altered by the wdl mutation when slices were treated with thapsigargin. These findings, taken together with previous work on the wdl mouse, indicate a widespread disruption in cerebellar circuitry hampering proper neuronal communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium homeostasis in crustaceans: subcellular Ca dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wheatly, M G; Zanotto, F P; Hubbard, M G

    2002-05-01

    The molting cycle of crustaceans, associated with renewal and remineralization of the cuticle, has emerged as a model system to study regulation of genes that code for Ca(2+)-transporting proteins, common to all eukaryotic cells. This article reviews state-of-the-art knowledge about how crustacean transporting epithelia (gills, hepatopancreas and antennal gland) effect mass transcellular movement of Ca(2+) while preventing cytotoxicity. The current model proposed is based on in vitro research on the intermolt stage with extrapolation to other molting stages. Plasma membrane proteins involved in apical and basolateral Ca(2+) movement (NCX, PMCA) are contrasted between aquatic species of different osmotic origin and among transporting epithelia of an individual species. Their roles are assessed in the context of epithelial Ca(2+) flux derived from organismic approaches. Exchange with extracellular environments is integrated with Ca(2+) sequestration mechanisms across endomembranes of the ER/SR and mitochondria. Finally, the review postulates how new Ca(2+) imaging techniques will allow spatial and temporal resolution of Ca(2+) concentration in subcellular domains.

  16. Abnormalities of Calcium Handling Proteins in Skeletal Muscle Mirror those of the Heart in Humans with Heart Failure: a Shared Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Middlekauff, Holly R.; Vigna, Chris; Verity, M. Anthony; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Hamilton, Michele A.; Shieh, Perry; Tupling, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background In the failing human heart, abnormalities of Ca2+ cycling have been described, but there is scant knowledge about Ca2+ handling in the skeletal muscle of humans with HF. We tested the hypothesis that in humans with HF, Ca2+ cycling proteins in skeletal muscle are abnormal. Methods and Results Ten advanced HF patients (50.4±3.7 years), and 9 age matched controls underwent vastus lateralis biopsy. Western blot analysis showed that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)2a, which is responsible for Ca2+ sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR), was lower in HF vs controls (4.8±0.5vs7.5±0.8AU, p=0.01). Although phospholamban (PLN), which inhibits SERCA2a, was not different in HF vs controls, phosphorylation (SER16 site) of PLN, which relieves this inhibition, was reduced (0.8±0.1vs3.9±0.9AU, p=0.004). Dihydropyridine receptors were reduced in HF, (2.1±0.4vs3.6±0.5AU, p=0.04). We tested the hypothesis that these abnormalities of Ca2+ handling protein content and regulation were due to increased oxidative stress, but oxygen radical scavenger proteins were not elevated in the skeletal muscle of HF patients. Conclusion In chronic HF, marked abnormalities of Ca2+ handling proteins are present in skeletal muscle, which mirror those in failing heart tissue. This suggests a common mechanism, such as chronic augmentation of sympathetic activity and autophosphorylation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase II. PMID:22939042

  17. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  18. Calcilytic Ameliorates Abnormalities of Mutant Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Knock-In Mice Mimicking Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (ADH).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingzi; Endo, Itsuro; Ohnishi, Yukiyo; Kondo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Abe, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH). ADH patients develop hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalciuria, similar to the clinical features of hypoparathyroidism. The current treatment of ADH is similar to the other forms of hypoparathyroidism, using active vitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these treatments aggravate hypercalciuria and renal calcification. Thus, new therapeutic strategies for ADH are needed. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and may be effective for the treatment of ADH caused by activating mutations of CaSR. In order to examine the effect of calcilytic JTT-305/MK-5442 on CaSR harboring activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains in vitro, we first transfected a mutated CaSR gene into HEK cells. JTT-305/MK-5442 suppressed the hypersensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+) of HEK cells transfected with the CaSR gene with activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains. We then selected two activating mutations locating in the extracellular (C129S) and transmembrane (A843E) domains, and generated two strains of CaSR knock-in mice to build an ADH mouse model. Both mutant mice mimicked almost all the clinical features of human ADH. JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment in vivo increased urinary cAMP excretion, improved serum and urinary calcium and phosphate levels by stimulating endogenous PTH secretion, and prevented renal calcification. In contrast, PTH(1-34) treatment normalized serum calcium and phosphate but could not reduce hypercalciuria or renal calcification. CaSR knock-in mice exhibited low bone turnover due to the deficiency of PTH, and JTT-305/MK-5442 as well as PTH(1-34) increased bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in these mice. These results demonstrate that calcilytics can reverse almost all the phenotypes of ADH including hypercalciuria and renal calcification, and suggest that calcilytics can become a

  19. Airway surface liquid homeostasis in cystic fibrosis: pathophysiology and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Haq, Iram J; Gray, Michael A; Garnett, James P; Ward, Christopher; Brodlie, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting disease characterised by recurrent respiratory infections, inflammation and lung damage. The volume and composition of the airway surface liquid (ASL) are important in maintaining ciliary function, mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial properties of the airway. In CF, these homeostatic mechanisms are impaired, leading to a dehydrated and acidic ASL. ASL volume depletion in CF is secondary to defective anion transport by the abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR). Abnormal CFTR mediated bicarbonate transport creates an unfavourable, acidic environment, which impairs antimicrobial function and alters mucus properties and clearance. These disease mechanisms create a disordered airway milieu, consisting of thick mucopurulent secretions and chronic bacterial infection. In addition to CFTR, there are additional ion channels and transporters in the apical airway epithelium that play a role in maintaining ASL homeostasis. These include the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the solute carrier 26A (SLC26A) family of anion exchangers, and calcium-activated chloride channels. In this review we discuss how the ASL is abnormal in CF and how targeting these alternative channels and transporters could provide an attractive therapeutic strategy to correct the underlying ASL abnormalities evident in CF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Media calcification, low erythrocyte magnesium, altered plasma magnesium, and calcium homeostasis following grafting of the thoracic aorta to the infrarenal aorta in the rat--differential preventive effects of long-term oral magnesium supplementation alone and in combination with alkali.

    PubMed

    Schwille, P O; Schmiedl, A; Schwille, R; Brunner, P; Kissler, H; Cesnjevar, R; Gepp, H

    2003-03-01

    Calcifications in arterial media are clinically well documented, but the role played by magnesium in pathophysiology and therapy is uncertain. To clarify this, an animal model in which the juxtacardial aorta was grafted to the infrarenal aorta, and the subsequent calcifications in the media of the graft and their response to oral supplementation with three magnesium-containing and alkalinizing preparations was investigated. Groups of highly inbred rats were formed as follows: sham-operation (Sham, n = 12), aorta transplantation (ATx, n = 12), ATx + magnesium citrate (MgC, n = 12), ATx + MgC + potassium citrate (MgCPC, n = 12), ATx + MgC + MgCPC (MgCPCSB, n = 12). At 84 (+/-2) days after ATx with or without treatment the following observations were made: (1) weight gain and general status were normal; (2) ATx rats developed massive media calcification, mineral accumulation in the graft, decreased erythrocyte magnesium and plasma parathyroid hormone, and increased plasma ionized magnesium and calcium, and uric acid; (3) Mg-treated rats developed variable degrees of metabolic alkalosis, but only MgCPCSB supplementation prevented calcifications. Additional findings after ATx alone were: imbalance in endothelin and nitric oxide production, the mineral deposited in media was poorly crystallized calcium phosphate, calcium exchange between plasma and graft, and bone resorption were unchanged. The superior anti-calcification effect of MgCPCSB was characterized by complete restoration of normal extracellular mineral homeostasis and uric acid, but sub-optimal normalization of erythrocyte magnesium. It was concluded that in the rat: (1) ATx causes loss of cellular magnesium, excess of extracellular magnesium and calcium in the presence of apparently unchanged bone resorption, and increased uricemia; (2) ATx facilitates enhanced influx of calcium into vascular tissue, leading to calcium phosphate deposition in the media; (3) ATx-induced calcification is prevented by dietary

  1. Aberrant Subcellular Neuronal Calcium Regulation in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. PMID:20950656

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maalox® (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Relief (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Plus (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone)

  4. Aluminium exposure disrupts elemental homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kathryn E.; White, Keith N.; McCrohan, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly abundant in the environment and can elicit a variety of toxic responses in biological systems. Here we characterize the effects of Al on Caenorhabditis elegans by identifying phenotypic abnormalities and disruption in whole-body metal homeostasis (metallostasis) following Al exposure in food. Widespread changes to the elemental content of adult nematodes were observed when chronically exposed to Al from the first larval stage (L1). Specifically, we saw increased barium, chromium, copper and iron content, and a reduction in calcium levels. Lifespan was decreased in worms exposed to low levels of Al, but unexpectedly increased when the Al concentration reached higher levels (4.8 mM). This bi-phasic phenotype was only observed when Al exposure occurred during development, as lifespan was unaffected by Al exposure during adulthood. Lower levels of Al slowed C. elegans developmental progression, and reduced hermaphrodite self-fertility and adult body size. Significant developmental delay was observed even when Al exposure was restricted to embryogenesis. Similar changes in Al have been noted in association with Al toxicity in humans and other mammals, suggesting that C. elegans may be of use as a model for understanding the mechanisms of Al toxicity in mammalian systems. PMID:22534883

  5. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  6. Oxygen Sensing and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Gregg L.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of carotid bodies as sensory receptors for detecting arterial blood oxygen levels, and the identification and elucidation of the roles of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in oxygen homeostasis have propelled the field of oxygen biology. This review highlights the gas-messenger signaling mechanisms associated with oxygen sensing, as well as transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms underlying the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis by HIFs and their relevance to physiology and pathology. PMID:26328879

  7. Homeostasis, singularities, and networks.

    PubMed

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Homeostasis occurs in a biological or chemical system when some output variable remains approximately constant as an input parameter [Formula: see text] varies over some interval. We discuss two main aspects of homeostasis, both related to the effect of coordinate changes on the input-output map. The first is a reformulation of homeostasis in the context of singularity theory, achieved by replacing 'approximately constant over an interval' by 'zero derivative of the output with respect to the input at a point'. Unfolding theory then classifies all small perturbations of the input-output function. In particular, the 'chair' singularity, which is especially important in applications, is discussed in detail. Its normal form and universal unfolding [Formula: see text] is derived and the region of approximate homeostasis is deduced. The results are motivated by data on thermoregulation in two species of opossum and the spiny rat. We give a formula for finding chair points in mathematical models by implicit differentiation and apply it to a model of lateral inhibition. The second asks when homeostasis is invariant under appropriate coordinate changes. This is false in general, but for network dynamics there is a natural class of coordinate changes: those that preserve the network structure. We characterize those nodes of a given network for which homeostasis is invariant under such changes. This characterization is determined combinatorially by the network topology.

  8. Inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex alters mitochondrial function and cellular calcium regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsueh-Meei; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E

    2003-01-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) catalyzes a key and arguably rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). A reduction in the activity of the KGDHC occurs in brains and cells of patients with many of these disorders and may underlie the abnormal mitochondrial function. Abnormalities in calcium homeostasis also occur in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in cells bearing mutations that lead to AD. Thus, the present studies test whether the reduction of KGDHC activity can lead to the alterations in mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis. alpha-Keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) inhibits KGDHC activity in living N2a cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, concentration of KMV that inhibit in situ KGDHC by 80% does not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, similar concentrations of KMV induce the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, reduce basal [Ca(2+)](i) by 23% (P<0.005), and diminish the bradykinin (BK)-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by 46% (P<0.005). This result suggests that diminished KGDHC activities do not lead to the Ca(2+) abnormalities in fibroblasts from AD patients or cells bearing PS-1 mutations. The increased release of cytochrome c with diminished KGDHC activities will be expected to activate other pathways including cell death cascades. Reductions in this key mitochondrial enzyme will likely make the cells more vulnerable to metabolic insults that promote cell death.

  9. [The peculiarities of calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development].

    PubMed

    Moĭsa, S S; Nozdrachev, A D

    2014-01-01

    The review contains literature data about calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development. The analyses of retrospective and current sources of information about the regulation of calcium homeostasis under the theory of functional systems, the regulation of calcium metabolism in prenatal and postnatal periods of the development, the significance of calcium metabolism disturbances in the development of pathological conditions were showed.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  11. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  12. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  13. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  14. Interactions of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria Ca2+ stores with capacitative calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsueh-Meei; Chen, Huan-Lian; Gibson, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Thiamine dependent enzymes are diminished in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency in vitro and in rodents is a useful model of this reduction. Thiamine interacts with cellular calcium stores. To directly test the relevance of the thiamine dependent changes to dynamic processes in AD, the interactions must be studied in cells from patients with AD. These studies employed fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction including reductions in thiamine dependent enzymes and abnormalities in calcium homeostasis and oxidative processes occur in fibroblasts from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients. Bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exaggerated in fibroblasts from patients with AD bearing a presenilin-1 (PS-1) mutation and in control fibroblasts treated with oxidants. ER calcium regulates calcium entry into the cell through capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which is reduced in fibroblasts and neurons from mice bearing PS-1 mutations. Under physiological conditions, mitochondria and ER play important and interactive roles in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis. Thus, the interactions of mitochondria and oxidants with CCE were tested. Inhibition of ER Ca2+-ATPase by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) stimulates CCE. CPA-induced CCE was diminished by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ export (−60%) or import (−40%). Different aspects of mitochondrial Ca2+ coupled to CPA-induced-CCE were sensitive to select oxidants. The effects were very different when CCE was examined in the presence of InsP3, a physiological regulator of ER calcium release, and subsequent CCE. CCE under these conditions was only mildly reduced (20–25%) by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ export, and inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake exaggerated CCE (+53%). However, t-BHP reversed both abnormalities. The results suggest that in the presence of InsP3, mitochondria buffer the local Ca2+ released from ER following rapid activation of InsP3R and serve as a

  15. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  16. Calcium signaling in taste cells: regulation required.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2010-11-01

    Peripheral taste receptor cells depend on distinct calcium signals to generate appropriate cellular responses that relay taste information to the central nervous system. Some taste cells have conventional chemical synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release from stores to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Despite the importance of calcium signaling in taste cells, little is known about how these signals are regulated. This review summarizes recent studies that have identified 2 calcium clearance mechanisms expressed in taste cells, including mitochondrial calcium uptake and sodium/calcium exchangers (NCXs). These studies identified a unique constitutive calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in taste cells and the role of the mitochondria and exchangers in this process. The additional role of NCXs in the regulation of evoked calcium responses is also discussed. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and appears to be more complex than has previously been appreciated.

  17. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2016-06-02

    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans.

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  19. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  20. Cadmium and calcium uptake in the mollusc donax rugosus and effect of a calcium channel blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoumou, Z.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Romeo, M.

    Donax rugosus, a common bivalve mollusc in the coastal waters of Mauritania, has been studied for trace metal concentrations as a function of sampling site (from South of Mauritania to the North of this country) and of season. In this paper, the uptake of cadmium was experimentally studied in the different organs of D. rugosus. Since metals such as cadmium, copper and mercury may alter calcium homeostasis, calcium uptake was also studied in the animals treated with cadmium. Since calcium is taken up through specific channels, it appears that metals inhibit Ca uptake by interacting with these channels in themore » plasma membrane. Cadmium and calcium have very similar atomic radii, thus cadmium may be taken up through the calcium channels, particularly through voltage-dependent channels. The uptake of cadmium and calcium by D. Rugosus was therefore also studied in the presence of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  2. Calcium-containing phosphopeptides pave the secretory pathway for efficient protein traffic and secretion in fungi.

    PubMed

    Martín, Juan F

    2014-09-10

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) containing chelated calcium drastically increase the secretion of extracellular homologous and heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. Casein phosphopeptides released by digestion of alpha - and beta-casein are rich in phosphoserine residues (SerP). They stimulate enzyme secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance the immune response in mammals, and are used as food supplements. It is well known that casein phosphopeptides transport Ca2+ across the membranes and play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis in the cells. Addition of CPPs drastically increases the production of heterologous proteins in Aspergillus as host for industrial enzyme production. Recent proteomics studies showed that CPPs alter drastically the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway in filamentous fungi, apparently because they change the calcium concentration in organelles that act as calcium reservoirs. In the organelles calcium homeostasis a major role is played by the pmr1 gene, that encodes a Ca2+/Mn2+ transport ATPase, localized in the Golgi complex; this transporter controls the balance between intra-Golgi and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. A Golgi-located casein kinase (CkiA) governs the ER to Golgi directionality of the movement of secretory proteins by interacting with the COPII coat of secretory vesicles when they reach the Golgi. Mutants defective in the casein-2 kinase CkiA show abnormal targeting of some secretory proteins, including cytoplasmic membrane amino acid transporters that in ckiA mutants are miss-targeted to vacuolar membranes. Interestingly, addition of CPPs increases a glyceraldehyde-3-phpshate dehydrogenase protein that is known to associate with microtubules and act as a vesicle/membrane fusogenic agent. In summary, CPPs alter the protein secretory pathway in fungi adapting it to a deregulated protein traffic through the organelles and vesicles what results in a drastic increase in secretion of heterologous and also of

  3. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  4. Snapshot: implications for melatonin in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Di, Shouyin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yue; Fan, Chongxi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body. Notably, the existing evidence demonstrates that melatonin is involved in ER homeostasis, particularly in the morphology of the ER, indicating a potential protective role of melatonin. This review discusses the existing knowledge regarding the implications for the involvement of melatonin in ER homeostasis. PMID:27759160

  5. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others

  6. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  7. Enhanced Mitochondrial Transient Receptor Potential Channel, Canonical Type 3-Mediated Calcium Handling in the Vasculature From Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Xiong, Shiqiang; Lin, Shaoyang; Xia, Weijie; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Zhigang; Wei, Xing; Lu, Zongshi; Wei, Xiao; Gao, Peng; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-07-15

    Mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis is fundamental to the regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and adenosine triphosphate production. Recently, transient receptor potential channel, canonical type 3 (TRPC3), has been shown to localize to the mitochondria and to play a role in maintaining mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Inhibition of TRPC3 attenuates vascular calcium influx in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). However, it remains elusive whether mitochondrial TRPC3 participates in hypertension by increasing mitochondrial calcium handling and ROS production. In this study we demonstrated increased TRPC3 expression in purified mitochondria in the vasculature from SHRs, which facilitates enhanced mitochondrial calcium uptake and ROS generation compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats. Furthermore, inhibition of TRPC3 by its specific inhibitor, Pyr3, significantly decreased the vascular mitochondrial ROS production and H 2 O 2 synthesis and increased adenosine triphosphate content. Administration of telmisartan can improve these abnormalities. This beneficial effect was associated with improvement of the mitochondrial respiratory function through recovering the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the vasculature of SHRs. In vivo, chronic administration of telmisartan suppressed TRPC3-mediated excessive mitochondrial ROS generation and vasoconstriction in the vasculature of SHRs. More importantly, TRPC3 knockout mice exhibited significantly ameliorated hypertension through reduction of angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial ROS generation. Together, we give experimental evidence for a potential mechanism by which enhanced TRPC3 activity at the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial levels contributes to redox signaling and calcium dysregulation in the vasculature from SHRs. Angiotensin II or telmisartan can regulate [Ca 2+ ] mito , ROS production, and mitochondrial energy metabolism through targeting TRPC3. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of

  8. Calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  9. Pain emotion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2011-05-01

    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate.

  10. Oxidative stress, microRNAs and cytosolic calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Magenta, Alessandra; Dellambra, Elena; Ciarapica, Roberta; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species increase cytosolic [Ca(2+)], (Cai), and also modulate the expression of some microRNAs (miRNAs), however the link among oxidative stress, miRNAs and Cai is poorly characterized. In this review we have focused on three groups of miRNAs: (a) miRNAs that are modulated both by ROS and Cai: miR-181a and miR-205; (b) miRNAs that are modulated by ROS and have an effect on Cai: miR-1, miR-21, miR-24, miR-25, miR-185 and miR-214; (c) miRNAs that modulate both ROS and Cai: miR-133; miR-145, miR-495, and we have analyzed their effects on cell signaling and cell function. Finally, in the last section we have examined the role of these miRNAs in the skin, under conditions associated with enhanced oxidative stress, i.e. skin aging, the response to ultraviolet light and two important skin diseases, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. It is apparent that although some experimental evidence is already available on (a) the role of Cai in miRNAs expression and (b) on the ability of some miRNAs to modulate Cai-dependent intracellular signaling, these research lines are still largely unexplored and represent important areas of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Physiologist's View of Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of…

  12. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of calcium-binding proteins in the brainstem vestibular nuclei of the jaundiced Gunn rat.

    PubMed

    Shaia, Wayne T; Shapiro, Steven M; Heller, Andrew J; Galiani, David L; Sismanis, Aristides; Spencer, Robert F

    2002-11-01

    Vestibular gaze and postural abnormalities are major sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The sites and cellular effects of bilirubin toxicity in the brainstem vestibular pathway are not easily detected. Since altered intracellular calcium homeostasis may play a role in neuronal cell death, we hypothesized that altered expression of calcium-binding proteins may occur in brainstem vestibular nuclei of the classic animal model of bilirubin neurotoxicity. The expression of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k and parvalbumin in the brainstem vestibular pathways and cerebellum of homozygous recessive jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry at 18 days postnatally and compared to the findings obtained from age-matched non-jaundiced heterozygous (Nj) littermate controls. Jaundiced animals exhibited decreased parvalbumin immunoreactivity specifically in synaptic inputs to superior, medial, and inferior vestibular nuclei, and to oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, whereas the neurons retained their normal immunoreactivity. Jaundiced animals also demonstrated a decrease in calbindin expression in the lateral vestibular nuclei and a paucity of calbindin-immunoreactive synaptic endings on the somata of Deiters' neurons. The involved regions are related to the control of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal reflexes. Decreased expression of calcium-binding proteins in brainstem vestibular neurons may relate to the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal dysfunction seen with clinical kernicterus, and may provide a sensitive new way to assess bilirubin toxicity in the vestibular system.

  15. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  18. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  19. [Calcium hypothesis of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Riazantseva, M A; Mozhaeva, G N; Kaznacheeva, E V

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory and cognitive abilities loss. The etiology of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. In this regard, there is no effective treatment for the disease. Various hypotheses to explain the nature of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease led to the development of appropriate therapeutics. Despite of decades of research and clinical trials available therapeutics, at best, can only slow down the progression of the disease, but cannot cure it. This review dedicated to the one of modern hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis implied the impairment of calcium homeostasis as a key event for the development of neurodegenerative processes.

  20. Use of Genetically-encoded Calcium Indicators for Live Cell Calcium Imaging and Localization in Virus-infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jacob L.; Ramachandran, Nina K.; Utama, Budi; Hyser, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous and versatile process involved in nearly every cellular process, and exploitation of host calcium signals is a common strategy used by viruses to facilitate replication and cause disease. Small molecule fluorescent calcium dyes have been used by many to examine changes in host cell calcium signaling and calcium channel activation during virus infections, but disadvantages of these dyes, including poor loading and poor long-term retention, complicate analysis of calcium imaging in virus-infected cells due to changes in cell physiology and membrane integrity. The recent expansion of genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), including blue and red-shifted color variants and variants with calcium affinities appropriate for calcium storage organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), make the use of GECIs an attractive alternative for calcium imaging in the context of virus infections. Here we describe the development and testing of cell lines stably expressing both green cytoplasmic (GCaMP5G and GCaMP6s) and red ER-targeted (RCEPIAer) GECIs. Using three viruses (rotavirus, poliovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) previously shown to disrupt host calcium homeostasis, we show the GECI cell lines can be used to detect simultaneous cytoplasmic and ER calcium signals. Further, we demonstrate the GECI expression has sufficient stability to enable long-term confocal imaging of both cytoplasmic and ER calcium during the course of virus infections. PMID:26344758

  1. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Results: Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. Conclusion: This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients. PMID:24550954

  2. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-11-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients.

  3. Milk of calcium in abdomen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Kuo-How; Chang, Chin-Chen; Liu, Kao-Lang

    2011-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman had an asymptomatic abnormality on a screening abdominal radiograph. The radiopaque mass in her right upper abdomen was surrounded by numerous "pearls" and resembled an abalone on the supine abdominal radiograph. We advised an additional upright abdominal radiograph, which showed a calcium fluid level. We also clarified the location of the cystic lesion at the right floating kidney, which changed its location between the supine and upright positions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right renal cyst with a calcium-fluid interface owing to the milk of calcium. The patient was then followed up without additional investigation or the need for intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Concept analysis of family homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Rose, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    To report a concept analysis of family homeostasis. As family members are a majority of informal caregivers, negative consequences from caregiving duty create a vicious cycle in the family unit resulting in ongoing health crises and care challenges. Concept analysis. Forty empirical studies published from 1956-2012 were selected by searching five electronic bibliographical databases and by a manual search conducted from 2012-2013. Search terms included 'family homeostasis', 'homeostasis in family', 'homeostatic care' and 'family equilibrium'. Clinical experiences in nursing practice were used for constructing cases and clinical implications. Walker and Avant's method guided this analysis. Family homeostasis is defined as the capacity and mechanisms by which equilibrium is re-established in the family after a change occurs. Five critical attributes are identified: (1) predetermined setpoint; (2) self-appraised antecedents; (3) interdependence; (4) tendency to stability; and (5) feedback mechanisms. Antecedents include any type of causative change beyond the tolerable limit, while consequences encompass intermediate and long-term outcomes as well as equilibrium itself. Family homeostasis provides a conceptual rationale of family caregiving. While care recipients remain the primary beneficiaries of healthcare provision, homeostatic mechanisms are required to support the family caregiver's valuable contribution in the caring process to enhance family well-being. Further study should expand the definition and settings of family to reflect healthcare needs of diverse types of families and from the perspectives of different healthcare providers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  6. Leptin and Hormones: Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Georgios A; Paschou, Stavroula A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid adipokine, plays a major role in human energy homeostasis. Its actions are mediated through binding to leptin receptor and activating JAK-STAT3 signal transduction pathway. It is expressed mainly in adipocytes, and its circulating levels reflect the body's energy stores in adipose tissue. Recombinant methionyl human leptin has been FDA approved for patients with generalized non-HIV lipodystrophy and for compassionate use in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of leptin in energy homeostasis, as well as its interaction with other hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue mechanics regulate brain development, homeostasis and disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT All cells sense and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from their environment to orchestrate organismal development and maintain tissue homeostasis. Mechanotransduction is the evolutionarily conserved process whereby mechanical force is translated into biochemical signals that can influence cell differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration to change tissue behavior. Not surprisingly, disease develops if these mechanical cues are abnormal or are misinterpreted by the cells – for example, when interstitial pressure or compression force aberrantly increases, or the extracellular matrix (ECM) abnormally stiffens. Disease might also develop if the ability of cells to regulate their contractility becomes corrupted. Consistently, disease states, such as cardiovascular disease, fibrosis and cancer, are characterized by dramatic changes in cell and tissue mechanics, and dysregulation of forces at the cell and tissue level can activate mechanosignaling to compromise tissue integrity and function, and promote disease progression. In this Commentary, we discuss the impact of cell and tissue mechanics on tissue homeostasis and disease, focusing on their role in brain development, homeostasis and neural degeneration, as well as in brain cancer. PMID:28043968

  8. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  9. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  10. Role of cytosolic calcium diffusion in cardiac purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Limbu, Bijay; Shah, Kushal; Deo, Makarand

    2016-08-01

    The Cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) exhibit distinct calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis than that in ventricular myocytes (VMs). Due to lack of t-tubules in PCs, the Ca2+ ions entering the cell have to diffuse through the cytoplasm to reach the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) before triggering Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release (CICR). In recent experimental studies PCs have been shown to be more susceptible to action potential (AP) abnormalities than the VMs, however the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize morphologically realistic detailed biophysical mathematical model of a murine PC to systematically examine the role intracellular Ca2+ diffusion in the APs of PCs. A biphasic spatiotemporal Ca2+ diffusion process, as observed experimentally, was implemented in the model which includes radial Ca2+ wavelets and cell wide longitudinal Ca2+ diffusion wave (CWW). The AP morphology, specifically plateau, is affected due to changes in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. When Ca2+ concentration in sarcolemmal region is elevated, it activated inward sodium Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) current resulting into prolongation of the plateau at faster diffusion rates. Our results demonstrate that the cytosolic Ca2+ diffusion waves play a significant role in shaping APs of PCs and could provide mechanistic insights into the increased arrhythmogeneity of PCs.

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  12. NCKX3 was compensated by calcium transporting genes and bone resorption in a NCKX3 KO mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Eun-Kyeong; Lee, Ji-Sun; An, Beum-Soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-10-15

    Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determination of gene function or permanent modification of the phenotypic characteristics of an animal. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time required for completion and potential for confounding off-target effects. In this study, a rapid single-step approach to knockout of a targeted gene in mice using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) was demonstrated for generation of mutant (knockout; KO) alleles. Specifically, ZFNs to target the sodium/calcium/potassium exchanger3 (NCKX3) gene in C57bl/6j were designed using the concept of this approach. NCKX3 KO mice were generated and the phenotypic characterization and molecular regulation of active calcium transporting genes was assessed when mice were fed different calcium diets during growth. General phenotypes such as body weight and plasma ion level showed no distinct abnormalities. Thus, the potassium/sodium/calcium exchanger of NCKX3 KO mice proceeded normally in this study. As a result, the compensatory molecular regulation of this mechanism was elucidated. Renal TRPV5 mRNA of NCKX3 KO mice increased in both male and female mice. Expression of TRPV6 mRNA was only down-regulated in the duodenum of male KO mice. Renal- and duodenal expression of PTHR and VDR were not changed; however, GR mRNA expression was increased in the kidney of NCKX3 KO mice. Depletion of the NCKX3 gene in a KO mouse model showed loss of bone mineral contents and increased plasma parathyroid hormone, suggesting that NCKX3 may play a role in regulating calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  14. PRESENILIN-NULL CELLS HAVE ALTERED TWO-PORE CALCIUM CHANNEL EXPRESSION AND LYSOSOMAL CALCIUM; IMPLICATIONS FOR LYSOSOMAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Kayala, Kara M Neely; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a γ-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  15. Altered sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling—targets for heart failure therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Changwon; Lee, Ahyoung; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myocyte function is dependent on the synchronized movements of Ca2+ into and out of the cell, as well as between the cytosol and sarcoplasmic reticulum. These movements determine cardiac rhythm and regulate excitation–contraction coupling. Ca2+ cycling is mediated by a number of critical Ca2+-handling proteins and transporters, such as L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) and sodium/calcium exchangers in the sarcolemma, and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), ryanodine receptors, and cardiac phospholamban in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The entry of Ca2+ into the cytosol through LTCCs activates the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor channels and initiates myocyte contraction, whereas SERCA2a and cardiac phospholamban have a key role in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sequesteration and myocyte relaxation. Excitation–contraction coupling is regulated by phosphorylation of Ca2+-handling proteins. Abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ cycling are hallmarks of heart failure and contribute to the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. Correcting impaired intracellular Ca2+ cycling is a promising new approach for the treatment of heart failure. Novel therapeutic strategies that enhance myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis could prevent and reverse adverse cardiac remodeling and improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. PMID:23090087

  16. Involvement of TRPV2 and SOCE in calcium influx disorder in DMD primary human myotubes with a specific contribution of α1-syntrophin and PLC/PKC in SOCE regulation.

    PubMed

    Harisseh, Rania; Chatelier, Aurélien; Magaud, Christophe; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    Calcium homeostasis is critical for several vital functions in excitable and nonexcitable cells and has been shown to be impaired in many pathologies including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Various studies using murine models showed the implication of calcium entry in the dystrophic phenotype. However, alteration of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2)-dependant cation entry has not been investigated yet in human skeletal muscle cells. We pharmacologically characterized basal and store-operated cation entries in primary cultures of myotubes prepared from muscle of normal and DMD patients and found, for the first time, an increased SOCE in DMD myotubes. Moreover, this increase cannot be explained by an over expression of the well-known SOCE actors: TRPC1/4, Orai1, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) mRNA and proteins. Thus we investigated the modes of regulation of this cation entry. We firstly demonstrated the important role of the scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, which regulates SOCE in primary human myotubes through its PDZ domain. We also studied the implication of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) in SOCE and showed that their inhibition restores normal levels of SOCE in DMD human myotubes. In addition, the involvement of TRPV2 in calcium deregulation in DMD human myotubes was explored. We showed an abnormal elevation of TRPV2-dependant cation entry in dystrophic primary human myotubes compared with normal ones. These findings show that calcium homeostasis mishandling in DMD myotubes depends on SOCE under the influence of Ca(2+)/PLC/PKC pathway and α1-syntrophin regulation as well as on TRPV2-dependant cation influx.

  17. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  18. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your bones. Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for life. In addition to building bones and keeping them healthy, calcium enables our ...

  20. Three-component homeostasis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Hong, Hyunsuk; Jo, Junghyo

    2014-03-01

    Two reciprocal components seem to be sufficient to maintain a control variable constant. However, pancreatic islets adapt three components to control glucose homeostasis. They are α (secreting glucagon), β (insulin), and δ (somatostatin) cells. Glucagon and insulin are the reciprocal hormones for increasing and decreasing blood glucose levels, while the role of somatostatin is unknown. However, it has been known how each hormone affects other cell types. Based on the pulsatile hormone secretion and the cellular interactions, this system can be described as coupled oscillators. In particular, we used the Landau-Stuart model to consider both amplitudes and phases of hormone oscillations. We found that the presence of the third component, δ cell, was effective to resist under glucose perturbations, and to quickly return to the normal glucose level once perturbed. Our analysis suggested that three components are necessary for advanced homeostasis control.

  1. Neuronal control of energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Horvath, Tamas L.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal control of body energy homeostasis is the key mechanism by which animals and humans regulate their long-term energy balance. Various hypothalamic neuronal circuits (which include the hypothalamic melanocortin, midbrain dopamine reward and caudal brainstem autonomic feeding systems) control energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight within a narrow range for long periods of a life span. Numerous peripheral metabolic hormones and nutrients target these structures providing feedback signals that modify the default “settings” of neuronal activity to accomplish this balance. A number of molecular genetic tools for manipulating individual components of brain energy homeostatic machineries, in combination with anatomical, electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, have been developed, which provide a means for elucidating the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of feeding behavior and metabolism. This review will highlight some of these advancements and focus on the neuronal circuitries of energy homeostasis. PMID:18061579

  2. Cortical firing and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Olcese, Umberto; Lazimy, Yaniv M; Faraguna, Ugo; Esser, Steve K; Williams, Justin C; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-09-24

    The need to sleep grows with the duration of wakefulness and dissipates with time spent asleep, a process called sleep homeostasis. What are the consequences of staying awake on brain cells, and why is sleep needed? Surprisingly, we do not know whether the firing of cortical neurons is affected by how long an animal has been awake or asleep. Here, we found that after sustained wakefulness cortical neurons fire at higher frequencies in all behavioral states. During early NREM sleep after sustained wakefulness, periods of population activity (ON) are short, frequent, and associated with synchronous firing, while periods of neuronal silence are long and frequent. After sustained sleep, firing rates and synchrony decrease, while the duration of ON periods increases. Changes in firing patterns in NREM sleep correlate with changes in slow-wave activity, a marker of sleep homeostasis. Thus, the systematic increase of firing during wakefulness is counterbalanced by staying asleep.

  3. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  4. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Homeostasis: Beyond Curt Richter1

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2007-01-01

    Curt Richter introduced behavioral control into the concept of homeostasis, thereby opening entire fields of research. The prevailing dogma, and the techniques he used, conspired to lead Richter and others to interpret regulation in strict negative feedback terms. Although this point of view continues to be embraced by many contemporary biologists, we believe that prevailing sentiment favors a broader view in which organisms integrate anticipatory pre-emptive control over regulated variables whenever possible. PMID:17524521

  6. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning

  7. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Serotonin and the regulation of calcium transport in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L L

    2017-12-01

    The mammary gland regulates maternal metabolism during lactation. Numerous factors within the tissue send signals to shift nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Serotonin is a monoamine that has been well documented to regulate several aspects of lactation among species. Maintenance of maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation is a highly evolved process that is elegantly regulated by the interaction of the mammary gland with the bone, gut, and kidney tissues. It is well documented that dietary calcium is insufficient to maintain maternal calcium concentrations during lactation, and mammals must rely on bone resorption to maintain normocalcemia. Our recent work focused on the ability of the mammary gland to function as an accessory parathyroid gland during lactation. It was demonstrated that serotonin acts to stimulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland during lactation. The main role of mammary-derived PTHrP during mammalian lactation is to stimulate bone resorption to maintain maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation. In addition to regulating PTHrP, it was shown that serotonin appears to directly affect calcium transporters and pumps in the mammary gland. Our current working hypothesis regarding the control of calcium during lactation is as follows: serotonin directly stimulates PTHrP production in the mammary gland through interaction with the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Simultaneously, serotonin directly increases calcium movement into the mammary gland and, subsequently, milk. These 2 direct actions of serotonin combine to induce a transient maternal hypocalcemia required to further stimulate PTHrP production and calcium mobilization from bone. Through these 2 routes, serotonin is able to improve maternal calcium concentrations. Furthermore, we have shown that Holstein and Jersey cows appear to regulate calcium in different manners and also respond differently to serotonergic stimulation of the calcium

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  9. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  10. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer layer of the tooth. ... Infections Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the ...

  11. Calcium regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, N I; Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    2000-02-24

    Activation of oxidative phosphorylation by physiological levels of calcium in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle was analysed using top-down elasticity and regulation analysis. Oxidative phosphorylation was conceptually divided into three subsystems (substrate oxidation, proton leak and phosphorylation) connected by the membrane potential or the protonmotive force. Calcium directly activated the phosphorylation subsystem and (with sub-saturating 2-oxoglutarate) the substrate oxidation subsystem but had no effect on the proton leak kinetics. The response of mitochondria respiring on 2-oxoglutarate at two physiological concentrations of free calcium was quantified using control and regulation analysis. The partial integrated response coefficients showed that direct stimulation of substrate oxidation contributed 86% of the effect of calcium on state 3 oxygen consumption, and direct activation of the phosphorylation reactions caused 37% of the increase in phosphorylation flux. Calcium directly activated phosphorylation more strongly than substrate oxidation (78% compared to 45%) to achieve homeostasis of mitochondrial membrane potential during large increases in flux.

  12. Klotho Prevents Renal Calcium Loss

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R. Todd; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Buurman, Jan; Dijkman, Henry; van der Eerden, Bram C. J.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.T.M.; Bindels, René J.

    2009-01-01

    Disturbed calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, which is implicit to the aging phenotype of klotho-deficient mice, has been attributed to altered vitamin D metabolism, but alternative possibilities exist. We hypothesized that failed tubular Ca2+ absorption is primary, which causes increased urinary Ca2+ excretion, leading to elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and its sequelae. Here, we assessed intestinal Ca2+ absorption, bone densitometry, renal Ca2+ excretion, and renal morphology via energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis in wild-type and klotho−/− mice. We observed elevated serum Ca2+ and fractional excretion of Ca2+ (FECa) in klotho−/− mice. Klotho−/− mice also showed intestinal Ca2+ hyperabsorption, osteopenia, and renal precipitation of calcium-phosphate. Duodenal mRNA levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and calbindin-D9K increased. In the kidney, klotho−/− mice exhibited increased expression of TRPV5 and decreased expression of the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1) and calbindin-D28K, implying a failure to absorb Ca2+ through the distal convoluted tubule/connecting tubule (DCT/CNT) via TRPV5. Gene and protein expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-α-hydroxylase (1αOHase), and calbindin-D9K excluded renal vitamin D resistance. By modulating the diet, we showed that the renal Ca2+ wasting was not secondary to hypercalcemia and/or hypervitaminosis D. In summary, these findings illustrate a primary defect in tubular Ca2+ handling that contributes to the precipitation of calcium-phosphate in DCT/CNT. This highlights the importance of klotho to the prevention of renal Ca2+ loss, secondary hypervitaminosis D, osteopenia, and nephrocalcinosis. PMID:19713312

  13. Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Calcinist Point of View.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary E; Thakkar, Ankita

    2017-06-01

    Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calcium result when AD-like changes in mitochondrial enzymes or oxidative stress are induced experimentally. The calcium abnormalities can be directly linked to the altered tau phosphorylation, amyloid precursor protein processing and synaptic dysfunction that are defining features of AD. A better understanding of these changes is required before using calcium abnormalities as therapeutic targets.

  14. Dysbalance of Astrocyte Calcium under Hyperammonemic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Nicole; Dublin, Pavel; Rose, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    that dysbalance of astrocyte calcium homeostasis under hyperammonemic conditions is a widespread phenomenon, which might contribute to the disturbance of neurotransmission during HE. PMID:25153709

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-04-08

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  17. Anchored phosphatases modulate glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hinke, Simon A; Navedo, Manuel F; Ulman, Allison; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Tian, Geng; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Langeberg, Lorene K; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Tengholm, Anders; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Santana, L Fernando; Scott, John D

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine release of insulin principally controls glucose homeostasis. Nutrient-induced exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic β-cells involves ion channels and mobilization of Ca2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways. Whole-animal physiology, islet studies and live-β-cell imaging approaches reveal that ablation of the kinase/phosphatase anchoring protein AKAP150 impairs insulin secretion in mice. Loss of AKAP150 impacts L-type Ca2+ currents, and attenuates cytoplasmic accumulation of Ca2+ and cAMP in β-cells. Yet surprisingly AKAP150 null animals display improved glucose handling and heightened insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. More refined analyses of AKAP150 knock-in mice unable to anchor protein kinase A or protein phosphatase 2B uncover an unexpected observation that tethering of phosphatases to a seven-residue sequence of the anchoring protein is the predominant molecular event underlying these metabolic phenotypes. Thus anchored signalling events that facilitate insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis may be set by AKAP150 associated phosphatase activity. PMID:22940692

  18. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  19. Homeostasis, inflammation, and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kotas, Maya E; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-02-26

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphate homeostasis in Bartter syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Viganò, Cristina; Provero, Maria Cristina; Barretta, Francesco; Albisetti, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Silvana; Scicchitano, Barbara; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2014-11-01

    Bartter patients may be hypercalciuric. Additional abnormalities in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones have occasionally been reported. The metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones was investigated in 15 patients with Bartter syndrome and 15 healthy subjects. Compared to the controls, Bartter patients had significantly reduced plasma phosphate {mean [interquartile range]:1.29 [1.16-1.46] vs. 1.61 [1.54-1.67] mmol/L} and maximal tubular phosphate reabsorption (1.16 [1.00-1.35] vs. 1.41 [1.37-1.47] mmol/L) and significantly increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (6.1 [4.5-7.7] vs. 2.8 [2.2-4.4] pmol/L). However, patients and controls did not differ in blood calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. In patients, an inverse correlation (P < 0.05) was noted between total plasma calcium or glomerular filtration rate and PTH concentration. A positive correlation was also noted between PTH and osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.005), as well as between chloriduria or natriuria and phosphaturia (P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between calciuria and PTH concentration or between urinary or circulating phosphate and PTH. The results of this study demonstrate a tendency towards renal phosphate wasting and elevated circulating PTH levels in Bartter patients.

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Association of calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms at rs1801725 with circulating calcium in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Widatalla, Sarrah E; Whalen, Diva S; Ochieng, Josiah; Sakwe, Amos M

    2017-08-02

    Breast cancer (BC) patients with late-stage and/or rapidly growing tumors are prone to develop high serum calcium levels which have been shown to be associated with larger and aggressive breast tumors in post and premenopausal women respectively. Given the pivotal role of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in calcium homeostasis, we evaluated whether polymorphisms of the CASR gene at rs1801725 and rs1801726 SNPs in exon 7, are associated with circulating calcium levels in African American and Caucasian control subjects and BC cases. In this retrospective case-control study, we assessed the mean circulating calcium levels, the distribution of two inactivating CaSR SNPs at rs1801725 and rs1801726 in 199 cases and 384 age-matched controls, and used multivariable regression analysis to determine whether these SNPs are associated with circulating calcium in control subjects and BC cases. We found that the mean circulating calcium levels in African American subjects were higher than those in Caucasian subjects (p < 0.001). As expected, the mean calcium levels were higher in BC cases compared to control subjects (p < 0.001), but the calcium levels in BC patients were independent of race. We also show that in BC cases and control subjects, the major alleles at rs1801725 (G/T, A986S) and at rs1801726 (C/G, Q1011E) were common among Caucasians and African Americans respectively. Compared to the wild type alleles, polymorphisms at the rs1801725 SNP were associated with higher calcium levels (p = 0.006) while those at rs1801726 were not. Using multivariable linear mixed-effects models and adjusting for age and race, we show that circulating calcium levels in BC cases were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.009), clinical stage (p = 0.003) and more importantly, with inactivating mutations of the CASR at the rs1801725 SNP (p = 0.038). These data suggest that decreased sensitivity of the CaSR to calcium due to inactivating polymorphisms at rs1801725, may predispose

  3. Gestational diabetes is characterized by reduced mitochondrial protein expression and altered calcium signaling proteins in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kristen E; Hwang, Hyonson; Janssen, Rachel C; DeVente, James M; Barbour, Linda A; Hernandez, Teri L; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Lappas, Martha; Friedman, Jacob E

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects up to 18% of pregnant women with immediate and long-term metabolic consequences for both mother and infant. Abnormal glucose uptake and lipid oxidation are hallmark features of GDM prompting us to use an exploratory proteomics approach to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying differences in skeletal muscle metabolism between obese pregnant women with GDM (OGDM) and obese pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (ONGT). Functional validation was performed in a second cohort of obese OGDM and ONGT pregnant women. Quantitative proteomic analysis in rectus abdominus skeletal muscle tissue collected at delivery revealed reduced protein content of mitochondrial complex I (C-I) subunits (NDUFS3, NDUFV2) and altered content of proteins involved in calcium homeostasis/signaling (calcineurin A, α1-syntrophin, annexin A4) in OGDM (n = 6) vs. ONGT (n = 6). Follow-up analyses showed reduced enzymatic activity of mitochondrial complexes C-I, C-III, and C-IV (-60-75%) in the OGDM (n = 8) compared with ONGT (n = 10) subjects, though no differences were observed for mitochondrial complex protein content. Upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation were not different between groups. However, AMPK phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by 75% in the OGDM women. These data suggest that GDM is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and disordered calcium homeostasis. These relationships deserve further attention as they may represent novel risk factors for development of GDM and may have implications on the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on both treatment strategies for GDM and for prevention of type 2 diabetes postpartum.

  4. Inflammasome, Inflammation, and Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Vijay A K; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Organismal fitness demands proper response to neutralize the threat from infection or injury. At the mammalian intestinal epithelium barrier, the inflammasome coordinates an elaborate tissue repair response marked by the induction of antimicrobial peptides, wound-healing cytokines, and reparative proliferation of epithelial stem cells. The inflammasome in myeloid and intestinal epithelial compartments exerts these effects in part through maintenance of a healthy microbiota. Disease-associated mutations and elevated expression of certain inflammasome sensors have been identified. In many cases, inhibition of inflammasome activity has dramatic effects on disease outcome in mouse models of experimental colitis. Here, we discuss recent studies on the role of distinct inflammasome sensors in intestinal homeostasis and how this knowledge may be translated into a therapeutic setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CHF: circulatory homeostasis gone awry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Karl T; Burlew, Brad S; Davis, Richard C; Newman, Kevin P; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Hawkins, Ralph G; Wall, Barry M; Parker, Robert B

    2002-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is integral to salt and water retention, particularly by the kidneys. Over time, positive sodium balance leads first to intra- and then to extravascular volume expansion, with subsequent symptomatic heart failure. This report examines the role of the RAAS in regulating a less well recognized component essential to circulatory homeostasis--central blood volume. The regulation of central blood volume draws on integrative cardiorenal physiology and a key role played by the RAAS in its regulation. In presenting insights into the role of the RAAS in regulating central blood volume, this review also addresses other sodium-retaining states with a predisposition to edema formation, such as cirrhosis and nephrosis. (c)2002 CHF, Inc

  6. Electrocardiogram abnormalities and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1). Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  7. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4–10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0–4.1). Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities. PMID:23074563

  8. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  10. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  11. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  12. Calcium Blood Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your health care provider may order a calcium test if you have a pre-existing condition that may affect your calcium levels. These include: Kidney disease Thyroid disease Malnutrition Certain types of cancer What happens during a calcium blood test? A health care professional will take a blood ...

  13. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Cutaneous and subcutaneous complications of calcium infusions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J R

    1977-01-01

    Five infants with hypocalcemia experienced complications after treatment with calcium gluconate intravenously. Inadvertent soft tissue extravasation resulted in erythema, subcutaneous calcification, tissue necrosis, skin slough, and transient radial nerve damage with wrist drop, the latter previously unreported. The soft tissue lesions may be mistaken for cellulitis, abscess, calcified hematoma, or osteomyelitis, resulting in unnecessary antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. Initially, no clinical abnormality may be apparent. The lesions appear from days to weeks following extravasation. Radiographs are initially negative but soft calcification appears in one to three weeks. Follow-up x-ray films show complete resorption of the calcium over several months. Skin sloughs heal in four to six weeks without skin grafting. Extreme care in the parenteral use of calcium gluconate and conservative treatment of the complications is advocated.

  15. Mechanism of cytotoxic action of perfluorinated acids. III. Disturbance in Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Skladanowski, Andrzej C., E-mail: acskla@gumed.edu.pl

    The global distribution of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in industry and in household is well known. Their increasing environmental occurrence and biomagnification in the living organisms have drawn growing interests in efforts to describe precisely the mechanisms of action in vitro and in vivo. Our previous investigations widely described lipophilicity-dependent cytotoxicity of PFAs as well as the effect of perfluorination of carbon chain on depolarization of plasma membrane potential, acidification or mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study we presented in dose- and time-dependent manner the impact of PFAs on calcium homeostasis in HCT116 cells. Comparative analysis of cytosolic [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} andmore » mitochondrial calcium [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub m} carried out by flow cytometry revealed distinct uptake of calcium into mitochondria in correlation to increasing lipophilicity of PFAs. Massive accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub m} was not accompanied by equivalent loss of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}. Indeed, moderate changes of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} were observed after incubation with 400 {mu}M PFDoDA reaching 29.83% and 49.17% decrease at 4th and 72nd hour, respectively. At the same time, mitochondrial calcium uptake increased from 2- to more than 4-fold comparing with non-treated cells. Incubation with non-fluorinated decanoic acid (DA) did not cause any changes in calcium homeostasis. Presented data show that PFAs-induced perturbations in calcium distribution seem to be a missing link related to mitochondria dysfunction playing a crucial role in determination of apoptotic cell death. Complete scheme for the mechanism of cytotoxic action of PFAs has been included.« less

  16. Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Pia V; Wu, Bingbing; Liu, Yixian; Han, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure normal body function, the human body is dependent on a tight control of its blood glucose levels. This is accomplished by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones and neuropeptides released mainly from the brain, pancreas, liver, intestine as well as adipose and muscle tissue. Within this network, the pancreas represents a key player by secreting the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and its opponent glucagon. However, disturbances in the interplay of the hormones and peptides involved may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) whose prevalence, comorbidities and medical costs take on a dramatic scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to uncover and understand the mechanisms underlying the various interactions to improve existing anti-diabetic therapies and drugs on the one hand and to develop new therapeutic approaches on the other. This review summarizes the interplay of the pancreas with various other organs and tissues that maintain glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, anti-diabetic drugs and their impact on signaling pathways underlying the network will be discussed. PMID:26964835

  17. A physiologist's view of homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the “milieu interieur,” but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term “homeostasis” and expanded Bernard's notion of “constancy” of the internal environment in an explicit and concrete way. In the 1960s, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms in physiology began to be described as discrete processes following the application of engineering control system analysis to physiological systems. Unfortunately, many undergraduate texts continue to highlight abstract aspects of the concept rather than emphasizing a general model that can be specifically and comprehensively applied to all homeostatic mechanisms. As a result, students and instructors alike often fail to develop a clear, concise model with which to think about such systems. In this article, we present a standard model for homeostatic mechanisms to be used at the undergraduate level. We discuss common sources of confusion (“sticky points”) that arise from inconsistencies in vocabulary and illustrations found in popular undergraduate texts. Finally, we propose a simplified model and vocabulary set for helping undergraduate students build effective mental models of homeostatic regulation in physiological systems. PMID:26628646

  18. Protein synthesis controls phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element assimilated largely as orthophosphate (Pi). Cells respond to Pi starvation by importing Pi from their surroundings. We now report that impaired protein synthesis alone triggers a Pi starvation response even when Pi is plentiful in the extracellular milieu. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , this response entails phosphorylation of the regulatory protein PhoB and transcription of PhoB-dependent Pi transporter genes and is eliminated upon stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When protein synthesis is impaired due to low cytoplasmic magnesium (Mg 2+ ), Salmonella triggers the Pi starvation response because ribosomes are destabilized, which reduces ATP consumption and thus free cytoplasmic Pi. This response is transient because low cytoplasmic Mg 2+ promotes an uptake in Mg 2+ and a decrease in ATP levels, which stabilizes ribosomes, resulting in ATP consumption and Pi increase, thus ending the response. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis also elicited a Pi starvation response in the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our findings identify a regulatory connection between protein synthesis and Pi homeostasis that is widespread in nature. © 2018 Pontes and Groisman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. [Acid-base homeostasis and the thyro-parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Cuisinier-Gleizes, P; George, A; Thomasset, M; Mathieu, H

    1975-05-12

    Chronic metabolic acidosis entails hyperparathyroidism and osteopathy. In order to elucidate the role of the thyroparathyroids in this bone lesion production the effects of acidic diet for 7 weeks were studied in parathyroidectomized (PTX), thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and shamoperated (Sh-O) growing rats. In all animals urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, ammonium and titrable acidity was similarly increased. The rise in hydroxyproline excretion and urinary 85-sr (that was injected previous to acidic feeding) was more marked in PTX and TPTX rats. Moreover, in these animals the serum calcium level was increased, the blood pH was decreased. According to these data, an acidic diet intake that is not sufficient to elicit a fall in blood pH of normal young rats can induce severe acidosis in chronically parathyroidectomized or thyroparathyroidectomized animals; moreover the bone resorption appears more marked. It is concluded that parathyroids are involved in the extra-cellular fluid defense mechanism against acidosis by a no bone resorptive mechanism. We hypothesize that the parathyroids permit the necessary and adequate supply of bicarbonates by the bone to maintain blood pH homeostasis.

  20. Modeling tensional homeostasis in multicellular clusters.

    PubMed

    Tam, Sze Nok; Smith, Michael L; Stamenović, Dimitrije

    2017-03-01

    Homeostasis of mechanical stress in cells, or tensional homeostasis, is essential for normal physiological function of tissues and organs and is protective against disease progression, including atherosclerosis and cancer. Recent experimental studies have shown that isolated cells are not capable of maintaining tensional homeostasis, whereas multicellular clusters are, with stability increasing with the size of the clusters. Here, we proposed simple mathematical models to interpret experimental results and to obtain insight into factors that determine homeostasis. Multicellular clusters were modeled as one-dimensional arrays of linearly elastic blocks that were either jointed or disjointed. Fluctuating forces that mimicked experimentally measured cell-substrate tractions were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. These forces were applied to the cluster models, and the corresponding stress field in the cluster was calculated by solving the equilibrium equation. It was found that temporal fluctuations of the cluster stress field became attenuated with increasing cluster size, indicating that the cluster approached tensional homeostasis. These results were consistent with previously reported experimental data. Furthermore, the models revealed that key determinants of tensional homeostasis in multicellular clusters included the cluster size, the distribution of traction forces, and mechanical coupling between adjacent cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that tensional homeostasis was a multicellular phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Altered sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase 2a content: Targets for heart failure therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Li, Si Qi; Hu, Ping Ping; Tong, Xiao Yong

    2018-05-01

    Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is responsible for transporting cytosolic calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum to maintain calcium homeostasis. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is the dominant isoform expressed in cardiac tissue, which is regulated by endogenous protein inhibitors, post-translational modifications, hormones as well as microRNAs. Dysfunction of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is associated with heart failure, which makes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase a promising target for heart failure therapy. This review summarizes current approaches to ameliorate sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase function and focuses on phospholamban, an endogenous inhibitor of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase, pharmacological tools and gene therapies.

  2. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  3. Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer’s Disease - A Calcinist Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Thakkar, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calcium result when AD-like changes in mitochondrial enzymes or oxidative stress are induced experimentally. The calcium abnormalities can be directly linked to the altered tau phosphorylation, amyloid precursor protein processing and synaptic dysfunction that are defining features of AD. A better understanding of these changes is required before using calcium abnormalities as therapeutic targets. PMID:28181072

  4. Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, H K J; Hulshof, T; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2013-05-01

    Energy- and food-reward homeostasis is the essential component for maintaining energy balance and its disruption may lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Circadian alignment, quality sleep and sleep architecture in relation to energy- and food-reward homeostasis are crucial. A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid-eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and gut-peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance. Circadian misalignment affects sleep architecture and the glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, leptin concentrations and HPA-axis activity. Mood disorders such as depression occur; reduced dopaminergic neuronal signaling shows decreased food reward. A good sleep hygiene, together with circadian alignment of food intake, a regular meal frequency, and attention for protein intake or diets, contributes in curing sleep abnormalities and overweight/obesity features by preventing overeating; normalizing substrate oxidation, stress, insulin and glucose metabolism including HOMA-IR index, and leptin, GLP-1 concentrations, lipid metabolism, appetite, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation; and normalizing food reward. Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes including meal patterns plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body-weight control. Additive effects of circadian alignment including meal patterns, sleep restoration, and protein diets in the treatment of overweight and obesity are suggested. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. [Effect of inducible nitric oxide on intracellular homeostasis of hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Yao; Kang, Ge-Fei

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the effects of inducible nitric oxide (NO) and exogenous NO on the intracellular homeostasis of the hepatocytes. Endogenous NO was induced by combined action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines in cultured rat hepatocytes, and exogenous NO was supplied by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to stimulate the hepatocytes. The changes in intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione(GSH) and free calcium ([Ca2+]i) were observed. substantial increase by 7.97 times in intracellular MDA level and a decrease by 57.9% in GSH occurred in the hepatocytes after the cells had been incubated with LPS and cytokines for 24 h, which were reversed by 43.5% and 98.4% respectively by treatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Verapamil significantly reduced both endogenous NO production and oxidative stress, while the effect of A23187 was not conspicuous. Incubation with chlorpromazine and Vitamine E (VitE), however, did not result in decreased release of NO by LPS- and cytokines-induced hepatocytes. After SNP exposure of the hepatocytes, the oxidative status was reversibly enhanced in a time-dependent manner. Short exposure to SNP led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of the rapid and transient increase in free calcium induced by K(+) depolarization and hepatopoietin-coupled calcium mobilization. Inducible NO may initiate and play a key role in the latter stages of metabolic and functional stress responses of hepatocytes against endotoxin and cytokines, when the reduction occurs in the capacity of NO to independently mediate lipid peroxidation and counteract oxidation. The inhibitory effect of NO on [Ca2+]i mobilization may be an important autoregulatory mechanism by means of negative feedback on protein kinase C-associated NOS induction.

  6. Targeting TGFβ Signaling in Subchondral Bone and Articular Cartilage Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Gehau; Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease, and there is no disease-modifying therapy for OA currently available. Targeting of articular cartilage alone may not be sufficient to halt this disease progression. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone act as a functional unit. Increasing evidence indicates that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Activation of extracellular matrix latent TGFβ at the appropriate time and location is the prerequisite for its function. Aberrant activation of TGFβ in the subchondral bone in response to abnormal mechanical loading environment induces formation of osteroid islets at onset of osteoarthritis. As a result, alteration of subchondral bone structure changes the stress distribution on the articular cartilage and leads to its degeneration. Thus, inhibition of TGFβ activity in the subchondral bone may provide a new avenue of treatment for OA. In this review, we will respectively discuss the role of TGFβ in homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as a novel target for OA therapy. PMID:24745631

  7. Creatine maintains intestinal homeostasis and protects against colitis.

    PubMed

    Turer, Emre; McAlpine, William; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Tianshi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoming; Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Murray, Anne R; Beutler, Bruce

    2017-02-14

    Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted ( Gatm c/c ) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatm c/c mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatm c/c colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury.

  8. Creatine maintains intestinal homeostasis and protects against colitis

    PubMed Central

    Turer, Emre; McAlpine, William; Wang, Kuan-wen; Lu, Tianshi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoming; Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Murray, Anne R.; Beutler, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted (Gatmc/c) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatmc/c mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatmc/c colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury. PMID:28137860

  9. Homeostasis of metals in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the involvement of metals in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, serum samples from patients with Alzheimer and mild cognitive impairment were investigated. For this purpose, metal content was analyzed after size-fractionation of species and then, inter-element and inter-fraction ratios were computed. In this way, the analysis allowed discovering changes that could be used as markers of disease, but also provided a new insight into the interactions in the homeostasis of elements in neurodegeneration and its progression. Aluminum and labile forms of iron and copper were increased in demented patients, while manganese, zinc and selenium were reduced. Interestingly, levels of different elements, principally iron, aluminum and manganese, were closely inter-related, which could evidence a complex interdependency between the homeostasis of the different metals in this disorder. On the other hand, imbalances in metabolism of copper, zinc and selenium could be associated to abnormal redox status. Therefore, this study may contribute to our understanding of the pathological mechanisms related to metals in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Thiol Disulfide Homeostasis in Schizophrenic Patients Using Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, Etem Erdal; Aydin, Hüseyin; Erdoğan, Serpil; Erşan, Serpil; Alişik, Murat; Bakir, Sevtap; Erel, Özcan; Koç, Derya

    2018-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating mental disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities. Although several studies have investigated the role of oxidative stress and the effects of antipsychotic drugs on oxidative markers in schizophrenia, adequate information is not available on these issues. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative status and thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. Methods Thirteen schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs and 30 healthy controls were included this study. The concentrations of total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were determined in the study population. Results The TAS (p=0.001), total thiol, and native thiol levels (p<0.001) were higher in the patients compared to the controls, whereas the TOS and disulfide levels were lower in the patients than in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion These results may suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs have a useful therapeutic effect by reducing oxidative stress via the inhibition of the formation of disulfide bonds. The study population number was one of the limitations of this study. Therefore, further studies are needed to establish the association between thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:29397665

  11. Neuroendocrine control of water content and calcium concentration in the crab Ocypode macrocera (H. Milne-Edwards 1852) (Brachyura, Ocypodae).

    PubMed

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad; Elanchezhiyan, C; Ravichandran, S; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad; Hemalatha, S; Manoharan, V; Rather, Shabir Ahmad; Bhat, Mohmad Ishaq

    2012-03-15

    The present study is focused to see the effect of crustacean neuroendocrine organs on the water and calcium metabolism which is very much important for the osmoregulatory functions. Since the experiments were carried out to investigate the control of water contents and calcium concentration in the crab, Ocypode macrocera. The animals were collected from the shore of the Bay of the Bengal near Annan Koil one among the biggest landing centers of south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India. The data revealed that water content in the hepatopancreas and thoracic muscle of the control crab were 70.16 and 79.86%, respectively, whereas in the experimental ones, the values were 80.32 and 87.44% after eyestalk removal and 54.52 and 66.98% after eyestalk extract injection. Calcium concentration in both the hepatopancreas and thoracic muscle of the control crab were 2.16 and 2.14 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas in the experimental animals the values were 2.76 and 3.52 mg g(-1) in the eyestalkless crabs and 1.52 and 1.57 mg g(-1) after eyestalk extract injection, respectively. Hence it was observed the % of water content is more in eyestalk less crabs as compared to that of control and injected. The roles of neurosecretory secretions, which control these parameters, were discussed. The ability for Ocypode macrocera to adapt rapidly and maintain homeostasis in a wide range of abnormality supports the fact that Ocypode macrocera are a suitable species for land-based aquaculture in ponds as well as critical condition where rapid fluctuation in salinity can occur.

  12. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  13. Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tony K T

    2010-04-01

    In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the homeostatic control of glucose and energy balance is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperphagia. Recent studies indicate that nutrient-sensing mechanisms in the body activate negative-feedback systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis through a neuronal network. Direct metabolic signaling within the intestine activates gut-brain and gut-brain-liver axes to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, respectively. In parallel, direct metabolism of nutrients within the hypothalamus regulates food intake and blood glucose levels. These findings highlight the importance of the central nervous system in mediating the ability of nutrient sensing to maintain homeostasis. Futhermore, they provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

  14. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Calcium and vitamin D in bone metabolism: Clinical importance for fracture treatment].

    PubMed

    Amling, M

    2015-12-01

    A balanced calcium homeostasis is of critical importance not only for bone remodeling, the physiological process of bone resorption and bone formation that constantly renews bone throughout life but also for normal fracture healing. Given that disturbances of calcium homeostasis are present in 50 % of the German population and that this might result in delayed fracture healing after correct surgical treatment, this paper focusses on calcium and vitamin D in the daily practice in orthopedics and trauma surgery. To ensure the required enteral calcium uptake the following three conditions are required: (1) sufficient calcium intake via the nutrition, (2) a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level > 30 µg/l and (3) the presence of sufficient gastric acidification. Given the endemic vitamin D deficiency in Germany as well as the constantly increasing number of people using proton pump inhibitors on a regular basis, it is necessary to closely connect trauma orthopedic surgery and osteological treatment. The first issue to be dealt with is to control and if needed normalize calcium homeostasis in order to allow a normal undisturbed fracture healing process after both conservative as well as operative treatment of fractures.

  16. Heat stress responses modulate calcium regulations and electrophysiological characteristics in atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Chang; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Huang, Chun-Feng; Cheng, Chen-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2010-04-01

    Heat stress-induced responses change the ionic currents and calcium homeostasis. However, the molecular insights into the heat stress responses on calcium homeostasis remain unclear. The purposes of this study were to examine the mechanisms of heat stress responses on calcium handling and electrophysiological characteristics in atrial myocytes. We used indo-1 fluorimetric ratio technique and whole-cell patch clamp to investigate the intracellular calcium, action potentials, and ionic currents in isolated rabbit single atrial cardiomyocytes with or without (control) exposure to heat stress (43 degrees C, 15 min) 5+/-1 h before experiments. The expressions of sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA2a), and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) in the control and heat stress-treated atrial myocytes were evaluated by Western blot and real-time PCR. As compared with control myocytes, the heat stress-treated myocytes had larger sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content and larger intracellular calcium transient with a shorter decay portion. Heat stress-treated myocytes also had larger L-type calcium currents, transient outward potassium currents, but smaller NCX currents. Heat stress responses increased the protein expressions, SERCA2a, NCX, and heat shock protein. However, heat stress responses did not change the RNA expression of SERCA2a and NCX. In conclusion, heat stress responses change calcium handling through protein but not RNA regulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  19. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  20. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  1. Atypical antipsychotics and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Richard N; Ader, Marilyn

    2005-04-01

    Persistent reports have linked atypical antipsychotics with diabetes, yet causative mechanisms responsible for this linkage are unclear. Goals of this review are to outline the pathogenesis of nonimmune diabetes and to survey the available literature related to why antipsychotics may lead to this disease. We accessed the literature regarding atypical antipsychotics and glucose homeostasis using PubMed. The search included English-language publications from 1990 through October 2004. Keywords used included atypical antipsychotics plus one of the following: glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance, obesity, or diabetes. In addition, we culled information from published abstracts from several national and international scientific meetings for the years 2001 through 2004, including the American Diabetes Association, the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. The latter search was necessary because of the paucity of well-controlled prospective studies. We examined publications with significant new data or publications that contributed to the overall comprehension of the impact of atypical antipsychotics on glucose metabolism. We favored original peer-reviewed articles and were less likely to cite single case studies and/or anecdotal information. Approximately 75% of the fewer than 150 identified articles were examined and included in this review. Validity of data was evaluated using the existence of peer-review status as well as our own experience with methodology described in the specific articles. The metabolic profile caused by atypical antipsychotic treatment resembles type 2 diabetes. These agents cause weight gain in treated subjects and may induce obesity in both visceral and subcutaneous depots, as occurs in diabetes. Insulin resistance, usually associated with obesity, occurs to varying degrees with different antipsychotics, although more comparative studies with direct assessment of resistance are

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  3. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  4. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. The Roles and Mechanisms of Intestinal Oxalate Transport in Oxalate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Marguerite; Freel, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian intestine has an important role in the dynamics of oxalate exchange and thereby is significant in the etiology of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Here we review some of the phenomenological observations that have led to the conclusion that anion exchangers (antiporters) are important mediators of secondarily active, net oxalate transport along the intestine (both absorptive and secretory). Understanding the mechanisms of transepithelial oxalate transport has been radically advanced in recent years by the identification of the SLC26 family of anion transporters which has facilitated the identification of specific proteins mediating individual apical or basolateral oxalate transport pathways. Moreover, identification of specific exchangers has underscored their relative importance to oxalate homeostasis as revealed by using knockout mouse models and facilitated studies of oxalate transport regulation in heterologous expression systems. Finally, the significance of oxalate degrading bacteria to oxalate homeostasis is considered from basic and applied perspectives. PMID:18359395

  6. [The functions of calcium-sensing receptor in regulating mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)which belongs to a G protein-coupled receptor family is one of the key elements in regulating calcium homeostasis. CaSR has been identified as a receptor to control parathyroid hormone(PTH)secretion in parathyroid glands according to serum calcium ion(Ca2+)levels. It has also been shown that CaSR controls reabsorption of water and several cations including Ca2+and magnesium ion(Mg2+)in renal tubular cells. This review summarizes the functions and roles of CaSR in mineral metabolism that are exerted in parathyroid glands, kidney, and intestine.

  7. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  8. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... as you get older. This can result in brittle, fragile bones that can break easily, even without a fall or other injury. The digestive system is normally very bad at absorbing calcium. Most people absorb only 15% to 20% of the calcium ...

  9. Trace elements have beneficial, as well as detrimental effects on bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zofkova, I; Davis, M; Blahos, J

    2017-07-18

    The protective role of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well understood. In addition, integrity of the skeleton is positively influenced by certain trace elements (e.g. zinc, copper, manganese, magnesium, iron, selenium, boron and fluoride) and negatively by others (lead, cadmium, cobalt). Deficiency or excess of these elements influence bone mass and bone quality in adulthood as well as in childhood and adolescence. However, some protective elements may become toxic under certain conditions, depending on dosage (serum concentration), duration of treatment and interactions among individual elements. We review the beneficial and toxic effects of key elements on bone homeostasis.

  10. Neuronal and molecular mechanisms of sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Donlea, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ATG3-dependent autophagy mediates mitochondrial homeostasis in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Pinglei; Cao, Jiani; Gong, Jiaqi; Wang, Chaoqun; Wang, Weixu; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yufei; Jiang, Minggui; Zhu, Shaohua; Sun, Qingyuan; Jiao, Jianwei; Hu, Baoyang; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Qi; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have less developed mitochondria than somatic cells and, therefore, rely more heavily on glycolysis for energy production.1-3 However, how mitochondrial homeostasis matches the demands of nuclear reprogramming and regulates pluripotency in ESCs is largely unknown. Here, we identified ATG3-dependent autophagy as an executor for both mitochondrial remodeling during somatic cell reprogramming and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in ESCs. Dysfunctional autophagy by Atg3 deletion inhibited mitochondrial removal during pluripotency induction, resulting in decreased reprogramming efficiency and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria in established iPSCs. In Atg3 null mouse ESCs, accumulation of aberrant mitochondria was accompanied by enhanced ROS generation, defective ATP production and attenuated pluripotency gene expression, leading to abnormal self-renewal and differentiation. These defects were rescued by reacquisition of wild-type but not lipidation-deficient Atg3 expression. Taken together, our findings highlight a critical role of ATG3-dependent autophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in both pluripotency acquirement and maintenance. PMID:27575019

  12. ATG3-dependent autophagy mediates mitochondrial homeostasis in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Pinglei; Cao, Jiani; Gong, Jiaqi; Wang, Chaoqun; Wang, Weixu; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yufei; Jiang, Minggui; Zhu, Shaohua; Sun, Qingyuan; Jiao, Jianwei; Hu, Baoyang; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Qi; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have less developed mitochondria than somatic cells and, therefore, rely more heavily on glycolysis for energy production. 1-3 However, how mitochondrial homeostasis matches the demands of nuclear reprogramming and regulates pluripotency in ESCs is largely unknown. Here, we identified ATG3-dependent autophagy as an executor for both mitochondrial remodeling during somatic cell reprogramming and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in ESCs. Dysfunctional autophagy by Atg3 deletion inhibited mitochondrial removal during pluripotency induction, resulting in decreased reprogramming efficiency and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria in established iPSCs. In Atg3 null mouse ESCs, accumulation of aberrant mitochondria was accompanied by enhanced ROS generation, defective ATP production and attenuated pluripotency gene expression, leading to abnormal self-renewal and differentiation. These defects were rescued by reacquisition of wild-type but not lipidation-deficient Atg3 expression. Taken together, our findings highlight a critical role of ATG3-dependent autophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in both pluripotency acquirement and maintenance.

  13. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of wheat calcium ATPases and potential role of selected ACAs and ECAs in calcium stress.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Roohi; Williams, Lorraine E; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Virk, Nasar

    2017-10-27

    P 2 - type calcium ATPases (ACAs-auto inhibited calcium ATPases and ECAs-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases) belong to the P- type ATPase family of active membrane transporters and are significantly involved in maintaining accurate levels of Ca 2+ , Mn 2+ and Zn 2+ in the cytosol as well as playing a very important role in stress signaling, stomatal opening and closing and pollen tube growth. Here we report the identification and possible role of some of these ATPases from wheat. In this study, ACA and ECA sequences of six species (belonging to Poaceae) were retrieved from different databases and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. A high degree of evolutionary relatedness was observed among P 2 sequences characterized in this study. Members of the respective groups from different plant species were observed to fall under the same clade. This pattern highlights the common ancestry of P 2- type calcium ATPases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of selected ACAs and ECAs from Triticum aestivum (wheat) under calcium toxicity and calcium deficiency. The data indicated that expression of ECAs is enhanced under calcium stress, suggesting possible roles of these ATPases in calcium homeostasis in wheat. Similarly, the expression of ACAs was significantly different in plants grown under calcium stress as compared to plants grown under control conditions. This gives clues to the role of ACAs in signal transduction during calcium stress in wheat. Here we concluded that wheat genome consists of nine P 2B and three P 2A -type calcium ATPases. Moreover, gene loss events in wheat ancestors lead to the loss of a particular homoeolog of a gene in wheat. To elaborate the role of these wheat ATPases, qRT-PCR was performed. The results indicated that when plants are exposed to calcium stress, both P 2A and P 2B gene expression get enhanced. This further gives clues about the possible role of these ATPases in wheat in calcium management. These findings can be

  15. Expression of voltage-activated calcium channels in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Dayán; Montoya, Andro; Sierralta, Jimena; Kukuljan, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Increases in cytosolic calcium concentrations regulate many cellular processes, including aspects of early development. Calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium entry through non-voltage-gated channels account for signalling in non-excitable cells, whereas voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) are important in excitable cells. We report the expression of multiple transcripts of CaV, identified by its homology to other species, in the early embryo of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at stages prior to the differentiation of excitable cells. CaV mRNAs and proteins were detected as early as the 2-cell stages, which indicate that they arise from both maternal and zygotic transcription. Exposure of embryos to pharmacological blockers of CaV does not perturb early development significantly, although late effects are appreciable. These results suggest that CaV may have a role in calcium homeostasis and control of cellular process during early embryonic development.

  16. Normocalcemia is maintained in mice under conditions of calcium malabsorption by vitamin D–induced inhibition of bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Lieben, Liesbet; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Van Looveren, Riet; Schrooten, Jan; Baatsen, Pieter; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Dresselaers, Tom; Feng, Jian Q.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Meyer, Mark B.; Pike, J. Wesley; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Serum calcium levels are tightly controlled by an integrated hormone-controlled system that involves active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which can elicit calcium mobilization from bone when intestinal calcium absorption is decreased. The skeletal adaptations, however, are still poorly characterized. To gain insight into these issues, we analyzed the consequences of specific vitamin D receptor (Vdr) inactivation in the intestine and in mature osteoblasts on calcium and bone homeostasis. We report here that decreased intestinal calcium absorption in intestine-specific Vdr knockout mice resulted in severely reduced skeletal calcium levels so as to ensure normal levels of calcium in the serum. Furthermore, increased 1,25(OH)2D levels not only stimulated bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, but also suppressed bone matrix mineralization. This resulted in extensive hyperosteoidosis, also surrounding the osteocytes, and hypomineralization of the entire bone cortex, which may have contributed to the increase in bone fractures. Mechanistically, osteoblastic VDR signaling suppressed calcium incorporation in bone by directly stimulating the transcription of genes encoding mineralization inhibitors. Ablation of skeletal Vdr signaling precluded this calcium transfer from bone to serum, leading to better preservation of bone mass and mineralization. These findings indicate that in mice, maintaining normocalcemia has priority over skeletal integrity, and that to minimize skeletal calcium storage, 1,25(OH)2D not only increases calcium release from bone, but also inhibits calcium incorporation in bone. PMID:22523068

  17. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. Copper homeostasis gene discovery in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Norgate, Melanie; Southon, Adam; Zou, Sige; Zhan, Ming; Sun, Yu; Batterham, Phil; Camakaris, James

    2007-06-01

    Recent studies have shown a high level of conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian copper homeostasis mechanisms. These studies have also demonstrated the efficiency with which this species can be used to characterize novel genes, at both the cellular and whole organism level. As a versatile and inexpensive model organism, Drosophila is also particularly useful for gene discovery applications and thus has the potential to be extremely useful in identifying novel copper homeostasis genes and putative disease genes. In order to assess the suitability of Drosophila for this purpose, three screening approaches have been investigated. These include an analysis of the global transcriptional response to copper in both adult flies and an embryonic cell line using DNA microarray analysis. Two mutagenesis-based screens were also utilized. Several candidate copper homeostasis genes have been identified through this work. In addition, the results of each screen were carefully analyzed to identify any factors influencing efficiency and sensitivity. These are discussed here with the aim of maximizing the efficiency of future screens and the most suitable approaches are outlined. Building on this information, there is great potential for the further use of Drosophila for copper homeostasis gene discovery.

  19. Achieving global perfect homeostasis through transporter regulation

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient homeostasis—the maintenance of relatively constant internal nutrient concentrations in fluctuating external environments—is essential to the survival of most organisms. Transcriptional regulation of plasma membrane transporters by internal nutrient concentrations is typically assumed to be the main mechanism by which homeostasis is achieved. While this mechanism is homeostatic we show that it does not achieve global perfect homeostasis—a condition where internal nutrient concentrations are completely independent of external nutrient concentrations for all external nutrient concentrations. We show that the criterion for global perfect homeostasis is that transporter levels must be inversely proportional to net nutrient flux into the cell and that downregulation of active transporters (activity-dependent regulation) is a simple and biologically plausible mechanism that meets this criterion. Activity-dependent transporter regulation creates a trade-off between robustness and efficiency, i.e., the system's ability to withstand perturbation in external nutrients and the transporter production rate needed to maintain homeostasis. Additionally, we show that a system that utilizes both activity-dependent transporter downregulation and regulation of transporter synthesis by internal nutrient levels can create a system that mitigates the shortcomings of each of the individual mechanisms. This analysis highlights the utility of activity-dependent regulation in achieving homeostasis and calls for a re-examination of the mechanisms of regulation of other homeostatic systems. PMID:28414718

  20. Circadian dysregulation disrupts bile acid homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake, and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. Both restricted feedi...

  1. Brain glucose sensing, counterregulation, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Nell; Dallaporta, Michel; Thorens, Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the central nervous system play a critical role in orchestrating the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose, beside being a nutrient, is also a signal detected by several glucose-sensing units that are located at different anatomical sites and converge to the hypothalamus to cooperate with leptin and insulin in controlling the melanocortin pathway.

  2. Contribution of TRPC3 to store-operated calcium entry and inflammatory transductions in primary nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged intracellular calcium elevation contributes to sensitization of nociceptors and chronic pain in inflammatory conditions. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown but store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) components participate in calcium homeostasis, potentially playing a significant role in chronic pain pathologies. Most G protein-coupled receptors activated by inflammatory mediators trigger calcium-dependent signaling pathways and stimulate SOCE in primary afferents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TRPC3, a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel coupled to phospholipase C and highly expressed in DRG, as a link between activation of pro-inflammatory metabotropic receptors and SOCE in nociceptive pathways. Results Using in situ hybridization, we determined that TRPC3 and TRPC1 constitute the major TRPC subunits expressed in adult rat DRG. TRPC3 was found localized exclusively in small and medium diameter sensory neurons. Heterologous overexpression of TRPC3 channel subunits in cultured primary DRG neurons evoked a significant increase of Gd3+-sensitive SOCE following thapsigargin-induced calcium store depletion. Conversely, using the same calcium add-back protocol, knockdown of endogenous TRPC3 with shRNA-mediated interference or pharmacological inhibition with the selective TRPC3 antagonist Pyr10 induced a substantial decrease of SOCE, indicating a significant role of TRPC3 in SOCE in DRG nociceptors. Activation of P2Y2 purinoceptors or PAR2 protease receptors triggered a strong increase in intracellular calcium in conditions of TRPC3 overexpression. Additionally, knockdown of native TRPC3 or its selective pharmacological blockade suppressed UTP- or PAR2 agonist-evoked calcium responses as well as sensitization of DRG neurons. These data show a robust link between activation of pro-inflammatory receptors and calcium homeostasis through TRPC3-containing channels operating both in receptor- and store

  3. Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals. PMID:23950698

  4. Evolutionary tradeoffs between economy and effectiveness in biological homeostasis systems.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals.

  5. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  6. Systems Modeling of Ca2+ Homeostasis and Mobilization in Platelets Mediated by IP3 and Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Andrew T.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Resting platelets maintain a stable level of low cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) and high dense tubular system calcium ([Ca2+]dts). During thrombosis, activators cause a transient rise in inositol trisphosphate (IP3) to trigger calcium mobilization from stores and elevation of [Ca2+]cyt. Another major source of [Ca2+]cyt elevation is store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through plasmalemmal calcium channels that open in response to store depletion as [Ca2+]dts drops. A 34-species systems model employed kinetics describing IP3-receptor, DTS-plasmalemma puncta formation, SOCE via assembly of STIM1 and Orai1, and the plasmalemma and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases. Four constraints were imposed: calcium homeostasis before activation; stable in zero extracellular calcium; IP3-activatable; and functional SOCE. Using a Monte Carlo method to sample three unknown parameters and nine initial concentrations in a 12-dimensional space near measured or expected values, we found that model configurations that were responsive to stimuli and demonstrated significant SOCE required high inner membrane electric potential (>−70 mV) and low resting IP3 concentrations. The absence of puncta in resting cells was required to prevent spontaneous store depletion in calcium-free media. Ten-fold increases in IP3 caused saturated calcium mobilization. This systems model represents a critical step in being able to predict platelets’ phenotypes during hemostasis or thrombosis. PMID:24806937

  7. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  9. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  10. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods, such as: calcium-set tofu edamame (soybeans) broccoli, collard greens, kale, chard, Chinese cabbage, and other ... Serve more dark green, leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, kale, collard greens, or Chinese cabbage) with meals. ...

  11. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  12. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is not very poisonous. Recovery is quite likely. But, long-term overuse is more serious than a single overdose, because it can cause kidney damage. Few people die from an antacid overdose. Keep ...

  13. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamins 3 of 4 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Get enough vitamin D. Vitamin D helps your body absorb (take in) calcium. Find out how much vitamin D you need each day . Your body makes vitamin ...

  14. Correlation of Salivary Statherin and Calcium Levels with Dental Calculus Formation: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Gunjal, Shilpa; Math, Swarna Y; Murugeshappa, Devarasa Giriyapura; Nair, Sreejith Muraleedharan

    2017-01-01

    Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20-55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA) and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech). Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96  μ g/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups ( p < 0.05). Our preliminary data indicates that statherin could possibly play a role in the formation of dental calculus.

  15. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata – Tropiduridae) strengthen classification in lizard evolution

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Flávio H; Garcia, Célia RS

    2007-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs) such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Results Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. Conclusion T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs), for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracelullar medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs. PMID:17716375

  16. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata--Tropiduridae) strengthen classification in lizard evolution.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Flávio H; Garcia, Célia R S

    2007-08-23

    We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs) such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs), for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracellular medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs.

  17. Restricting calcium currents is required for correct fiber type specification in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Nasreen; Dienes, Beatrix; Benedetti, Ariane; Tuluc, Petronel; Szentesi, Peter; Sztretye, Monika; Rainer, Johannes; Hess, Michael W.; Schwarzer, Christoph; Obermair, Gerald J.; Csernoch, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is independent of calcium influx. In fact, alternative splicing of the voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.1 actively suppresses calcium currents in mature muscle. Whether this is necessary for normal development and function of muscle is not known. However, splicing defects that cause aberrant expression of the calcium-conducting developmental CaV1.1e splice variant correlate with muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy. Here, we deleted CaV1.1 (Cacna1s) exon 29 in mice. These mice displayed normal overall motor performance, although grip force and voluntary running were reduced. Continued expression of the developmental CaV1.1e splice variant in adult mice caused increased calcium influx during EC coupling, altered calcium homeostasis, and spontaneous calcium sparklets in isolated muscle fibers. Contractile force was reduced and endurance enhanced. Key regulators of fiber type specification were dysregulated and the fiber type composition was shifted toward slower fibers. However, oxidative enzyme activity and mitochondrial content declined. These findings indicate that limiting calcium influx during skeletal muscle EC coupling is important for the secondary function of the calcium signal in the activity-dependent regulation of fiber type composition and to prevent muscle disease. PMID:26965373

  18. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  19. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones.

  20. Depletion of calcium stores regulates calcium influx and signal transmission in rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Szikra, Tamas; Cusato, Karen; Thoreson, Wallace B; Barabas, Peter; Bartoletti, Theodore M; Krizaj, David

    2008-01-01

    Tonic synapses are specialized for sustained calcium entry and transmitter release, allowing them to operate in a graded fashion over a wide dynamic range. We identified a novel plasma membrane calcium entry mechanism that extends the range of rod photoreceptor signalling into light-adapted conditions. The mechanism, which shares molecular and physiological characteristics with store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), is required to maintain baseline [Ca2+]i in rod inner segments and synaptic terminals. Sustained Ca2+ entry into rod cytosol is augmented by store depletion, blocked by La3+ and Gd3+ and suppressed by organic antagonists MRS-1845 and SKF-96365. Store depletion and the subsequent Ca2+ influx directly stimulated exocytosis in terminals of light-adapted rods loaded with the activity-dependent dye FM1–43. Moreover, SOCE blockers suppressed rod-mediated synaptic inputs to horizontal cells without affecting presynaptic voltage-operated Ca2+ entry. Silencing of TRPC1 expression with small interference RNA disrupted SOCE in rods, but had no effect on cone Ca2+ signalling. Rods were immunopositive for TRPC1 whereas cone inner segments immunostained with TRPC6 channel antibodies. Thus, SOCE modulates Ca2+ homeostasis and light-evoked neurotransmission at the rod photoreceptor synapse mediated by TRPC1. PMID:18755743

  1. Abnormal Barrier Function in Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Farré, Ricard; Vicario, María

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern in identifying the mechanisms underlying the intimate control of the intestinal barrier, as deregulation of its function is strongly associated with digestive (organic and functional) and a number of non-digestive (schizophrenia, diabetes, sepsis, among others) disorders. The intestinal barrier is a complex and effective defensive functional system that operates to limit luminal antigen access to the internal milieu while maintaining nutrient and electrolyte absorption. Intestinal permeability to substances is mainly determined by the physicochemical properties of the barrier, with the epithelium, mucosal immunity, and neural activity playing a major role. In functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain chronic symptoms is probably close to its end, as recent research is providing evidence of structural gut alterations, at least in certain subsets, mainly in functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These alterations are associated with increased permeability, which seems to reflect mucosal inflammation and neural activation. The participation of each anatomical and functional component of barrier function in homeostasis and intestinal dysfunction is described, with a special focus on FGIDs.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: More evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, K.U.; Gibbons, N.C.J.; Zothner, C.

    Patients with acute vitiligo have low epidermal catalase expression/activities and accumulate 10{sup -3} M H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. One consequence of this severe oxidative stress is an altered calcium homeostasis in epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes. Here, we show decreased epidermal calmodulin expression in acute vitiligo. Since 10{sup -3}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidises methionine and tryptophan residues in proteins, we examined calcium binding to calmodulin in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} utilising {sup 45}calcium. The results showed that all four calcium atoms exchanged per molecule of calmodulin. Since oxidised calmodulin looses its ability to activate calcium ATPase, enzyme activitiesmore » were followed in full skin biopsies from lesional skin of patients with acute vitiligo (n = 6) and healthy controls (n = 6). The results yielded a 4-fold decrease of ATPase activities in the patients. Computer simulation of native and oxidised calmodulin confirmed the loss of all four calcium ions from their specific EF-hand domains. Taken together H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation affects calcium binding in calmodulin leading to perturbed calcium homeostasis and perturbed L-phenylalanine-uptake in the epidermis of acute vitiligo.« less

  3. Muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling impairment in patients treated with statins

    SciTech Connect

    Sirvent, P., E-mail: pascal.sirvent@univ-bpclermont.fr; CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier; Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l'Exercice en conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques

    2012-03-01

    The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. To date, the patho-physiological mechanisms of statin myotoxicity are still not clearly understood. In previous studies, we showed that acute application in vitro of simvastatin caused impairment of mitochondrial function and dysfunction of calcium homeostasis in human and rat healthy muscle samples. We thus evaluated in the present study, mitochondrial function and calcium signaling in muscles of patients treated with statins, who present or not muscle symptoms, by oxygraphy and recording of calcium sparks, respectively. Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration that involved mainly the complexmore » I of the respiratory chain and altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks. The muscle problems observed in statin-treated patients appear thus to be related to impairment of mitochondrial function and muscle calcium homeostasis, confirming the results we previously reported in vitro. -- Highlights: ► The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. ► Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration. ► Statins-treated patients showed altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks.« less

  4. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  5. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling.

    PubMed

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Vajdovich, Péter; Tóvári, József; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Héja, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I

    2015-08-03

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, and animals with one transgene copy were pre-selected by measuring fluorescence in blood cells. A homozygous rat strain was generated with high sensor protein expression in the heart, kidney, liver, and blood cells. No pathological alterations were found in these animals, and fluorescence measurements in cardiac tissue slices and primary cultures demonstrated the applicability of this system for studying calcium signaling. We show here that the GCaMP2 expressing rat cardiomyocytes allow the prediction of cardiotoxic drug side-effects, and provide evidence for the role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and its beneficial pharmacological modulation in cardiac reperfusion. Our data indicate that drug-induced alterations and pathological processes can be followed by using this rat model, suggesting that transgenic rats expressing a calcium-sensitive protein provide a valuable system for pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  6. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Vajdovich, Péter; Tóvári, József; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Héja, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I.

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, and animals with one transgene copy were pre-selected by measuring fluorescence in blood cells. A homozygous rat strain was generated with high sensor protein expression in the heart, kidney, liver, and blood cells. No pathological alterations were found in these animals, and fluorescence measurements in cardiac tissue slices and primary cultures demonstrated the applicability of this system for studying calcium signaling. We show here that the GCaMP2 expressing rat cardiomyocytes allow the prediction of cardiotoxic drug side-effects, and provide evidence for the role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its beneficial pharmacological modulation in cardiac reperfusion. Our data indicate that drug-induced alterations and pathological processes can be followed by using this rat model, suggesting that transgenic rats expressing a calcium-sensitive protein provide a valuable system for pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:26234466

  7. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Neutrophils in Homeostasis, Immunity, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Ávila, José Ángel; Adrover, José M; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2017-01-17

    Neutrophils were among the first leukocytes described and visualized by early immunologists. Prominent effector functions during infection and sterile inflammation classically placed them low in the immune tree as rapid, mindless aggressors with poor regulatory functions. This view is currently under reassessment as we uncover new aspects of their life cycle and identify transcriptional and phenotypic diversity that endows them with regulatory properties that extend beyond their lifetime in the circulation. These properties are revealing unanticipated roles for neutrophils in supporting homeostasis, as well as complex disease states such as cancer. We focus this review on these emerging functions in order to define the true roles of neutrophils in homeostasis, immunity, and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian clocks, feeding time, and metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Georgios K.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic processes exhibit diurnal variation from cyanobacteria to humans. The circadian clock is thought to have evolved as a time keeping system for the cell to optimize the timing of metabolic events according to physiological needs and environmental conditions. Circadian rhythms temporally separate incompatible cellular processes and optimize cellular and organismal fitness. A modern 24 h lifestyle can run at odds with the circadian rhythm dictated by our molecular clocks and create desynchrony between internal and external timing. It has been suggested that this desynchrony compromises metabolic homeostasis and may promote the development of obesity (Morris et al., 2012). Here we review the evidence supporting the association between circadian misalignment and metabolic homeostasis and discuss the role of feeding time. PMID:26082718

  10. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  11. The effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk for diabetes. The CaDDM Randomized Controlled Trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Suboptimal vitamin D and calcium status has been associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies but evidence from trials is lacking. The objective of this trial was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, improves glucose homeostasis in adult...

  12. Sleep and bodily functions: the physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Amici, R; Bastianini, S; Berteotti, C; Cerri, M; Del Vecchio, F; Lo Martire, V; Luppi, M; Perez, E; Silvani, A; Zamboni, G; Zoccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    Body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis may both rely on the complex integrative activity carried out by the hypothalamus. Thus, the three main wake-sleep (WS) states (i.e. wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) may be better understood if the different cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, which are under the integrated control of the autonomic and the endocrine systems, are studied during sleep monitoring. According to this view, many physiological events can be considered as an expression of the activity that physiological regulations should perform in order to cope with the need to fulfill body and sleep homeostasis. This review is aimed at making an assessment of data showing the existence of a physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis, starting from the spontaneous changes observed in the somatic and autonomic activity during sleep, through evidence showing the deep changes occurring in the central integration of bodily functions during the different WS states, to the changes in the WS states observed when body homeostasis is challenged by the external environment and when the return to normal ambient conditions allows sleep homeo- stasis to run without apparent physiological restrictions. The data summarized in this review suggest that an approach to the dichotomy between NREM and REM sleep based on physiological regulations may offer a framework within which observations that a traditional behavioral approach may overlook can be interpreted. The study of the interplay between body and sleep homeostasis appears, therefore, to be a way to understand the function of complex organisms beyond that of the specific regulations.

  13. TGFβ restores hematopoietic homeostasis after myelosuppressive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Brenet, Fabienne; Kermani, Pouneh; Spektor, Roman; Rafii, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Myelosuppression is a life-threatening complication of antineoplastic therapy, but treatment is restricted to a few cytokines with unilineage hematopoietic activity. Although hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are predominantly quiescent during homeostasis, they are rapidly recruited into cell cycle by stresses, including myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Factors that induce HSCs to proliferate during stress have been characterized, but it is not known how HSC quiescence is then reestablished. In this study, we show that TGFβ signaling is transiently activated in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during hematopoietic regeneration. Blockade of TGFβ signaling after chemotherapy accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution and delays the return of cycling HSCs to quiescence. In contrast, TGFβ blockade during homeostasis fails to induce cycling of HSPCs. We identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1c (p57) as a key downstream mediator of TGFβ during regeneration because the recovery of chimeric mice, incapable of expressing p57 in HSPCs, phenocopies blockade of TGFβ signaling after chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that context-dependent activation of TGFβ signaling is central to an unrecognized counterregulatory mechanism that promotes homeostasis once hematopoiesis has sufficiently recovered from myelosuppressive chemotherapy. These results open the door to new, potentially superior, approaches to promote multilineage hematopoietic recovery by blocking the TGFβ signaling that dampens regeneration. PMID:23440043

  14. Impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the most recent human trials that have examined the impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis. Our literature search retrieved one human trial of alternate day fasting, and three trials of Ramadan fasting published in the past 12 months. Current evidence suggests that 8 weeks of alternate day fasting that produces mild weight loss (4% from baseline) has no effect on glucose homeostasis. As for Ramadan fasting, decreases in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance have been noted after 4 weeks in healthy normal weight individuals with mild weight loss (1-2% from baseline). However, Ramadan fasting may have little impact on glucoregulatory parameters in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who failed to observe weight loss. Whether intermittent fasting is an effective means of regulating glucose homeostasis remains unclear because of the scarcity of studies in this area. Large-scale, longer-term randomized controlled trials will be required before the use of fasting can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Cyndi R.; Pedrozo, Zully; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process of intracellular protein and organelle recycling required to maintain cellular homeostasis in the face of a wide variety of stresses. Dysregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) leads to oxidative damage. Both autophagy and ROS/RNS serve pathological or adaptive roles within cardiomyocytes, depending on the context. Recent Advances: ROS/RNS and autophagy communicate with each other via both transcriptional and post-translational events. This cross talk, in turn, regulates the structural integrity of cardiomyocytes, promotes proteostasis, and reduces inflammation, events critical to disease pathogenesis. Critical Issues: Dysregulation of either autophagy or redox state has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. Cardiomyocytes are rich in mitochondria, which make them particularly sensitive to oxidative damage. Maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination of defective mitochondria are each critical to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Future Directions: The complex interplay between autophagy and oxidative stress underlies a wide range of physiological and pathological events and its elucidation holds promise of potential clinical applicability. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 507–518. PMID:23641894

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schlingmann, Karl P; Konrad, Martin; Seyberth, Hannsjörg W

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium plays an essential role in many biochemical and physiological processes. Homeostasis of magnesium is tightly regulated and depends on the balance between intestinal absorption and renal excretion. During the last decades, various hereditary disorders of magnesium handling have been clinically characterized and genetic studies in affected individuals have led to the identification of some molecular components of cellular magnesium transport. In addition to these hereditary forms of magnesium deficiency, recent studies have revealed a high prevalence of latent hypomagnesemia in the general population. This finding is of special interest in view of the association between hypomagnesemia and common chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and asthma. However, valuable methods for the diagnosis of body and tissue magnesium deficiency are still lacking. This review focuses on clinical and genetic aspects of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. We will review primary defects of epithelial magnesium transport, disorders associated with defects in Ca(2+)/ Mg(2+) sensing, as well as diseases characterized by renal salt wasting and hypokalemic alkalosis, with special emphasis on disturbed magnesium homeostasis.

  18. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, V; Kurdoglu, Z; Alisik, M; Turgut, E; Sezgın, O O; Korkmaz, H; Ergun, Y; Erel, O

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on thiol/disulfide homeostasis. A total of 75 participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 40) was composed of healthy postmenopausal women, and group 2 (n = 35) was composed of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical findings and thiol/disulfide homeostasis were compared between the two groups. The disulfide/native thiol ratio was 8.6% ± 3.6 in group 1 and 12.7% ± 8.4 in group 2 (p = 0.04). The disulfide/native thiol percent ratio was significantly higher in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was 85.6% ± 4.8 in group 1 and 73.8% ± 24.9 in group 2 (p = 0.01). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was significantly lower in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis shifted to the disulfide side independent of age and years since menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yiyun; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Yuqin; Wang, Liya; Huang, Shisi; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5), sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3), sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2); as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A). Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure. PMID:27517916

  1. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  2. Calcium, why and how much?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G M

    1995-01-01

    Although calcium (Ca) is pivotal for the prevention of osteoporosis, its role in the prevention of other unrelated diseases such as arterial hypertension, cancer of the colon and nephrolithiasis is perplexing. No unitarian hypothesis explaining these unrelated effects of Ca has been postulated. Cytosolic Ca concentration is 10,000-fold lower than in the extracellular space, and this gradient is tightly maintained. Abnormal elevation of cytosolic Ca causes cell damage and death. Parathyroid hormone is a Ca agonist and the suppression of its secretion by Ca could explain the beneficial role of Ca intake in multiple diseases. Thus, parathyroid ablation improves hypertension in rats and cardiomyopathy in hamsters. Since anthropologic data suggests a higher Ca intake, of approximately 1,600 1,600 mg/day, in preneolithic than in modern diets, it is likely that our levels of PTH on genetically predisposed subjects with a loose cellular Ca control may aggravate frequent modern diseases and the process of aging. A higher Ca intake in both sexes should be one of the goals of preventive medicine of our time.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  4. Multiphoton Intravital Calcium Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Claire E J

    2018-06-26

    Multiphoton intravital calcium imaging is a powerful technique that enables high-resolution longitudinal monitoring of cellular and subcellular activity hundreds of microns deep in the living organism. This unit addresses the application of 2-photon microscopy to imaging of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) in the mouse brain. The protocols in this unit enable real-time intravital imaging of intracellular calcium concentration simultaneously in hundreds of neurons, or at the resolution of single synapses, as mice respond to sensory stimuli or perform behavioral tasks. Protocols are presented for implantation of a cranial imaging window to provide optical access to the brain and for 2-photon image acquisition. Protocols for implantation of both open skull and thinned skull windows for single or multi-session imaging are described. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  6. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  7. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... soy products, cereal and fruit juices, and milk substitutes To absorb calcium, your body also needs vitamin ... Nutrition/default.asp. Accessed June 25, 2015. Calcium. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed ...

  8. Heterodimerization of Arabidopsis calcium/proton exchangers contributes to regulation of guard cell dynamics and plant defense responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Arabidopsis thaliana" cation exchangers (CAX1 and CAX3) are closely related tonoplast-localized calcium/proton (Ca(2+)/H+) antiporters that contribute to cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. CAX1 and CAX3 were previously shown to interact in yeast; however, the function of this complex in plants has remain...

  9. CASK interacts with PMCA4b and JAM-A on the Mouse Sperm Flagellum to Regulate Ca2+ Homeostasis and Motility1

    PubMed Central

    Aravindan, Rolands G.; Fomin, Victor P.; Naik, Ulhas P.; Modelski, Mark J.; Naik, Meghna U.; Galileo, Deni S.; Duncan, Randall L.; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of the highly conserved gene for the major Ca2+ efflux pump, Plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4b (Pmca4b), in the mouse leads to loss of progressive and hyperactivated sperm motility and infertility. Here we first demonstrate that compared to wild-type (WT), Junctional adhesion molecule-A (Jam-A) null sperm, previously shown to have motility defects and an abnormal mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of that seen in Pmca4b nulls, exhibit reduced (P<0.001) ATP levels, significantly (P<0.001) greater cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) and ~10-fold higher mitochondrial sequestration, indicating Ca2+ overload. Investigating the mechanism involved, we used coimmunoprecipitation studies to show that CASK (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase), identified for the first time on the sperm flagellum where it co-localizes with both PMCA4b and JAM-A on the proximal principal piece, acts as a common interacting partner of both. Importantly, CASK binds alternatively and non-synergistically with each of these molecules via its single PDZ (PDS-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain to either inhibit or promote efflux. In the absence of CASK-JAM-A interaction in Jam-A null sperm, CASK-PMCA4b interaction is increased, resulting in inhibition of PMCA4b’s enzymatic activity, consequent Ca2+ accumulation, and a ~6-fold over-expression of constitutively ATP-utilizing CASK, compared to WT. Thus, CASK negatively regulates PMCA4b by directly binding to it and JAM-A positively regulates it indirectly through CASK. The decreased motility is likely due to the collateral net deficit in ATP observed in nulls. Our data indicate that Ca2+ homeostasis in sperm is maintained by the relative ratios of CASK-PMCA4b and CASK-JAM-A interactions. PMID:22020416

  10. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-10-30

    A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 microM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  11. Elevated ventricular wall stress disrupts cardiomyocyte t-tubule structure and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Michael; Ruud, Marianne; Espe, Emil K S; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Røe, Åsmund T; Zhang, Lili; Norseng, Per Andreas; Sejersted, Ole M; Christensen, Geir A; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E

    2016-10-01

    Invaginations of the cellular membrane called t-tubules are essential for maintaining efficient excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Disruption of t-tubule structure during heart failure has been linked to dyssynchronous, slowed Ca(2+) release and reduced power of the heartbeat. The underlying mechanism is, however, unknown. We presently investigated whether elevated ventricular wall stress triggers remodelling of t-tubule structure and function. MRI and blood pressure measurements were employed to examine regional wall stress across the left ventricle of sham-operated and failing, post-infarction rat hearts. In failing hearts, elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and ventricular dilation resulted in markedly increased wall stress, particularly in the thin-walled region proximal to the infarct. High wall stress in this proximal zone was associated with reduced expression of the dyadic anchor junctophilin-2 and disrupted cardiomyocyte t-tubular structure. Indeed, local wall stress measurements predicted t-tubule density across sham and failing hearts. Elevated wall stress and disrupted cardiomyocyte structure in the proximal zone were also associated with desynchronized Ca(2+) release in cardiomyocytes and markedly reduced local contractility in vivo. A causative role of wall stress in promoting t-tubule remodelling was established by applying stretch to papillary muscles ex vivo under culture conditions. Loads comparable to wall stress levels observed in vivo in the proximal zone reduced expression of junctophilin-2 and promoted t-tubule loss. Elevated wall stress reduces junctophilin-2 expression and disrupts t-tubule integrity, Ca(2+) release, and contractile function. These findings provide new insight into the role of wall stress in promoting heart failure progression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis in patients with spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Fattal, Charles; Sultan, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury exhibit early and acute bone loss with the major functional consequence being a high incidence of pathological fractures. The bone status of these patients is generally investigated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but this technique does not reveal the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the bone loss. Bone cell activity can be indirectly evaluated by noninvasive techniques, including measurement of specific biochemical markers of bone formation (such as osteocalcin or bone-alkaline phosphatase) and resorption (such as procollagen type I N- or C-terminal propeptide). The bone loss in spinal cord injury is clearly due to an uncoupling of bone remodeling in favor of bone resorption, which starts just after the injury and peaks at about 1 to 4 months. Beyond 6 months, bone resorption activity decreases progressively but remains elevated for many years after injury. Conversely, bone formation is less affected. Antiresorptive treatment induces an early and acute reduction in bone resorption markers. Level of injury and health-related complications do not seem to be implicated in the intensity of bone resorption. During the acute phase, the hypercalcemic status is associated with the suppression of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites. The high sensitivity of these markers after treatment suggests that they can be used for monitoring treatment efficacy and patient compliance. The concomitant use of bone markers and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry may improve the physician's ability to detect patients at risk of severe bone loss and subsequent fractures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bepridil exacerbates glutamate-induced deterioration of calcium homeostasis and cultured nerve cell injury.

    PubMed

    Storozhevykh, T P; Sorokina, E G; Vinskaya, N P; Pinelis, V G; Vergun, O V; Fayuk, D A; Sobolevskiy, A I; Khodorov, B I

    1996-12-01

    Application of 50 microM bepridil (BPD) to cultured nerve cells did not greatly affect the resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) but caused its pronounced increase both during prolonged glutamate (GLU, 100 microM) treatment and, especially, in the postglutamate period in case of partial [Ca2+]i recovery. In contrast, in cells exhibiting a high [Ca2+]i plateau in the postglutamate period, BPD application either did not cause any additional elevation of [Ca2+]i or caused a very small increase. Under identical conditions replacement of external Na+ by Li+ or N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) either did not change [Ca2+]i or produced a very small increase, strongly indicating that the BPD-evoked Ca2+ responses could not be explained solely by Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibition but resulted from some other BPD effects. Indeed, in experiments with Rhodamine 123-loaded neurons it has been shown that 50 microM BPD induced prominent mitochondrial depolarization which is known to abolish the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Finally it was revealed that BPD application to the cell culture either in the period of a prolonged (15 min) GLU action or, especially, in the postglutamate period greatly exacerbated delayed neuronal death, apparently due to a complex inhibitory action of the drug on both Ca2+ buffering and Ca2+ extrusion systems.

  14. Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis during Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2013. We met the goal of having 14 women and 14 men complete EXP1. Progress on EXP1: Enrolled Screen Withdrew Randomized Withdrew Completed Failure...Before After Randomized Randomized Women 18 2 1 15 1 14 Men 22 2 3 17 3 14 Total 40 4 4 32 4 28 Reasons for withdrawals: Screening failures...Prepare annual progress report in Q4 This was accomplished. • Data from EXP1 As planned, 14 women and 14 men completed EXP1. The characteristics of

  15. Carryover effects of potassium supplementation on calcium homeostasis in dairy cows at parturition.

    PubMed

    Bhanugopan, M S; Fulkerson, W J; Fraser, D R; Hyde, M; McNeill, D M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether supplementation with K improves bone mineral density (BMD) in older cows so that by parturition their bone is better able to mobilize Ca. Twenty-four Holstein Friesian cows (6 mo pregnant, lactating, and in their third or later lactation) were allocated to 2 equal groups and individually fed twice daily a total diet comprising low K oaten hay plus a pelleted concentrate fortified with or without K(2)CO(3) to achieve 3.12% K/kg of DM in the total diet of the K-supplemented (KS) cows compared with 1.50% K/kg of DM for the control cows. The cows were fed their respective diets from the beginning of their sixth month of pregnancy until 2 wk before the expected date of parturition. The strategy was to use K to stimulate a mild increase in extracellular pH to potentially improve BMD well before parturition, when high K contents in the diet are considered safe, but cease supplementing in the few weeks prepartum, when high intakes of K are known to be problematic. The expectation was that the effect of the denser bone would carry through to benefit the cow's plasma Ca, P, and Mg status at parturition. Prior to the period of K supplementation, the cows were part of a commercial pasture-based herd, to which they were returned at the end of the supplementation period and treated as 1 group from at least 11 d prepartum until the end of the study at d 42 of the next lactation. Supplementation with K successfully induced a sustained increase of urinary pH throughout late lactation and into the dry period, as expected. The KS cows consistently averaged a urine pH 0.25+/-0.10 U higher than the controls. However, there was no significant effect of K supplementation on BMD, bone mineral concentrations, plasma osteocalcin, urinary deoxypyridinoline:creatinine plasma Ca, or plasma P concentrations during or immediately after the cessation of supplementation, nor where there any carryover effects during parturition or by d 42 of lactation. Instead, there was an unexpected decrease in the concentration of Mg in plasma of the KS cows compared with the control cows that extended from 0.5 to 2.5 d postpartum. The timing of the decline in plasma Mg was paralleled by declines in plasma concentrations of 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) and urinary excretion of Ca and Mg, whereas urinary excretion of P increased; all changes were consistent with a hypomagnesemia that could increase the risk of hypocalcemia. These data suggest that, in addition to the well-documented negative effects of K when fed immediately at parturition, the effects of high dietary K diets can carry over for at least 11 d to trigger a mild hypomagnesemia at parturition. Because K supplementation did not improve BMD prepartum, it was not possible to conclude for or against an ability of denser bone to reduce the risk of hypocalcemia in older cows at parturition. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium metabolism before, during, and after a 3-mo spaceflight: kinetic and biochemical changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I. M.; Nyquist, L. E.; Abrams, S. A.; Taran, E. N.; Shih, C. Y.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; hide

    1999-01-01

    The loss of bone during spaceflight is considered a physiological obstacle for the exploration of other planets. This report of calcium metabolism before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight extends results from Skylab missions in the 1970s. Biochemical and endocrine indexes of calcium and bone metabolism were measured together with calcium absorption, excretion, and bone turnover using stable isotopes. Studies were conducted before, during, and after flight in three male subjects. Subjects varied in physical activity, yet all lost weight during flight. During flight, calcium intake and absorption decreased up to 50%, urinary calcium excretion increased up to 50%, and bone resorption (determined by kinetics or bone markers) increased by over 50%. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, markers of bone formation, increased after flight. Subjects lost approximately 250 mg bone calcium per day during flight and regained bone calcium at a slower rate of approximately 100 mg/day for up to 3 mo after landing. Further studies are required to determine the time course of changes in calcium homeostasis during flight to develop and assess countermeasures against flight-induced bone loss.

  17. The impact of mitochondrial endosymbiosis on the evolution of calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2015-03-01

    At high concentrations, calcium has detrimental effects on biological systems. Life likely arose in a low calcium environment, and the first cells evolved mechanisms to maintain this environment internally. Bursts of calcium influx followed by efflux or sequestration thus developed in a functional context. For example, in proto-cells with exterior energy-converting membranes, such bursts could be used to depolarize the membrane. In this way, proto-cells could maintain maximal phosphorylation (metabolic state 3) and moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while avoiding the resting state (metabolic state 4) and high levels of ROS. This trait is likely a shared primitive characteristic of prokaryotes. When eukaryotes evolved, the α-proteobacteria that gave rise to proto-mitochondria inhabited a novel environment, the interior of the proto-eukaryote that had a low calcium concentration. In this environment, metabolic homeostasis was difficult to maintain, and there were inherent risks from ROS, yet depolarizing the proto-mitochondrial membrane by calcium influx was challenging. To maintain metabolic state 3, proto-mitochondria were required to congregate near calcium influx points in the proto-eukaryotic membrane. This behavior, resulting in embryonic forms of calcium signaling, may have occurred immediately after the initiation of the endosymbiosis. Along with ROS, calcium may have served as one of the key forms of crosstalk among the community of prokaryotes that led to the eukaryotic cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium deprivation increases the palatability of calcium solutions in rats.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Stuart A; Forestell, Catherine A; Tordoff, Michael G

    2005-02-15

    Calcium-deprived rats have elevated intakes of CaCl2, other calcium salts, and some non-calcium compounds. We used taste reactivity to examine the effects of calcium deprivation on the palatability of CaCl2 and other solutions. Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were calcium-deprived by maintenance on a low-calcium diet, and eight replete rats were used as controls. All rats were videotaped during intraoral infusion of the following solutions: 30 and 300 mM CaCl2, 30 mM calcium lactate, 100 and 600 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl2, 1 mM quinine.HCl, 2.5 mM sodium saccharin, and deionized water. We counted individual orofacial and somatic movements elicited by the infusions and used them to calculate total ingestive and aversive scores. Relative to controls, calcium-deprived rats gave a significantly larger number of tongue protrusions and had higher total ingestive scores for CaCl2, calcium lactate, NaCl, and MgCl2. Our results suggest that CaCl2, calcium lactate, NaCl, and MgCl2 taste more palatable to rats when they are calcium-deprived than replete, and this may be responsible for the increased intake of these solutions following calcium deprivation.

  19. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  20. Effects of Oxcarbazepine and Levetiracetam on Calcium, Ionized Calcium, and 25-OH Vitamin-D3 Levels in Patients with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Duygu; Güveli, Betül Tekin; Ak, Pelin Doğan; Sarı, Hüseyin; Ataklı, Dilek; Arpacı, Baki

    2016-02-29

    The primary objective of the present study was to further elucidate the effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapies on the bone health status of patients with epilepsy. This study included 48 patients who attended our epilepsy outpatient clinic, had a diagnosis of epilepsy, and were undergoing either OXC or LEV monotherapy and 42 healthy control subjects. The demographic and clinical features of the patients, including gender, age, onset of disease, daily drug dosage, and duration of disease, were noted. Additionally, the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of the participants were prospectively evaluated. The 25-OH vitamin-D3, calcium, and ionized calcium levels of the patients taking OXC were significantly lower than those of the control group. These levels did not significantly differ between the patients taking LEV and the control group, but there was a significant negative relationship between daily drug dose and ionized calcium levels in the LEV patients. In the present study, anti-epileptic drugs altered the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of epilepsy patients and resulted in bone loss, abnormal mineralization, and fractures. These findings suggest that the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of patients with epilepsy should be regularly assessed.

  1. A ‘calcium capacitor’ shapes cholinergic inhibition of cochlear hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2014-01-01

    Efferent cholinergic neurons project from the brainstem to inhibit sensory hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear. This inhibitory synapse combines the activity of an unusual class of ionotropic cholinergic receptor with that of nearby calcium-dependent potassium channels to shunt and hyperpolarize the hair cell. Postsynaptic calcium signalling is constrained by a thin near-membrane cistern that is co-extensive with the efferent terminal contacts. The postsynaptic cistern may play an essential role in calcium homeostasis, serving as sink or source, depending on ongoing activity and the degree of buffer saturation. Release of calcium from postsynaptic stores leads to a process of retrograde facilitation via the synthesis of nitric oxide in the hair cell. Activity-dependent synaptic modification may contribute to changes in hair cell innervation that occur during development, and in the aged or damaged cochlea. PMID:24566542

  2. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Abrams, S A; Davis-Street, J E; Heer, M; O'Brien, K O; Wastney, M E; Zwart, S R

    2014-01-01

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth.

  3. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  4. A sensor for calcium uptake

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified. PMID:20844529

  5. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  6. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  7. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  8. Calcium biofortification of crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  9. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sarcoidosis • Hormone disorders, such as overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) • A genetic condition called familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia • Kidney ... topics: www.hormone.org (search for PHPT, calcium, hyperthyroidism, or osteoporosis) • MedlinePlus (National Institutes of Health-NIH): ...

  10. Calcium - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Calcium - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese, Traditional ( ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 31 May 2018

  11. Disruption of iron homeostasis and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    As a result of a direct exchange with the external environment, the lungs are exposed to both iron and agents with a capacity to disrupt the homeostasis of this metal (e.g. particles). An increased availability of catalytically reactive iron can result from these exposures and, by generating an oxidative stress, this metal can contribute to tissue injury. By importing this Fe(3+) into cells for storage in a chemically less reactive form, the lower respiratory tract demonstrates an ability to mitigate both the oxidative stress presented by iron and its potential for tissue injury. This means that detoxification is accomplished by chemical reduction to Fe(2+) (e.g. by duodenal cytochrome b and other ferrireductases), iron import (e.g. by divalent metal transporter 1 and other transporters), and storage in ferritin. The metal can subsequently be exported from the cell (e.g. by ferroportin 1) in a less reactive state relative to that initially imported. Iron is then transported out of the lung via the mucociliary pathway or blood and lymphatic pathways to the reticuloendothelial system for long term storage. This coordinated handling of iron in the lung appears to be disrupted in several acute diseases on the lung including infections, acute respiratory distress syndrome, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and ischemia-reperfusion. Exposures to bleomycin, dusts and fibers, and paraquat similarly alter iron homeostasis in the lung to affect an oxidative stress. Finally, iron homeostasis is disrupted in numerous chronic lung diseases including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, transplantation, cigarette smoking, and cystic fibrosis.

  12. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  15. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D<12ng/ml] 5.4%. Of 647 children enrolled, 390 completed the 18-month follow-up. Rickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (P<0.04). We conclude that calcium supplementation increased areal bone density at the radius and ulna, but a larger sample size would be required to determine its effect on the incidence of rickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synaptic calcium regulation in hair cells of the chicken basilar papilla.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2014-12-10

    Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ∼100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents ("minis") resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416688-10$15.00/0.

  17. Synaptic Calcium Regulation in Hair Cells of the Chicken Basilar Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S.; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ∼100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (“minis”) resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. PMID:25505321

  18. SLP-2 negatively modulates mitochondrial sodium-calcium exchange.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Sandrine; De Marchi, Umberto; Frieden, Maud; Parone, Philippe A; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria play a major role in cellular calcium homeostasis. Despite decades of studies, the molecules that mediate and regulate the transport of calcium ions in and out of the mitochondrial matrix remain unknown. Here, we investigate whether SLP-2, an inner membrane mitochondrial protein of unknown function, modulates the activity of mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters. In HeLa cells depleted of SLP-2, the amplitude and duration of mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevations evoked by agonists were decreased compared to control cells. SLP-2 depletion increased the rates of calcium extrusion from mitochondria. This effect disappeared upon Na(+) removal or addition of CGP-37157, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and persisted in permeabilized cells exposed to a fixed cytosolic Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentration. The rates of mitochondrial Ca(2+) extrusion were prolonged in SLP-2 over-expressing cells, independently of the amplitude of mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevations. The amplitude of cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations was increased by SLP-2 depletion and decreased by SLP-2 over-expression. These data show that SLP-2 modulates mitochondrial calcium extrusion, thereby altering the ability of mitochondria to buffer Ca(2+) and to shape cytosolic Ca(2+) signals. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Cope, K A; Solga, S F; Hummers, L K; Wigley, F M; Diehl, A M; Risby, T H

    2006-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease in which oxidative stress is suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology. Therefore, it was postulated that patients with scleroderma would have abnormally high breath ethane concentrations, which is a volatile product of free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, compared with a group of controls. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the mean exhaled ethane concentration of 5.27 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.76) in the scleroderma patients (n=36) versus the mean exhaled concentration of 2.72 pmol ml(-1) CO(2) (SEM=0.71) in a group of healthy controls (n=21). Within the scleroderma group, those subjects taking a calcium channel blocker had lower ethane concentrations compared with patients who were not taking these drugs (p=0.05). There was a significant inverse association between lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (per cent of predicted) and ethane concentration (b=-2.8, p=0.026, CI=-5.2 to -0.35). These data support the presence of increased oxidative stress among patients with scleroderma that is detected by measuring breath ethane concentrations.

  20. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  1. Calcium channel-dependent molecular maturation of photoreceptor synapses.

    PubMed

    Zabouri, Nawal; Haverkamp, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown the importance of calcium channels in the development and/or maturation of synapses. The Ca(V)1.4(α(1F)) knockout mouse is a unique model to study the role of calcium channels in photoreceptor synapse formation. It features abnormal ribbon synapses and aberrant cone morphology. We investigated the expression and targeting of several key elements of ribbon synapses and analyzed the cone morphology in the Ca(V)1.4(α(1F)) knockout retina. Our data demonstrate that most abnormalities occur after eye opening. Indeed, scaffolding proteins such as Bassoon and RIM2 are properly targeted at first, but their expression and localization are not maintained in adulthood. This indicates that either calcium or the Ca(V)1.4 channel, or both are necessary for the maintenance of their normal expression and distribution in photoreceptors. Other proteins, such as Veli3 and PSD-95, also display abnormal expression in rods prior to eye opening. Conversely, vesicle related proteins appear normal. Our data demonstrate that the Ca(V)1.4 channel is important for maintaining scaffolding proteins in the ribbon synapse but less vital for proteins related to vesicular release. This study also confirms that in adult retinae, cones show developmental features such as sprouting and synaptogenesis. Overall we present evidence that in the absence of the Ca(V)1.4 channel, photoreceptor synapses remain immature and are unable to stabilize.

  2. [Glucose homeostasis and gut-brain connection].

    PubMed

    De Vadder, Filipe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    Since the XIX(th) century, the brain has been known for its role in regulating food intake (via the control of hunger sensation) and glucose homeostasis. Further interest has come from the discovery of gut hormones, which established a clear link between the gut and the brain in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. The brain has two particular structures, the hypothalamus and the brainstem, which are sensitive to information coming either from peripheral organs or from the gut (via circulating hormones or nutrients) about the nutritional status of the organism. However, the efforts for a better understanding of these mechanisms have allowed to unveil a new gut-brain neural axis as a key regulator of the metabolic status of the organism. Certain nutrients control the hypothalamic homeostatic function via this axis. In this review, we describe how the gut is connected to the brain via different neural pathways, and how the interplay between these two organs drives the energy balance. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  4. Motor Force Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Gao, Huajian

    2011-01-01

    In active biological contractile processes such as skeletal muscle contraction, cellular mitosis, and neuronal growth, an interesting common observation is that multiple motors can perform coordinated and synchronous actions, whereas individual myosin motors appear to randomly attach to and detach from actin filaments. Recent experiment has demonstrated that, during skeletal muscle shortening at a wide range of velocities, individual myosin motors maintain a force of ∼6 pN during a working stroke. To understand how such force-homeostasis can be so precisely regulated in an apparently chaotic system, here we develop a molecular model within a coupled stochastic-elastic theoretical framework. The model reveals that the unique force-stretch relation of myosin motor and the stochastic behavior of actin-myosin binding cause the average number of working motors to increase in linear proportion to the filament load, so that the force on each working motor is regulated at ∼6 pN, in excellent agreement with experiment. This study suggests that it might be a general principle to use catch bonds together with a force-stretch relation similar to that of myosin motors to regulate force homeostasis in many biological processes. PMID:21767492

  5. Measurement of ROS homeostasis in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tretter, L; Ambrus, A

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the currently most advanced methods applied for the quantitative assessment of ROS homeostasis inside the mitochondrion. These techniques are of particular interest in the field of oxidative stress. After discussing the importance of quantifying mitochondrial ROS homeostasis, three major aspects of this phenomenon and the pertinent methodologies for detection are delineated in detail. First the most important methods, based on fluorimetric or spectrophotometric approaches, for the detection of mitochondrial ROS are described. Elimination of ROS generated inside the mitochondrion is another crucial mechanism that also needs to be quantified accurately to estimate the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria under specific conditions. Since ROS generation and elimination manifest in concert, there needs to exist independent methods for the estimation of the net effect. Such a sensitive biochemical marker in the mitochondrion is aconitase, a citric acid cycle enzyme which is greatly sensitive to ROS. We describe two procedures for the precise determination of aconitase activity. A few auxiliary techniques and good practices having relevance in the successful accomplishment of the more delicate approaches are also mentioned. All other relevant technical considerations including advantages/disadvantages of the various methods and the most common artifacts are also discussed.

  6. Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Prashant; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Holz, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1) is a secreted peptide that acts as a key determinant of blood glucose homeostasis by virtue of its abilities to slow gastric emptying, to enhance pancreatic insulin secretion, and to suppress pancreatic glucagon secretion. GLP-1 is secreted from L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal, and the blood glucose-lowering action of GLP-1 is terminated due to its enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Released GLP-1 activates enteric and autonomic reflexes while also circulating as an incretin hormone to control endocrine pancreas function. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated directly or indirectly by blood glucose-lowering agents currently in use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These therapeutic agents include GLP-1R agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and langlenatide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin). Investigational agents for use in the treatment of T2DM include GPR119 and GPR40 receptor agonists that stimulate the release of GLP-1 from L cells. Summarized here is the role of GLP-1 to control blood glucose homeo-stasis, with special emphasis on the advantages and limitations of GLP-1-based therapeutics. PMID:24373234

  7. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Tyler F; Killinger, Karen M; Michal, Jennifer J; Wright, Raymond W; Jiang, Zhihua

    2009-06-29

    Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  8. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  9. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Iswanto, Arya Bagus Boedi; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-04-03

    A bstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs). In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft-processed PDC.

  10. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Yuksel, Mahmut; Ozderin Ozin, Yasemin; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis in celiac disease and to examine the associate with celiac autoantibodies and gluten-free diet. METHODS Seventy three patients with celiac disease and 73 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. In both groups, thiol/disulphide homeostasis was examined with a new colorimetric method recently developed by Erel and Neselioglu. RESULTS In patients with celiac disease, native thiol (P = 0.027) and total thiol (P = 0.031) levels were lower, while disulphide (P < 0.001) level, disulphide/native thiol (P < 0.001) and disulphide/total thiol (P < 0.001) ratios were higher compared to the control group. In patients who do not comply with a gluten-free diet, disulphide/native thiol ratio was found higher compared to the patients who comply with the diet (P < 0.001). In patients with any autoantibody-positive, disulphide/native thiol ratio was observed higher compared to the patients with autoantibody-negative (P < 0.05). It is found that there is a negative correlation between celiac autoantibodies, and native thiol, total thiol levels and native thiol/total thiol ratio, while a positive correlation is observed between disulphide, disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol levels. CONCLUSION This study is first in the literature which found that the patients with celiac disease the dynamic thiol/disulphide balance shifts through disulphide form compared to the control group. PMID:28533921

  11. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  12. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  13. Preoperative octreotide therapy and surgery in acromegaly: associations between glucose homeostasis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Helseth, R; Carlsen, S M; Bollerslev, J; Svartberg, J; Øksnes, M; Skeie, S; Fougner, S L

    2016-02-01

    In acromegaly, high GH/IGF-1 levels associate with abnormal glucose metabolism. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) reduce GH and IGF-1 but inhibit insulin secretion. We studied glucose homeostasis in de novo patients with acromegaly and changes in glucose metabolism after treatment with SSA and surgery. In this post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial, 55 de novo patients with acromegaly, not using antidiabetic medication, were included. Before surgery, 26 patients received SSAs for 6 months. HbA1c, fasting glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were performed at baseline, after SSA pretreatment and at 3 months postoperative. Area under curve of glucose (AUC-G) was calculated. Glucose homeostasis was compared to baseline levels of GH and IGF-1, change after SSA pretreatment, and remission both after SSA pretreatment and 3 months postoperative. In de novo patients, IGF-1/GH levels did not associate with baseline glucose parameters. After SSA pretreatment, changes in GH/IGF-1 correlated positively to change in HbA1c levels (both p < 0.03). HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G increased significantly during SSA pretreatment in patients not achieving hormonal control (all p < 0.05) but did not change significantly in patients with normalized hormone levels. At 3 months postoperative, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G were significantly reduced in both cured and not cured patients (all p < 0.05). To conclude, in de novo patients with acromegaly, disease activity did not correlate with glucose homeostasis. Surgical treatment of acromegaly improved glucose metabolism in both cured and not cured patients, while SSA pretreatment led to deterioration in glucose homeostasis in patients not achieving biochemical control.

  14. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  15. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X

    2016-08-01

    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease.

  16. Lattice model for calcium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisoni, Nara; de Oliveira, Mario José

    2005-06-01

    We present a simplified lattice model to study calcium dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Calcium channels and calcium ions are placed in two interpenetrating square lattices which are connected in two ways: (i) via calcium release and (ii) because transitions between channel states are calcium dependent. The opening or closing of a channel is a stochastic process controlled by two functions which depend on the calcium density on the channel neighborhood. The model is studied through mean field calculations and simulations. We show that the critical behavior of the model changes drastically depending on the opening/closing functions. For certain choices of these functions, all channels are closed at very low and high calcium densities and the model presents one absorbing state.

  17. Astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract are activated by low glucose or glucoprivation: evidence for glial involvement in glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    McDougal, David H; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Rogers, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is maintained through interplay between central and peripheral control mechanisms which are aimed at storing excess glucose following meals and mobilizing these same stores during periods of fasting. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the dorsal medulla has long been associated with the central detection of glucose availability and the control of glucose homeostasis. Recent evidence has emerged which supports the involvement of astrocytes in glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether NST-astrocytes respond to physiologically relevant decreases in glucose availability, in vitro, as well as to the presence of the glucoprivic compound 2-deoxy-D-Glucose. This report demonstrates that some NST-astrocytes are capable of responding to low glucose or glucoprivation by increasing cytoplasmic calcium; a change that reverses with restoration of normal glucose availability. While some NST-neurons also demonstrate an increase in calcium signaling during low glucose availability, this effect is smaller and somewhat delayed compared to those observed in adjacent astrocytes. TTX did not abolish these hypoglycemia mediated responses of astrocytes, suggesting that NST-astrocytes may be directly sensing low glucose levels as opposed to responding to neuronal detection of hypoglycemia. Thus, chemodetection of low glucose by NST-astrocytes may play an important role in the autonomic regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  18. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  19. Crystal structure of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Kei; Singh, Appu K; Yelshanskaya, Maria V; Sobolevsky, Alexander I

    2016-06-23

    Precise regulation of calcium homeostasis is essential for many physiological functions. The Ca(2+)-selective transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 play vital roles in calcium homeostasis as Ca(2+) uptake channels in epithelial tissues. Detailed structural bases for their assembly and Ca(2+) permeation remain obscure. Here we report the crystal structure of rat TRPV6 at 3.25 Å resolution. The overall architecture of TRPV6 reveals shared and unique features compared with other TRP channels. Intracellular domains engage in extensive interactions to form an intracellular 'skirt' involved in allosteric modulation. In the K(+) channel-like transmembrane domain, Ca(2+) selectivity is determined by direct coordination of Ca(2+) by a ring of aspartate side chains in the selectivity filter. On the basis of crystallographically identified cation-binding sites at the pore axis and extracellular vestibule, we propose a Ca(2+) permeation mechanism. Our results provide a structural foundation for understanding the regulation of epithelial Ca(2+) uptake and its role in pathophysiology.

  20. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  1. Review of calcium methodologies.

    PubMed

    Zak, B; Epstein, E; Baginski, E S

    1975-01-01

    A review of calcium methodologies for serum has been described. The analytical systems developed over the past century have been classified as to type beginning with gravimetry and extending to isotope dilution-mass spectrometry by covering all of the commonly used technics which have evolved during that period. Screening and referee procedures are discussed along with comparative sensitivities encountered between atomic absorption spectrophotometry and molecular absorption spectrophotometry. A procedure involving a simple direct reaction for serum calcium using cresolphthalein complexone is recommended in which high blanks are minimized by repressing the ionization of the color reagent on lowering the dielectric constant characteristics of the mixture with dimethylsulfoxide. Reaction characteristics, errors which can be encountered, normal ranges and an interpretative resume are included in its discussion.

  2. Synthesis of calcium superoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  3. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  4. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular homeostasis in fungi: impact on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Hamann, Andrea; Brust, Diana; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2012-01-01

    Cellular quality control pathways are needed for maintaining the biological function of organisms. If these pathways become compromised, the results are usually highly detrimental. Functional impairments of cell components can lead to diseases and in extreme cases to organismal death. Dysfunction of cells can be induced by a number of toxic by-products that are formed during metabolic activity, like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, for example. A key source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the organelles of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria. Therefore mitochondrial function is also directly affected by ROS, especially if there is a compromised ROS-scavenging capacity. Biological systems therefore depend on several lines of defence to counteract the toxic effects of ROS and other damaging agents. The first level is active at the molecular level and consists of various proteases that bind and degrade abnormally modified and / or aggregated mitochondrial proteins. The second level is concerned with maintaining the quality of whole mitochondria. Among the pathways of this level are mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy (mitophagy). Mitochondrial dynamics describes the time-dependent fusion and fission of mitochondria. It is argued that this kind of organellar dynamics has the power to restore the function of impaired organelles by content mixing with intact organelles. If the first and second lines of defence against damage fail and mitochondria become damaged too severely, there is the option to remove affected cells before they can elicit more damage to their surrounding environment by apoptosis. This form of programmed cell death is strictly regulated by a complex network of interacting components and can be divided into mitochondria-dependent and mitochondria-independent modes of action. In this review we give an overview on various biological quality control systems in fungi (yeasts and filamentous fungi) with an emphasis on autophagy (mitophagy) and

  6. [Influence of hormonal contraceptives on indices of zinc homeostasis and bone remodeling in young adult women].

    PubMed

    Simões, Tania Mara Rodrigues; Zapata, Carmiña Lucía Vargas; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the use of oral hormonal contraceptive agents (OCA) on the biochemical indices related to metabolic zinc utilization and distribution, and to bone turnover in young adult women. Cross-sectional study. Blood and urine samples from non-users (-OCA; control; n=69) and users of hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months (+OCA; n=62) were collected under controlled conditions. Indices of zinc homeostasis and of bone turnover were analyzed in serum or plasma (total, albumin-bound and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc, albumin and total and bone alkaline phosphatase activity), in erythrocytes (zinc and metallothionein) and in urine (zinc, calcium and hydroxyproline). The habitual zinc and calcium intakes were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary zinc intake was similar in both groups and on average above recommended values, whereas calcium intake was similarly sub-adequate in +OCA and -OCA. Compared to controls, +OCA had lower concentrations of total and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc (11 and 28.5%, respectively, p<0.001), serum albumin (13%, p<0.01), total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity (13 and 18%, respectively, p<0.05), erythrocyte metallothionein (13%, p<0.01), and, urinary zinc (34%, p<0.05). OCA use decreases serum zinc, alters zinc distribution in major serum fractions with possible effects on tissue uptake, enhances zinc retention in the body and decreases bone turnover. Prolonged OCA use may lead to lower peak bone mass and/or to impaired bone mass maintenance in young women, particularly in those with marginal calcium intake. The observed OCA effects were more evident in women younger than 25 years and in nulliparous women, deserving special attention in future studies.

  7. Non-Selective Calcium Channel Blocker Bepridil Decreases Secondary Pathology in Mice after Photothrombotic Cortical Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lipsanen, Anu; Flunkert, Stefanie; Kuptsova, Kristina; Hiltunen, Mikko; Windisch, Manfred; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified a complex link between neurodegeneration, β-amyloid (Aβ) and calcium homeostasis. Here we asked whether early phase β-amyloid pathology in transgenic hAPPSL mice exaggerates the ischemic lesion and remote secondary pathology in the thalamus, and whether a non-selective calcium channel blocker reduces these pathologies. Transgenic hAPPSL (n = 33) and non-transgenic (n = 30) male mice (4–5 months) were subjected to unilateral cortical photothrombosis and treated with the non-selective calcium channel blocker bepridil (50 mg/kg, p.o., once a day) or vehicle for 28 days, starting administration 2 days after the operation. Animals were then perfused for histological analysis of infarct size, Aβ and calcium accumulation in the thalamus. Cortical photothrombosis resulted in a small infarct, which was associated with atypical Aβ and calcium accumulation in the ipsilateral thalamus. Transgenic mice had significantly smaller infarct volumes than non-transgenic littermates (P<0.05) and ischemia-induced rodent Aβ accumulation in the thalamus was lower in transgenic mice compared to non-transgenic mice (P<0.01). Bepridil decreased calcium load in the thalamus (P<0.01). The present data suggest less pronounced primary and secondary pathology in hAPPSL transgenic mice after ischemic cortical injury. Bepridil particularly decreased calcium pathology in the thalamus following ischemia. PMID:23555933

  8. Calcium, essential for health

    PubMed

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  9. Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

    PubMed

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R

    2017-04-01

    The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.

  10. Growth Control in Colon Epithelial Cells: Gadolinium Enhances Calcium-Mediated Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1–5 µM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet. PMID:23008064

  11. Growth control in colon epithelial cells: gadolinium enhances calcium-mediated growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K; Varani, James

    2012-12-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1-5 μM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet.

  12. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  13. Mechanisms of copper homeostasis in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, José M.; Raimunda, Daniel; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an important micronutrient required as a redox co-factor in the catalytic centers of enzymes. However, free copper is a potential hazard because of its high chemical reactivity. Consequently, organisms exert a tight control on Cu+ transport (entry-exit) and traffic through different compartments, ensuring the homeostasis required for cuproprotein synthesis and prevention of toxic effects. Recent studies based on biochemical, bioinformatics, and metalloproteomics approaches, reveal a highly regulated system of transcriptional regulators, soluble chaperones, membrane transporters, and target cuproproteins distributed in the various bacterial compartments. As a result, new questions have emerged regarding the diversity and apparent redundancies of these components, their irregular presence in different organisms, functional interactions, and resulting system architectures. PMID:24205499

  14. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Role of Circadian Rhythms in Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumz, Michelle L.; Rabinowitz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the last century clearly demonstrates that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of regulation of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted in order to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800

  16. Lung Adenocarcinoma Distally Rewires Hepatic Circadian Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Liu, Yu; Cervantes, Marlene; Baldi, Pierre; Jacks, Tyler; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock controls metabolic and physiological processes through finely tuned molecular mechanisms. The clock is remarkably plastic and adapts to exogenous zeitgebers, such as light and nutrition. How a pathological condition in a given tissue influences systemic circadian homeostasis in other tissues remains an unanswered question of conceptual and biomedical importance. Here we show that lung adenocarcinoma operates as an endogenous reorganizer of circadian metabolism. High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed unique signatures of transcripts and metabolites cycling exclusively in livers of tumor-bearing mice. Remarkably, lung cancer has no effect on the core clock, but rather reprograms hepatic metabolism through altered pro-inflammatory response via the STAT3-Socs3 pathway. This results in disruption of AKT, AMPK and SREBP signaling, leading to altered insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus, lung adenocarcinoma functions as a potent endogenous circadian organizer (ECO), which rewires the pathophysiological dimension of a distal tissue such as the liver. PMID:27153497

  17. Antibacterial action of calcium hydroxide vehicles and calcium hydroxide pastes.

    PubMed

    Pacios, María Gabriela; Silva, Clara; López, María Elena; Cecilia, Marta

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro action of vehicles alone and with calcium hydroxide against different bacterial species. Agar plates were inoculated with the microbial suspensions, and wells were made and filled with the calcium hydroxide pastes and the vehicles used to prepare the pastes. The zones of inhibited bacterial growth were recorded, and the resulting measurements were statistically analyzed. Enterococcus faecalis was the most resistant microorganism to all medicaments. Calcium hydroxide + p-monochlorophenol; calcium hydroxide + p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol pastes; and p-monochlorophenol, p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol, and chlorhexidine gluconate gel alone showed the largest zones of inhibition against all the tested microorganisms. The vehicle used to prepare the calcium hydroxide paste might contribute to its antibacterial action. Chlorhexidine gluconate gel used alone, and camphorated p-monochlorophenol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol as vehicles of calcium hydroxide, could be recommended, in an antimicrobial sense. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Calcium bioavailability and kinetics of calcium ascorbate and calcium acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianwei; Zhang, Qinmin; Wastney, Meryl E; Weaver, Connie M

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the bioavailability and mechanism of calcium absorption of calcium ascorbate (ASC) and calcium acetate (AC). A series of studies was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. In the first study, each group of rats (n = 10/group) was assigned to one of the five test meals labeled with (45)Ca: (i) 25 mg calcium as heated ASC or (ii) unheated ASC, (iii) 25 mg calcium as unheated AC, (iv) 3.6 mg Ca as unheated ASC, or (v) unheated AC. Femur uptake indicated better calcium bioavailability from ASC than AC at both calcium loads. A 5-min heat treatment partly reduced bioavailability of ASC. Kinetic studies were performed to further investigate the mechanism of superior calcium bioavailability from ASC. Two groups of rats (n = 10/group) received oral doses of 25 mg Ca as ASC or AC. Each dose contained 20 micro Ci (45)Ca. Two additional groups of rats (n = 10/group) received an intravenous injection (iv) of 10 micro Ci (45)Ca after receiving an unlabeled oral dose of 25 mg calcium as ASC or AC. Sequential blood samples were collected over 48 hrs. Urine and fecal samples were collected every 12 hrs for 48 hrs and were analyzed for total calcium and (45)Ca content. Total calcium and (45)Ca from serum, urine, and feces were fitted by a compartment kinetics model with saturable and nonsaturable absorption pathways by WinSAAM (Windows-based Simulation Analysis and Modeling). The difference in calcium bioavailability between the two salts was due to differences in saturable rather than passive intestinal absorption and not to endogenous secretion or calcium deposition rate. The higher bioavailability of calcium ascorbate was due to a longer transit time in the small intestine compared with ASC.

  19. Imaging extracellular calcium in endolymph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimbu, C. Elliott; Fridberger, Anders

    2018-05-01

    Hair cell mechanoelectrical transduction and adaptation are believed to be regulated by extracellular calcium. However, the majority of experiments addressing calcium's role have been performed on reduced preparations in conditions that do not mimic those present in vivo. We used confocal microscopy and a low affinity (kd ˜11 µM) ratiometric fluorescent indicator to measure the extracellular calcium concentration in scala media in an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig cochlea. Microelectrodes were used to measure the cochlear microphonic potential during acoustic stimulation. The mean calcium concentration is significantly higher in the tectorial membrane (TM) than the surrounding endolymph, suggesting that the membrane acts as a calcium sink. We also observe calcium hot spots along the underside of the TM, near the outer hair cell bundles and near Hensens stripe close to the inner hair cell bundle. This suggests that the local calcium concentration near the hair bundles exceeds 100 µM, significantly higher than the bulk endolymph. These results were corroborated with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using a second calcium sensitive dye, Oregon Green 488-BAPTA. Following a brief exposure to loud sound, TM calcium drops dramatically and shows recovery on a similar timescale as the microphonic potential. Our results suggest that the extracellular calcium concentration near the hair bundles is much higher than previously believed and may also serve as a partial control parameter for temporary threshold shifts.

  20. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  1. Cyclophilin A in cardiovascular homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Vascular homeostasis is regulated by complex interactions between many vascular cell components, including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), adventitial inflammatory cells, and autonomic nervous system. The balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems determines intracellular redox status, and their imbalance can cause oxidative stress. Excessive oxidative stress is one of the important stimuli that induce cellular damage and dysregulation of vascular cell components, leading to vascular diseases through multiple pathways. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is one of the causative proteins that mediate oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. CyPA was initially discovered as the intracellular receptor of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine 30 years ago. However, recent studies have established that CyPA is secreted from vascular cell components, such as endothelial cells and VSMCs. Extracellular CyPA augments the development of cardiovascular diseases. CyPA secretion is regulated by Rho-kinase, which contributes to the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. We recently reported that plasma CyPA levels are significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease, which is associated with increased numbers of stenotic coronary arteries and the need for coronary intervention in such patients. Furthermore, we showed that the vascular erythropoietin (Epo)/Epo receptor system plays an important role in production of nitric oxide and maintenance of vascular redox state and homeostasis, with a potential mechanistic link to the Rho-kinase-CyPA pathway. In this article, I review the data on the protective role of the vascular Epo/Epo receptor system and discuss the roles of the CyPA/Rho-kinase system in cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe2+ and O2 (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition. PMID:21346101

  3. The grapevine VvCAX3 is a cation/H+ exchanger involved in vacuolar Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Carneiro, Filipa; Conde, Carlos; Sottomayor, Mariana; Gerós, Hernâni

    2017-12-01

    The grapevine VvCAX3 mediates calcium transport in the vacuole and is mostly expressed in green grape berries and upregulated by Ca 2+ , Na + and methyl jasmonate. Calcium is an essential plant nutrient with important regulatory and structural roles in the berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). On the other hand, the proton-cation exchanger CAX proteins have been shown to impact Ca 2+ homeostasis with important consequences for fruit integrity and resistance to biotic/abiotic stress. Here, the CAX gene found in transcriptomic databases as having one of the highest expressions in grapevine tissues, VvCAX3, was cloned and functionally characterized. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that a truncated version of VvCAX3 lacking its NNR autoinhibitory domain (sCAX3) restored the ability of the yeast strain to grow in 100-200 mM Ca 2+ , demonstrating a role in Ca 2+ transport. The truncated VvCAX3 was further shown to be involved in the transport of Na + , Li + , Mn 2+ and Cu 2+ in yeast cells. Subcellular localization studies using fluorescently tagged proteins confirmed VvCAX3 as a tonoplast transporter. VvCAX3 is expressed in grapevine stems, leaves, roots, and berries, especially at pea size, decreasing gradually throughout development, in parallel with the pattern of calcium accumulation in the fruit. The transcript abundance of VvCAX3 was shown to be regulated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), Ca 2+ , and Na + in grape cell suspensions, and the VvCAX3 promotor contains several predicted cis-acting elements related to developmental and stress response processes. As a whole, the results obtained add new insights on the mechanisms involved in calcium homeostasis and intracellular compartmentation in grapevine, and indicate that VvCAX3 may be an interesting target towards the development of strategies for enhancement of grape berry properties.

  4. Multiple, disparate roles for calcium signaling in apoptosis of human prostate and cervical cancer cells exposed to diindolylmethane.

    PubMed

    Savino, John A; Evans, Jodi F; Rabinowitz, Dorianne; Auborn, Karen J; Carter, Timothy H

    2006-03-01

    Diindolylmethane (DIM), derived from indole-3-carbinol in cruciferous vegetables, causes growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro. DIM also induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum/ER calcium-dependent ATPase, enhances this effect. We asked whether elevated cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]i is required for cytotoxicity of DIM and thapsigargin in two cancer cells lines (C33A, from cervix, and DU145, from prostate). [Ca2+]i was measured in real-time by FURA-2 fluorescence. We tested whether DIM, thapsigargin, and DIM + thapsigargin cause apoptosis, measured by nucleosome release, under conditions that prevented elevation of [Ca2+]i, using both cell-permeable and cell-impermeable forms of the specific calcium chelator BAPTA. DIM, like thapsigargin, rapidly mobilized ER calcium. C33A and DU145 responded differently to perturbations in Ca2+ homeostasis, suggesting that DIM induces apoptosis by different mechanisms in these two cell lines and/or that calcium mobilization also activates different survival pathways in C33A and DU145. Apoptosis in C33A was independent of increased [Ca2+]i, suggesting that depletion of ER Ca2+ stores may be sufficient for cell killing, whereas apoptosis in DU145 required elevated [Ca2+]i for full response. Inhibitor studies using cyclosporin A and KN93 showed that Ca2+ signaling is important for cell survival but the characteristics of this response also differed in the two cell lines. Our results underscore the complex and variable nature of cellular responses to disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis and suggest that alteration Ca2+ homeostasis in the ER can induce cellular apoptosis by both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent mechanisms.

  5. A Formal Explication of the Concept of Family Homeostasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Shlomo; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents three articles discussing the concept of family homeostasis and the related concepts of family rules and family feedback. Includes a reply by Paul Dell citing the need for family therapy to go beyond homeostasis and further comments by Ariel, Carel, and Tyano. (JAC)

  6. Development and Validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Martinková, Patrícia; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; Modell, Harold; Wright, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate…

  7. Cadmium-induced apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts via disrupted intracellular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenxiu; Yuan, Ziao; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Yang, Chunwen; Guan, Weijun

    2016-10-24

    Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd 2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd 2+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 μM) and duration-dependent (12-48 h), and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd 2+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It also increased K + efflux and altered the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, Fas, and p53. Our results suggest that Cd 2+ triggers the apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts by disturbing intracellular homeostasis. These results will aid in our understanding of the effects of Cd 2+ on Siberian tigers and in developing interventions to treat and prevent cadmium poisoning.

  8. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Pyrazoleamide compounds are potent antimalarials that target Na+ homeostasis in intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Akhil B.; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Das, Sudipta; Daly, Thomas M.; Otto, Thomas D.; Spillman, Natalie J.; Wyvratt, Matthew; Siegl, Peter; Marfurt, Jutta; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni F.; Price, Ric N.; Chatterjee, Arnab; Nagle, Advait; Stasiak, Marcin; Charman, Susan A.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer, Santiago; Belén Jiménez-Díaz, María; Martínez, María Santos; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Avery, Vicky M.; Ruecker, Andrea; Delves, Michael; Kirk, Kiaran; Berriman, Matthew; Kortagere, Sandhya; Burrows, Jeremy; Fan, Erkang; Bergman, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for new antimalarial drugs, especially those with novel modes of action, is essential in the face of emerging drug-resistant parasites. Here we describe a new chemical class of molecules, pyrazoleamides, with potent activity against human malaria parasites and showing remarkably rapid parasite clearance in an in vivo model. Investigations involving pyrazoleamide-resistant parasites, whole-genome sequencing and gene transfers reveal that mutations in two proteins, a calcium-dependent protein kinase (PfCDPK5) and a P-type cation-ATPase (PfATP4), are necessary to impart full resistance to these compounds. A pyrazoleamide compound causes a rapid disruption of Na+ regulation in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Similar effect on Na+ homeostasis was recently reported for spiroindolones, which are antimalarials of a chemical class quite distinct from pyrazoleamides. Our results reveal that disruption of Na+ homeostasis in malaria parasites is a promising mode of antimalarial action mediated by at least two distinct chemical classes. PMID:25422853

  10. Mechanosensitive subcellular rheostasis drives emergent single-cell mechanical homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shinuo; Shao, Yue; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical homeostasis--a fundamental process by which cells maintain stable states under environmental perturbations--is regulated by two subcellular mechanotransducers: cytoskeleton tension and integrin-mediated focal adhesions (FAs). Here, we show that single-cell mechanical homeostasis is collectively driven by the distinct, graduated dynamics (rheostasis) of subcellular cytoskeleton tension and FAs. Such rheostasis involves a mechanosensitive pattern wherein ground states of cytoskeleton tension and FA determine their distinct reactive paths through either relaxation or reinforcement. Pharmacological perturbations of the cytoskeleton and molecularly modulated integrin catch-slip bonds biased the rheostasis and induced non-homeostasis of FAs, but not of cytoskeleton tension, suggesting a unique sensitivity of FAs in regulating homeostasis. Theoretical modelling revealed myosin-mediated cytoskeleton contractility and catch-slip-bond-like behaviours in FAs and the cytoskeleton as sufficient and necessary mechanisms for quantitatively recapitulating mechanosensitive rheostasis. Our findings highlight the previously underappreciated physical nature of the mechanical homeostasis of cells.

  11. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-06-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  12. Maintenance of Mitochondrial Oxygen Homeostasis by Cosubstrate Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Niethammer, Philipp; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria maintain a constant rate of aerobic respiration over a wide range of oxygen levels. However, the control strategies underlying oxygen homeostasis are still unclear. Using mathematical modeling, we found that the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) responds to oxygen level changes by undergoing compensatory changes in reduced electron carrier levels. This emergent behavior, which we named cosubstrate compensation (CSC), enables the ETC to maintain homeostasis over a wide of oxygen levels. When performing CSC, our ETC models recapitulated a classic scaling relationship discovered by Chance [Chance B (1965) J. Gen. Physiol. 49:163-165] relating the extent of oxygen homeostasis to the kinetics of mitochondrial electron transport. Analysis of an in silico mitochondrial respiratory system further showed evidence that CSC constitutes the dominant control strategy for mitochondrial oxygen homeostasis during active respiration. Our findings indicate that CSC constitutes a robust control strategy for homeostasis and adaptation in cellular biochemical networks. PMID:23528093

  13. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis. PMID:27105740

  14. Calcium distribution in Amoeba proteus

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the distribution of cellular calcium in Amoeba proteus was undertaken. Total cellular calcium under control conditions was found to be 4.59 mmol/kg of cells. When the external Ca++ concentration is increased from the control level of 0.03 to 20 mM, a net Ca++ influx results with a new steady-state cellular calcium level being achieved in integral of 3 h. At steady state the amount of calcium per unit weight of cells is higher than the amount of calcium per unit weight of external solution when the external concentration of Ca++ is below 10 mM. At external Ca++ concentrations above this level, total cellular calcium approaches the medium level of Ca++. Steady- state calcium exchange in Amoeba proteus was determined with 45Ca. There is an immediate and rapid exchange of integral of 0.84 mmol/kg of cells or 18% of the total cellular calcium with the labelled Ca++. Following this initial exchange, there was very little if any further exchange observed. Most of this exchanged calcium could be eliminated from the cell with 1 mM La+++, suggesting that the exchanged calcium is associated with the surface of the cell. Increase in either the external Ca++ concentration of pH raise the amount of exchangeable calcium associated with the cell. Calcium may be associated with the cell surface as a co-ion in the diffuse double layer or bound to fixed negative sites on the surface of the cell. If Ca++-binding sites do exist on the cell surface, there may be more than one type and they may have different dissociation constants. The cytoplasmic Ca++ ion activity is probably maintained at very low levels. PMID:512628

  15. The SigmaR1 chaperone drives breast and colorectal cancer cell migration by tuning SK3-dependent Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gueguinou, M; Crottès, D; Chantôme, A; Rapetti-Mauss, R; Potier-Cartereau, M; Clarysse, L; Girault, A; Fourbon, Y; Jézéquel, P; Guérin-Charbonnel, C; Fromont, G; Martin, P; Pellissier, B; Schiappa, R; Chamorey, E; Mignen, O; Uguen, A; Borgese, F; Vandier, C; Soriani, O

    2017-06-22

    The remodeling of calcium homeostasis contributes to the cancer hallmarks and the molecular mechanisms involved in calcium channel regulation in tumors remain to be characterized. Here, we report that SigmaR1, a stress-activated chaperone, is required to increase calcium influx by triggering the coupling between SK3, a Ca 2+ -activated K + channel (KCNN3) and the voltage-independent calcium channel Orai1. We show that SigmaR1 physically binds SK3 in BC cells. Inhibition of SigmaR1 activity, either by molecular silencing or by the use of sigma ligand (igmesine), decreased SK3 current and Ca 2+ entry in breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Interestingly, SigmaR1 inhibition diminished SK3 and/or Orai1 levels in lipid nanodomains isolated from BC cells. Analyses of tissue microarray from CRC patients showed higher SigmaR1 expression levels in cancer samples and a correlation with tumor grade. Moreover, the exploration of a cohort of 4937 BC patients indicated that high expression of SigmaR1 and Orai1 channels was significantly correlated to a lower overall survival. As the SK3/Orai1 tandem drives invasive process in CRC and bone metastasis progression in BC, our results may inaugurate innovative therapeutic approaches targeting SigmaR1 to control the remodeling of Ca 2+ homeostasis in epithelial cancers.

  16. CALCIUM BINDING TO INTESTINAL MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Oschman, James L.; Wall, Betty J.

    1972-01-01

    Flame photometry reveals that glutaraldehyde and buffer solutions in routine use for electron microscopy contain varying amounts of calcium. The presence of electron-opaque deposits adjacent to membranes in a variety of tissues can be correlated with the presence of calcium in the fixative. In insect intestine (midgut), deposits occur adjacent to apical and lateral plasma membranes. The deposits are particularly evident in tissues fixed in glutaraldehyde without postosmication. They are also observed in osmicated tissue if calcium is added to wash and osmium solutions. Deposits are absent when calcium-free fixatives are used, but are present when traces of CaCl2 (as low as 5 x 10-5 M) are added. The deposits occur at regular intervals along junctional membranes, providing images strikingly similar to those obtained by other workers who have used pyroantimonate in an effort to localize sodium. Other divalent cations (Mg++, Sr++, Ba++, Mn++, Fe++) appear to substitute for calcium, while sodium, potassium, lanthanum, and mercury do not. After postfixing with osmium with calcium added, the deposits can be resolved as patches along the inner leaflet of apical and lateral plasma membranes. The dense regions may thus localize membrane constituents that bind calcium. The results are discussed in relation to the role of calcium in control of cell-to-cell communication, intestinal calcium uptake, and the pyroantimonate technique for ion localization. PMID:4569411

  17. Photoionization of calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Johnson, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the photoionization of calcium in the relativistic random-phase approximation is reported. Predictions of photoionization cross sections, angular distribution asymmetry parameters, and spin-polarization parameters for the 4s, 3p, and 3s subshells are made with emphasis on the energy region above the 3p32 threshold where multiconfigurational effects are not expected to be very important. Autoionization resonances below the 3s threshold and between the 3p32 and 3p12 thresholds are analyzed using the relativistic multichannel quantum-defect theory.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1212 - Calcium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate. 184.1212 Section 184.1212... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1212 Calcium pantothenate. (a) Calcium pantothenate... and the DL-racemic mixture of calcium pantothenate are used in food. Commercial calcium pantothenate...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Calcium alginate is prepared by...

  20. Presenilin 1 Maintains Lysosomal Ca(2+) Homeostasis via TRPML1 by Regulating vATPase-Mediated Lysosome Acidification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; McBrayer, Mary Kate; Wolfe, Devin M; Haslett, Luke J; Kumar, Asok; Sato, Yutaka; Lie, Pearl P Y; Mohan, Panaiyur; Coffey, Erin E; Kompella, Uday; Mitchell, Claire H; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Nixon, Ralph A

    2015-09-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) deletion or Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations disrupt lysosomal acidification and proteolysis, which inhibits autophagy. Here, we establish that this phenotype stems from impaired glycosylation and instability of vATPase V0a1 subunit, causing deficient lysosomal vATPase assembly and function. We further demonstrate that elevated lysosomal pH in Presenilin 1 knockout (PS1KO) cells induces abnormal Ca(2+) efflux from lysosomes mediated by TRPML1 and elevates cytosolic Ca(2+). In WT cells, blocking vATPase activity or knockdown of either PS1 or the V0a1 subunit of vATPase reproduces all of these abnormalities. Normalizing lysosomal pH in PS1KO cells using acidic nanoparticles restores normal lysosomal proteolysis, autophagy, and Ca(2+) homeostasis, but correcting lysosomal Ca(2+) deficits alone neither re-acidifies lysosomes nor reverses proteolytic and autophagic deficits. Our results indicate that vATPase deficiency in PS1 loss-of-function states causes lysosomal/autophagy deficits and contributes to abnormal cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, thus linking two AD-related pathogenic processes through a common molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calmodulins from Schistosoma mansoni: Biochemical analysis and interaction with IQ-motifs from voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charlotte M; Timson, David J

    2018-05-17

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of schistosomiasis, the second most common parasitic disease of humans after malaria. Calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated signalling pathways are of particular interest in this species. The drug of choice for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel, disrupts the regulation of calcium uptake and there is interest in exploiting calcium-mediated processes for future drug discovery. Calmodulin is a calcium sensing protein, present in most eukaryotes. It is a critical regulator of processes as diverse as muscle contraction, cell division and, partly through interaction with voltage-gated calcium channels, intra-cellular calcium concentrations. S. mansoni expresses two highly similar calmodulins - SmCaM1 and SmCaM2. Both proteins interact with calcium, manganese, cadmium (II), iron (II) and lead ions in native gel electrophoresis. These ions also cause conformational changes in the proteins resulting in the exposure of a more hydrophobic surface (as demonstrated by anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate fluorescence assays). The proteins are primarily dimeric in the absence of calcium ions, but monomeric in the presence of this ion. Both SmCaM1 and SmCaM2 interact with a peptide corresponding to an IQ-motif derived from the α-subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel SmCa v 1B (residues 1923-1945). Both proteins bound with slightly higher affinity in the presence of calcium ions. However, there was no difference between the affinities of the two proteins for the peptide. This interaction could be antagonised by chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, but not praziquantel or thiamylal. Interestingly no interaction could be detected with the other three IQ-motifs identified in S. mansoni voltage-gated ion calcium channels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Stephen J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Pang, Jian L.; Kantham, Lakshmi; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Pollak, Martin; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] despite no change in FGF23, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus appears to be fundamentally important in coordinating the serum levels of both mineral ions and ensuring that the calcium × phosphorus product remains within a physiological range. PMID:23233539

  3. Real-time scratch assay reveals mechanisms of early calcium signaling in breast cancer cells in response to wounding

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Stephen J.P.; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Lee, Rachel M.; Ory, Eleanor C.; Lyons, James S.; Joca, Humberto C.; Johnson, Ashley; Thompson, Keyata; Bailey, Patrick; Lee, Cornell J.; Mathias, Trevor; Vitolo, Michele I.; Trudeau, Matt; Stains, Joseph P.; Ward, Christopher W.; Schneider, Martin F.; Martin, Stuart S.

    2018-01-01

    Aggressive cellular phenotypes such as uncontrolled proliferation and increased migration capacity engender cellular transformation, malignancy and metastasis. While genetic mutations are undisputed drivers of cancer initiation and progression, it is increasingly accepted that external factors are also playing a major role. Two recently studied modulators of breast cancer are changes in the cellular mechanical microenvironment and alterations in calcium homeostasis. While many studies investigate these factors separately in breast cancer cells, very few do so in combination. This current work sets a foundation to explore mechano-calcium relationships driving malignant progression in breast cancer. Utilizing real-time imaging of an in vitro scratch assay, we were able to resolve mechanically-sensitive calcium signaling in human breast cancer cells. We observed rapid initiation of intracellular calcium elevations within seconds in cells at the immediate wound edge, followed by a time-dependent increase in calcium in cells at distances up to 500μm from the scratch wound. Calcium signaling to neighboring cells away from the wound edge returned to baseline within seconds. Calcium elevations at the wound edge however, persisted for up to 50 minutes. Rigorous quantification showed that extracellular calcium was necessary for persistent calcium elevation at the wound edge, but intercellular signal propagation was dependent on internal calcium stores. In addition, intercellular signaling required extracellular ATP and activation of P2Y2 receptors. Through comparison of scratch-induced signaling from multiple cell lines, we report drastic reductions in response from aggressively tumorigenic and metastatic cells. The real-time scratch assay established here provides quantitative data on the molecular mechanisms that support rapid scratch-induced calcium signaling in breast cancer cells. These mechanisms now provide a clear framework for investigating which short-term calcium

  4. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2007-11-01

    Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels buildup with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age-matched controls. Over the past 10 years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron-regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including

  5. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels build up with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s Ataxia, and panthothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age- matched controls. Over the past ten years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including

  6. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  9. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  10. Cardiac basal metabolism: energetic cost of calcium withdrawal in the adult rat heart.

    PubMed

    Bonazzola, P; Takara, D

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac basal metabolism upon extracellular calcium removal and its relationship with intracellular sodium and calcium homeostasis was evaluated. A mechano-calorimetric technique was used that allowed the simultaneous and continuous measurement of both heat rate and resting pressure in arterially perfused quiescent adult rat hearts. Using pharmacological tools, the possible underlying mechanisms related to sodium and calcium movements were investigated. Resting heat rate (expressed in mW g(-1)(dry wt)) increased upon calcium withdrawal (+4.4 +/- 0.2). This response was: (1) unaffected by the presence of tetrodotoxin (+4.3 +/- 0.6), (2) fully blocked by both, the decrease in extracellular sodium concentration and the increase in extracellular magnesium concentration, (3) partially blocked by the presence of either nifedipine (+2.8 +/- 0.4), KB-R7943 (KBR; +2.5 +/- 0.2), clonazepam (CLO; +3.1 +/- 0.3) or EGTA (+1.9 +/- 0.3). The steady heat rate under Ca(2+)-free conditions was partially reduced by the addition of Ru360 (-1.1 +/- 0.2) but not CLO in the presence of EGTA, KBR or Ru360. Energy expenditure for resting state maintenance upon calcium withdrawal depends on the intracellular rise in both sodium and calcium. Our data are consistent with a mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling, not detectable under normal calcium diastolic levels. The experimental condition here analysed, partially simulates findings reported under certain pathological situations including heart failure in which mildly increased levels of both diastolic sodium and calcium have also been found. Therefore, under such pathological conditions, hearts should distract chemical energy to fuel processes associated with sodium and calcium handling, making more expensive the maintenance of their functions.

  11. Rewiring of cellular membrane homeostasis by picornaviruses.

    PubMed

    Belov, George A; Sztul, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and utilize host elements to support key viral processes, including penetration of the plasma membrane, initiation of infection, replication, and suppression of the host's antiviral defenses. In this review, we focus on picornaviruses, a family of positive-strand RNA viruses, and discuss the mechanisms by which these viruses hijack the cellular machinery to form and operate membranous replication complexes. Studies aimed at revealing factors required for the establishment of viral replication structures identified several cellular-membrane-remodeling proteins and led to the development of models in which the virus used a preexisting cellular-membrane-shaping pathway "as is" for generating its replication organelles. However, as more data accumulate, this view is being increasingly questioned, and it is becoming clearer that viruses may utilize cellular factors in ways that are distinct from the normal functions of these proteins in uninfected cells. In addition, the proteincentric view is being supplemented by important new studies showing a previously unappreciated deep remodeling of lipid homeostasis, including extreme changes to phospholipid biosynthesis and cholesterol trafficking. The data on viral modifications of lipid biosynthetic pathways are still rudimentary, but it appears once again that the viruses may rewire existing pathways to generate novel functions. Despite remarkable progress, our understanding of how a handful of viral proteins can completely overrun the multilayered, complex mechanisms that control the membrane organization of a eukaryotic cell remains very limited. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Dysregulation of Ion Homeostasis by Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Muend, Sabina; Rao, Rajini

    2012-01-01

    Ion-signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association, and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose-dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane, as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion-signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides. PMID:22493595

  13. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed mechanisms that determine reactive oxygen species (redox) homeostasis, redox information signaling and metabolic/regulatory function of autocrine insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells, and consequences of oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox/information signaling for their dysfunction. We emphasize the role of mitochondrion in β cell molecular physiology and pathology, including the antioxidant role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2. Since in pancreatic β cells pyruvate cannot be easily diverted towards lactate dehydrogenase for lactate formation, the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation intensity are governed by the availability of glucose, leading to a certain ATP/ADP ratio, whereas in other cell types, cell demand dictates respiration/metabolism rates. Moreover, we examine the possibility that type 2 diabetes mellitus might be considered as an inevitable result of progressive self-accelerating oxidative stress and concomitantly dysregulated information signaling in peripheral tissues as well as in pancreatic β cells. It is because the redox signaling is inherent to the insulin receptor signaling mechanism and its impairment leads to the oxidative and nitrosative stress. Also emerging concepts, admiting participation of redox signaling even in glucose sensing and insulin release in pancreatic β cells, fit in this view. For example, NADPH has been firmly established to be a modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. PMID:23304259

  14. Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

  15. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis by antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Muend, Sabina; Rao, Rajini

    2012-01-01

    Ion-signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association, and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose-dependent Ca(2+) burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca(2+) stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane, as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion-signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  16. Gravity and positional homeostasis of the cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nace, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gravity upon cytoplasmic aggregates of the size present in eggs and upon cells is investigated. An expression is developed to describe the tendency of torque to rotate the egg and reorganize its constituents. This expression provides the net torque resulting from buoyancy and gravity acting upon a dumbbell-shaped cell, with heavy and light masses at either end and floating in a medium. Torques of approximately 2.5 x 10 to the -13th to 0.85 dyne-cm are found to act upon cells ranging from 6.4 microns to 31 mm (chicken egg). It is noted that cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity, as demonstrated by results from Skylab 3, where tissue cultures used 58 percent more glucose on earth than in space. The implications for developmental biology, physiology, genetics, and evolution are discussed. It is argued that at the cellular and tissue levels the concept of gravity receptors may be unnecessary.

  17. Nutrition and protein energy homeostasis in elderly.

    PubMed

    Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice; Caumon, Elodie; Cano, Noël J

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy homeostasis is a major determinant of healthy aging. Inadequate nutritional intakes and physical activity, together with endocrine disturbances are associated with of sarcopenia and frailty. Guidelines from scientific societies mainly address the quantitative aspects of protein and energy nutrition in elderly. Besides these quantitative aspects of protein load, perspective strategies to promote muscle protein synthesis and prevent sarcopenia include pulse feeding, the use of fast proteins and the addition of leucine or citrulline to dietary protein. An integrated management of sarcopenia, taking into account the determinants of muscle wasting, i.e. nutrition, physical activity, anabolic factors such as androgens, vitamin D and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids status, needs to be tested in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. The importance of physical activity, specifically resistance training, is emphasized, not only in order to facilitate muscle protein anabolism but also to increase appetite and food intake in elderly people at risk of malnutrition. According to present data, healthy nutrition in elderly should respect the guidelines for protein and energy requirement, privilege a Mediterranean way of alimentation, and be associated with a regular physical activity. Further issues relate to the identification of the genetics determinants of protein energy wasting in elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  19. Neural Control Mechanisms and Body Fluid Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research was to study the nature of afferent signals to the brain that reflect the status of body fluid balance and to investigate the central neural mechanisms that process this information for the activation of response systems which restore body fluid homeostasis. That is, in the face of loss of fluids from intracellular or extracellular fluid compartments, animals seek and ingest water and ionic solutions (particularly Na(+) solutions) to restore the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Over recent years, our laboratory has generated a substantial body of information indicating that: (1) a fall in systemic arterial pressure facilitates the ingestion of rehydrating solutions and (2) that the actions of brain amine systems (e.g., norepinephrine; serotonin) are critical for precise correction of fluid losses. Because both acute and chronic dehydration are associated with physiological stresses, such as exercise and sustained exposure to microgravity, the present research will aid in achieving a better understanding of how vital information is handled by the nervous system for maintenance of the body's fluid matrix which is critical for health and well-being.

  20. Characterization of keratinocyte differentiation induced by ascorbic acid: protein kinase C involvement and vitamin C homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Savini, Isabella; Catani, Maria Valeria; Rossi, Antonello; Duranti, Guglielmo; Melino, Gerry; Avigliano, Luciana

    2002-02-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes undergo differentiation in response to several stimuli to form the cornified envelope, a structure that contributes to the barrier function of skin. Although differentiation has been extensively analyzed, the precise role of vitamin C during this process is still not defined. Ascorbic acid, besides acting as a radical scavenger, has been shown to promote mesenchymal differentiation. In this study, we found that keratinocytes grown in ascorbate-supplemented medium developed a differentiated phenotype, as demonstrated by enhanced expression of marker genes and increase in cornified envelope content. The pro-differentiating effects of ascorbate w