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Sample records for abnormal calcium metabolism

  1. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  2. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    PubMed

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  3. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Results: Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. Conclusion: This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients. PMID:24550954

  4. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-11-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient was also sent for serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate and calcium. Mean age of patients was 38 ± 7.75 years with male to female ratio of 2:1. The main presenting complaint was lumber pain and 82.5% patients were found to have calcium oxalate stones on chemical analysis. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 90.5% patients, whereas there were no metabolic abnormalities in 19 (9.5%) patients. Forty patients (21.5%) only had one metabolic abnormality and 157 (78.5%) patients had multiple metabolic abnormalities. Hyperoxaluria was the most commonly observed metabolic abnormality and was found in 64.5% patients. Other significant metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, hypocitraturia and hyperuricemia. This study concludes that frequency of metabolic abnormalities is very high in patients with urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most important metabolic abnormalities observed in these patients.

  5. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  6. Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2017-01-12

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.

  7. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  8. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  9. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  10. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.

  12. Calcium and Bone Metabolism During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to understand and counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after space station or exploration missions lasting months or years, respectively. Until its deorbit in 2001 , the Mir Space Station provided a valuable platform for long-duration space missions and life sciences research. Long-duration flights are critical for studying bone loss, as the 2- to 3-week Space Shuttle flights are not long enough to detect changes in bone mass. This review will describe human spaceflight data, focusing on biochemical surrogates of bone and calcium metabolism. This subject has been reviewed previously. 1-

  13. Calcium metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Munro

    2010-01-01

    This brief review focuses on calcium balance and homeostasis and their relationship to dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). Calcium balance refers to the state of the calcium body stores, primarily in bone, which are largely a function of dietary intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone remodeling. Bone calcium balance can be positive, neutral, or negative, depending on a number of factors, including growth, aging, and acquired or inherited disorders. Calcium homeostasis refers to the hormonal regulation of serum ionized calcium by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum ionized calcium itself, which together regulate calcium transport at the gut, kidney, and bone. Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia indicate serious disruption of calcium homeostasis but do not reflect calcium balance on their own. Calcium balance studies have determined the dietary and supplemental calcium requirements needed to optimize bone mass in healthy subjects. However, similar studies are needed in CKD-MBD, which disrupts both calcium balance and homeostasis, because these data in healthy subjects may not be generalizable to this patient group. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may enhance soft tissue calcification and cardiovascular disease in CKD-MBD. Further research is needed to elucidate the risks and mechanisms of soft tissue calcification with calcium supplementation in both healthy subjects and CKD-MBD patients.

  14. Quantitative Mineralogical Composition of Calculi and Urine Abnormalities for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers: A Single-Center Results.

    PubMed

    Kustov, Andrey V; Strelnikov, Alexander I

    2018-05-03

    The paper focuses on the relationship of risk factors and metabolic disorders with mineralogical composition of calculi, age and gender of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stone mineralogical composition, 24 hour biochemistry and pH-profile of urine were examined for sixty four stone formers using powder X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. The analysis indicated that 44 % of calculi were composed of pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, whereas other 56 % contained both monohydrate and dihydrate or usually their mixtures with hydroxyl apatite. Hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria were identified as the most frequent disorders. Patients with pure calcium oxalate stones and calcium oxalate mixed with apatite revealed different patterns including age, acid-base balance of urine, calcium, citrate excretion etc.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that most patients simultaneously reveal several risk factors. The special attention should be paid to normalize the daily citrate, calcium and urate excretion. High risk patients, such as postmenopausal females or stone formers with a high apatite content require a specific metabolic evaluation towards in highlighting abnormalities associated with stone formation.

  15. Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to

  16. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  17. [Abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism in acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Biagetti, Betina; Obiols, Gabriel; Valladares, Silvia; Arnez, Lorena; Dalama, Belén; Mesa, Jordi

    2013-11-16

    Carbohydrate metabolism (CHM) is impaired in over 50% of acromegalic patients. Natural history of acromegaly and treatment modalities may impact in a different way on CHM. We assessed CHM alterations in acromegaly and their relationship with clinical features and treatment options. Retrospective study with 55 patients with acromegaly. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, insulin growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) levels and the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) were analyzed before and after surgery or medical treatment. There were 30 men and 25 women. Mean age was 50 ± 17 years and mean BMI was 27.9 ± 3.8 Kg/m(2). Impaired CHM was found in 50.9% (n = 28) (DM in 27% and IFG in 24%). In diabetic patients, we found no differences in age, sex, BMI and IGF-1 levels between IFG/DM and patients without CHM impairment. However, IFG/DM patients had macroadenomas more commonly. In diabetic patients, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased after surgery from 7.6 to 6.7% and after somatostatin analogues from 7.1 to 6.6%; in patients on pegvisomant we observed a significant reduction of HbA1c: from 9.8 to 5.6% (P < .005). Furthermore, only in the pegvisomant group, insulin and/or oral agents had to be lowered. Up to 50% of patients with active acromegaly have CHM impairment which correlates with tumor size. Only pegvisomant is associated with significant improvement in glycemic control and a reduction in hypoglycemic treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphate abnormalities in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Radin, Bethany; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Derangements of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These minerals have vital roles in the cellular physiology of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. This article describes the pathophysiology of these mineral disorders. It aims to provide the emergency practitioner with an overview of the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo calcium metabolism by IRMS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public policy initiatives related to enhancing the health of populations, increasingly seek to identify meaningful biological outcomes on which to determine age-related nutritional requirements. For calcium, the primary outcome of interest is the availability of calcium in the diet for bone formatio...

  20. ABNORMAL ALDOSTERONE PHYSIOLOGY AND CARDIO-METABOLIC RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Anand; Underwood, Patricia C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Ferri, Claudio; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal aldosterone physiology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic diseases. Single aldosterone measurements capture only a limited range of aldosterone physiology. New methods of characterizing aldosterone physiology may provide a more comprehensive understanding of its relationship with cardio-metabolic disease. We evaluated whether novel indices of aldosterone responses to dietary sodium modulation, the Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI for serum and SAUSSI for urine), could predict cardio-metabolic risk factors. We performed cross-sectional analyses on 539 subjects studied on liberal (LIB) and restricted (RES) sodium diets with serum and urinary aldosterone measurements. SASSI and SAUSSI were calculated as the ratio of aldosterone on LIB (maximally suppressed aldosterone) to aldosterone on RES (stimulated aldosterone) diets, and associated with risk factors using adjusted regression models. Cardio-metabolic risk factors associated with either impaired suppression of aldosterone on LIB diet, or impaired stimulation on RES diet, or both; in all of these individual cases, these risk factors associated with higher SASSI or SAUSSI. In the context of abnormalities that comprise the metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was a strong positive association between the number of MetS components (0–4) and both SASSI and SAUSSI (P<0.0001) that was independent of known aldosterone secretagogues (angiotensin II, corticotropin, potassium). SASSI and SAUSSI exhibited a high sensitivity in detecting normal individuals with zero MetS components (86% for SASSI and 83% for SAUSSI). Assessing the physiologic range of aldosterone responses may provide greater insights into adrenal pathophysiology. Dysregulated aldosterone physiology may contribute to, and/or result from, early cardio-metabolic abnormalities. PMID:23399714

  1. [The peculiarities of calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development].

    PubMed

    Moĭsa, S S; Nozdrachev, A D

    2014-01-01

    The review contains literature data about calcium metabolism regulation in different periods of growth and development. The analyses of retrospective and current sources of information about the regulation of calcium homeostasis under the theory of functional systems, the regulation of calcium metabolism in prenatal and postnatal periods of the development, the significance of calcium metabolism disturbances in the development of pathological conditions were showed.

  2. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    PubMed Central

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  3. CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN OSTEOMALACIA

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Lee Monroe; Feng, Chih-Tung

    1925-01-01

    Osteomalacia is a diet deficiency disease of the same category as rickets. The deficiency is principally in the fat-soluble vitamine content of the diet, though there may be a calcium deficiency at the same time. The disease may be prevented by providing a diet rich in the fat-soluble vitamine content, and may be cured by adding the same to the diet. PMID:19868970

  4. Abnormal islet sphingolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holm, Laurits J; Krogvold, Lars; Hasselby, Jane P; Kaur, Simranjeet; Claessens, Laura A; Russell, Mark A; Mathews, Clayton E; Hanssen, Kristian F; Morgan, Noel G; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Gerling, Ivan C; Pociot, Flemming; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Buschard, Karsten

    2018-07-01

    Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes and whether increasing the levels of the sphingolipid sulfatide would prevent models of diabetes in NOD mice. We examined the amount and distribution of sulfatide in human pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we treated NOD mice with fenofibrate, a known activator of sulfatide biosynthesis, to evaluate the effect on experimental autoimmune diabetes development. We found reduced amounts of sulfatide, 23% of the levels in control participants, in pancreatic islets of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. These gene polymorphisms correlated with the degree of cellular islet autoimmunity in a cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Finally, using fenofibrate, which activates sulfatide biosynthesis, we completely prevented diabetes in NOD mice and even reversed the disease in half of otherwise diabetic animals. These results indicate that islet sphingolipid metabolism is abnormal in type 1 diabetes and suggest that modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach. The RNA expression data is

  5. Disorders of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium metabolism in the neonate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 98% of the calcium, 80% of the phosphorus, and 65% of the magnesium in the body are in the skeleton. These elements, often referred to as the "bone minerals" are also constituents of the intracellular and extracellular spaces. The metabolism of these bone minerals and mineralization of...

  6. Exacerbated immune stress response during experimental magnesium deficiency results from abnormal cell calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Rock, E; Astier, C; Nowacki, W; Mazur, A; Rayssiguier, Y

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential mechanism underlying the enhanced inflammatory processes during magnesium deficit. In this study, exacerbated response to live bacteria and platelet activating factors was shown in rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet. Peritoneal cells from these animals also showed enhanced superoxide anion production and calcium mobilising potency following in vitro stimulation. The latter effect occurred very early in the course of magnesium deficiency. These studies first showed that an abnormal calcium handling induced by extracellular magnesium depression in vivo may be at the origin of exacerbated inflammatory response.

  7. Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

  8. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited.

    PubMed

    Kerstetter, Jane E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Insogna, Karl L

    2003-09-01

    High dietary protein intakes are known to increase urinary calcium excretion and, if maintained, will result in sustained hypercalciuria. To date, the majority of calcium balance studies in humans have not detected an effect of dietary protein on intestinal calcium absorption or serum parathyroid hormone. Therefore, it is commonly concluded that the source of the excess urinary calcium is increased bone resorption. Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that alterations in dietary protein can, in fact, profoundly affect intestinal calcium absorption. In short-term dietary trials in healthy adults, we fixed calcium intake at 20 mmol/d while dietary protein was increased from 0.7 to 2.1 g/kg. Increasing dietary protein induced hypercalciuria in 20 women [from 3.4 +/- 0.3 ( +/- SE) during the low-protein to 5.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/d during the high-protein diet]. The increased dietary protein was accompanied by a significant increase in intestinal calcium absorption from 18.4 +/- 1.3% to 26.3 +/- 1.5% (as determined by dual stable isotopic methodology). Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet-induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both.

  9. [The fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and the relation with hypercalciuria and phosphocalcium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; del Carmen Cano-García, María; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    To determine the importance of fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and its relation with hypercalciuria and phospho-calcium metabolism. Cross-sectional study including 143 patients divided into two groups according to fasting calcium/creatinine. Group 1: 66 patients (calcium/ creatinine<0.11); Group 2: 77 patients (calcium/ creatinine>0.11). A comparative study is performed between groups including phospho-calcium metabolism parameters and excretion of urinary lithogenic markers. Linear correlation studying calciuria and fasting calcium/ creatinine was performed. SPSS 17.0 statistical analysis software was used, considering p≤0.05. It is noteworthy that group 2 had increased 24 h urine calcium excretion in comparison to group 1 (229.3 vs 158.1; p=0.0001) and calcium/citrate (0.47 vs 0.34; p=0.001). There is a positive and significant correlation between calcium levels in 24 h urine and fasting calcium/creatinine (R=0.455; p=0.0001) and a cutoff is set at 0.127 (sensitivity 72%, specificity 66%) to determine hypercalciuria (>260 mg in 24 h). Increased fasting calcium/creatinine determines increased 24 hours calcium excretion, although the sensitivity and specificity to determine hypercalciuria is not high.

  10. Calcium-phosphate metabolism in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kubicka-Baczyk, K; Labuz-Roszak, B; Pierzchala, K; Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Machowska-Majchrzak, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism at different periods of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Forty-five patients, residents of Poland (49°-50°, N), were enrolled in the study, i.e. 15 immediately after the diagnosis of RRMS, 15 at the early stage and 15 at the advanced stage of RRMS. The results were compared to values obtained in 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Lower serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and ionised calcium were found in patients compared to the control group. In patients with the disease duration of 5-6 years, concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and ionised calcium were lower than in patients in the earlier period of RRMS. The inverse and clearer direction of changes was found in parathormone serum concentration in patients compared to the controls. In patients with a longer disease duration, a significantly lower 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was found in female patients compared to male patients. In patients, more frequent 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and unsaturated fatty acids' supplementation was observed compared to the controls. In RRMS patients, calcium-phosphate metabolism is disturbed which increases during disease progression.

  11. Subclinical metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in prepubertal Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Romero, Juana B; Briones, Evangelina; Palacios, Gerardo C; Castelán, Kathia

    2010-06-01

    Childhood obesity has increased to epidemic levels and is considered a public health problem due to its association with a number of metabolic abnormalities, which are being detected at earlier stages of life. The objective was to evaluate the association between the presence of subclinical metabolic abnormalities (SMA) and obesity in a sample of pre-pubertal Mexican schoolchildren. Children of both sexes and 6 to 13 years old were questioned for signs of puberty, underwent anthropometric measurement and had their Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. Two groups were formed: those with obesity (case group) and those with normal weight paired by age and chosen randomly (control group). Fasting insulin, glucose and cholesterol were measured. 92 children were included, 46 in each group, mean age 9.9 and 9.5 years old, respectively (p = 0.97). A higher frequency of hyperinsulinism was found in the case group: Fasting insulin > 15 mU/ml, 75% vs. 21% (case group vs. control group, respectively); fasting glucose to insulin ratio < 6, 72% vs. 24%; HOMA IR > 2.7, 83% vs. 14%; and decrease in QUICKI (< 0.3), 80% vs. 19% (p = 0.000). Hypercholesterolemia was 25% vs. 15% (p = 0.22), impaired fasting glucose 28% vs. 8% (p = 0.01), and family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) 35% vs. 9% (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 1.5-22.2; p = 0.002). In this sample of Mexican schoolchildren, obesity was associated to a higher frequency of SMA, such as hyperinsulinism and impaired fasting glucose, and to a family history of DM.

  12. Space-flight simulations of calcium metabolism using a mathematical model of calcium regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a series of simulation studies of calcium matabolic changes which have been recorded during human exposure to bed rest and space flight are presented. Space flight and bed rest data demonstrate losses of total body calcium during exposure to hypogravic environments. These losses are evidenced by higher than normal rates of urine calcium excretion and by negative calcium balances. In addition, intestinal absorption rates and bone mineral content are assumed to decrease. The bed rest and space flight simulations were executed on a mathematical model of the calcium metabolic system. The purpose of the simulations is to theoretically test hypotheses and predict system responses which are occurring during given experimental stresses. In this case, hypogravity occurs through the comparison of simulation and experimental data and through the analysis of model structure and system responses. The model reliably simulates the responses of selected bed rest and space flight parameters. When experimental data are available, the simulated skeletal responses and regulatory factors involved in the responses agree with space flight data collected on rodents. In addition, areas within the model that need improvement are identified.

  13. Inflammation in metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    González-Gil, E M; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Santabárbara, J; Bueno-Lozano, G; Iglesia, I; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Kafatos, A; Widhalm, K; Manios, Y; Siani, A; Amaro-Gahete, F; Rupérez, A I; Cañada, D; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Dallongeville, J; Marcos, A; Ortega, F B; Moreno, L A

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation may influence the cardio-metabolic profile which relates with the risk of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the inflammatory status by metabolic health (MH)/body mass index (BMI) category and to assess how inflammatory markers can predict the cardio-metabolic profile in European adolescents, considering BMI. A total of 659 adolescents (295 boys) from a cross-sectional European study were included. Adolescents were classified by metabolic health based on age- and sex-specific cut-off points for glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, high density cholesterol and BMI. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), complement factors (C3, C4) and cell adhesion molecules were assessed. Metabolically abnormal (MA) adolescents had higher values of C3 (p < 0.001) and C4 (p = 0.032) compared to those metabolically healthy (MHy). C3 concentrations significantly increased with the deterioration of the metabolic health and BMI (p < 0.001). Adolescents with higher values of CRP had higher probability of being in the overweight/obese-MH group than those allocated in other categories. Finally, high C3 and C4 concentrations increased the probability of having an unfavorable metabolic/BMI status. Metabolic/BMI status and inflammatory biomarkers are associated, being the CRP, C3 and C4 the most related inflammatory markers with this condition. C3 and C4 were associated with the cardio-metabolic health consistently. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic, Reproductive, and Neurologic Abnormalities in Agpat1-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil K; Tunison, Katie; Dalal, Jasbir S; Nagamma, Sneha S; Hamra, F Kent; Sankella, Shireesha; Shao, Xinli; Auchus, Richard J; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2017-11-01

    Defects in the biosynthesis of phospholipids and neutral lipids are associated with cell membrane dysfunction, disrupted energy metabolism, and diseases including lipodystrophy. In these pathways, the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) enzymes transfer a fatty acid to the sn-2 carbon of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid) to form sn-1, 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate [phosphatidic acid (PA)]. PA is a precursor for key phospholipids and diacylglycerol. AGPAT1 and AGPAT2 are highly homologous isoenzymes that are both expressed in adipocytes. Genetic defects in AGPAT2 cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy, indicating that AGPAT1 cannot compensate for loss of AGPAT2 in adipocytes. To further explore the physiology of AGPAT1, we characterized a loss-of-function mouse model (Agpat1-/-). The majority of Agpat1-/- mice died before weaning and had low body weight and low plasma glucose levels, independent of plasma insulin and glucagon levels, with reduced percentage of body fat but not generalized lipodystrophy. These mice also had decreased hepatic messenger RNA expression of Igf-1 and Foxo1, suggesting a decrease in gluconeogenesis. In male mice, sperm development was impaired, with a late meiotic arrest near the onset of round spermatid production, and gonadotropins were elevated. Female mice showed oligoanovulation yet retained responsiveness to gonadotropins. Agpat1-/- mice also demonstrated abnormal hippocampal neuron development and developed audiogenic seizures. In summary, Agpat1-/- mice developed widespread disturbances of metabolism, sperm development, and neurologic function resulting from disrupted phospholipid homeostasis. AGPAT1 appears to serve important functions in the physiology of multiple organ systems. The Agpat1-deficient mouse provides an important model in which to study the contribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis to physiology and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism in dogs given intravenous triacetin.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J W; Heath, H; Miles, J M

    1989-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that acetate in parenteral solutions may adversely affect mineral metabolism by causing sequestration of inorganic phosphate and calcium in the liver. In this study, triacetin, a short-chain triglyceride of acetate and a potential parenteral nutrient, was infused for 3 h at an isocaloric rate in mongrel dogs (n = 6) to test its effects on serum phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium metabolism. There was no change in serum P or Ca. The serum Mg concentration decreased from 0.7 +/- 0.03 to 0.57 +/- 0.03 mmol/L (p less than 0.001) by 90 min and remained at this level for the remainder of the study. The triacetin infusion did not influence fractional urinary Mg excretion; thus, the decrease in serum Mg was likely because of an increase in cellular transport of this cation. A short-chain triglyceride administered to dogs at a rate approximating resting energy expenditure has no demonstrable adverse effects on mineral metabolism.

  16. Psychosocial stress predicts abnormal glucose metabolism: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily D; Magliano, Dianna J; Tapp, Robyn J; Oldenburg, Brian F; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2013-08-01

    The evidence supporting a relationship between stress and diabetes has been inconsistent. This study examined the effects of stress on abnormal glucose metabolism, using a population-based sample of 3,759, with normoglycemia at baseline, from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Perceived stress and stressful life events were measured at baseline, with health behavior and anthropometric information also collected. Oral glucose tolerance tests were undertaken at baseline and 5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), according to WHO 1999 criteria. Perceived stress predicted incident abnormal glucose metabolism in women but not men, after multivariate adjustment. Life events showed an inconsistent relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism. Perceived stress predicted abnormal glucose metabolism in women. Healthcare professionals should consider psychosocial adversity when assessing risk factor profiles for the development of diabetes.

  17. Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Calcinist Point of View.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary E; Thakkar, Ankita

    2017-06-01

    Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calcium result when AD-like changes in mitochondrial enzymes or oxidative stress are induced experimentally. The calcium abnormalities can be directly linked to the altered tau phosphorylation, amyloid precursor protein processing and synaptic dysfunction that are defining features of AD. A better understanding of these changes is required before using calcium abnormalities as therapeutic targets.

  18. Effect of phosphorus and calcium on zinc metabolism in man

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, H.; Kramer, L.; Lesniak, M.

    The effect of phosphorus on zinc metabolism was studied in adult men receiving different calcium intakes ranging from 200 to 2000 mg/day. The diet and urinary and fecal excretions were analyzed for Zn, P and Ca. Metabolic balances of these elements were determined for several weeks in each study phase. In control studies the dietary intake was 800 mg/day and in the experimental studies it was increased to 2000 mg/day by adding sodium glycerophosphate to the constant diet. The dietary Zn intake averaged 14.5 mg/day in the different studies. These studies have shown that increasing the P intake by amore » factor of 2.5, from 800 to 2000 mg/day, did not affect urinary or fecal Zn excretions nor the Zn balance. Similar results were obtained on increasing the Ca intake from 200 to 2000 mg/day.« less

  19. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Queen, Saulette R; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Laing, Susan T

    2012-04-01

    Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.

  20. Variable Association between Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Ko, Kwan-Ho; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Little is known, however, about the association between individual components of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities, especially in Asian populations. Methods We examined clinical and laboratory data from 31,399 subjects (age 20 to 89 years) who underwent medical check-ups. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode criteria. Ischemic ECG findings were separately identified and analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rates of ECG abnormalities were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Ischemic ECG was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in all age groups of both sexes, except for younger women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with ischemic ECG (odds ratio, 2.30 [2.04 to 2.62]; p < 0.01), after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, hyperglycemia in younger subjects and hypertension in elderly subjects were major factors for ischemic ECG changes, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was not an independent risk factor in any age group. The association between ischemic ECG findings and central obesity was weaker in women than in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex. PMID:20526391

  1. EFFECTS OF LINDANE AND LINURON ON CALCIUM METABOLISM, MORPHOMETRY, AND THE KIDNEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of lindane and linuron on calcium metabolism, bone morphometry and the kidney. xperiments were performed to investigate the effects of lindane and linuron on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry and nephrotoxicity. ong-Evans hooded rats were dosed daily for 10 weeks ...

  2. [Aging and homeostasis. Management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with ageing.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis.

  3. [Quantitative mineralogical analyzes of kidney stones and diagnosing metabolic disorders in female patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kustov, A V; Moryganov, M A; Strel'nikov, A I; Zhuravleva, N I; Airapetyan, A O

    2016-02-01

    To conduct a complex examination of female patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis to detect metabolic disorders, leading to stone formation. The study was carried out using complex physical and chemical methods, including quantitative X-ray phase analysis of urinary stones, pH measurement, volumetry, urine and blood spectrophotometry. Quantitative mineralogical composition of stones, daily urine pH profile, daily urinary excretion of ions of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, phosphate, citrate and uric acid were determined in 20 female patients with calcium oxalate stones. We have shown that most of the stones comprised calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixtures of calcium oxalate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite. Among the identified abnormalities, the most frequent were hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria - 90 and 45%, respectively. Our findings revealed that the daily secretion of citrate and oxalate in patients older than 50 years was significantly lower than in younger patients. In conclusion, daily urinary citrate excretion should be measured in female patients with calcium oxalate stones. This is necessary both to determine the causes of stone formation, and to monitor the effectiveness of citrate therapy.

  4. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Angela K; Jacques, Paul F; Rogers, Gail; Fox, Caroline S; Meigs, James B; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. Adults were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese and, within these categories, metabolic health was defined based on five criteria-hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance. Individuals without metabolic abnormalities were considered metabolically healthy. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between categories of SSB consumption and risk of metabolic health after stratification by BMI. Comparing the highest category of SSB consumers (median of 7 SSB per week) to the lowest category (non-consumers), odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolically abnormal phenotypes, compared to the metabolically normal, were 1.9 (1.1-3.4) among the obese, 2.0 (1.4-2.9) among the overweight, and 1.9 (1.4-2.6) among the normal weight individuals. In this cross-sectional analysis, it is observed that, irrespective of weight status, consumers of SSB were more likely to display metabolic abnormalities compared to non-consumers in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Metabolic abnormalities in adult and geriatric major depression with and without comorbid dementia.

    PubMed

    Blank, Karen; Szarek, Bonnie L; Goethe, John W

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increasingly have been linked to depression. The authors studied examined inpatients 35 years and older with major depressive disorder (MDD) to determine the prevalence of component metabolic abnormalities and the full MetS with age, treatment, and comorbid dementia. Data analysis involved retrospective cross-sectional review from a nonprofit psychiatry inpatient service of all discharges 35 years and older with a diagnosis of MDD during a 3 year period (April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2006) (N=1718). Metabolic measures included waist circumference, lipid measurements, glucose, and hypertension diagnosis. Abnormal metabolic measures and MetS were highly prevalent in both young and old patients with MDD: one or more component was present in 87.6% of older (65-99 years old) and 79.9% of younger patients. Full MetS was present in 31.5% of older and 28.9% of younger patients (not significant, P=0.85). Metabolic abnormalities were not associated with atypical antipsychotics after controlling other variables. One-quarter (n=79, 24.9%) of older inpatients had a dementia co-diagnosis. Older patients with MDD and dementia had greater risk of elevated glucose while younger patients were more often hypertensive. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the relationships of MDD with or without dementia with these highly prevalent abnormal metabolic measures and MetS. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the...

  8. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  9. Primary hypertension is a disease of premature vascular aging associated with neuro-immuno-metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Niemirska, Anna; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasing amount of data indicating that primary hypertension (PH) is not only a hemodynamic phenomenon but also a complex syndrome involving abnormal fat tissue distribution, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), metabolic abnormalities, and activation of the immune system. In children, PH usually presents with a typical phenotype of disturbed body composition, accelerated biological maturity, and subtle immunological and metabolic abnormalities. This stage of the disease is potentially reversible. However, long-lasting over-activity of the SNS and immuno-metabolic alterations usually lead to an irreversible stage of cardiovascular disease. We describe an intermediate phenotype of children with PH, showing that PH is associated with accelerated development, i.e., early premature aging of the immune, metabolic, and vascular systems. The associations and determinants of hypertensive organ damage, the principles of treatment, and the possibility of rejuvenation of the cardiovascular system are discussed.

  10. Metabolic abnormalities in pituitary adenoma patients: a novel therapeutic target and prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Li, Song; Zhang, Wei-hua; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in cancers, and targeting metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach to cancer management. Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a type of benign tumor. Impairment of tumor cells’ metabolism in PA seems not to be as apparent as that of other malignant tumor cells; however, aberrant hormone secretion is conspicuous in most PAs. Hormones have direct impacts on systemic metabolism, which in turn, may affect the progression of PA. Nowadays, conventional therapeutic strategies for PA do not include modalities of adjusting whole-body metabolism, which is most likely due to the current consideration of the aberrant whole-body metabolism of PA patients as a passive associated symptom and not involved in PA progression. Because systemic metabolic abnormalities are presented by 22.3%–52.5% PA patients and are closely correlated with disease progression and prognosis, we propose that assessment of metabolic status should be emphasized during the treatment of PA and that control of metabolic abnormalities should be added into the current therapies for PA. PMID:26347444

  11. Energy Homeostasis and Abnormal RNA Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chern, Yijuang

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness and impaired voluntary movement due to the loss of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. To date, no effective treatment is available. Ample evidence suggests that impaired RNA homeostasis and abnormal energy status are two major pathogenesis pathways in ALS. In the present review article, we focus on recent studies that report molecular insights of both pathways, and discuss the possibility that energy dysfunction might negatively regulate RNA homeostasis via the impairment of cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling in motor neurons and subsequently contribute to the development of ALS. PMID:28522961

  12. Calcium homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism and expression in strongly calcifying laying birds.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arie

    2008-12-01

    Egg laying and shell calcification impose severe extra demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis; especially in birds characterized by their long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"). These demands induce vitamin D metabolism and expression. The metabolism of vitamin D is also altered indirectly, by other processes associated with increased demands for calcium, such as growth, bone formation and egg production. A series of intestinal, renal or bone proteins are consequently expressed in the target organs via mechanisms involving a vitamin D receptor. Some of these proteins (carbonic anhydrase, calbindin and calcium-ATPase) are also found in the uterus (eggshell gland) or are believed to be involved in calcium transport in the intestine or kidney (calcium channels). The present review deals with vitamin D metabolism and the expression of the above-mentioned proteins in birds, with special attention to the strongly calcifying laying bird.

  13. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2010-10-06

    Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention

  14. Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in a canine model for muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Andressa R; Brunetto, Márcio A; Brólio, Marina P; Cima, Daniela S; Miglino, Maria A; Santos, João Paulo F; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3). Higher plasma resting glucose levels ( P = 0·0047) were seen in G2 and G3 compared with G1, as was the case for minimum ( P = <0·0001), mean ( P = 0·0002) and maximum ( P = 0·0359) glucose values for G3 compared with G1. Fructosamine concentrations were in accordance with reference values found in the literature for dogs. Insulin levels were lower in G3 compared with G1 ( P = 0·0065); however, there was no evidence of insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment index values obtained. As for the evaluation of postprandial responses, fluctuations of glucose ( P = 0·0007) and insulin ( P = 0·0149) were observed in G1 and G2, while in G3 the values remained constant. The results allowed us to identify metabolic changes related to carbohydrate metabolism in GRMD dogs, highlighting the importance of adequate food management for these animals.

  15. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  16. Interactions between calcium precipitation and the polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria metabolism.

    PubMed

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borrás, L; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2008-07-01

    A sequencing batch reactor that is operated for biological phosphorus removal has been operated under different influent calcium concentrations to study the precipitation process and the possible effects of phosphorus precipitation in the biological phosphorus removal process. Four experiments were carried out under different influent calcium concentrations ranging from 10 to 90 g Ca m(-3). The experimental results and the equilibrium study, which are based on the saturation index calculation, confirm that the process controlling the calcium behaviour is the calcium phosphate precipitation. This precipitation takes place at two stages: initially, precipitation of the amorphous calcium phosphate, and later crystallization of hydroxyapatite. Also the accumulation of phosphorus precipitated was observed when the influent calcium concentration was increased. In all the experiments, the influent wastewater ratio P/COD was kept constant. It has been observed that, at high calcium concentration, the ratio between phosphate release and acetate uptake (P(rel)/Ac(uptake)) decreases. Changes in the polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) population and in the glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) population during the experimental period were ruled out by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results could suggest that PAO are able to change their metabolic pathways based on external conditions, such as influent calcium concentration. The accumulation of phosphorus precipitated as calcium phosphate at high influent calcium concentration throughout the experimental period confirmed that phosphate precipitation is a process that can affect the PAO metabolism.

  17. [The lipid metabolism abnormality in patients administered with olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Amano, Taku; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Takami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Chie; Oda, Kazue; Morikawa, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine is a useful agent in acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms, an early onset of antipsychotic action and a favourable side effect profile. On the other hand, olanzapine has many reports of causing weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. We carried out blood tests (leptin, adiponectin, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, HbA1C, 75-OGTT and etc.) on patients with schizophrenia who had taken olanzapine. As a result, leptin, neutral lipid and RLP-C were significantly correlated by BMI. (The average blood test data and BMI revealed a normal range). Most analysis results of the lipoprotein fraction by a polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis method were normal patterns. Furthermore, the serum insulin concentrations from 75 g glucose tolerance (75 g-OGTT) 30 minutes later, in one third of patients receiving olanzapine, registered more than 100 microU/ml. The mechanism of the insulin secretion rise by olannzapine is unknown. Olanzapine may impair glucose tolerance due in part to increased insulin resistance. These findings do not necessarily imply that olanzapine is directly associated with a risk of impairment of weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. These results suggest that it is useful to promote diet cure and exercise therapy with patients with high BMI levels.

  18. Novel Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Novel Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. PMID:26278462

  20. Current concepts of metabolic abnormalities in HIV patients: focus on lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kolter, Donald P

    2003-12-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities, including lipodystrophy, a difficult-to-define disorder whose characteristics include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution. Current data suggest that lipodystrophy is caused by multiple factors. Dual-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy combined with protease inhibitor therapy has been shown to increase the risk of metabolic abnormalities, but susceptibility independent of drug effects has also been shown. While many of the treatments for the broad range of signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy bring about improvements in patient status, none have been demonstrated to bring about a return to baseline levels.

  1. The importance of sensitive screening for abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Jingyuan; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Ya; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) and the related risk factors in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We analyzed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and clinical data of 107 IgAN patients and 106 healthy controls. Glucose metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of both groups were evaluated. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the IgAN group than in the control group (41.12% vs. 9.43%, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of IR between the two groups was not significantly different. IgAN patients have significantly higher fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, OGTT 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower ISI than healthy controls. Triglyceride (OR = 2.55), 24-hour urine protein excretion (OR = 1.39), and age (OR = 1.06) were independent risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in IgAN patients. BMI, eGFR, 24-hour urine protein excretion, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, and OGTT 2-hour insulin were significantly higher in IgAN patients with IR than in IgAN patients without IR, while HDL and ISI were significantly lower. BMI, serum albumin, and 24-hour urine protein excretion were correlated factors of IR in IgAN patients. Our study highlighted that abnormal glucose metabolism was common in IgAN patients. Triglyceride and 24-hour urine protein excretion were significant risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, sensitive screening for glucose metabolism status and timely intervention should be carried out in clinical work.

  2. Bone Markers, Calcium Metabolism, and Calcium Kinetics During Extended-Duration Space Flight on the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.; Morukov, Boris V.; Larina, Irina M.; Abrams, Steven A.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Oganov, Victor; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss is a current limitation for long-term space exploration. Bone markers, calcitropic hormones, and calcium kinetics of crew members on space missions of 4-6 months were evaluated. Spaceflight-induced bone loss was associated with increased bone resorption and decreased calcium absorption. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss is a significant concern for the health of astronauts on long-duration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract these losses during space flight and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report here results from two studies conducted during the Shuttle-Mir Science Program. Study 1 was an evaluation of bone and calcium biochemical markers of 13 subjects before and after long-duration (4-6 months) space missions. In study 2, stable calcium isotopes were used to evaluate calcium metabolism in six subjects before, during, and after flight. Relationships between measures of bone turnover, biochemical markers, and calcium kinetics were examined. RESULTS: Pre- and postflight study results confirmed that, after landing, bone resorption was increased, as indicated by increases in urinary calcium (p < 0.05) and collagen cross-links (N-telopeptide, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were all increased >55% above preflight levels, p < 0.001). Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites were unchanged at landing. Biochemical markers of bone formation were unchanged at landing, but 2-3 weeks later, both bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly (p < 0.01) increased above preflight levels. In studies conducted during flight, bone resorption markers were also significantly higher than before flight. The calcium kinetic data also validated that bone resorption was increased during flight compared with preflight values (668 +/- 130 versus 427 +/- 153 mg/day; p < 0.001) and clearly documented that

  3. Heterogeneities in Myocardial Flow and Metabolism: Exacerbation with Abnormal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Because regional myocardial blood flows are remarkably heterogeneous—with a 6- to 10-fold range of flows in normal hearts—and because the spatial profiles of the flows are stable over long periods and over a range of conditions, the relation between flows and other physiologic functions has been explored. Local fatty acid uptake and oxygen consumption are almost linearly related to the flows. Coronary network structure and hydrodynamic resistances give suitable flow heterogeneity but are thought to be a response to local needs rather than being causative. Presumably the cause is the need for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis locally, and therefore flows, substrate delivery, and oxygen utilization are driven primarily by local rates of ATP hydrolysis, mainly by contractile proteins. This hypothesis is by no means fully tested. Data on pacing dog hearts from different sites, on patients with left bundle branch block, and on unloading transplanted rat hearts, all point in the same direction: unloading ventricular muscle leads to diminished flow and exaggeratedly diminished glucose uptake. The mechanism is likely to be that discovered by Taegtmeyer and colleagues, namely, the expression of fetal genes in regions where the muscle is unloaded and particular metabolic enzymes and transporters are downregulated. PMID:10750580

  4. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  5. Abnormalities in Human Brain Creatine Metabolism in Gulf War Illness Probed with MRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2012 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Abnormalities in Human Brain Creatine Metabolism in...levels of total creatine (tCr) in veterans with Gulf War Illness have been observed in prior studies. The goal of this research is to estimate amounts and

  6. Abnormal Transmethylation/Transsulfuration Metabolism and DNA Hypomethylation among Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, S. Jill; Melnyk, Stepan; Jernigan, Stefanie; Hubanks, Amanda; Rose, Shannon; Gaylor, David W.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated metabolic profile reflects the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that affect the candidate pathway of interest. Recent evidence suggests that some autistic children may have reduced detoxification capacity and may be under chronic oxidative stress. Based on reports of abnormal methionine and…

  7. Derangement of calcium metabolism in diabetes mellitus: negative outcome from the synergy between impaired bone turnover and intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-01-01

    Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength. The underlying cellular mechanisms (cellular failure) are related to suppression of osteoblast-induced bone formation and bone calcium accretion, as well as to enhancement of osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Several other T2DM-related pathophysiological changes, e.g., osteoblast insulin resistance, impaired productions of osteogenic growth factors (particularly insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone morphogenetic proteins), overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, also aggravate diabetic osteopathy. In the kidney, DM and the resultant hyperglycemia lead to calciuresis and hypercalciuria in both humans and rodents. Furthermore, DM causes deranged functions of endocrine factors related to mineral metabolism, e.g., parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and fibroblast growth factor-23. Despite the wealth of information regarding impaired bone remodeling in DM, the long-lasting effects of DM on calcium metabolism in young growing individuals, pregnant women, and neonates born to women with gestational DM have received scant attention, and their underlying mechanisms are almost unknown and worth exploring.

  8. [Strontium and calcium metabolism. Interaction of strontium and vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Rousselet, F; El Solh, N; Maurat, J P; Gruson, M; Girard, M L

    1975-01-01

    Oral administration of strontium to calcium wellfed rats blocks the intestinal absorption of calcium. When high doses of vitamine D are given over long period, the inhibition of calcium intestinal absorption disapears. Under these conditions the absorption of strontium is increased. It is suggested that there is only one absorption mechanism for these two cations. An overdose of the vitamine D increases the renal elimination of strontium but under these conditions the plasma concentration of the strontium is unchanged. Vitamine D brings about the some action on the bone fixation of the strontium as it does on the bone fixation of calcium. The bone fixation is increased with low dosages. The bone fixation is decreased with high dosages.

  9. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  10. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  11. Acquired partial lipodystrophy is associated with increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Baris; Koseoglu, Fatos Dilan; Onay, Huseyin; Yavuz, Sevgi; Altay, Canan; Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Ozisik, Secil; Demir, Leyla; Korkut, Meltem; Yilmaz, Nusret; Ozen, Samim; Akinci, Gulcin; Atik, Tahir; Calan, Mehmet; Secil, Mustafa; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Demir, Tevfik

    2015-09-01

    Acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive selective fat loss. In previous studies, metabolic abnormalities were reported to be relatively rare in APL, whilst they were quite common in other types of lipodystrophy syndromes. In this nationwide cohort study, we evaluated 21 Turkish patients with APL who were enrolled in a prospective follow-up protocol. Subjects were investigated for metabolic abnormalities. Fat distribution was assessed by whole body MRI. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated by ultrasound, MRI and MR spectroscopy. Patients with diabetes underwent a mix meal stimulated C-peptide/insulin test to investigate pancreatic beta cell functions. Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Fifteen individuals (71.4%) had at least one metabolic abnormality. Six patients (28.6%) had diabetes, 12 (57.1%) hypertrigylceridemia, 10 (47.6%) low HDL cholesterol, and 11 (52.4%) hepatic steatosis. Steatohepatitis was further confirmed in 2 patients with liver biopsy. Anti-GAD was negative in all APL patients with diabetes. APL patients with diabetes had lower leptin and adiponectin levels compared to patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. However, contrary to what we observed in patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), we did not detect consistently very low leptin levels in APL patients. The mix meal test suggested that APL patients with diabetes had a significant amount of functional pancreatic beta cells, and their diabetes was apparently associated with insulin resistance. Our results show that APL is associated with increased risk for developing metabolic abnormalities. We suggest that close long-term follow-up is required to identify and manage metabolic abnormalities in APL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of metabolic syndrome with endometrial pathologies in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Suna; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Celik, Cetin; Incesu, Feyzanur; Peru, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk factors with endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma among women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). This study included 199 patients who had undergone endometrial curettage due to abnormal uterine bleeding. We divided the patients into two groups according to whether they had an abnormal (n = 53) or normal endometrium (n = 146). Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid levels were measured and statistically analyzed. The women in each group were matched with regard to mean age, gravidity, parity and menopausal status. We found increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated levels of glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol among women with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. These results were detected particularly in postmenopausal (>50 years) women compared to pre-menopausal cases (<50 years). All metabolic parameters were similar between hyperplasia and cancer groups. Metabolic syndrome and its components have been shown to have profound impacts on initiation and progession of endometrial pathology, particularly during post-menopausal period.

  13. Calcium metabolism before, during, and after a 3-mo spaceflight: kinetic and biochemical changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Morukov, B. V.; Larina, I. M.; Nyquist, L. E.; Abrams, S. A.; Taran, E. N.; Shih, C. Y.; Nillen, J. L.; Davis-Street, J. E.; hide

    1999-01-01

    The loss of bone during spaceflight is considered a physiological obstacle for the exploration of other planets. This report of calcium metabolism before, during, and after long-duration spaceflight extends results from Skylab missions in the 1970s. Biochemical and endocrine indexes of calcium and bone metabolism were measured together with calcium absorption, excretion, and bone turnover using stable isotopes. Studies were conducted before, during, and after flight in three male subjects. Subjects varied in physical activity, yet all lost weight during flight. During flight, calcium intake and absorption decreased up to 50%, urinary calcium excretion increased up to 50%, and bone resorption (determined by kinetics or bone markers) increased by over 50%. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, markers of bone formation, increased after flight. Subjects lost approximately 250 mg bone calcium per day during flight and regained bone calcium at a slower rate of approximately 100 mg/day for up to 3 mo after landing. Further studies are required to determine the time course of changes in calcium homeostasis during flight to develop and assess countermeasures against flight-induced bone loss.

  14. Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer’s Disease - A Calcinist Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Thakkar, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calcium result when AD-like changes in mitochondrial enzymes or oxidative stress are induced experimentally. The calcium abnormalities can be directly linked to the altered tau phosphorylation, amyloid precursor protein processing and synaptic dysfunction that are defining features of AD. A better understanding of these changes is required before using calcium abnormalities as therapeutic targets. PMID:28181072

  15. [Non-linear canonical correlation analysis between anthropometric indicators and multiple metabolic abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Li; Ping, Zhiguang; Li, Linlin

    2013-09-01

    To define the general correlation between anthropometric indicators and multiple metabolic abnormalities, and to put forward some particular suggestions for the prevention of multiple metabolic abnormalities. A random cluster sampling was carried out in one county of Henan Province. Questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical tests were admitted to the adult inhabitants. Non-linear canonical correlation analysis (NLCCA) was applied with OVERALS of SPSS 13.0. The coefficients of canonical correlation and multiple correlation were calculated. The plot of centroids labeled by variables showed the correlation among various indicators. In total, 2,914 objects were investigated. It included 1,134 (38.9%) males and 1,780 (61.1%) females (60.0%). The average age was (50.58 +/- 13.70) years old. The fitting result of NLCCA were as follows: the loss of 0.577 accounting for 28.8% of the total variation was relatively small, and indicated that the two sets of variables of this study, namely sets of biochemical indicators (including serum total cholesterol, total triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose) and sets of others (including gender, BMI and waist circumference) were closely related and often changed synchronously. Multivariate correlation coefficient showed that internal indicators of the above two sets were closely related respectively and often showed the multiple anomalies of the same set. The diagram of the center of gravity of the association of various indicators showed that the symptoms of metabolic abnormalities increased with age. Women were more liable to have metabolic abnormalities. Overweight and obese people often suffer multiple metabolic disorders. Waist circumference was positively correlated with metabolic abnormalities. (1) Biochemical indicators and anthropometric often change in combination. (2) Much attention should be paid to older people especially middle-aged or

  16. Relationships among Smoking Habits, Airflow Limitations, and Metabolic Abnormalities in School Workers

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Results Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012–1.018; p<0.0001) and low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia (1.013; 1.010–1.016; p<0.0001) in men. Length of smoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975–0.994; p = 0.007). Conclusions Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities. PMID:24312268

  17. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; p<0.0001) and low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia (1.013; 1.010-1.016; p<0.0001) in men. Length of smoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  18. Dietary Sodium Effects on Bone Loss and Calcium Metabolism During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Abrams, Steven A.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The acceleration of age-related bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after long-duration missions. Studies in healthy ambulatory individuals have linked high salt (sodium) diets, hypercalciuria, and increased renal stone risk. Dietary salt may modulate bone loss through changes in calcium metabolism and the calcium endocrine system. The research proposed here will determine the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone during simulated space flight. Calcium metabolism will be determined through calcium kinetics studies, endocrine and biochemical measurements; and estimates of the mass, distribution and mechanical properties of bone, in subjects fed low (100 mmol sodium/day) or high (250 mmol sodium/day) levels of dietary salt during 28 days of headdown tilt bedrest. This research addresses the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone and calcium in space flight, and integrates the changes in calcium metabolism with those occurring in other physiologic systems. These data will be critical for both countermeasure development, and in determination of nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight. The potential countermeasures resulting from this research will reduce health risks due to acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and increased risk of renal stone formation..

  19. [The functions of calcium-sensing receptor in regulating mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)which belongs to a G protein-coupled receptor family is one of the key elements in regulating calcium homeostasis. CaSR has been identified as a receptor to control parathyroid hormone(PTH)secretion in parathyroid glands according to serum calcium ion(Ca2+)levels. It has also been shown that CaSR controls reabsorption of water and several cations including Ca2+and magnesium ion(Mg2+)in renal tubular cells. This review summarizes the functions and roles of CaSR in mineral metabolism that are exerted in parathyroid glands, kidney, and intestine.

  20. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  1. What is the relationship between exercise and metabolic abnormalities? A review of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Sean; Dudfield, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Prevention of the metabolic syndrome and treatment of its main characteristics are now considered of utmost importance in order to combat the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to reduce the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia are consistently linked with a clustering of multiple clinical and subclinical metabolic risk factors. It is now widely recognised that obesity (especially abdominal fat accumulation), hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension are common metabolic traits that, concurrently, constitute the distinctive insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. Cross-sectional and prospective data provide an emerging picture of associations of both physical activity habits and cardiorespiratory fitness with the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome, is a disorder that requires aggressive multi-factorial intervention. Recent treatment guidelines have emphasised the clinical utility of diagnosis and an important treatment role for 'therapeutic lifestyle change', incorporating moderate physical activity. Several previous narrative reviews have considered exercise training as an effective treatment for insulin resistance and other components of the syndrome. However, the evidence cited has been less consistent for exercise training effects on several metabolic syndrome variables, unless combined with appropriate dietary modifications to achieve weight loss. Recently published randomised controlled trial data concerning the effects of exercise training on separate metabolic syndrome traits are evaluated within this review. Novel systematic review and meta-analysis evidence is presented indicating that supervised, long-term, moderate to moderately vigorous intensity exercise training, in the absence of therapeutic weight loss, improves the dyslipidaemic profile by raising high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowering triglycerides in overweight and obese adults with characteristics

  2. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D₃ supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron.

    PubMed

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Neef, Nadja; Leiterer, Matthias; Kiehntopf, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D₃ on bone and mineral metabolism. Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D₃ (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D₃. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D₃ supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D₃ supplementations (vitamin D₃, CaP + vitamin D₃), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D₃ significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D₃ have no beneficial effect on bone remodelling markers and on

  3. Urinary metabolomics of young Italian autistic children supports abnormal tryptophan and purine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gevi, Federica; Zolla, Lello; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status. ASD-specific urinary metabolomic patterns were explored at an early age in 30 ASD children and 30 matched controls (age range 2-7, M:F = 22:8) using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-UHPLC and mass spectrometry, a highly sensitive, accurate, and unbiased approach. Metabolites were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis and grouped by metabolic pathway. Urinary metabolites displaying the largest differences between young ASD and control children belonged to the tryptophan and purine metabolic pathways. Also, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, phenylalanine-tyrosine-tryptophan biosynthesis, pantothenate and CoA, and pyrimidine metabolism differed significantly. ASD children preferentially transform tryptophan into xanthurenic acid and quinolinic acid (two catabolites of the kynurenine pathway), at the expense of kynurenic acid and especially of melatonin. Also, the gut microbiome contributes to altered tryptophan metabolism, yielding increased levels of indolyl 3-acetic acid and indolyl lactate. The metabolic pathways most distinctive of young Italian autistic children largely overlap with those found in rodent models of ASD following maternal immune activation or genetic manipulations. These results are consistent with the proposal of a purine-driven cell danger response, accompanied by overproduction of epileptogenic and

  4. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of calcium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for calcium ( ...

  5. Serum ionized calcium in dogs with chronic renal failure and metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Kogika, Marcia M; Lustoza, Marcio D; Notomi, Marcia K; Wirthl, Vera A B F; Mirandola, Regina M S; Hagiwara, Mitika K

    2006-12-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a common disease in dogs, and many metabolic disorders can be observed, including metabolic acidosis and calcium and phosphorus disturbances. Acidosis may change the ionized calcium (i-Ca) fraction, usually increasing its concentration. In this study we evaluated the influence of acidosis on the serum concentration of i-Ca in dogs with CRF and metabolic acidosis. Dogs were studied in 2 groups: group I (control group = 40 clinically normal dogs) and group II (25 dogs with CRF and metabolic acidosis). Serum i-Ca was measured by an ion-selective electrode method; other biochemical analytes were measured using routine methods. The i-Ca concentration was significantly lower in dogs in group II than in group I; 56% of the dogs in group II were hypocalcemic. Hypocalcemia was observed in only 8% of dogs in group II when based on total calcium (t-Ca) concentration. No correlation between pH and i-Ca concentration was observed. A slight but significant correlation was detected between i-Ca and serum phosphorus concentration (r = -.284; P = .022), as well as between serum t-Ca and i-Ca concentration (r = .497; P < .0001). The i-Ca concentration in dogs with CRF and metabolic acidosis varied widely from that of t-Ca, showing the importance of determining the biologically active form of calcium. Metabolic acidosis did not influence the increase in i-Ca concentration, so other factors besides acidosis in CRF might alter the i-Ca fraction, such as hyperphosphatemia and other compounds that may form complexes with calcium.

  6. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in congestive heart failure detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, C W; Lee, J H; Kim, J J; Park, S W; Hong, M K; Kim, S T; Lim, T H; Park, S J

    1999-04-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated cerebral metabolism and its determinants in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of cardiac transplantation on these measurements. Few data are available about cerebral metabolism in CHF. Fifty patients with CHF (ejection fraction < or = 35%) and 20 healthy volunteers were included for this study. Of the patients, 10 patients underwent heart transplantation. All subjects performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was obtained from localized regions (8 to 10 ml) of occipital gray matter (OGM) and parietal white matter (PWM). Absolute levels of the metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol) were calculated. In PWM only creatine level was significantly lower in CHF than in control subjects, but in OGM all four metabolite levels were decreased in CHF. The creatine level was independently correlated with half-recovery time and duration of heart failure symptoms in PWM (r = -0.56, p < 0.05), and with peak oxygen consumption and serum sodium concentration in OGM (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were improved after successful cardiac transplantation. This study shows that cerebral metabolism is abnormally deranged in advanced CHF and it may serve as a potential marker of the disease severity.

  7. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    PubMed

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  8. A brief review of space flight calcium metabolism: Results and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Space flight induced osteoporosis was described. The techniques that were used to measure and detect the osteoporosis were also described. Areas of calcium metabolism were shown to be very important in the investigation into more sensitive detection and measurement techniques of bone demineralization.

  9. Food intake does not differ between obese women who are metabolically healthy or abnormal.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2014-12-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45-98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR-defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy, and food intakes. Healthy obesity was not

  10. Food Intake Does Not Differ between Obese Women Who Are Metabolically Healthy or Abnormal1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. Objective: We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45–98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Results: Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR–defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy

  11. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Yu, Geng; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, Xiaoke; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Qiao, Jie

    2014-09-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p < 0.001) respectively. After adjusting for age, the indicators (central obesity, hypertension, fasting insulin, SHBG, dyslipinaemia) for metabolic disturbances were significantly higher in PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance.

  12. Ablation of XP-V gene causes adipose tissue senescence and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yih-Wen; Harris, Robert A.; Hatahet, Zafer; Chou, Kai-ming

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have evolved to be major health issues throughout the world. Whether loss of genome integrity contributes to this epidemic is an open question. DNA polymerase η (pol η), encoded by the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V) gene, plays an essential role in preventing cutaneous cancer caused by UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Herein, we demonstrate that pol η deficiency in mice (pol η−/−) causes obesity with visceral fat accumulation, hepatic steatosis, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. In comparison to WT mice, adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice exhibits increased DNA damage and a greater DNA damage response, indicated by up-regulation and/or phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Concomitantly, increased cellular senescence in the adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice was observed and measured by up-regulation of senescence markers, including p53, p16Ink4a, p21, senescence-associated (SA) β-gal activity, and SA secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as early as 4 wk of age. Treatment of pol η−/− mice with a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, reduced adipocyte senescence and attenuated the metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, elevation of adipocyte DNA damage with a high-fat diet or sodium arsenite exacerbated adipocyte senescence and metabolic abnormalities in pol η−/− mice. In contrast, reduction of adipose DNA damage with N-acetylcysteine or metformin ameliorated cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities. These studies indicate that elevated DNA damage is a root cause of adipocyte senescence, which plays a determining role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26240351

  13. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism and bone health in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein is the major structural constituent of bone (50% by volume). But it is also a major source of metabolic acid, especially protein from animal sources because it contains sulfur amino acids that generate sulfuric acid. Increased potential renal acid load has been closely associated with increa...

  14. The control of calcium metabolism by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in analysis of chemistry and physiology of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and Vitamin D are described along with development of techniques in radioassay methods. Emphasis is placed on assessment of normal and abnormal patterns of secretion of these hormones in specific relation to the physiological adaptations of weightlessness and space flight. Related diseases that involve perturbations in normal skeletal and calcium homeostasis are also considered.

  15. Cardiac basal metabolism: energetic cost of calcium withdrawal in the adult rat heart.

    PubMed

    Bonazzola, P; Takara, D

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac basal metabolism upon extracellular calcium removal and its relationship with intracellular sodium and calcium homeostasis was evaluated. A mechano-calorimetric technique was used that allowed the simultaneous and continuous measurement of both heat rate and resting pressure in arterially perfused quiescent adult rat hearts. Using pharmacological tools, the possible underlying mechanisms related to sodium and calcium movements were investigated. Resting heat rate (expressed in mW g(-1)(dry wt)) increased upon calcium withdrawal (+4.4 +/- 0.2). This response was: (1) unaffected by the presence of tetrodotoxin (+4.3 +/- 0.6), (2) fully blocked by both, the decrease in extracellular sodium concentration and the increase in extracellular magnesium concentration, (3) partially blocked by the presence of either nifedipine (+2.8 +/- 0.4), KB-R7943 (KBR; +2.5 +/- 0.2), clonazepam (CLO; +3.1 +/- 0.3) or EGTA (+1.9 +/- 0.3). The steady heat rate under Ca(2+)-free conditions was partially reduced by the addition of Ru360 (-1.1 +/- 0.2) but not CLO in the presence of EGTA, KBR or Ru360. Energy expenditure for resting state maintenance upon calcium withdrawal depends on the intracellular rise in both sodium and calcium. Our data are consistent with a mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling, not detectable under normal calcium diastolic levels. The experimental condition here analysed, partially simulates findings reported under certain pathological situations including heart failure in which mildly increased levels of both diastolic sodium and calcium have also been found. Therefore, under such pathological conditions, hearts should distract chemical energy to fuel processes associated with sodium and calcium handling, making more expensive the maintenance of their functions.

  16. - Invited Review - Calcium Digestibility and Metabolism in Pigs*

    PubMed Central

    González-Vega, J. C.; Stein, H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are minerals that have important physiological functions in the body. For formulation of diets for pigs, it is necessary to consider an appropriate Ca:P ratio for an adequate absorption and utilization of both minerals. Although both minerals are important, much more research has been conducted on P digestibility than on Ca digestibility. Therefore, this review focuses on aspects that are important for the digestibility of Ca. Only values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca have been reported in pigs, whereas values for both ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in feed ingredients have been reported. To be able to determine STTD values for Ca it is necessary to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Although most Ca is absorbed in the small intestine, there are indications that Ca may also be absorbed in the colon under some circumstances, but more research to verify the extent of Ca absorption in different parts of the intestinal tract is needed. Most P in plant ingredients is usually bound to phytate. Therefore, plant ingredients have low digestibility of P due to a lack of phytase secretion by pigs. During the last 2 decades, inclusion of microbial phytase in swine diets has improved P digestibility. However, it has been reported that a high inclusion of Ca reduces the efficacy of microbial phytase. It is possible that formation of insoluble calcium-phytate complexes, or Ca-P complexes, not only may affect the efficacy of phytase, but also the digestibility of P and Ca. Therefore, Ca, P, phytate, and phytase interactions are aspects that need to be considered in Ca digestibility studies. PMID:25049919

  17. The effect of enzymes upon metabolism, storage, and release of carbohydrates in normal and abnormal endometria.

    PubMed

    Hughes, E C

    1976-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data concerning the relationship of various components of glandular epithelium and effect of enzymes on metabolism, storage, and release of certain substances in normal and abnormal endometria. Activity of these endometrial enzymes has been compared between two groups: 252 patients with normal menstrual histories and 156 patients, all over the age of 40, with abnormal uterine bleeding. Material was obtained by endometrial biopsy or curettage. In the pathologic classification of the group of 156, 30 patients had secretory endometria, 88 patients had endometria classified as proliferative, 24 were classified as endometrial hyperplasia, and 14 were classified as adenocarcinoma. All tissue was studied by histologic, histochemical, and biochemical methods. Glycogen synthetase activity caused synthesis of glucose to glycogen, increasing in amount until midcycle, when glycogen phosphorylase activity caused the breakdown to glucose during the regressive stage of endometrial activity. This normal cyclic activity did not occur in the abnormal endometria, where activity of both enzymes continued at low constant tempo. Only the I form of glycogen synthetase increased as the tissue became more hyperplastic. With the constant glycogen content and the increased activity of both the TPN isocitric dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the hyperplastic and cancerous endometria, tissue energy was created, resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. These altered biochemical and cellular activities may be the basis for malignant cell growth.

  18. Quantitation of calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis and in scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronner, F.; Richelle, L. J.; Saville, P. D.

    1963-06-01

    By a combination of balance and isotope techniques, the following parameters of Ca metabolism were measured: pool size, rate of loss from pool, urinary excretion, fecal excretion, intake, endogenous fecal Ca, absorption, balance, bone formation, and bone resorption. The subjects were two normal women and five women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, aged 41 to 74 years, and four patients with scoliosis, aged 12 to 22 years. The latter were studied before, shortly after, and many months after immobilization in plaster casts. On the basis of observed relationships, it appeared that the negative Ca balance observed in the older women was duemore » to the low intensity of the various vectors of Ca metabolism, without clearcut distinction between the subjects with and without osteoporosis. Conversely, in the young patients with scoliosis, the negative balance incident to treatment by immobilization was associated with vectors of relatively high intensity whose relationships were altered temporarily.« less

  19. Abnormal metabolic brain networks in Parkinson's disease from blackboard to bedside.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chris C; Eidelberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic imaging in the rest state has provided valuable information concerning the abnormalities of regional brain function that underlie idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, network modeling procedures, such as spatial covariance analysis, have further allowed for the quantification of these changes at the systems level. In recent years, we have utilized this strategy to identify and validate three discrete metabolic networks in PD associated with the motor and cognitive manifestations of the disease. In this chapter, we will review and compare the specific functional topographies underlying parkinsonian akinesia/rigidity, tremor, and cognitive disturbance. While network activity progressed over time, the rate of change for each pattern was distinctive and paralleled the development of the corresponding clinical symptoms in early-stage patients. This approach is already showing great promise in identifying individuals with prodromal manifestations of PD and in assessing the rate of progression before clinical onset. Network modulation was found to correlate with the clinical effects of dopaminergic treatment and surgical interventions, such as subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and gene therapy. Abnormal metabolic networks have also been identified for atypical parkinsonian syndromes, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Using multiple disease-related networks for PD, MSA, and PSP, we have developed a novel, fully automated algorithm for accurate classification at the single-patient level, even at early disease stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  1. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease: Relation to Autophagy/Mitophagy and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E.; Gibson, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26077923

  2. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Adverse factors increase preeclampsia-like changes in pregnant mice with abnormal lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Zi; Han, Yiwei; Yu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy complication. Maternal underlying condition and adverse factors both influence the pathogenesis of PE. Abnormal lipid metabolism as a maternal underlying disease may participate in the occurrence and development of PE. This study aimed to observe the effects of adverse factors on PE-like symptoms of pregnant mice with genetic abnormal lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3) transgenic mice with abnormal lipid metabolism were subcutaneously injected with L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or normal saline (NS) daily starting at Day 7 or 16 of pregnancy (ApoC3+L-NA and ApoC3+NS groups), and wild-type (WT) mice served as a control (WT+L-NA and WT+NS groups). All mice were subdivided into early and late subgroups by injection time. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary protein were measured. Pregnancy outcomes, including fetal weight, placental weight, live birth rate, and fetal absorption rate, were analyzed. Pathologic changes in the placenta were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. One-way analysis of variance, t-test, and χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis. MAP significantly increased for ApoC3+NS groups compared with WT+NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in urine protein. Following L-NAME injection, MAP and urinary protein significantly increased for ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), and the increase for ApoC3+L-NA was more obvious. Urinary protein levels in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA significantly increased compared with the corresponding late groups (P < 0.05). Fetal absorption rate significantly increased and fetal and placental weights significantly decreased in early ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA compared with the corresponding NS groups (P < 0.05), without significant difference in late ApoC3+L-NA and WT+L-NA groups. Fetal weight in early ApoC3+L-NA was significantly lower than in early WT+L-NA group (P < 0.05). Morphologic

  4. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  5. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as ...

  6. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p < 0.001) respectively. After adjusting for age, the indicators (central obesity, hypertension, fasting insulin, SHBG, dyslipinaemia) for metabolic disturbances were significantly higher in PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276

  7. Determinants of calcium and oxalate excretion in subjects with calcium nephrolithiasis: the role of metabolic syndrome traits.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2018-06-01

    The association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits with urinary calcium (UCE) or oxalate excretion (UOE) is uncertain in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Our aim was to investigate this association in a large group of Caucasian CSFs. We retrospectively reviewed data of CSFs evaluated at our Kidney Stone Clinic from 1984 to 2015. Data on body mass index (BMI), MetS traits defined according to international consensus, family history of urolithiasis, anti-hypertensive treatments, calcemia, renal function, and 24-h urinary profile of lithogenic risk were collected. The association between MetS traits and UCE or UOE was tested with multivariate linear regression models accounting for a long list of potential confounders. We included 3003 CSFs, aged 44 ± 14 years. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) and dyslipidemia was 17, 2, 42 and 38%, respectively. Median values of UCE and UOE were 211 mg/24 h (IQR 143-296) and 28 mg/24 h (IQR 22-34), respectively. At a multivariate model, including age, sex, date of examination, drug treatments, family history, renal function, blood calcium and urinary factors as covariates, hypertension was a significant positive determinant of UCE (β ± SE 0.23 ± 0.07, p = 0.003), but overweight, dyslipidemia and diabetes were not. No MetS trait was significantly associated with UOE in multivariate models. In a large group of Caucasian CSFs, hypertension was the only MetS trait significantly associated with UCE, while no MetS trait was associated with oxalate excretion.

  8. Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma leads to alterations in mitochondrial lipid metabolism and function resulting in a deficient mitochondrial bioenergetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, David J; Sims, Harold F; Han, Xianlin; Jenkins, Christopher M; Guan, Shao Ping; Yang, Kui; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Abumrad, Nada A; Schlesinger, Paul H; Gross, Richard W

    2007-11-30

    Previously, we identified a novel calcium-independent phospholipase, designated calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) gamma (iPLA(2)gamma), which possesses dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal subcellular localization signals. To identify the roles of iPLA(2)gamma in cellular bioenergetics, we generated mice null for the iPLA(2)gamma gene by eliminating the active site of the enzyme through homologous recombination. Mice null for iPLA(2)gamma display multiple bioenergetic dysfunctional phenotypes, including 1) growth retardation, 2) cold intolerance, 3) reduced exercise endurance, 4) greatly increased mortality from cardiac stress after transverse aortic constriction, 5) abnormal mitochondrial function with a 65% decrease in ascorbate-induced Complex IV-mediated oxygen consumption, and 6) a reduction in myocardial cardiolipin content accompanied by an altered cardiolipin molecular species composition. We conclude that iPLA(2)gamma is essential for maintaining efficient bioenergetic mitochondrial function through tailoring mitochondrial membrane lipid metabolism and composition.

  9. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  10. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-06

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Morphological and Glucose Metabolism Abnormalities in Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Individual Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Anne-Lise; Aupée, Anne-Marie; Chételat, Gaël; Mézenge, Florence; Beaunieux, Hélène; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Background Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker. PMID:19936229

  12. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  13. Mood disturbances and regional cerebral metabolic abnormalities in recently abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    London, Edythe D; Simon, Sara L; Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Lichtman, Aaron M; Bramen, Jennifer; Shinn, Ann K; Miotto, Karen; Learn, Jennifer; Dong, Yun; Matochik, John A; Kurian, Varughese; Newton, Thomas; Woods, Roger; Rawson, Richard; Ling, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Mood disturbances in methamphetamine (MA) abusers likely influence drug use, but the neurobiological bases for these problems are poorly understood. To assess regional brain function and its possible relationships with negative affect in newly abstinent MA abusers. Two groups were compared by measures of mood and cerebral glucose metabolism ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) during performance of a vigilance task. Participants were recruited from the general community to a research center. Seventeen abstaining (4-7 days) MA abusers (6 women) were compared with 18 control subjects (8 women). Self-reports of depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured, as were global and relative glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal, cingulate, lateral prefrontal, and insular cortices and the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum. Abusers of MA provided higher self-ratings of depression and anxiety than control subjects and differed significantly in relative regional glucose metabolism: lower in the anterior cingulate and insula and higher in the lateral orbitofrontal area, middle and posterior cingulate, amygdala, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In MA abusers, self-reports of depressive symptoms covaried positively with relative glucose metabolism in limbic regions (eg, perigenual anterior cingulate gyrus and amygdala) and ratings of state and trait anxiety covaried negatively with relative activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and left insula. Trait anxiety also covaried negatively with relative activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and positively with amygdala activity. Abusers of MA have abnormalities in brain regions implicated in mood disorders. Relationships between relative glucose metabolism in limbic and paralimbic regions and self-reports of depression and anxiety in MA abusers suggest that these regions are involved in affective dysregulation and may be an important target of intervention for MA dependence.

  14. Role of calcium in phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibition of norepinephrine transport into synaptic vesicles by amphetamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine-(NE) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated phosphoinositide (PIn) metabolism in rat brain slices was studied under varying calcium conditions. Tissue was labelled with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol and /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (IPn), products of PIn metabolism were measured. In the absence of media calcium the response to NE was decreased while that to A23187 was little affected A23187 can release calcium from intracellular stores. Basal and stimulated accumulation of /sup 3/H-IPn was reversibly antagonized with EGTA by addition of calcium. Using calcium buffers, approximately 10/sup -7/ M free calcium was required to support hydrolysis. Free intracellular calcium is maintained at approximately this level.more » Thus calcium is required for PIn hydrolysis but appears to play a permissive role, basal levels being sufficient to support metabolism. Conformationally-defined (rigid) and -restricted (semi-rigid) analogs of the most stable conformations of amphetamine, antiperiplanar (exo) and gauche (endo), were utilized to probe the conformational requirements of vesicular NE transport. Analogs tested were 2-aminotetralin (2AT), 3-methyltetrahydroisoquinoline, anti- and syn-9-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.1)heptene, and endo and exo conformers of 2-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.1)heptene and 2-aminobenzobicyclo(2.2.2)octene.« less

  15. Effects of prepartum dietary calcium level on calcium and magnesium metabolism in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kronqvist, C; Emanuelson, U; Spörndly, R; Holtenius, K

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Ca level (4.9, 9.3, and 13.6 g/kg of DM) on Ca and Mg homeostasis in dairy cows around parturition. Cows of the Swedish Red breed (n = 29) with no previous veterinary treatment for milk fever were divided into 3 groups, and each group was fed one of the different diets during the last 15 to 32 d of gestation. Calcium was added as ground limestone, and the Mg concentration was 1.8 g/kg of DM in all diets. After calving the cows were fed similar diets. Plasma was sampled twice per week until calving, and 6, 12, and 24 h, 2, 4, and 7 d after calving. Spot urine samples were collected twice weekly until calving and creatinine was used as a marker of daily urinary excretion. Fecal samples were collected 2 times per day for 5 d starting 2 wk before expected calving, and acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible marker to estimate digestibility. Apparent digestibility of Mg and daily Mg excretion in the urine were lower in the dry period for cows fed the highest Ca level. Plasma Mg concentration was lower on 2, 4, and 7 d after calving in cows fed the highest level of Ca. Treatment groups did not differ in plasma Ca concentration, parathyroid hormone concentration, or bone mobilization, evaluated using crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx) as a marker. Plasma Ca concentration decreased and plasma CTx concentration increased 6 h after calving. The apparent digestibility of Ca during the dry period was not affected by dietary Ca, but the cows fed 4.9 g Ca/kg of DM excreted 1.2 g of Ca/d in the urine, which was higher compared with 0.4 g/d and 0.6 g/d for the cows fed 9.3 g of Ca/kg of DM and 13.6 g of Ca/kg of DM, respectively. The results show that feeding 13.6 g of dietary Ca/kg of DM impaired the Mg absorption during the dry period, and resulted in decreased plasma Mg concentration after calving, but prepartum dietary Ca level did not affect plasma Ca, parathyroid hormone, or

  16. Abnormal metabolism of glycogen phosphate as a cause for Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Girard, Jean Marie; Segvich, Dyann; Meyer, Catalina; Turnbull, Julie; Zhao, Xiaochu; Minassian, Berge A; Depaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2008-12-05

    Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset in the teenage years followed by neurodegeneration and death within 10 years. A characteristic is the widespread formation of poorly branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers (polyglucosan) known as Lafora bodies, which accumulate in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half of the cases of Lafora disease result from mutations in the EPM2A gene, which encodes laforin, a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family that is able to release the small amount of covalent phosphate normally present in glycogen. In studies of Epm2a(-/-) mice that lack laforin, we observed a progressive change in the properties and structure of glycogen that paralleled the formation of Lafora bodies. At three months, glycogen metabolism remained essentially normal, even though the phosphorylation of glycogen has increased 4-fold and causes altered physical properties of the polysaccharide. By 9 months, the glycogen has overaccumulated by 3-fold, has become somewhat more phosphorylated, but, more notably, is now poorly branched, is insoluble in water, and has acquired an abnormal morphology visible by electron microscopy. These glycogen molecules have a tendency to aggregate and can be recovered in the pellet after low speed centrifugation of tissue extracts. The aggregation requires the phosphorylation of glycogen. The aggregrated glycogen sequesters glycogen synthase but not other glycogen metabolizing enzymes. We propose that laforin functions to suppress excessive glycogen phosphorylation and is an essential component of the metabolism of normally structured glycogen.

  17. Metabolic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Cara; Newton, Julia

    2018-04-17

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease. This mini-review offers a brief summary of current research into the identification of metabolic abnormalities in CFS/ME which may represent potential biomarkers for the disease. The progress of research into key areas including immune dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, skeletal muscle cell acidosis, and metabolomics are presented here. Studies outlined in this mini-review show many potential causes for the pathogenesis of CFS/ME and identify many potential metabolic biomarkers for the disease from the aforementioned research areas. The future of CFS/ME research should focus on building on the potential biomarkers for the disease using multi-disciplinary techniques at multiple research sites in order to produce robust data sets. Whether the metabolic changes identified in this mini-review occur as a cause or a consequence of the disease must also be established. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. The influence of calcium supplementation on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J T; Green, B P; Campbell, M D; Rumbold, P L S; Stevenson, E J

    2014-06-01

    High calcium intakes enhance fat loss under restricted energy intake. Mechanisms explaining this may involve reduced dietary fat absorption, enhanced lipid utilization and (or) reductions in appetite. This study aimed to assess the impact of 2 weeks of calcium supplementation on substrate utilization during exercise and appetite sensations at rest. Thirteen physically active males completed two 14-d supplemental periods, in a double-blind, randomized crossover design separated by a ⩾4-week washout period. During supplementation, a test-drink was consumed daily containing 400 and 1400 mg of calcium during control (CON) and high-calcium (CAL) periods, respectively. Cycling-based exercise tests were conducted before and after each supplemental period to determine substrate utilization rates and circulating metabolic markers (non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations) across a range of exercise intensities. Visual analog scales were completed in the fasting, rested state to determine subjective appetite sensations. No significant differences between supplements were observed in lipid or carbohydrate utilization rates, nor in circulating metabolic markers (both P>0.05). Maximum rates of lipid utilization were 0.47±0.05 and 0.44±0.05 g/min for CON and CAL, respectively, prior to supplementation and 0.44±0.05 and 0.42±0.05 g/min, respectively, post-supplementation (main effects of time, supplement and time x supplement interaction effect all P>0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were detected in any subjective appetite sensations (all P>0.05). Two weeks of calcium supplementation does not influence substrate utilization during exercise in physically active males.

  19. Hepatitis C virus core protein triggers abnormal porphyrin metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Horie, Toshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the most common of the human porphyrias, arises from a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Studies have shown a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with PCT. While these observations implicate HCV infection as a risk factor for PCT pathogenesis, the mechanism of interaction between the virus and porphyrin metabolism is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effect of HCV core protein on intracellular porphyrin metabolism to elucidate the link between HCV infection and PCT. The accumulation and excretion of porphyrins after treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid, a porphyrin precursor, were compared between cells stably expressing HCV core protein and controls. Cells expressing HCV core protein had lower amounts of intracellular protoporphyrin IX and heme and had higher amounts of excreted coproporphyrin III, the oxidized form of coproporphyrinogen III, compared with controls. These observations suggest that HCV core protein affects porphyrin metabolism and facilitates the export of excess coproporphyrinogen III and/or coproporphyrin III, possibly via porphyrin transporters. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the presence of HCV core protein increased the mRNA expression of porphyrin exporters ABCG2 and FLVCR1. Western blot analysis showed a higher expression level of FLVCR1, but not ABCG2, as well as a higher expression level of mature ALAS1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway, in HCV core protein-expressing cells compared with controls. The data indicate that HCV core protein induced abnormal intracellular porphyrin metabolism, with an over-excretion of coproporphyrin III. These findings may partially account for the susceptibility of HCV-infected individuals to PCT development.

  20. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-12-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The role of cholesterol metabolism and various steroid abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: A hypothesis paper

    PubMed Central

    Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth; Kočovská, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Bourgeron, Thomas; Thompson, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Based on evidence from the relevant research literature, we present a hypothesis that there may be a link between cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones which subsequently impacts on the development of at least some of the “autisms” [Coleman & Gillberg]. Our hypothesis, driven by the peer reviewed literature, posits that there may be links between cholesterol metabolism, which we will refer to as “steroid metabolism” and findings of steroid abnormalities of various kinds (cortisol, testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, vitamin D) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Further research investigating these potential links is warranted to further our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1022–1044. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28401679

  2. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P < 0.05 for TO-2 starch versus control; TO-2 sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on Abnormal Iron Metabolism and Related Inflammation in Parkinson Disease Patients with Probable RBD

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Piao, Ying-Shan; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Fang; Chen, Ze-Jie; Du, Yang; Lian, Teng-Hong; Liu, Gai-Fen; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-Di; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential mechanisms involving abnormal iron metabolism and related inflammation in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (PRBD). Methods Total 210 PD patients and 31 controls were consecutively recruited. PD patients were evaluated by RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) and classified into PRBD and probable no RBD (NPRBD) groups. Demographics information were recorded and clinical symptoms were evaluated by series of rating scales. Levels of iron and related proteins and inflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were detected. Comparisons among control, NPRBD and PRBD groups and correlation analyses between RBDSQ score and levels of above factors were performed. Results (1)The frequency of PRBD in PD patients is 31.90%. (2)PRBD group has longer disease duration, more advanced disease stage, severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms than NPRBD group. (3)In CSF, levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PRBD group are prominently increased. RBDSQ score is positively correlated with the levels of iron, transferrin, NO and IL–1β in PD group. Iron level is positively correlated with the levels of NO and IL–1β in PD group. (4)In serum, transferrin level is prominently decreased in PRBD group. PGE2 level in PRBD group is drastically enhanced. RBDSQ score exhibits a positive correlation with PGE2 level in PD group. Conclusions PRBD is common in PD patients. PRBD group has severer motor symptoms and more non-motor symptoms. Excessive iron in brain resulted from abnormal iron metabolism in central and peripheral systems is correlated with PRBD through neuroinflammation. PMID:26431210

  4. Abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and reduced antioxidant capacity in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Xi, Qian-qian; Dai, Wei; Yang, Shu-han; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that presents a spectrum of qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, as well as restricted and stereotyped behavioral patterns, interests, and activities. Several studies have suggested that the etiology of ASD can be partly explained by oxidative stress. However, the implications of abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and oxidative stress, and their relation with ASD are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several transsulfuration pathway metabolites in Chinese participants diagnosed with ASD, to better understand their role in the etiology of this disorder. Fifty children (39 male, 11 female) diagnosed with ASD and 50 age- and gender-matched non-ASD children (i.e., control group) were included in this study. This prospective blinded study was undertaken to assess transsulfuration and oxidative metabolites, including levels of homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), total glutathione (tGSH), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG). The clinical severity of ASD was evaluated with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the autistic children's present behavior was measured by the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). The results indicated that Hcy and GSSG levels were significantly higher in children diagnosed with ASD, Cys, tGSH and GSH levels as well as the GSH/GSSG ratio showed remarkably lower values in ASD children compared to control subjects. Hcy levels correlated significantly with increasing CARS scores and GSSG levels in children with ASD. Our results suggest that an abnormal transsulfuration metabolism and reduced antioxidant capacity (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia and increased oxidative stress), and Hcy level appears to have a potentially negative impact on clinical severity of autistic disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence of abnormal metabolic parameters in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Deborah; Satnick, Ava; Abell, Rebecca; Messina, Catherine R; Chawla, Anupama

    2014-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal metabolic parameters in obese children and its correlation to the degree of obesity determined by body mass index (BMI). In total, 101 children seen at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Obesity Clinic at Stony Brook Children's University Hospital were enrolled in the study. The degree of obesity was characterized according to the following formula: (patient's BMI/BMI at 95th percentile) × 100%, with class I obesity >100%-120%, class II obesity >120%-140%, and class III obesity >140%. A set of metabolic parameters was evaluated in these patients. Frequency distributions of all study variables were examined using the χ(2) test of independence. Mean differences among the obesity classes and continuous measures were examined using 1-way analysis of variance. Within our study population, we found that 80% of our obese children had a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, 58% had elevated fasting insulin levels, and 32% had an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Class II obese children had a 2-fold higher ALT value when compared with class I children (P = .036). Fasting insulin, ALT, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels trended with class of obesity. Obese children in classes II and III are at higher risk for developing abnormal laboratory values. We recommend obese children be further classified to reflect the severity of the obesity since this has predictive significance for comorbidities. Obesity classes I, II, and III could help serve as a screening tool to help communicate risk assessment. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Functional Effects of Prebiotic Fructans in Colon Cancer and Calcium Metabolism in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura; Gracia-Mora, María Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.

  7. Effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation (L-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suda, Tatsuo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, attention has been focused on the disorders of bone and calcium metabolism during space flight. The skeletal system has evolved on the Earth under 1-g. Space flights under low gravity appear to cause substantial changes in bone and calcium homeostasis of the animals adapted to 1-g. A space experiment for the First Materials Processing Test (FMPT) was proposed to examine the effects of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation using chick embryos loaded in a space shuttle. This space experiment was proposed based on the following two experimental findings. First, it has been reported that bone density decreases significantly during prolonged space flight. The data obtained from the US Skylab and the U.S.S.R. Salyut-6 cosmonauts have also documented that the degree of bone loss is related to the duration of space flight. Second, the US-Soviet joints space experiment demonstrated that the decrease in bone density under low gravity appears to be due to the decrease in bone formation rather than the increase in bone resorption. The purpose of our space experiment is, therefore, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone growth under low gravity using fertilized chick embryos.

  8. Vitamin D Status and Calcium Metabolism in Adolescent Black and White Girls on a Range of Controlled Calcium Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.; McCabe, Linda D.; McCabe, George P.; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Peacock, Munro

    2008-01-01

    Background: There are limited data in adolescents on racial differences in relationships between dietary calcium intake, absorption, and retention and serum levels of calcium-regulating hormones. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate these relationships cross-sectionally in American White and Black adolescent girls. Methods: Calcium balance studies were conducted in 105 girls, aged 11–15 yr, on daily calcium intakes ranging from 760–2195 mg for 3-wk controlled feeding periods; 158 observations from 52 Black and 53 White girls were analyzed. Results: Black girls had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], higher serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and higher calcium absorption and retention than White girls. Calcium intake and race, but not serum 25(OH)D, predicted net calcium absorption and retention with Black girls absorbing calcium more efficiently at low calcium intakes than White girls. The relationship between serum 25(OH)D and serum PTH was negative only in White girls. Calcium intake, race, and postmenarcheal age explained 21% of the variation in calcium retention, and serum 25(OH)D did not contribute further to the variance. Conclusions: These results suggest that serum 25(OH)D does not contribute to the racial differences in calcium absorption and retention during puberty. PMID:18682505

  9. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inmore » addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.« less

  10. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  11. Does fluid resuscitation with balanced solutions induce electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities? An in vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Łukasz J; Czempik, Piotr F

    2017-01-01

    Popular intravenous fluids in clinical use may have an impact on electrolyte concentration and metabolic balance and should be considered as powerful pharmacological agents. There is a growing body of evidence that fluid therapy should be more individualised and preferably based on balanced solutions. We sought to investigate the impact of three commonly used balanced fluids on electrolytes and metabolic equilibrium in an in vitro setting. Study group comprised 32 healthy male volunteers (without history of any acute/chronic disorder or known metabolic abnormality), aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weight 59-103 (81.2 ± 9.8) kg, from whom blood samples were withdrawn. The whole blood was diluted in 4:1 ratio with the study solutions to make an end-concentration of 20 vol.% of each solution. The test solutions included balanced crystalloid (Plasmalyte®, Baxter, Poland [PL]), succinylated gelatin (Geloplasma®, Fresenius Kabi, Poland [GEL]) and 6% HES 130/0.4 (Volulyte®, Fresenius Kabi, Poland [HES]). All fluids caused comparable degree of haemodilution. PL and GEL decreased (104 mmol/L, interquartile range [IQR] 103-105; and 106 mmol/L, IQR 105-107.5, respectively), whereas HES increased the concentration of Cl- to 109 (IQR 108-110) mmol/L. PL and HES decreased (136, IQR 136-137 mmol/L; and 138 mmol/L, IQR 137-139, respectively), whereas GEL increased the Na+ level to 140.5 (IQR 140-141) mmol/L. PL and HES decreased osmolality (277.2 mOsm/kg, IQR 275.7-278.4; and 280.9 mOsm/kg, IQR 279.3-282.0, respectively). GEL increased it to 285.7 (IQR 283.7-286.8) mOsm/kg. All test solutions caused a similar statistically significant (p < 0.05) drop in base excess and bicarbonate concentration, and these fell outside the reference values. Due to its composition, GEL caused a significant increase in lactate concentration. HES and GEL caused a statistically significant drop in strong ion difference value. Due to high lactate level, the effect of GEL was most pronounced. Balanced

  12. Abnormalities in biomarkers of mineral and bone metabolism in kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Kasiske, Bertram L; Kumar, Rajiv; Kimmel, Paul L; Pesavento, Todd E; Kalil, Roberto S; Kraus, Edward S; Rabb, Hamid; Posselt, Andrew M; Anderson-Haag, Teresa L; Steffes, Michael W; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J; Singh, Ravinder J; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that kidney donors may have abnormalities of mineral and bone metabolism typically seen in chronic kidney disease. This may have important implications for the skeletal health of living kidney donors and for our understanding of the pathogenesis of long-term mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease. In this prospective study, 182 of 203 kidney donors and 173 of 201 paired normal controls had markers of mineral and bone metabolism measured before and at 6 and 36 months after donation (ALTOLD Study). Donors had significantly higher serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (24.6% and 19.5%) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (9.5% and 8.4%) at 6 and 36 months, respectively, as compared to healthy controls, and significantly reduced tubular phosphate reabsorption (-7.0% and -5.0%) and serum phosphate concentrations (-6.4% and -2.3%). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower (-17.1% and -12.6%), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D (21.4% and 19.4%) concentrations were significantly higher in donors compared to controls. Moreover, significantly higher concentrations of the bone resorption markers, carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (30.1% and 13.8%) and aminoterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (14.2% and 13.0%), and the bone formation markers, osteocalcin (26.3% and 2.7%) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (24.3% and 8.9%), were observed in donors. Thus, kidney donation alters serum markers of bone metabolism that could reflect impaired bone health. Additional long-term studies that include assessment of skeletal architecture and integrity are warranted in kidney donors. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations in THAP11 cause an inborn error of cobalamin metabolism and developmental abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Anita M; Yu, Hung-Chun; Brebner, Alison; Pupavac, Mihaela; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Watson, Abigail; Castro, Victoria L; Cheung, Warren; Chen, Shu-Huang; Watkins, David; Pastinen, Tomi; Skovby, Flemming; Appel, Bruce; Rosenblatt, David S; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2017-08-01

    CblX (MIM309541) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by defects in cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism and other developmental defects. Mutations in HCFC1, a transcriptional co-regulator which interacts with multiple transcription factors, have been associated with cblX. HCFC1 regulates cobalamin metabolism via the regulation of MMACHC expression through its interaction with THAP11, a THAP domain-containing transcription factor. The HCFC1/THAP11 complex potentially regulates genes involved in diverse cellular functions including cell cycle, proliferation, and transcription. Thus, it is likely that mutation of THAP11 also results in biochemical and other phenotypes similar to those observed in patients with cblX. We report a patient who presented with clinical and biochemical phenotypic features that overlap cblX, but who does not have any mutations in either MMACHC or HCFC1. We sequenced THAP11 by Sanger sequencing and discovered a potentially pathogenic, homozygous variant, c.240C > G (p.Phe80Leu). Functional analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo demonstrated that both THAP11 and HCFC1 regulate the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursors, suggesting important roles in normal brain development. The loss of THAP11 in zebrafish embryos results in craniofacial abnormalities including the complete loss of Meckel's cartilage, the ceratohyal, and all of the ceratobranchial cartilages. These data are consistent with our previous work that demonstrated a role for HCFC1 in vertebrate craniofacial development. High throughput RNA-sequencing analysis reveals several overlapping gene targets of HCFC1 and THAP11. Thus, both HCFC1 and THAP11 play important roles in the regulation of cobalamin metabolism as well as other pathways involved in early vertebrate development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Inhibitors of choline uptake and metabolism cause developmental abnormalities in neurulating mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M C; Zeisel, S H; Mar, M H; Sadler, T W

    2001-08-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient in methylation, acetylcholine and phospholipid biosynthesis, and in cell signaling. The demand by an embryo or fetus for choline may place a pregnant woman and, subsequently, the developing conceptus at risk for choline deficiency. To determine whether a disruption in choline uptake and metabolism results in developmental abnormalities, early somite staged mouse embryos were exposed in vitro to either an inhibitor of choline uptake and metabolism, 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), or an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH(3)). Cell death following inhibitor exposure was investigated with LysoTracker Red and histology. Embryos exposed to 250-750 microM DMAE for 26 hr developed craniofacial hypoplasia and open neural tube defects in the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions. Embryos exposed to 125-275 microM ET-18-OCH(3) exhibited similar defects or expansion of the brain vesicles. ET-18-OCH(3)-affected embryos also had a distended neural tube at the posterior neuropore. Embryonic growth was reduced in embryos treated with either DMAE (375, 500, and 750 microM) or ET-18-OCH(3) (200 and 275 microM). Whole mount staining with LysoTracker Red and histological sections showed increased areas of cell death in embryos treated with 275 microM ET-18-OCH(3) for 6 hr, but there was no evidence of cell death in DMAE-exposed embryos. Inhibition of choline uptake and metabolism during neurulation results in growth retardation and developmental defects that affect the neural tube and face. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Ultrasound enhances calcium absorption of jujube fruit by regulating the cellular calcium distribution and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Huanhuan; Liu, Qiqi; Xu, Juan; Dong, Yu; Liu, Mengpei; Zong, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound has been applied in fruit pre-washing processes. However, it is not sufficient to protect fruit from pathogenic infection throughout the entire storage period, and sometimes ultrasound causes tissue damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 , 10 g L -1 ) and ultrasound (350 W at 40 kHz), separately and in combination, on jujube fruit quality, antioxidant status, tissue Ca 2+ content and distribution along with cell wall metabolism at 20 °C for 6 days. All three treatments significantly maintained fruit firmness and peel color, reduced respiration rate, decay incidence, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde and preserved higher enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and glutathione) antioxidants compared with the control. Moreover, the combined treatment was more effective in increasing tissue Ca 2+ content and distribution, inhibiting the generation of water-soluble and CDTA-soluble pectin fractions, delaying the solubilization of Na 2 CO 3 -soluble pectin and having lower activities of cell wall-modifying enzymes (polygalacturonase and pectate lyase) during storage. These results demonstrated that the combination of CaCl 2 and ultrasound has potential commercial application to extend the shelf life of jujube fruit by facilitating Ca 2+ absorption and stabilizing the cell wall structure. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Abnormalities in intracellular calcium regulation and contractile function in myocardium from dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, C. L.; Shannon, R. P.; Komamura, K.; Vatner, S. F.; Morgan, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    24 d of rapid ventricular pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy with both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. We studied mechanical properties and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) transients of trabeculae carneae isolated from 15 control dogs (n = 32) and 11 dogs with pacing-induced cardiac failure (n = 26). Muscles were stretched to maximum length at 30 degrees C and stimulated at 0.33 Hz; a subset (n = 17 control, n = 17 myopathic) was loaded with the [Ca2+]i indicator aequorin. Peak tension was depressed in the myopathic muscles, even in the presence of maximally effective (i.e., 16 mM) [Ca2+] in the perfusate. However, peak [Ca2+]i was similar (0.80 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.05 microM; [Ca2+]o = 2.5 mM), suggesting that a decrease in Cai2+ availability was not responsible for the decreased contractility. The time for decline from the peak of the Cai2+ transient was prolonged in the myopathic group, which correlated with prolongation of isometric contraction and relaxation. However, similar end-diastolic [Ca2+]i was achieved in both groups (0.29 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 microM), indicating that Cai2+ homeostasis can be maintained in myopathic hearts. The inotropic response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was depressed compared with the controls. However, when cAMP production was stimulated by pretreatment with forskolin, the response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was improved. Our findings provide direct evidence that abnormal [Ca2+]i handling is an important cause of contractile dysfunction in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure and suggest that deficient production of cAMP may be an important cause of these changes in excitation-contraction coupling.

  18. R6/2 Huntington's disease mice develop early and progressive abnormal brain metabolism and seizures.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman

    2012-05-09

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models.

  19. [Association of folate metabolism genes MTRR and MTHFR with complex congenital abnormalities among Chinese population in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Bai, Bao-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Miao, Chun-Yue; Li, Hui-Li

    2014-08-01

    To explore the association of polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, with complex congenital abnormalities and to further investigate its association with complex congenital abnormalities derived from three germ layers. A total of 250 cases of birth defects (with complex congenital abnormalities including congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, and craniofacial anomalies) in Shanxi Province, China were included in the study. MTRR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1801394) and MTHFR SNP (rs1801133) were genotyped by the SNaPshot method, and the genotyping results were compared with those of controls (n=420). SNPs rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. For the recessive model, individuals with GG genotype at rs1801394 and CC genotype at rs1801133 had a relatively low risk of developing birth defects, so the two genotypes were protective factors against birth defects. The homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801133, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities, while the homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801394, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm-, mesoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities. Among the Chinese population in Shanxi Province, the SNPs in folate metabolism genes (MTRR and MTHFR) are associated with complex congenital abnormalities and related to ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm development.

  20. FGF23 and Klotho: the new cornerstones of phosphate/calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B

    2014-01-01

    Since its first description as a phosphaturic agent in the early 2000’s, the Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) has rapidly become the third key player of phosphate/calcium metabolism with the two ‘old’ PTH and vitamin D. FGF23 is a protein synthesized by osteocytes that acts mainly as a phosphaturic factor and a suppressor of 1α hydroxylase activity in the kidney. It inhibits the expression of type IIa and IIc sodium-phosphate cotransporters on the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells, thus leading to an inhibition of phosphate reabsorption. Moreover, it also inhibits the 1α hydroxylase activity. These two renal pathways account together for the hypophosphatemic effect of FGF23, but FGF23 has also been recently described as an inhibiting factor for PTH synthesis. Its exact role in bone remains to be defined. A transmembrane protein, Klotho, is an essential cofactor for FGF23 biological activity, but it can also act by itself for calcium and PTH regulation. This paper gives an overview of these recent data of phosphate/calcium physiology, as well as a description of clinical conditions associated with FGF23 deregulation (genetic diseases and chronic kidney disease). As a conclusion, future therapeutic consequences of the FGF23/Klotho axis are discussed. PMID:21497493

  1. Association between lung capacity and abnormal glucose metabolism: findings from China and Australia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dahai; Chen, Tao; Qin, Rui; Cai, Yamei; Jiang, Zhixin; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Simmons, David

    2016-07-01

    Restricted pulmonary function is found among people with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the dose-response relationship between pulmonary function measurements [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS)/type 2 diabetes. A total of 1454 adults in rural Victoria, Australia, and 5824 adults in Nanjing, China, from randomly selected households provided clinical history, oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, anthropometric, blood pressure and spirometric measurements. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Adjusted odds ratios for MS and type 2 diabetes with lung capacity measurements were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response relationships were explored using the restricted cubic spline models. There was a nonlinear relationship between FEV1 and the risk of type 2 diabetes and MS (both P < 0·0001) in both the Australian and Chinese populations. The FEV1 associated with the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes and MS was above 2·70 l (95%CI: 2·68 to 2·72 l and 2·65 to 2·76 l in Chinese and Australian populations, respectively). The discrimination of the model could be significantly improved using the FEV1 threshold in both the Australian and Chinese populations. In both the Australian and Chinese populations, the risk of type 2 diabetes and MS is lowest with a FEV1 of 2·65-2·76 l. This might be used in clinical practice in different countries as a prompt to screen for type 2 diabetes and MS in patients with obstructive lung disease and to ensure there was no abnormal glucose metabolism before the commencement of steroids if indicated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.

  3. Microgravity Effecs During Fertilization, Cell Division, Development, and Calcium Metabolism in Sea Urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. For long-term exposure to space it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for altered physiological functions. Fundamental occurrences in cell biology which are likely to depend on gravity include cytoskeletal dynamics, chromatin and centrosome cycling, and ion immobilization. These events can be studied during fertilization and embryogenesis within invertebrate systems. We have chosen the sea urchin system to study the effects of microgravity on cytoskeletal processes and calcium metabolism during fertilization, cell division, development, and embryogenesis. Experiments during an aircraft parabolic flight (KC-135) demonstrated: (1) the viability of sea urchin eggs prior to fertilization, (2) the suitability of our specimen containment system, (3) the feasibility of fertilization in a reduced gravity environment (which was achieved during 25 seconds of reduced gravity under parabolic flight conditions). Two newly developed pieces of spaceflight hardware made further investigations possible on a spaceflight (STS-77); (1) the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), and (2) the Fertilization Syringe Unit (FSU). The Canadian Space Agency developed ARF to conduct aquatic spaceflight experiments requiring controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, illumination, and fixation at predetermined time points. It contained a control centrifuge which simulated the 1 g environment of earth during spaceflight. The FSU was developed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) by the Bionetics Corporation specifically to enable the crew to perform sea urchin fertilization operations in space.

  4. Milrinone and levosimendan during porcine myocardial ischemia -- no effects on calcium overload and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, B; Johansson, G; Abrahamsson, P; Gupta, A; Tydén, H; Wouters, P; Haney, M

    2013-07-01

    Although inotropic stimulation is considered harmful in the presence of myocardial ischaemia, both calcium sensitisers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may offer cardioprotection. We hypothesise that these cardioprotective effects are related to an acute alteration of myocardial metabolism. We studied in vivo effects of milrinone and levosimendan on calcium overload and ischaemic markers using left ventricular microdialysis in pigs with acute myocardial ischaemia. Anaesthetised juvenile pigs, average weight 36 kg, were randomised to one of three intravenous treatment groups: milrinone 50 μg/kg bolus plus infusion 0.5 μg/kg/min (n = 7), levosimendan 24 μg/kg plus infusion 0.2 μg/kg/min (n = 7), or placebo (n = 6) for 60 min prior to and during a 45 min acute regional coronary occlusion. Systemic and myocardial haemodynamics were assessed, and microdialysis was performed with catheters positioned in the left ventricular wall. (45) Ca(2+) was included in the microperfusate in order to assess local calcium uptake into myocardial cells. The microdialysate was analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and for (45) Ca(2+) recovery. During ischaemia, there were no differences in microdialysate-measured parameters between control animals and milrinone- or levosimendan-treated groups. In the pre-ischaemic period, arterial blood pressure decreased in all groups while myocardial oxygen consumption remained stable. These findings reject the hypothesis of an immediate energy-conserving effect of milrinone and levosimendan during acute myocardial ischaemia. On the other hand, the data show that inotropic support with milrinone and levosimendan does not worsen the metabolic parameters that were measured in the ischaemic myocardium. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Novel function of the skin in calcium metabolism in female and male chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Liisa M; Sankari, Satu; Kivimäki, Anneli; Autio, Pekka

    2006-08-01

    To study the role of the skin in differential calcium metabolism in White Leghorn chickens, we compared the composition of suction blister fluid (SBF) collected from cutaneous blisters with blood and serum in female and male animals in various physiological states. As an estimate for interstitial fluid (IF), SBF was used as a determinant of local cutaneous metabolism. Sample collection was carried out under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. Eight chickens of both sexes were raised freely in similar environmental conditions and fed with similar food during their growth from juvenile to sexually mature and fully adult state. SBF, blood and serum were examined for concentrations of ionized Ca2+, Na+ and K+ with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), and osmolalities by freezing point osmometry. pH and total protein content were also assessed. Our results showed that SBF of chickens is calcium-poor at the juvenile state and that it draws more Ca2+ in adult males than laying females of the same age. Interestingly, Ca2+ accumulation was observed also in females after laying had ceased. There was a positive correlation between blood and SBF Ca2+ in females but a negative one in males. In general, it was found that SBF of chickens was rich in Na+ and K+, was hypertonic compared to serum at the juvenile state and had a protein content of 36-47% of that in serum. Different from mammals, SBF in adult chickens was alkaline with the mean values of 8.7+/-0.14 in females and 8.8+/-0.06 in males. Age- and sex-related variability in cutaneous Ca2+ concentrations in chickens, and the differences of SBF composition between that of mammals point to a novel role of skin functions in avians. Possible functions of the skin as a dynamic calcium source balancing the free circulating Ca2+ levels and, also, as an excretory organ for Ca2+ are discussed.

  6. Are barriers to physical activity similar for adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism?

    PubMed

    Hume, Clare; Dunstan, David; Salmon, Jo; Healy, Genevieve; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Owen, Neville

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived barriers to physical activity among adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), and whether barriers varied according to physical activity status. The 1999 to 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) was a population-based cross-sectional study among adults aged > or =25 years. AGM was identified through an oral glucose tolerance test. The previous week's physical activity and individual, social, and environmental barriers to physical activity were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses examined differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, and for those with and without AGM who did and did not meet the minimum recommendation of 150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Of the 7088 participants (47.5 +/- 12.7 years; 46% male), 18.5% had AGM. Approximately 47.5% of those with AGM met the physical activity recommendation, compared to 54.7% of those without AGM (P < .001). Key barriers to physical activity included lack of time, other priorities, and being tired. Following adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors, there were few differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, even after stratifying according to physical activity. Adults with AGM report similar barriers to physical activity, as do those without AGM. Programs for those with AGM can therefore focus on the known generic adult-reported barriers to physical activity.

  7. Clinical and metabolic abnormalities associated with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, K.H.; Wong, O.; Thomas, D.

    1982-02-01

    A cross-sectional study of 120 male workers was conducted to determine the prevalence of increased polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) absorption as well as the presence of potentially related clinical and metabolic abnormalities. Three exposure categories (''exposed'', ''nominally exposed'', ''nonexposed'') were defined. Complete work histories, clinical histories, physical examinations and laboratory tests, including plasma PCB determinations were obtained. In addition, fat PCB levels were determined in randomly selected subjects in each exposed group. Evidence of dermatotoxicity was observed and elevated PCB levels were noted more frequently in the exposed group (p < .00001), correlating well with age and duration of employment. Thesemore » correlations were stronger for fat (p < .001) than for plasma (p < .01) PCB levels. In the exposed group, significant correlations were found between plasma PCB and serum triglyceride (p < .00001) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels (p < .01). These correlations remained significant after controlling for either age or length of employment. No significant correlations were found between PCB levels and levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or levels studied on liver function tests other than SGOT. Further analyses relating frequency of reported direct contact with PCB levels suggested a dermal route of exposure. An analysis by union affiliation demonstrated that those in crafts involving greater direct exposure had correspondingly higher elevations of PCB levels.« less

  8. Clinical and metabolic abnormalities associated with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, K.H.; Wong, O.; Thomas, D.

    1982-02-01

    A cross-sectional study of 120 male workers was conducted to determine the prevalence of increased polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) absorption as well as the presence of potentially related clinical and metabolic abnormalities. Three exposure categories (''exposed'', ''nominally exposed'', ''nonexposed'') were defined. Complete work histories, clinical histories, physical examinations and laboratory tests, including plasma PCB determinations were obtained. In addition, fat PCB levels were determined in randomly selected subjects in each exposed group. Evidence of dermatotoxicity was observed and elevated PCB levels were noted more frequently in the exposed group (p less than .0001), correlating well with age and duration of employment.more » These correlations were stronger for fat (p less than .001) than for plasma (p less than .01) PCB levels. In the exposed group, significant correlations were found between plasma PCB and serum triglyceride (p less than .0001) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels (p less than .01). These correlations remained significant after controlling for either age or length of employment. No significant correlations were found between PCB levels and levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or levels studied on liver function tests other than SGOT. Further analyses relating frequency of reported direct contact with PCB levels suggested a dermal route of exposure. An analysis by union affiliation demonstrated that those in crafts involving greater direct exposure had correspondingly higher elevations of PCB levels.« less

  9. [Familial hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia: importance in differential diagnosis of disorders in calcium-phosphate metabolism].

    PubMed

    Zofková, I

    2010-05-01

    Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia are symptoms of two relatively rare hereditary diseases and are extraordinarily important from the standpoint of the differential diagnosis. Mutation in calcium sensing receptor gene (CaSR) clinically manifests as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) or as the much more serious neonatal hyperparathyreosis. Hypercalciuric hypocalcemia is extremely rare. Prognosis for the most frequent mutations in the CaSR gene FHH is considered benign; nevertheless, if overlooked it can lead to an incorrect diagnosis of primary hyperparathyreosis, which has a fundamentally different prognosis and treatment. Familial hypophosphatemia sometimes occurs as hereditary rickets, which is a consequence of insufficient production of vitamin D-hormone or abnormal function of vitamin D receptors (VDR). The disease manifests as X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Autosomal recessive form is very rare. Oncogenic hypophosphatemia should be excluded in differential diagnosis. In this review the issues of pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of FHH and hypophosphatemic rickets are discussed.

  10. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from themore » mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with

  11. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and High-Energy Expenditure in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Barnes, Jarrod W.; Tian, Liping; Kirwan, John P.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Insulin resistance has emerged as a potential mechanism related to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, direct measurements of insulin and glucose metabolism have not been performed in patients with IPAH to date. Objectives: To perform comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of humans with IPAH. Methods: We assessed plasma insulin and glucose, using an oral glucose tolerance test and estimated insulin resistance, and β-cell function in 14 patients with IPAH and 14 control subjects matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), inflammation (CXC chemokine ligand 10, endothelin-1), physical fitness (6-min walk test), and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were also assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Patients with IPAH had a higher rate of impaired glucose tolerance (57 vs. 14%; P < 0.05) and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with matched control subjects (IPAH: 1.31 ± 0.76 μU/ml⋅mg/dl vs. control subjects: 2.21 ± 1.27 μU/ml⋅mg/dl; P < 0.05). Pancreatic β-cell function was associated with circulating endothelin-1 (r = –0.71, P < 0.01) and CXC chemokine ligand 10 (r = –0.56, P < 0.05). Resting energy expenditure was elevated in IPAH (IPAH: 32 ± 3.4 vs. control subjects: 28.8 ± 2.9 kcal/d/kg fat-free mass; P < 0.05) and correlated with the plasma glucose response (r = 0.51, P < 0.01). Greater insulin resistance was associated with reduced 6-minute walk distance (r = 0.55, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Independent of age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index, patients with IPAH have glucose intolerance, decreased insulin secretion in response to glucose, and elevated resting energy expenditure. These abnormalities are associated with circulating markers of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. PMID:27922752

  12. Brain 18F-FDG PET Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Long-Lasting Macrophagic Myofascitis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun Sebaiti, Mehdi; Guedj, Eric; Aouizerate, Jessie; Yara, Sabrina; Gherardi, Romain K; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Verger, Antoine; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Abulizi, Mukedaisi; Itti, Emmanuel; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize brain metabolic abnormalities in patients with macrophagic myofascitis (MMF) and the relationship with cognitive dysfunction through the use of PET with 18 F-FDG. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (age [mean ± SD], 45.9 ± 12 y; 74% women). Images were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM12). Through the use of analysis of covariance, all 18 F-FDG PET brain images of MMF patients were compared with those of a reference population of 44 healthy subjects similar in age (45.4 ± 16 y; P = 0.87) and sex (73% women; P = 0.88). The neuropsychological assessment identified 4 categories of patients: those with no significant cognitive impairment ( n = 42), those with frontal subcortical (FSC) dysfunction ( n = 29), those with Papez circuit dysfunction ( n = 22), and those with callosal disconnection ( n = 7). Results: In comparison with healthy subjects, the whole population of patients with MMF exhibited a spatial pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism ( P < 0.001) involving the occipital lobes, temporal lobes, limbic system, cerebellum, and frontoparietal cortices, as shown by analysis of covariance. The subgroup of patients with FSC dysfunction exhibited a larger extent of involved areas (35,223 voxels vs. 13,680 voxels in the subgroup with Papez circuit dysfunction and 5,453 voxels in patients without cognitive impairment). Nonsignificant results were obtained for the last subgroup because of its small population size. Conclusion: Our study identified a peculiar spatial pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism that was most marked in MMF patients with FSC dysfunction. Further studies are needed to determine whether this pattern could represent a diagnostic biomarker of MMF in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Neonatal iron deficiency causes abnormal phosphate metabolism by elevating FGF23 in normal and ADHR mice.

    PubMed

    Clinkenbeard, Erica L; Farrow, Emily G; Summers, Lelia J; Cass, Taryn A; Roberts, Jessica L; Bayt, Christine A; Lahm, Tim; Albrecht, Marjorie; Allen, Matthew R; Peacock, Munro; White, Kenneth E

    2014-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gain of function mutations can lead to autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) disease onset at birth, or delayed onset following puberty or pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that the combination of iron deficiency and a knock-in R176Q FGF23 mutation in mature mice induced FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia that paralleled the late-onset ADHR phenotype. Because anemia in pregnancy and in premature infants is common, the goal of this study was to test whether iron deficiency alters phosphate handling in neonatal life. Wild-type (WT) and ADHR female breeder mice were provided control or iron-deficient diets during pregnancy and nursing. Iron-deficient breeders were also made iron replete. Iron-deficient WT and ADHR pups were hypophosphatemic, with ADHR pups having significantly lower serum phosphate (p < 0.01) and widened growth plates. Both genotypes increased bone FGF23 mRNA (>50 fold; p < 0.01). WT and ADHR pups receiving low iron had elevated intact serum FGF23; ADHR mice were affected to a greater degree (p < 0.01). Iron-deficient mice also showed increased Cyp24a1 and reduced Cyp27b1, and low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). Iron repletion normalized most abnormalities. Because iron deficiency can induce tissue hypoxia, oxygen deprivation was tested as a regulator of FGF23, and was shown to stimulate FGF23 mRNA in vitro and serum C-terminal FGF23 in normal rats in vivo. These studies demonstrate that FGF23 is modulated by iron status in young WT and ADHR mice and that hypoxia independently controls FGF23 expression in situations of normal iron. Therefore, disturbed iron and oxygen metabolism in neonatal life may have important effects on skeletal function and structure through FGF23 activity on phosphate regulation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Kavanagh, Anne M.; Stevenson, Christopher E.; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) using national, population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults aged ≥25 years. A sample of 4,572 people provided complete baseline (1999 to 2000) and 5-year follow-up (2004 to 2005) data relevant for these analyses. Incident AGM was assessed using fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance tests, and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected by interview and questionnaire. Area SES was defined using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between area SES and incident AGM, with adjustment for covariates and correction for cluster design effects. RESULTS Area SES predicted the development of AGM, after adjustment for age, sex, and individual SES. People living in areas with the most disadvantage were significantly more likely to develop AGM, compared with those living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.07–2.18). Health behaviors (in particular, physical activity) and central adiposity appeared to partially mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that characteristics of the physical, social, and economic aspects of local areas influence diabetes risk. Future research should focus on identifying the aspects of local environment that are associated with diabetes risk and how they might be modified. PMID:22619081

  15. Abnormal folate metabolism as a risk factor for first-trimester spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael L; Scoccia, Bert; Kurczynski, Thaddeus W; Shulman, Lee P; Gao, Weihua

    2008-03-01

    To assess the potential role of folic acid in early pregnancy loss by measuring homocysteine (hcy) levels in healthy, pregnant women who present with a current first-trimester miscarriage. This was a cross-sectional analysis comprising 13 patients aged 18-31 years old who had a scheduled dilatation and curettage for a first-trimester miscarriage. The controls were 15 patients of similar maternal age presenting for a first-trimester prenatal care visit. Following completion of a 21-item, structured questionnaire, patients were excluded from the study if they had any known risk factors for a first-trimester miscarriage. The remaining patients provided blood samples for measurement of homocysteine and red blood cell folate. Cases and controls were compared using a standard 2-sample t test. In order to detect a clinically relevant 2.3 micromol/L difference in homocysteine levels, 11 cases and 8 controls were needed. The mean hcy level in cases (5.8 umolmol/L) vs. controls (5.7 micromol/L) was not significantly different (p = 0.83), and all individual values fell within the normal range expected in pregnant women. Red blood cell folate levels (cases=586 ng/mL, controls=611 ng/mL) were also not significantly different (p = 0.72), and no cases of folate deficiency were detected. Maternal age (cases=26, controls=25) and gestational age (cases = 8.8 weeks, controls = 8.4 weeks) were similar between the 2 groups. In this community-based pilot study, abnormal folate metabolism was not an apparent risk factor for spontaneous first-trimester pregnancy loss.

  16. Effect of metabolic abnormalities on endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subject with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Žižek, B; Žižek, D; Bedenčič, K; Jerin, A; Poredoš, P

    2013-08-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is often accompanied by hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance (IR) and deranged adiponectin secretion. IR may in turn be associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Therefore, we aimed to determine metabolic abnormalities in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait-FT) and to examine their relations to endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the brachial artery (BA). We included 77 subjects, 38 were normotensive individuals with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 39 age-matched Controls without FT. Insulin, adiponectin and ADMA plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated dilation-FMD) were measured. Subjects with FT had higher insulin and lower adiponectin levels than controls (13.65±6.70 vs. 7.09±2.20 mE/L; P<0.001 and 13.60±5.98 vs. 17.27±7.17 mg/L respectively; P<0.05). Insulin and adiponectin levels were negatively interrelated (r=-0.33, P=0.003). ADMA levels were comparable in both groups. The study group had worse FMD than Controls (6.11±3.28 vs. 10.20±2.07%; P<0.001). IR was independently associated with FMD (partial R2=0.23, P<0.001). Increased insulin and decreased adiponectin levels along with endothelial dysfunction are present in normotensive subjects with FT. IR and hypoadiponectinemia are interrelated, but only hyperinsulinemia has an independent adverse influence on endothelial function. Results of our study did not confirm the role of ADMA in pathogenesis of evolving hypertension.

  17. Obesity, metabolic abnormality, and health-related quality of life by gender: a cross-sectional study in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youngran; Herting, Jerald R; Choi, Jongsan

    2016-06-01

    This study sought to compare the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and four body health types by gender. The study included 6217 men and 8243 women over 30 years of age chosen from a population-based survey. Participants were grouped by body mass index and metabolic abnormality into four types: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically abnormal but normal weight (MANW), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), and metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO). HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D health questionnaire. The outcomes encompassed five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression), and the impaired HRQoL dichotomized by the EQ-5D preference score. Complex sample multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to adjust for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors, and disease comorbidity. Among men, those in the MANW group presented worse conditions on all dimensions and the impaired HRQoL compared to other men. However, no significant effect remained after adjusting for relevant covariates. For women, those in the MAO group had the most adversely affected HRQoL followed by those females in the MHO group. The domain of mobility and impaired HRQoL variable of the MAO and MHO groups remained significant when controlling for all covariates in the model. The MANW is the least favorable condition of HRQoL for men, suggesting that metabolic health may associate with HRQoL more than obesity for males. In women, the MAO and MHO groups had the most adversely affected HRQoL, implying that MHO is not a favorable health condition and that obesity, in general, may be strongly associated with HRQoL in women.

  18. Effects and mechanisms of caffeine to improve immunological and metabolic abnormalities in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Su, Yen-Bo; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2018-05-01

    In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities, including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, antihepatic steatosis, and anti-insulin resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6 wk of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunological and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Compared with HFD vehicle (HFD-V) rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and muscle macrophages and their intracellular cytokine levels. Metabolically, the increase in metabolic rates reduced lipid accumulation in various tissues, resulting in reduced adiposity, lower fat mass, decreased body weight, amelioration of hepatic steatosis, and improved systemic/muscle insulin resistance. Further mechanistic approaches revealed an upregulation of tissue lipogenic [(SREBP1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase)/insulin-sensitizing (GLUT4 and p-IRS1)] markers in HFD-caf rats. Significantly, ex vivo experiments revealed that the cytokine release by the cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell (monocyte) and WAT (adipocyte), which are known to stimulate macrophage migration and hepatocyte lipogenesis, were lower in HFD-V groups than HFD-caf groups. Caffeine treatment simultaneously ameliorates immune and metabolic pathogenic signals present in tissue to normalize immunolgical and metabolic abnormalities found in HFD-induced obese rats.

  19. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Yin-Fan; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in a non-diabetic population. A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. A total of 447 subjects (5.5%) had gallstones, with 239 (5.1%) men and 208 (6.0%) women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  20. The effect of exogenous calcium on mitochondria, respiratory metabolism enzymes and ion transport in cucumber roots under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    He, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Lu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Lingyun; Yang, Yanjuan; Yuan, Yinghui; Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-25

    Hypoxia induces plant stress, particularly in cucumber plants under hydroponic culture. In plants, calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and growth. The ultimate goal of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous calcium on the mitochondrial antioxidant system, the activity of respiratory metabolism enzymes, and ion transport in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) roots under hypoxic conditions. Our experiments revealed that exogenous calcium reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria under hypoxia. Exogenous calcium also enhances the accumulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We utilized fluorescence and ultrastructural cytochemistry methods to observe that exogenous calcium increases the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in root cells by increasing the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase and tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and H(+)-PPase. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxic stress has an immediate and substantial effect on roots. Exogenous calcium improves metabolism and ion transport in cucumber roots, thereby increasing hypoxia tolerance in cucumber.

  1. The effect of exogenous calcium on mitochondria, respiratory metabolism enzymes and ion transport in cucumber roots under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    He, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Lu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Lingyun; Yang, Yanjuan; Yuan, Yinghui; Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia induces plant stress, particularly in cucumber plants under hydroponic culture. In plants, calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and growth. The ultimate goal of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous calcium on the mitochondrial antioxidant system, the activity of respiratory metabolism enzymes, and ion transport in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) roots under hypoxic conditions. Our experiments revealed that exogenous calcium reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria under hypoxia. Exogenous calcium also enhances the accumulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We utilized fluorescence and ultrastructural cytochemistry methods to observe that exogenous calcium increases the concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ in root cells by increasing the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and tonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-PPase. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxic stress has an immediate and substantial effect on roots. Exogenous calcium improves metabolism and ion transport in cucumber roots, thereby increasing hypoxia tolerance in cucumber. PMID:26304855

  2. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  3. Metabolic and molecular responses to calcium soap of fish oil fed to ewes during peripartal period.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, S; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; Alamouti, A A; Khadem, A A; Norouzian, M A

    2017-10-31

    It has been shown that n-3 long chain fatty acids (n-3 LCFA) are involved in energy/lipid metabolisms, reproductive parameters, and molecular regulations leading to maintained homeostasis. We hypothesized that supplementation of peripartal diets with fish oil (FO), as a source of n-3 LCFA, could improve energy balance and modulate metabolic pressure in a sheep model. Prepartum ewes (n = 24) were fed control (CON) or calcium soap of fish oil (FO) supplemented-diet from four weeks before until three weeks after parturation. Feed intake, body weight (BW) change, plasma metabolites, colostrums/milk composition, and fatty acids profile of milk along with the expression of core microRNAs in glucose and lipid metabolism were evaluated. Prepartal feed intake decreased in FO group (1674 ± 33.26 vs. 1812 ± 35.56) though post-partal intake was similar. Differences in BW were not also significant (55.47 ± 2.07 in CON vs. 53.69 ± 1.94 in FO). No differences were observed in plasma metabolites except for cholesterol that was lower in FO group (56.25 ± 0.71 vs. 53.09 ± 0.61). Milk fat percentage was reduced (8.82 ± 0.49 vs. 7.03 ± 0.45) while the percentage of milk total n-3 LCFA increased in FO group. In accordance, the relative transcript abundance of miR-101 (0.215 ± 0.08) and miR-103 (0.37 ± 0.15) decreased by FO supplementation. Results showed that FO supplementation during peripartal period decreased milk fat, feed intake, plasma cholesterol, milk n-6:n-3 ratio and the expression of miR-101. Although the trend indicated that FO could alter lipid metabolism during transition period, further studies are needed to fully address its effect on energy balance and homeorhetic processes.

  4. GUCY2D Cone-Rod Dystrophy-6 Is a "Phototransduction Disease" Triggered by Abnormal Calcium Feedback on Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinya; Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Dizhoor, Alexander M

    2018-03-21

    The Arg838Ser mutation in retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) has been linked to autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy type 6 (CORD6). It is believed that photoreceptor degeneration is caused by the altered sensitivity of RetGC1 to calcium regulation via guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs). To determine the mechanism by which this mutation leads to degeneration, we investigated the structure and function of rod photoreceptors in two transgenic mouse lines, 362 and 379, expressing R838S RetGC1. In both lines, rod outer segments became shorter than in their nontransgenic siblings by 3-4 weeks of age, before the eventual photoreceptor degeneration. Despite the shortening of their outer segments, the dark current of transgenic rods was 1.5-2.2-fold higher than in nontransgenic controls. Similarly, the dim flash response amplitude in R838S + rods was larger, time to peak was delayed, and flash sensitivity was increased, all suggesting elevated dark-adapted free cGMP in transgenic rods. In rods expressing R838S RetGC1, dark-current noise increased and the exchange current, detected after a saturating flash, became more pronounced. These results suggest disrupted Ca 2+ phototransduction feedback and abnormally high free-Ca 2+ concentration in the outer segments. Notably, photoreceptor degeneration, which typically occurred after 3 months of age in R838S RetGC1 transgenic mice in GCAP1,2 +/+ or GCAP1,2 +/- backgrounds, was prevented in GCAP1,2 -/- mice lacking Ca 2+ feedback to guanylyl cyclase. In summary, the dysregulation of guanylyl cyclase in RetGC1-linked CORD6 is a "phototransduction disease," which means it is associated with increased free-cGMP and Ca 2+ levels in photoreceptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In a mouse model expressing human membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1, GUCY2D ), a mutation associated with early progressing congenital blindness, cone-rod dystrophy type 6 (CORD6), deregulates calcium-sensitive feedback of phototransduction to

  5. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism, and parathyroid-calcitonin function during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations on submarines.

    PubMed

    Messier, A A; Heyder, E; Braithwaite, W R; McCluggage, C; Peck, A; Schaefer, K E

    1979-01-01

    Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and acid-base balance were carried out on three Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarines during prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2. The average CO2 concentration in the submarine atmosphere during patrols ranged from 0.85% to 1% CO2. In the three studies, in which 9--15 subjects participated, the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate fell during the first three weeks to a level commensurate with a decrease in plasma calcium and increase in phosphorus. In the fourth week of one patrol, a marked increase was found in urinary calcium excretion, associated with a rise in blood PCO2 and bicarbonate. Urinary calcium excretion decreased again during the 5th to 8th week, with a secondary decrease in blood pH and plasma calcium. During the third patrol, the time course of acid-base changes corresponded well with that found during the second patrol. There was a trend toward an increase in plasma calcium between the fourth and fifth week commensurate with the transient rise in pH and bicarbonate. Plasma parathyroid and calcitonin hormone activities were measured in two patrols and no significant changes were found. Hydroxyproline excretion decreased in the three-week study and remained unchanged in the second patrol, which lasted 57 days. It is suggested that during prolonged exposure to low levels of CO2 (up to 1% CO2), calcium metabolism is controlled by the uptake and release of CO2 in the bones. The resulting phases in bone buffering, rather than renal regulation, determine acid-base balance.

  6. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akundi, Ravi S; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A; Sullivan, Patrick G; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-13

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice. Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice showed impaired Ca²+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca²+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1⁻/⁻ mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1⁻/⁻ mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1⁻/⁻ embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1⁻/⁻ mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Increased mitochondrial Ca²+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1⁻/⁻ mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate innate

  7. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  8. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in Prader-Willi syndrome: A 18F-FDG PET study under sedation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Eun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sungdo David; Paik, Kyung Hoon; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, An Hee; Kwon, Eun Kyung; Choe, Yon Ho

    2006-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the nonexpression of paternal genes in the PWS region of chromosome 15q11-13 and is the most common cause of human syndromic obesity. We investigated regional brain metabolic impairment in children with PWS by 18F-FDG PET. Sixteen children with PWS (9 males, 7 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.2 +/- 1.1 y) and 7 healthy children (4 males, 3 females; mean age +/- SD, 4.0 +/- 1.7 y) underwent brain 18F-FDG PET in the resting state. The images of PWS children were compared using statistical parametric mapping analysis with those of healthy children in a voxelwise manner. Group comparison showed that children with PWS had decreased glucose metabolism in the right superior temporal gyrus and left cerebellar vermis, regions that are associated with taste perception/food reward and cognitive and emotional function, respectively. Metabolism was increased in the right orbitofrontal, bilateral middle frontal, right inferior frontal, left superior frontal, and bilateral anterior cingulate gyri, right temporal pole, and left uncus, regions that are involved in cognitive functions related to eating or obsessive-compulsive behavior. Interestingly, no significant metabolic abnormality was found in the hypothalamus, the brain region believed to be most involved in energy intake and expenditure. This study describes the neural substrate underlying the abnormal eating behavior and psychobehavioral problems of PWS.

  9. Neuronal Calcium Signaling in Metabolic Regulation and Adaptation to Nutrient Stress.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Siddharth; Hasan, Gaiti

    2018-01-01

    All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development. Here we review the role of a newly identified set of integrative interneurons and the role of intracellular calcium signaling within these neurons, in regulating nutrient sensing under conditions of nutrient stress. A comparison of the identified Drosophila circuit and cellular mechanisms employed in this circuit, with vertebrate systems, suggests that the identified cell signaling mechanisms may be conserved for neural circuit function related to nutrient sensing by central neurons. The ideas proposed are potentially relevant for understanding the molecular basis of metabolic disorders, because these are frequently linked to nutritional stress.

  10. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322

  11. Metabolic abnormality in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Eui; Choi, Nam-Gil; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-06-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS. The metabolic concentration of myo-inositol in patients with OCD increased significantly by 52% compared with the healthy controls, whereas glutamine/glutamate was decreased by 11%. However, there were no significant differences in N-acetylaspartate, choline, lactate and lipid between the two groups. These findings would be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of OCD associated with the brain metabolic abnormalities in the right DLPFC.

  12. Canadian global village reality: anthropometric surrogate cutoffs and metabolic abnormalities among Canadians of East Asian, South Asian, and European descent.

    PubMed

    He, Meizi; Li, E T S; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W; Yau, Chun Y; Anderson, G Harvey

    2010-05-01

    To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. Cross-sectional survey. Primary care and community settings in Ontario. Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m(2)) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m(2) and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m(2) and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m(2) in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m(2) in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m(2) in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time.

  13. Glucose Metabolism during Resting State Reveals Abnormal Brain Networks Organization in the Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study the abnormal patterns of brain glucose metabolism co-variations in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients compared to Normal healthy controls (NC) using the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in a set of 90 structures belonging to the AAL atlas was obtained from Fluro-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography data in resting state. It is assumed that brain regions whose CMRgl values are significantly correlated are functionally associated; therefore, when metabolism is altered in a single region, the alteration will affect the metabolism of other brain areas with which it interrelates. The glucose metabolism network (represented by the matrix of the CMRgl co-variations among all pairs of structures) was studied using the graph theory framework. The highest concurrent fluctuations in CMRgl were basically identified between homologous cortical regions in all groups. Significant differences in CMRgl co-variations in AD and MCI groups as compared to NC were found. The AD and MCI patients showed aberrant patterns in comparison to NC subjects, as detected by global and local network properties (global and local efficiency, clustering index, and others). MCI network’s attributes showed an intermediate position between NC and AD, corroborating it as a transitional stage from normal aging to Alzheimer disease. Our study is an attempt at exploring the complex association between glucose metabolism, CMRgl covariations and the attributes of the brain network organization in AD and MCI. PMID:23894356

  14. Effect of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on intracellular calcium in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo, metabolic acidosis {decreased pH from decreased bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3−])} increases urine calcium (Ca) without increased intestinal Ca absorption, resulting in a loss of bone Ca. Conversely, respiratory acidosis [decreased pH from increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2)] does not appreciably alter Ca homeostasis. In cultured bone, chronic metabolic acidosis (Met) significantly increases cell-mediated net Ca efflux while isohydric respiratory acidosis (Resp) does not. The proton receptor, OGR1, appears critical for cell-mediated, metabolic acid-induced bone resorption. Perfusion of primary bone cells or OGR1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with Met induces transient peaks of intracellular Ca (Cai). To determine whether Resp increases Cai, as does Met, we imaged Cai in primary cultures of bone cells. pH for Met = 7.07 ([HCO3−] = 11.8 mM) and for Resp = 7.13 (Pco2 = 88.4 mmHg) were similar and lower than neutral (7.41). Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Cai in individual bone cells; however, Met stimulated Cai to a greater extent than Resp. We used OGR1-transfected CHO cells to determine whether OGR1 was responsible for the greater increase in Cai in Met than Resp. Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Cai in OGR1-transfected CHO cells; however, in these cells Met was not different than Resp. Thus, the greater induction of Cai by Met in primary bone cells is not a function of OGR1 alone, but must involve H+ receptors other than OGR1, or pathways sensitive to Pco2, HCO3−, or total CO2 that modify the effect of H+ in primary bone cells. PMID:20504884

  15. Effect of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on intracellular calcium in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin K; Bushinsky, David A

    2010-08-01

    In vivo, metabolic acidosis {decreased pH from decreased bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)])} increases urine calcium (Ca) without increased intestinal Ca absorption, resulting in a loss of bone Ca. Conversely, respiratory acidosis [decreased pH from increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2))] does not appreciably alter Ca homeostasis. In cultured bone, chronic metabolic acidosis (Met) significantly increases cell-mediated net Ca efflux while isohydric respiratory acidosis (Resp) does not. The proton receptor, OGR1, appears critical for cell-mediated, metabolic acid-induced bone resorption. Perfusion of primary bone cells or OGR1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with Met induces transient peaks of intracellular Ca (Ca(i)). To determine whether Resp increases Ca(i), as does Met, we imaged Ca(i) in primary cultures of bone cells. pH for Met = 7.07 ([HCO(3)(-)] = 11.8 mM) and for Resp = 7.13 (Pco(2) = 88.4 mmHg) were similar and lower than neutral (7.41). Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Ca(i) in individual bone cells; however, Met stimulated Ca(i) to a greater extent than Resp. We used OGR1-transfected CHO cells to determine whether OGR1 was responsible for the greater increase in Ca(i) in Met than Resp. Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Ca(i) in OGR1-transfected CHO cells; however, in these cells Met was not different than Resp. Thus, the greater induction of Ca(i) by Met in primary bone cells is not a function of OGR1 alone, but must involve H(+) receptors other than OGR1, or pathways sensitive to Pco(2), HCO(3)(-), or total CO(2) that modify the effect of H(+) in primary bone cells.

  16. Effects of nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Norio; Sagae, Toyoaki; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Sugai, Takuro; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yutaro; Ozeki, Yuji; Okamoto, Kurefu; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than the general population. Minimizing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in a population with an already high prevalence of obesity is of clinical and social importance. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of monthly nutritional education on weight change and metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. From July 2014 to December 2014, we recruited 265 obese patients who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to a standard care (A), doctor's weight loss advice (B), or an individual nutritional education group (C) for 12 months. The prevalence of MetS and body weight were measured at baseline and 12 months. After the 12-month treatment, 189 patients were evaluated, and the prevalence of MetS based on the ATP III-A definition in groups A, B, and C was 68.9%, 67.2%, and 47.5%, respectively. Group C showed increased weight loss (3.2 ± 4.5 kg) over the 12-month study period, and the change in weight differed significantly from that of group A; additionally, 26.2% of the participants in group C lost 7% or more of their initial weight, compared with 8.2% of those in group A. Individual nutrition education provided by a dietitian was highly successful in reducing obesity in patients with schizophrenia and could be the first choice to address both weight gain and metabolic abnormalities induced by antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Comparison between obese and non-obese PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Layegh, Parvin; Mousavi, Zohreh; Farrokh Tehrani, Donya; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance has an important role in pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Yet there are certain controversies regarding the presence of insulin resistance in non-obese patients. The aim was to compare the insulin resistance and various endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in obese and non-obese PCOS women. In this cross-sectional study which was performed from 2007-2010, 115 PCOS patients, aged 16-45 years were enrolled. Seventy patients were obese (BMI ≥25) and 45 patients were non-obese (BMI <25). Presence of insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities were compared between two groups. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. There was no significant difference in presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.3) between two groups (p=0.357). Waist circumference (p<0.001), waist/hip ratio (p<0.001), systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic (p<0.001) blood pressures, fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and insulin (p=0.011), HOMA-IR (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.001) were all significantly higher in obese PCOS patients. There was no significant difference in total testosterone (p=0.634) and androstenedione (p=0.736) between groups whereas Dehydroepiandrotendione sulfate (DHEAS) was significantly higher in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.018). There was no case of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in non-obese patients, whereas they were seen in 31.3% and 39.4% of obese PCOS women, respectively. Our study showed that metabolic abnormalities are more prevalent in obese PCOS women, but adrenal axis activity that is reflected in higher levels of DHEAS was more commonly pronounced in our non-obese PCOS patients.

  18. Metabolic and skeletal effects of low and high doses of calcium acetate in patients with preterminal chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Kenneth R; Stern, Marc; Slingerland, Alice; Heravi, Mahin; Strogatz, David S; Haqqie, Syed S

    2002-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism commonly evolves, as the glomerular filtration rate falls. The metabolic and skeletal effects of a possible remedy, calcium acetate, have not been studied in patients with preterminal chronic renal failure. Men with a mean creatinine clearance of approximately 30 ml/min took calcium acetate for 24 weeks at doses which provided 507 or 1,521 mg calcium/day with meals. Metabolic determinations were made at intervals of 4-8 weeks, and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the trial. The low-dose regimen produced no metabolic or skeletal effect. In subjects prescribed the high-dose regimen, the 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion fell from 0.53 mg/mg creatinine to values ranging from 0.34 to 0.41 mg/mg creatinine. The theoretical phosphorus threshold concentration rose by a maximum of 38.6%, and the serum phosphorus concentration did not change. The mean serum calcium concentration rose by a maximum of 7.2%. The mean fractional changes in parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations ranged from -27.0 to -39.6% and from -5.0 to -20.3%, respectively. The BMD increased at L1, L3, and L4. Calcium acetate prescribed to deliver 1,521 mg calcium/day with meals reduced parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations and increased lumbar BMD in men with preterminal chronic renal failure. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Effect of excess dietary salt on calcium metabolism and bone mineral in a spaceflight rat model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Fung, Paul; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of salt promote urinary calcium (UCa) loss and have the potential to cause bone mineral deficits if intestinal Ca absorption does not compensate for these losses. To determine the effect of excess dietary salt on the osteopenia that follows skeletal unloading, we used a spaceflight model that unloads the hindlimbs of 200-g rats by tail suspension (S). Rats were studied for 2 wk on diets containing high salt (4 and 8%) and normal calcium (0.45%) and for 4 wk on diets containing 8% salt (HiNa) and 0.2% Ca (LoCa). Final body weights were 9-11% lower in S than in control rats (C) in both experiments, reflecting lower growth rates in S than in C during pair feeding. UCa represented 12% of dietary Ca on HiNA diets and was twofold higher in S than in C transiently during unloading. Net intestinal Ca absorption was consistently 11-18% lower in S than in C. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was unaffected by either LoCa or HiNa diets in S but was increased by LoCa and HiNa diets in C. Despite depressed intestinal Ca absoption in S and a sluggish response of the Ca endocrine system to HiNa diets, UCa loss did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unloading. Although any deficit in bone mineral content from HiNa diets may have been too small to detect or the duration of the study too short to manifest, there were clear differences in Ca metabolism from control levels in the response of the spaceflight model to HiNa diets, indicated by depression of intestinal Ca absorption and its regulatory hormone.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Hayirli, Armagan; Komorowski, James R.; Sahin, Nurhan

    2018-01-01

    The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5–8.2–25 g/kg, respectively) to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca) balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins). A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001), egg production (P < 0.001), egg weight (P < 0.0001) and eggshell weight (P < 0.001) weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001) and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both). Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001), vitamin D (P < 0.0001), calcium (P < 0.001), phosphorus (P < 0.001), and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008) as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001) and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001), and Ca balance (P < 0.0001) increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001) decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor) and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin) in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all). In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients. PMID:29360830

  1. Effect of synergistic interaction between abnormal adiposity-related metabolism and prediabetes on microalbuminuria in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Central obesity and related metabolic components are important risks for microalbuminuria. To describe the effects of interactions between central obesity and related metabolic components on microalbuminuria, we conducted a nation-wide, population-based interaction analysis using cardio-metabolic index (CMI) as a candidate indicator of central obesity and related abnormal lipid metabolism. We recruited native Koreans aged 20 years or older with no medical illness. A total of 5398 participants were divided into quintiles according to CMI with sex as a covariate factor. Participants in the highest CMI quintile had elevated blood pressure (BP), increased glycemic exposure, poor lipid profile, and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared to other lower quintiles. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, systolic BP, and diastolic BP showed that CMI had an independent association with increased glycemic exposure and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Our interaction analysis revealed a significant interaction between the highest CMI quintile and prediabetes with an increased risk of microalbuminuria (adjusted RERI = 0.473, 95% CI = 0.464–0.482; adjusted AP = 0.276, 95% CI = 0.156–0.395; adjusted SI = 2.952, 95% CI = 1.234–4.670). Our findings suggest a significant association between central obesity-related abnormal lipid metabolism and prediabetes, and their interaction may exert a synergistic effect on renal vascular endothelial dysfunction even before the appearance of full-blown diabetes mellitus. To confirm these findings, large population-based prospective studies are needed. PMID:28715448

  2. Geraniol improves the impaired vascular reactivity in diabetes and metabolic syndrome through calcium channel blocking effect.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Ghareib, Salah A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of action of geraniol on the impaired vascular reactivity of aortic rings isolated from diabetes or metabolic syndrome (MS) -induced rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, type 1 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg) and left for 10weeks to develop vascular complications. MS was induced by adding 10% fructose and 3% salt to water and diet for 12weeks. The present study investigated the effect of in vitro incubation with geraniol (10-300μM) on the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine (PE) and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) as well as its effect on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal (MG) as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of geraniol, different blockers are used, including Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100μM), tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 10mM), and indomethacin (INDO, 5μM). Moreover, the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on aortic rings precontracted with PE or potassium chloride (KCl) was examined. Thirty minutes incubation with geraniol alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction in aortae isolated from diabetic or MS animals or in vitro exposed to MG in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, geraniol improved the vasodilatation response of diabetic or MS aortae or aortae exposed to MG. In search for the mechanism; geraniol produced concentration-dependent relaxation of both PE and KCl-precontracted aorta. Geraniol relaxation was not affected by L-NAME, INDO or TEA. However, geraniol significantly inhibited voltage dependent and receptor mediated Ca(2+)-induced contraction activated by KCl or PE respectively. In conclusion, geraniol ameliorates impaired vascular reactivity in experimentally induced diabetes and MS. The effect may be partially attributed to an

  3. The metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by coronary calcium.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria G; Polk, Donna; Gallagher, Amy; Miranda-Peats, Lisa; Whitcomb, Brian; Hachamovitch, Rory; Friedman, John D; Hayes, Sean; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-05-07

    We compared the prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) among persons with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes, and neither condition. The prevalence and extent of CAC has not been compared among those with MetS, diabetes, or neither condition. Of 1,823 persons (36% female) age 20 to 79 years who had screening for CAC by computed tomography, 279 had MetS, 150 had diabetes, and the remainder (n = 1,394) had neither condition. Metabolic syndrome was defined with >or=3 of the following: body mass index >or=30 kg/m(2); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dl if male or <50 mg/dl if female; triglycerides >or=150 mg/dl; blood pressure >or=130/85 mm Hg or on treatment; or fasting glucose 110 to 125 mg/dl. The prevalence and odds of any and significant (>or=75th percentile) CAC among these groups and by number of MetS risk factors were determined. Those with neither MetS nor diabetes, MetS, or diabetes had a prevalence of CAC of 53.5%, 58.8%, and 75.3% (p < 0.001), respectively, among men and 37.6%, 50.8%, and 52.6% (p < 0.001), respectively, among women. Coronary artery calcium increased by the number (0 to 5) of MetS risk factors (from 34.0% to 58.3%) (p < 0.001). Forty-one percent of subjects with MetS had either a >20% 10-year risk of CHD or CAC >or=75th percentile for age and gender. Risk factor-adjusted odds for the presence of CAC were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.87) among those with MetS and 1.67 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.50) among those with diabetes, versus those with neither condition. Those with MetS or diabetes have an increased likelihood of CAC compared with those having neither condition.

  4. Increased Expression of Fatty-Acid and Calcium Metabolism Genes in Failing Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Penas, Diego; Feijóo-Bandín, Sandra; Noguera-Moreno, Teresa; Calaza, Manuel; Álvarez-Barredo, María; Mosquera-Leal, Ana; Parrington, John; Brugada, Josep; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Lago, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) involves alterations in metabolism, but little is known about cardiomyopathy-(CM)-specific or diabetes-independent alterations in gene expression of proteins involved in fatty-acid (FA) uptake and oxidation or in calcium-(Ca2+)-handling in the human heart. Methods RT-qPCR was used to quantify mRNA expression and immunoblotting to confirm protein expression in left-ventricular myocardium from patients with HF (n = 36) without diabetes mellitus of ischaemic (ICM, n = 16) or dilated (DCM, n = 20) cardiomyopathy aetiology, and non-diseased donors (CTL, n = 6). Results Significant increases in mRNA of genes regulating FA uptake (CD36) and intracellular transport (Heart-FA-Binding Protein (HFABP)) were observed in HF patients vs CTL. Significance was maintained in DCM and confirmed at protein level, but not in ICM. mRNA was higher in DCM than ICM for peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPARA), PPAR-gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC1A) and CD36, and confirmed at the protein level for PPARA and CD36. Transcript and protein expression of Ca2+-handling genes (Two-Pore-Channel 1 (TPCN1), Two-Pore-Channel 2 (TPCN2), and Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor type-1 (IP3R1)) increased in HF patients relative to CTL. Increases remained significant for TPCN2 in all groups but for TPCN1 only in DCM. There were correlations between FA metabolism and Ca2+-handling genes expression. In ICM there were six correlations, all distinct from those found in CTL. In DCM there were also six (all also different from those found in CTL): three were common to and three distinct from ICM. Conclusion DCM-specific increases were found in expression of several genes that regulate FA metabolism, which might help in the design of aetiology-specific metabolic therapies in HF. Ca2+-handling genes TPCN1 and TPCN2 also showed increased expression in HF, while HF- and CM-specific positive correlations were found among several FA and Ca2+-handling genes

  5. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus with supplemental calcium on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se-Chan; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus, an Asian traditional herb, has an estrogenic effect in vitro. To examine the possible role of A. membranaceus extract with supplemental calcium (Ca) on bone status in calcium-deficient (LCa) ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a total of 48 female rats were divided into six groups: (1) normal control, (2) sham operation with LCa (sham-LCa), (3) OVX with LCa (OVX-LCa), (4) A. membranaceus supplementation with OVX-LCa (OVX-MLCa), (5) Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-Ca), and (6) A. membranaceus and Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-MCa). A. membranaceus ethanol extract (500 mg/kg BW) and/or Ca (800 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for 8 weeks along with a Ca-deficient diet. Results revealed that Ca supplementation with or without A. membranaceus extract significantly improved bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and ash weight of the femur and tibia in OVX rats. High Ca with A. membranaceus combination supplementation significantly increased the ash weight of the femur and tibia and decreased urinary Ca excretion compared with supplementation of Ca alone. Uterine weight was not changed by A. membranaceus administration in OVX rats. These results suggest that A. membranaceus extract combined with supplemental Ca may be more protective against the Ca loss of bone than A. membranaceus or supplementation of Ca alone in calcium-insufficient postmenopausal women.

  6. Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status?123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798

  7. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  8. [Prevalence and quality of control of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders among Lithuanian hemodialysis patients in 2004 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Petrauskiene, Vaida; Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Burciuviene, Asta; Grazulis, Saulius; Sileikiene, Elvyra; Masalskiene, Jūrate; Juodeikiene, Laima; Tamosaitis, Donatas; Alisauskiene, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and quality of control of disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism among patients on hemodialysis in Lithuania during the period of 2004-2005 and to assess rarely used methods of treatment such as parathyroidectomy and administration of calcimimetics. All Lithuanian hemodialysis centers were visited, and data on disorders of calcium-phosphorus metabolism were collected in December 2004 and 2005. The quality of control was evaluated according to Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative recommendations. According to Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines, normal parathyroid hormone levels were found in 20.4% of hemodialysis patients in 2004 and 18.8% of hemodialysis patients in 2005; normal levels of phosphate were in 41.9% and 39.4%, respectively; normal levels of calcium were observed in 44.7% of patients in 2004 and in 42.3% of patients in 2005. In 2005 as compared to 2004, there were statistically significantly more patients with low parathyroid hormone level (39.9% and 45.8%, respectively, P<0.05). Only in 5.6% of patients in 2004 and 3.9% of patients in 2005, all four parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism (calcium, phosphate, and of parathyroid hormone levels and calcium-phosphate product) were within the normal range. No parameters in the normal range were found in 17-20% of patients. The use of alfacalcidol significantly increased: 316 (30.8%) patients in 2004 and 388 (35.7%) patients in 2005 were treated with alfacalcidol (P<0.05). Alfacalcidol was prescribed for 16.5% of patients in 2004 and for 17% of patients in 2005, in whom parathyroid hormone level was below the normal range in the presence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The use of calcimimetics was considered rational in 142 (13.8%) patients in 2004 and 119 (10.9%) patients in 2005. According to the data of our study, parathyroidectomy was indicated in 19 (1.85%) patients in 2004 and 17 (1.56%) patients in 2005

  9. A Role for Hypocretin/Orexin in Metabolic and Sleep Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Non-metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Walker Ii, William H; Surbhi; Emmer, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ning; Zalenski, Abigail A; Muscarella, Stevie L; Fitzgerald, Julie A; Smith, Alexandra N; Braam, Cornelius J; TinKai, Tial; Magalang, Ulysses J; Lustberg, Maryam B; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2018-05-14

    We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted. We next investigated neural populations coupling metabolism and sleep, and observed altered activity within lateral-hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) neurons. We used a dual HO-receptor antagonist to test whether increased HO signaling was causing metabolic abnormalities. This approach rescued metabolic abnormalities and enhanced sleep quality in tumor-bearing mice. Peripheral sympathetic denervation prevented tumor-induced increases in serum glucose. Our results link metabolic and sleep abnormalities via the HO system, and provide evidence that central neuromodulators contribute to tumor-induced changes in metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared between Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Preliminary testing of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and creatinine appeared valid for use in plasma and creatinine in urine in both species. Furthermore, measurements of bone alkaline phosphatase and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen appeared valid for use in Asian elephants. Mean heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration and pH were not significantly affected by 3 cycles of freezing and thawing. Storage at 4 °C, room temperature, and 37 °C for 6, 12, and 24 hr did not alter the heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration in Asian elephants. The following linear regression equation using pH (range: 6.858-7.887) and ionized calcium concentration in heparinized plasma was utilized: iCa(7.4) (mmol/l) = -2.1075 + 0.3130·pH(actual) + 0.8296·iCa(actual) (mmol/l). Mean basal values for pH and plasma in Asian elephant whole blood were 7.40 ± 0.048 and 7.49 ± 0.077, respectively. The urinary specific gravity and creatinine concentrations in both Asian and African elephants were significantly correlated and both were significantly lower in Asian elephants. © 2011 The Author(s)

  11. Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Picard, Brigitte; Kammoun, Malek; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barboiron, Christiane; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-05-04

    Hsp27-encoded by HspB1- is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12-43 kDa (kilodalton)) family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse . Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1 -null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1), contraction (TnnT3), energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1) and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9). These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps.

  12. Perspective on the impact of weightlessness on calcium and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Holick, M F

    1998-05-01

    As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.

  13. Perspective on the impact of weightlessness on calcium and bone metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holick, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.

  14. Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Brigitte; Kammoun, Malek; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barboiron, Christiane; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Hsp27—encoded by HspB1—is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12–43 kDa (kilodalton)) family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse. Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1-null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1), contraction (TnnT3), energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1) and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9). These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps. PMID:28248227

  15. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  16. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  17. Effect of Intermittent Exposure to 3% CO2 on Respiration, Acid-Base Balance, and Calcium-Phosphorus Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    of the renal functions primarily involved in acid- base regulations are shown in Fig. 7. There was an immediate response to C02 breathing on the first...1965). Based on the available data, it is not possible to explain why the renal response was turned off on Day 2. At the fourth and fifth days... base balance, and calcium-phosphorus metabolism K. E. SCHAEFER, C. R. CAREY, J. H. DOUGHERTY, JR., C. MORGAN, and A. A. MESSIER Naval Submarine

  18. Equation-derived body fat percentage indicates metabolic abnormalities among normal-weight adults in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong

    2017-07-08

    Obesity classification using body mass index (BMI) may miss subjects with elevated body fat percentage (BF%) and related metabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate whether BF% calculated by equations could provide more information about metabolic risks, in addition to BMI classification, in a cross-sectional rural Chinese population. A total of 2,990 men and women aged 18-80 years were included in this study. BF% was calculated using previously validated Chinese-specific equations. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. In total, 33.6% men and 32.9% women were overweight/obese according to BMI classification. Among those within the normal BMI range, 25.4% men and 54.7% women were indicated as overweight or obese given their elevated BF% (men: BF% ≥ 20%; women: BF% ≥ 30%). In both men and women, compared with those with normal BMI and BF% (NBB), subjects with normal BMI but elevated BF% (NBOB) were more likely to carry abnormal serum lipid profile and to have higher risks of metabolic syndrome. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 5.45 (2.37-9.53, P < 0.001) and 5.65 (3.36-9.52, P < 0.001) for men and women, respectively. Moreover, the women with NBOB also showed higher blood pressure and serum uric acid than women with NBB. Our study suggested that high BF% based on equations may indicate adverse metabolic profiles among rural Chinese adults with a normal BMI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Roles of GSK3 in metabolic shift toward abnormal anabolism in cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Mie; Seo, Yong-Hak; Park, Chan-Bae; Yoon, Soo-Han; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2010-07-01

    Diverse metabolic alterations, including mitochondrial dysfunction, have often been reported as characteristic phenotypes of senescent cells. However, the overall consequence of senescent metabolic features, how they develop, and how they are linked to other senescent phenotypes, such as enlarged cell volume, increased granularity, and oxidative stress, is not clear. We investigated the potential roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a multifunctional kinase, in the development of the metabolic phenotypes in cell senescence. The inactivation of GSK3 via phosphorylation is commonly observed in diverse cell senescences. Furthermore, subcytotoxic concentration of GSK3 inhibitor was sufficient to induce cellular senescence, accompanied by augmented anabolism, such as enhanced protein synthesis, and increased glycogenesis and lipogenesis, in addition to mitochondrial dysfunction. Anabolism was accomplished through glycogen synthase, eIF2B, and SREBP1. These metabolic features seem to contribute to an increase in cellular mass by increasing glycogen granules, protein mass, and organelles. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK3 is one of the key modulators of metabolic alteration, leading the cells to senescence.

  20. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  1. Influence of calcium and phosphorus feeding on markers of bone metabolism in transition cows.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V R; Zeringue, L K; Williams, C C; Leonardi, C; McCormick, M E

    2009-10-01

    A study was carried out to verify the effect of Ca and P levels on production, digestibility, and serum bone metabolism biomarkers in dairy cows. Fifty-two nonlactating multiparous cows (>or=3 lactations) were confined in a free-stall barn approximately 20 d before calving. A standard close-up diet was fed to cows once daily until d 2 postpartum. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial approach averaging 0.64% Ca for high Ca (HCa), 0.46% Ca for low Ca (LCa), 0.47% P for high P (HP), and 0.38% P for low P (LP) on a dry matter basis. Experimental diets were fed twice daily from 3 d in milk (DIM) until 31 DIM. Intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Milk samples were collected on d 28, 29, and 30 postpartum for components analyses. Blood samples were drawn 10 d before expected calving, at calving, and at 15 and 30 DIM for serum analyses of osteocalcin, a biomarker of bone accretion, and pyridinoline, a biomarker of bone resorption. Total fecal collection was conducted when cows in a block averaged 20 DIM. Intake and production traits were not significantly affected by any of the dietary treatments. Cows averaged nearly 21 kg/d dry matter intake and 44 kg/d milk yield from 6 to 31 DIM. There were no significant differences across treatments in body weight or body condition score loss. Phosphorus intake, P fecal output, P digestibility, and P apparent absorption were affected by dietary P content. Calcium intake was higher with HCa, but Ca fecal output, digestibility, and apparent absorption showed an interaction between dietary Ca and dietary P. Calcium fecal output was 100.6 g/d for cows fed HCaHP, intermediate for cows on the HCaLP diet (89 g/d), and similar among cows fed the 2 LCa diets (70 g/d with LCaHP and 75 with LCaLP). There was no significant effect of Ca or P on osteocalcin measurements. Pyridinoline concentrations were affected by dietary Ca levels and tended to have a significant dietary Ca x dietary P

  2. Bile Acids and Tryptophan Metabolism Are Novel Pathways Involved in Metabolic Abnormalities in BPA-Exposed Pregnant Mice and Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Susiarjo, Martha; Xin, Frances; Stefaniak, Martha; Mesaros, Clementina; Simmons, Rebecca A; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals impacts maternal and fetal health, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We previously showed that dietary exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight (bw)/d and 10 mg/kg bw/d of bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy induced metabolic abnormalities in F1 male offspring and gestational glucose intolerance in F0 pregnant mice. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying etiologies of BPA exposure-induced metabolic disease by analyzing the male fetal liver metabolome. Using the Metabolon Discover HD4 Platform, our laboratory identified metabolic pathways that were altered by BPA exposure, including biochemicals in lipid and amino acid metabolism. Specifically, primary and secondary bile acids were increased in liver from BPA-exposed embryonic day 18.5 male fetuses. We subsequently showed that increased bile acid was associated with a defective farnesoid X receptor-dependent negative feedback mechanism in BPA-exposed fetuses. In addition, through metabolomics, we observed that BPA-exposed fetuses had elevated tryptophan levels. Independent liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry measurement revealed that BPA-exposed dams also had increased tryptophan levels relative to those of controls. Because several key enzymes in tryptophan catabolism are vitamin B6 dependent and vitamin B6 deficiencies have been linked to gestational diabetes, we tested the impact of vitamin B6 supplementation and showed that it rescued gestational glucose intolerance in BPA-exposed pregnant mice. Our study has therefore identified two pathways (bile acid and tryptophan metabolism) that potentially underlie BPA-induced maternal and fetal metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Association of neural tube defects in children of mothers with MTHFR 677TT genotype and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism risk: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P

    2014-03-26

    Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of insulin in the serum, higher (P < 0.05) HOMA-IR and total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the liver, and lower (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (hepatic lipase [HL], lipoprotein lipase [LPL], total lipase [TL]) and concentration of glycogen in the liver than the NBW group. TB supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P < 0.05) enzyme activities (HL, LPL, and TL) and concentration of glycogen in the liver of the IT group. The mRNA expression for insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in the liver by IUGR, which was efficiently (P < 0.05) attenuated by diets supplemented with TB. TB supplementation has therapeutic potential for attenuating insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  5. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-associated deoxysphingolipids cause neurotoxicity, acute calcium handling abnormalities and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma R; Kugathasan, Umaiyal; Abramov, Andrey Y; Clark, Alex J; Bennett, David L H; Reilly, Mary M; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2018-05-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism. In this study, we show that exogenous application of these deoxysphingoid bases causes dose- and time-dependent neurotoxicity in primary mammalian neurons, as determined by analysis of cell survival and neurite length. Acutely, deoxysphingoid base neurotoxicity manifests in abnormal Ca 2+ handling by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as dysregulation of cell membrane store-operated Ca 2+ channels. The changes in intracellular Ca 2+ handling are accompanied by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in deoxysphingoid base-treated motor and sensory neurons. Thus, these results suggest that exogenous deoxysphingoid base application causes neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca 2+ handling deficits, which may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HSN-1. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The lethal form of Cushing's in 7B2 null mice is caused by multiple metabolic and hormonal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Miroslav S; Zieske, Arthur W; Lindberg, Iris

    2002-06-01

    The neuroendocrine-specific protein 7B2, which serves as a molecular escort for proPC2 in the secretory pathway, promotes the production of enzymatically active PC2 and may have non-PC2 related endocrine roles. Mice null for 7B2 exhibit a lethal phenotype with a complex Cushing's-like pathology, which develops from intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion as a consequences of interruption of PC2-mediated peptide processing as well as undefined consequences of the loss of 7B2. In this study we investigated the endocrine and metabolic alterations of 7B2 null mice from pathological and biochemical points of view. Our results show that 7B2 nulls exhibit a multisystem disorder that includes severe pathoanatomical and histopathologic alterations of vital organs, including the heart and spleen but most notably the liver, in which massive steatosis and necrosis are observed. Metabolic derangements in glucose metabolism result in glycogen and fat deposition in liver under conditions of chronic hypoglycemia. Liver failure is also likely to contribute to abnormalities in blood coagulation and blood chemistry, such as lactic acidosis. A hypoglycemic crisis coupled with respiratory distress and intensive internal thrombosis most likely results in rapid deterioration and death of the 7B2 null.

  7. Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

  8. Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis During Exercise as a Mediator of Bone Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (Appendix A). 15. SUBJECT TERMS calcium homeostasis, exercise, bone resorption, parathyroid hormone ... hormone (PTH). PTH can defend serum Ca by reducing urinary Ca excretion, increasing intestinal Ca absorption, and increasing mobilization of skeletal Ca...certain conditions. It is our contention that disruptions in calcium homeostasis during exercise lead to increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and

  9. Hydroxytyrosol prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Li, Hua; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Shi, Yujie; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

    2014-02-01

    A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil has profound influence on health outcomes including metabolic syndrome. However, the active compound and detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenolic compound in virgin olive oil, has received increased attention for its antioxidative activity and regulation of mitochondrial function. Here, we investigated whether HT is the active compound in olive oil exerting a protective effect against metabolic syndrome. In this study, we show that HT could prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice after 17 weeks supplementation. Within liver and skeletal muscle tissues, HT could decrease HFD-induced lipid deposits through inhibition of the SREBP-1c/FAS pathway, ameliorate HFD-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities, normalize expression of mitochondrial complex subunits and mitochondrial fission marker Drp1, and eventually inhibit apoptosis activation. Moreover, in muscle tissue, the levels of mitochondrial carbonyl protein were decreased and mitochondrial complex activities were significantly improved by HT supplementation. In db/db mice, HT significantly decreased fasting glucose, similar to metformin. Notably, HT decreased serum lipid, at which metformin failed. Also, HT was more effective at decreasing the oxidation levels of lipids and proteins in both liver and muscle tissue. Similar to the results in the HFD model, HT decreased muscle mitochondrial carbonyl protein levels and improved mitochondrial complex activities in db/db mice. Our study links the olive oil component HT to diabetes and metabolic disease through changes that are not limited to decreases in oxidative stress, suggesting a potential pharmaceutical or clinical use of HT in metabolic syndrome treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in A3243G mitochondrial DNA mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Weiduschat, Nora; Kaufmann, Petra; Mao, Xiangling; Engelstad, Kristin Marie; Hinton, Veronica; DiMauro, Salvatore; De Vivo, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish cerebral metabolic features associated with the A3243G mitochondrial DNA mutation with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) and to assess their potential as prognostic biomarkers. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we investigated 135 clinically heterogeneous A3243G mutation carriers and 30 healthy volunteers (HVs) with 1H MRSI. Mutation carriers included 45 patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS); 11 participants who would develop the MELAS syndrome during follow-up (converters); and 79 participants who would not develop the MELAS syndrome during follow-up (nonconverters). The groups were compared with respect to MRSI metabolic indices of 1) anaerobic energy metabolism (lactate), 2) neuronal integrity (N-acetyl-l-aspartate [NAA]), 3) mitochondrial function (NAA; lactate), 4) cell energetics (total creatine), and 5) membrane biosynthesis and turnover (total choline [tCho]). Results: Consistent with prior studies, the patients with MELAS had higher lactate (p < 0.001) and lower NAA levels (p = 0.01) than HVs. Unexpectedly, converters showed higher NAA (p = 0.042), tCho (p = 0.004), and total creatine (p = 0.002), in addition to higher lactate levels (p = 0.032), compared with HVs. Compared with nonconverters, converters had higher tCho (p = 0.015). Clinically, converters and nonconverters did not differ at baseline. Lactate and tCho levels were reliable biomarkers for predicting the risk of individual mutation carriers to develop the MELAS phenotype. Conclusions: 1H MRSI assessment of cerebral metabolism in A3243G mutation carriers shows promise in identifying disease biomarkers as well as individuals at risk of developing the MELAS phenotype. PMID:24477106

  11. Metabolic and Homeostatic Changes in Seizures and Acquired Epilepsy—Mitochondria, Calcium Dynamics and Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Stjepana; Dinkova Kostova, Albena T.; Melzer, Nico; Meuth, Sven G.; Gorji, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Acquired epilepsies can arise as a consequence of brain injury and result in unprovoked seizures that emerge after a latent period of epileptogenesis. These epilepsies pose a major challenge to clinicians as they are present in the majority of patients seen in a common outpatient epilepsy clinic and are prone to pharmacoresistance, highlighting an unmet need for new treatment strategies. Metabolic and homeostatic changes are closely linked to seizures and epilepsy, although, surprisingly, no potential treatment targets to date have been translated into clinical practice. We summarize here the current knowledge about metabolic and homeostatic changes in seizures and acquired epilepsy, maintaining a particular focus on mitochondria, calcium dynamics, reactive oxygen species and key regulators of cellular metabolism such as the Nrf2 pathway. Finally, we highlight research gaps that will need to be addressed in the future which may help to translate these findings into clinical practice. PMID:28885567

  12. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium123

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. Objective: We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Design: Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11–15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Results: Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P < 0.05). No effects were observed in fecal magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P < 0.05), with no effects of race or calcium intake. Salt loading had no effect on biomarkers. Whites had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 but lower 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations. Conclusions: Blacks excreted less urinary magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01564238. PMID:23553157

  13. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Lee, Margaret; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya

    2009-01-01

    Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group), received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020). When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280 ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265 ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069), but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6 ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P < or = 0.0001).

  14. Impact of long-term potassium supplementation on thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities of glucose and uric acid metabolisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Liang; Yu, Hui; Hou, Ying-Wei; Wang, Ke; Bi, Wen-Shan; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Qian; Li, Pan; Yu, Man-Li; Zhao, Xian-Xian

    2018-04-01

    Treatment of hypertension with thiazide diuretics may trigger hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. Some studies suggest simultaneous potassium supplementation in hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics. However, few clinical studies have reported the impact of long-term potassium supplementation on thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and uric acid (UA) metabolisms. One hundred hypertensive patients meeting the inclusion criteria were equally randomized to two groups: IND group receiving indapamide (1.25-2.5 mg daily) alone, and IND/KCI group receiving IND (1.25-2.5 mg daily) plus potassium chloride (40 mmol daily), both for 24 weeks. At the end of 24-week follow-up, serum K + level in IND group decreased from 4.27 ± 0.28 to 3.98 ± 0.46 mmol/L (P < 0.001), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and UA increased from 5.11 ± 0.52 to 5.31 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P < 0.05), and from 0.404 ± 0.078 to 0.433 ± 0.072 mmol/L (P < 0.05), respectively. Serum K + level in IND/KCl group decreased from 4.27 ± 0.36 to 3.89 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P < 0.001), and FPB and UA increased from 5.10 ± 0.41 to 5.35 ± 0.55 mmol/L (P < 0.01), and from 0.391 ± 0.073 to 0.457 ± 0.128 mmol/L (P < 0.001), respectively. The difference value between the serum K + level and FPG before and after treatment was not statistically significant between the two groups. However, the difference value in UA in IND/KCl group was significantly higher than that in IND group (0.066 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.041-0.090)  mmol/L vs. 0.029 (95% CI: 0.006-0.058) mmol/L, P < 0.05). The results showed that long-term routine potassium supplementation could not prevent or attenuate thiazide diuretic-induced abnormalities of glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients; rather, it may aggravate the UA metabolic abnormality.

  15. Phosphate binders and metabolic acidosis in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis—sevelamer hydrochloride, calcium carbonate, and bixalomer.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Toru; Tada, Hideo; Ono, Takashi; Fukumitsu, Toma

    2015-01-01

    The serum bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) levels are decreased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients treated with sevelamer hydrochloride (SH). We assessed the effects of bixalomer on the chronic metabolic acidosis in these patients. We examined 12 of the 122 consecutive Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease on HD, who orally ingested a dose of SH (≥2250 mg), and an arterial blood gas analysis and biochemical analysis were performed before HD. Patients whose serum HCO3(-) levels were under 18 mmol/L were changed from SH to the same dose of bixalomer. A total of 12 patients were treated with a large amount of SH. Metabolic acidosis (a serum HCO3(-) level under 18 mmol/L) was found in eight patients. These patients were also treated with or without small dose of calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 g). The dose of SH was changed to that of bixalomer. After 1 month, the serum HCO3(-) levels increased from 16.3 ± 1.4 to 19.6 ± 1.7 mmol/L (P < 0.05). Metabolic acidosis was not observed in four patients (serum HCO3(-) level: 20.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L) likely because they were taking 3 g of calcium carbonate with SH. In the present study, the development of chronic metabolic acidosis was induced by HCl containing phosphate binders, such as SH, and partially ameliorated by calcium carbonate, then subsequently improved after changing the treatment to bixalomer. © 2014 Fukumitsu Hospital. Hemodialysis International published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Parameters for calcium metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who undergo clomiphene citrate stimulation: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ott, J; Wattar, L; Kurz, C; Seemann, R; Huber, J C; Mayerhofer, K; Vytiska-Binstorfer, E

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether parameters for calcium metabolism were associated with characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A prospective cohort study. Ninety-one anovulatory, infertile women with PCOS patients underwent clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation. Main outcome measures were parathyroid hormone (PTH); 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3); serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, and total protein; the serum calcium-phosphorus product; LH; FSH; sexual hormone binding globulin; testosterone; and androstenedione. PTH correlated inversely with serum calcium (r=-0.235; P=0.004) and 25OHD3 (r=-0.664; P<0.001), whereas positive correlations were found between PTH and body mass index (BMI; r=0.270; P=0.010) and between PTH and testosterone (r=0.347; P=0.001). After stimulation with 50 mg CC, 57.1% (52/91) developed a follicle, whereas 26.4% (24/91) became pregnant. In a multivariate model to predict both follicle development and pregnancy, BMI and 25OHD3 deficiency were significant predictive parameters. 25OHD3 deficiency was an independent predictive parameter of CC stimulation outcome, in terms of follicle development and pregnancy. Our results suggest a substantial role of vitamin D in PCOS and infertility treatment in these patients.

  17. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  18. Pathophysiology and molecular basis of selected metabolic abnormalities in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Krzysztoń-Russjan, Jolanta

    2016-12-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed. HD symptoms include neurological disturbances, such as choreal movements with dystonia, speech and swallowing impairments, and additionally a variety of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms with cognitive decline have been described. They are the result of disturbances of several cellular pathways related to signal transmission, mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment shown by gene and protein expression and alteration of their functions. Impairment of energy processes demonstrated by a decrease of ATP production and increase of oxidative stress markers was determined in- and outside of the CNS in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. A correlation between the increase of energy metabolism impairment level and the increase in number of CAG repeats in HTT has often been described. The energy metabolism study is an initial stage of sensitive biomarkers and a new therapeutic investigative option for early application in order to inhibit pathological processes in HD. Identification of pathological changes outside the CNS requires a reevaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic rules in HD.

  19. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  20. [Prevalence of target organ damage and metabolic abnormalities in resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Hernández Del Rey, Raquel; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; De La Sierra, Alejandro

    2011-10-15

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are relatively frequently visited in specialized units of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of target organ damage, central obesity and metabolic syndrome in a cohort of patients with RH consecutively included in the Register of Resistant Hypertension of the Spanish Society of Hypertension (SHE-LELHA). Cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiologic study in usual clinical practice conditions. Patients with clinical diagnosis of resistant hypertension, that is, office systolic and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or ≥ 90 mm Hg, respectively, despite a prescribed therapeutic schedule with an appropriate combination of three or more full-dose antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, were consecutively recruited from specialized hypertension units spread through Spain. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors and associated conditions were recorded, and all the subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Left ventricular hypertrophy was considered as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 125 g/m(2) in males and ≥ 110 g/m(2) in females. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an indexed left atrium diameter ≥ 26 mm/m(2). Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 22 mg/g in males and ≥ 31 mg/g in females. 513 patients were included, aged 64±11 years old, 47% women. Central obesity was present in 65.7% (CI 95% 61.6-69.9), 38.6% (CI 95% 34.4-42.8) had diabetes and 63.7% (CI 95% 59.4-67.9) had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement, determined by echocardiography was 57.1% (CI 95% 50.8-63.5) and 10.0% (CI 95% 6.3-13.7) respectively. Microalbuminuria was found in 46.6% (CI 95% 41.4-51.8) of the subjects. Patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (65.4±11 and 62.5±12 years; P=.0052), presented a higher prevalence of diabetes

  1. Late Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Is Associated with Long-Term Persistence of Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ghislain, Mathilde; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Meyer, Laurence; Capeau, Jacqueline; Fellahi, Soraya; Gérard, Laurence; May, Thierry; Simon, Anne; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation. Methods Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142). Results Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07). Conclusion After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:26636578

  2. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    PubMed

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hadigan, C; Meigs, J B; Corcoran, C; Rietschel, P; Piecuch, S; Basgoz, N; Davis, B; Sax, P; Stanley, T; Wilson, P W; D'Agostino, R B; Grinspoon, S

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated metabolic and clinical features of 71 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy by comparing them with 213 healthy control subjects, matched for age and body mass index, from the Framingham Offspring Study. Thirty HIV-infected patients without fat redistribution were compared separately with 90 matched control subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid levels; glucose and insulin response to standard oral glucose challenge; and anthropometric measurements were determined. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy demonstrated significantly increased waist-to-hip ratios, fasting insulin levels, and diastolic blood pressure compared with controls. Patients with lipodystrophy were more likely to have impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than were controls. With the exception of HDL cholesterol level, these risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were markedly attenuated in patients without lipodystrophy and were not significantly different in comparison with controls. These data demonstrate a metabolic syndrome characterized by profound insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. CVD risk factors are markedly elevated in HIV-infected patients with fat redistribution.

  4. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana; Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S; Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20%  w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  5. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS. PMID:28798859

  6. Influence of different calcium concentrations in the diet on bone metabolism in growing dairy goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, if different Ca concentrations in diets have an influence on bone mineral metabolism in growing goats and sheep. Twelve growing goats and sheep were divided into two groups. The two control groups received 6.1 g calcium/day (nG) and 6.7 g calcium/day (nS) for goat and sheep respectively. The other two groups were fed 17.7 g calcium/day (hG) and 18.5 g calcium/day (hS). Blood samples were taken 2, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after the start of the experiment. In serum Ca and vitamin D were determined and bone metabolism was measured using crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), crosslaps, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (OC). Bone mineral density (BMD) was quantified using quantitative computed tomography. Bone resorption marker (ICTP) concentrations were significantly different between both groups control sheep/control goat and hS/hG, but no significant differences were evident in the different feeding groups within one species. OC concentrations showed a similar course to ICTP. The goats had significantly higher concentrations compared with sheep. The 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (VITD) concentrations in both hCa groups were significantly lower than in the control groups. BMD increased in the hCa groups compared with the control groups with the time, but significant differences were only evident in sheep in week 2. The hCa diet did not induce differences between the groups within one species for all bone markers. The control Ca diet seems to improve the active Ca absorption via VITD whereas the hCa diet leads to a higher amount of Ca apparently digested. Higher BMD was only observed in group hS compared with nS.

  7. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculatedmore » for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive

  8. Role of acidosis-induced increases in calcium on PTH secretion in acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in the dog.

    PubMed

    López, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Estepa, José Carlos; Rodríguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J

    2004-05-01

    Recently, we showed that both acute metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in the dog. To evaluate the specific effect of acidosis, ionized calcium (iCa) was clamped at a normal value. Because iCa values normally increase during acute acidosis, we now have studied the PTH response to acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis in dogs in which the iCa concentration was allowed to increase (nonclamped) compared with dogs with a normal iCa concentration (clamped). Five groups of dogs were studied: control, metabolic (clamped and nonclamped), and respiratory (clamped and nonclamped) acidosis. Metabolic (HCl infusion) and respiratory (hypoventilation) acidosis was progressively induced during 60 min. In the two clamped groups, iCa was maintained at a normal value with an EDTA infusion. Both metabolic and respiratory acidosis increased (P < 0.05) iCa values in nonclamped groups. In metabolic acidosis, the increase in iCa was progressive and greater (P < 0.05) than in respiratory acidosis, in which iCa increased by 0.04 mM and then remained constant despite further pH reductions. The increase in PTH values was greater (P < 0.05) in clamped than in nonclamped groups (metabolic and respiratory acidosis). In the nonclamped metabolic acidosis group, PTH values first increased and then decreased from peak values when iCa increased by > 0.1 mM. In the nonclamped respiratory acidosis group, PTH values exceeded (P < 0.05) baseline values only after iCa values stopped increasing at a pH of 7.30. For the same increase in iCa in the nonclamped groups, PTH values increased more in metabolic acidosis. In conclusion, 1) both metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis stimulate PTH secretion; 2) the physiological increase in the iCa concentration during the induction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis reduces the magnitude of the PTH increase; 3) in metabolic acidosis, the increase in the iCa concentration can be of sufficient

  9. Abnormal high-energy phosphate molecule metabolism during regional brain activation in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.

  10. Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein in dogs with potential disorders of calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mellanby, R J; Craig, R; Evans, H; Herrtage, M E

    2006-12-16

    The plasma concentrations of total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrp) were measured in 25 dogs with lymphoma, nine dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and seven dogs with adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac. Plasma total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin and parathyroid hormone-related protein were measured in 18 clinically normal control dogs. The concentration of PTHrp was high in 12 of the 14 dogs that were hypercalcaemic because of an underlying malignancy but was within the reference range in all the control dogs, in the 17 normocalcaemic dogs with lymphoma and in the seven dogs which were hypercalcaemic because of a parathyroid adenoma.

  11. Abnormal Collagen Metabolism in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts from Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemann, H. Peter; Bayreuther, Klaus

    1984-08-01

    Total collagen synthesis is decreased by about 29% (P < 0.01) in skin fibroblasts established in vitro from male patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) as compared with that in normal male skin fibroblasts in vitro. The reduction in collagen synthesis is associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in collagen degradation in DMD fibroblasts. Correlated to these alterations in the metabolism of collagen, DMD fibroblasts express a significantly higher hydroxyproline/proline ratio (DMD: 1.36-1.45; P < 0.01) than do normal fibroblasts (controls: 0.86-0.89). The increased hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen (composed of type I and type III) could be the cause for the enhanced degradation of collagen in DMD fibroblasts.

  12. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  13. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L.

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated frommore » the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.« less

  14. Fasting glucose measurement as a potential first step screening for glucose metabolism abnormalities in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; Goverde, Angelique J; van Haeften, Timon W; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2013-08-01

    Is routine screening by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed for all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Screening for glucose metabolism abnormalities of PCOS patients by an OGTT could potentially be limited to patients who present with a fasting glucose concentration between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l only. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of developing diabetes. This study proposes a stepwise screening strategy for (pre)diabetes for PCOS patients based on risk stratification by fasting plasma glucose. A cross-sectional study of 226 women diagnosed with anovulatory PCOS. A consecutive series of 226 patients, diagnosed with PCOS at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, were screened for glucose metabolism abnormalities by OGTT (75 g glucose load). The majority of the 226 women (mean age: 29.6 ± 4.3 years; BMI: 27.3 ± 6.7 kg/m(2); 81% Caucasian) presented with a normal OGTT (169 women (75%)). Of the 57 (25%) women presenting with mild to moderate glucose abnormalities, 53 (93%) could be identified by fasting glucose concentrations only. Diabetes was diagnosed in a total of eight women (3.5%). In six women, the diagnosis was based on fasting glucose >7.0 mmol/l. The other two cases of diabetes initially presented with fasting glucose between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l and were diagnosed by OGTT assessment. No women diagnosed with diabetes presented with fasting glucose levels below 6.1 mmol/l. We therefore conclude that all diabetes patients could potentially be found by initial fasting glucose assessment followed by OGTT only in patients with fasting glucose between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l. Before general implementation can be advised, this screening algorithm should be validated in a prospective study of a similar or greater number of PCOS women. Our study comprised of a mostly Caucasian (81%) population, therefore generalization to other ethnic populations should be done with caution. No external finance was involved in this study. B

  15. [Changes of control of disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers 1996-2003].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Kardauskaite, Zydrūne; Uogintaite, Jurgita

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes of the rate of disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and their control in patients on hemodialysis (HD) in Lithuania in 1996-2003. Every December during this period we visited all HD centers of Lithuania and collected data on calcium-phosphorus metabolism in HD patients. 51.8% of HD patients in 1999 and 44.6% in 2003 had hyperphosphatemia (>1.8 mmol/l) (p<0.05). The mean phosphate concentration was 1.82+/-0.56 mmol/l in 2003 (p<0.05, comparing with 1.95+/-0.72 mmol/l in 1999 and 1.9+/-0.72 mmol/l in 2001). 7.1% of HD patients had hypocalcemia in 2003 and 7.8% hypercalcemia. Serum parathyroid hormone level was investigated only in 27.3% of HD patients in 1999 and 84.8% in 2003 (p<0.05). Use of alfacalcidol significantly decreased from 77.5% in 1998 to 29.4% in 2003, when the evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone increased (r=-0.911, p=0.03). Serum parathyroid hormone level was not analyzed for 59.8% of patients who used alfacalcidol and 59.4% of them had hyperphosphatemia in 1999 (6.3% and 32.9% in 2003, respectively; p<0.05). 10.7% of these patients had hypercalcemia in 2003. In summary, the correction of disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in HD patients was insufficient but ameliorative. Monitoring of serum parathyroid hormone increased significantly during 1997-2003. The percentage of the precarious use of alfacalcidol decreased significantly when the evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone level became regular.

  16. Adjustment of ionized calcium concentration for serum pH is not a valid marker of calcium homeostasis: implications for identifying individuals at risk of calcium metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginie; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mamo, John C

    2013-05-01

    Ionized calcium (iCa) is the biologically active form of this micronutrient. Serum determination of iCa is measured via ion-electrode potentiometry (IEP) and reporting iCa relative to pH 7.4 is normally utilized to avoid the potential confounding effects of ex vivo changes to serum pH. Adjustment of iCa for pH has not been adequately justified. In this study, utilizing carefully standardized protocols for blood collection, the preparation of serum and controlling time of collection-to-analysis, we determined serum iCa and pH utilizing an IEP-analyser hosted at an accredited diagnostic laboratory. Regression analysis of unadjusted-iCa (iCa(raw)) concentration versus pH was described by linear regression and accounted for 37% of serum iCa(raw) variability. iCa(raw) was then expressed at pH 7.4 by either adjusting iCa(raw) based on the linear regression equation describing the association of iCa with serum pH (iCa(regr)) or using IEP coded published normative equations (iCa(pub)). iCa(regr) was comparable to iCa(raw), indicating that blood collection and processing methodologies were sound. However, iCa(pub) yielded values that were significantly lower than iCa(raw). iCa(pub) did not identify 15% subjects who had greater than desirable serum concentration of iCa based on iCa(raw). Sixty percent of subjects with low levels of iCa(raw) were also not detected by iCa(pub). Determination of the kappa value measure of agreement for iCa(raw) versus iCa(pub) showed relatively poor concordance (κ = 0.42). With simple protocols that avoid sampling artefacts, expressing iCa(raw) is likely to be a more valid and physiologically relevant marker of calcium homeostasis than is iCa(pub).

  17. [Calcium and vitamin D in bone metabolism: Clinical importance for fracture treatment].

    PubMed

    Amling, M

    2015-12-01

    A balanced calcium homeostasis is of critical importance not only for bone remodeling, the physiological process of bone resorption and bone formation that constantly renews bone throughout life but also for normal fracture healing. Given that disturbances of calcium homeostasis are present in 50 % of the German population and that this might result in delayed fracture healing after correct surgical treatment, this paper focusses on calcium and vitamin D in the daily practice in orthopedics and trauma surgery. To ensure the required enteral calcium uptake the following three conditions are required: (1) sufficient calcium intake via the nutrition, (2) a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level > 30 µg/l and (3) the presence of sufficient gastric acidification. Given the endemic vitamin D deficiency in Germany as well as the constantly increasing number of people using proton pump inhibitors on a regular basis, it is necessary to closely connect trauma orthopedic surgery and osteological treatment. The first issue to be dealt with is to control and if needed normalize calcium homeostasis in order to allow a normal undisturbed fracture healing process after both conservative as well as operative treatment of fractures.

  18. Muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling impairment in patients treated with statins

    SciTech Connect

    Sirvent, P., E-mail: pascal.sirvent@univ-bpclermont.fr; CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier; Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l'Exercice en conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques

    2012-03-01

    The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. To date, the patho-physiological mechanisms of statin myotoxicity are still not clearly understood. In previous studies, we showed that acute application in vitro of simvastatin caused impairment of mitochondrial function and dysfunction of calcium homeostasis in human and rat healthy muscle samples. We thus evaluated in the present study, mitochondrial function and calcium signaling in muscles of patients treated with statins, who present or not muscle symptoms, by oxygraphy and recording of calcium sparks, respectively. Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration that involved mainly the complexmore » I of the respiratory chain and altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks. The muscle problems observed in statin-treated patients appear thus to be related to impairment of mitochondrial function and muscle calcium homeostasis, confirming the results we previously reported in vitro. -- Highlights: ► The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. ► Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration. ► Statins-treated patients showed altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks.« less

  19. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 2·57 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·44); girls: 1·92 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·47); P0·05). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (1·99 (95 % CI 1·55, 2·56); P<0·05). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence.

  20. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-05

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate transporter gene therapy corrects metabolic and myeloid abnormalities in glycogen storage disease type Ib mice

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Wai Han; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Allamarvdasht, Mohammad; Kim, So Youn; Chou, Janice Y.

    2008-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed. GSD-Ib patients suffer from disturbed glucose homeostasis and myeloid dysfunctions. To evaluate the feasibility of gene replacement therapy for GSD-Ib, we have infused adenoviral (Ad) vector containing human G6PT (Ad-hG6PT) into G6PT-deficient (G6PT-/-) mice that manifest symptoms characteristics of the human disorder. Ad-hG6PT-infusion restores significant levels of G6PT mRNA expression in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen and corrects metabolic as well as myeloid abnormalities in G6PT-/- mice. The G6PT-/- mice receiving gene therapy exhibit improved growth; normalized serum profiles for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and lactic acid; and reduced hepatic glycogen deposition. The therapy also corrects neutropenia and lowers the elevated serum levels of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. The development of bone and spleen in the infused G6PT-/- mice is improved and accompanied by increased cellularity and normalized myeloid progenitor cell frequencies in both tissues. This effective use of gene therapy to correct metabolic imbalances and myeloid dysfunctions in GSD-Ib mice holds promise for the future of gene therapy in humans. PMID:17006547

  2. Melatonin prevents abnormal mitochondrial dynamics resulting from the neurotoxicity of cadmium by blocking calcium-dependent translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Nixian; Li, YuMing; Zhang, Huiliang; Tang, Ju; Li, Huijuan; Feng, Min; Deng, Ping; Guo, Pan; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Wang; Reiter, Russel J; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a persistent environmental toxin and occupational pollutant that is considered to be a potential risk factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics are increasingly implicated in mitochondrial damage in various neurological pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics contributed to Cd-induced neurotoxicity and whether melatonin has any neuroprotective properties. After cortical neurons were exposed to 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) for various periods (0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr), the morphology of their mitochondria significantly changed from the normal tubular networks into punctuated structures within 3 hr. Following this pronounced mitochondrial fragmentation, Cd treatment led to signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased ATP content, and mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) loss. However, 1 mM melatonin pretreatment efficiently attenuated the Cd-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which improved the turnover of mitochondrial function. In the brain tissues of rats that were intraperitoneally given 1 mg/kg CdCl2 for 7 days, melatonin also ameliorated excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial damage in vivo. Melatonin's protective effects were attributed to its roles in preventing cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload, which blocked the recruitment of Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is involved in cadmium-induced neurotoxicity. Melatonin has significant pharmacological potential in protecting against the neurotoxicity of Cd by blocking the disbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hypothalamic Alterations in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Their Relation to Abnormal Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, Pauline; Vieau, Didier; Blum, David; Petersén, Åsa; Dupuis, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are disorders characterized by progressive deterioration of brain structure and function. Selective neuronal populations are affected leading to symptoms which are prominently motor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Huntington’s disease (HD), or cognitive in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Besides the common existence of neuronal loss, NDDs are also associated with metabolic changes such as weight gain, weight loss, loss of fat mass, as well as with altered feeding behavior. Importantly, preclinical research as well as clinical studies have demonstrated that altered energy homeostasis influences disease progression in ALS, AD and HD, suggesting that identification of the pathways leading to perturbed energy balance might provide valuable therapeutic targets Signals from both the periphery and central inputs are integrated in the hypothalamus, a major hub for the control of energy balance. Recent research identified major hypothalamic changes in multiple NDDs. Here, we review these hypothalamic alterations and seek to identify commonalities and differences in hypothalamic involvement between the different NDDs. These hypothalamic defects could be key in the development of perturbations in energy homeostasis in NDDs and further understanding of the underlying mechanisms might open up new avenues to not only treat weight loss but also to ameliorate overall neurological symptoms. PMID:29403354

  4. [Abnormal metabolism of triglycerides fractions in chronic pancreatitis and results after the operation treatment].

    PubMed

    Diakowska, Dorota; Knast, Witold; Diakowski, Witold; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Szelachowski, Piotr; Pelczar, Piotr

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how fats digestion processes were damaged due to chronic pancreatitis, and identify, whether lipid metabolism improved after surgical treatment the patients with chronic pancreatitis. Total lipids, triglycerides, diglycerides and free fatty acids levels in serum and stool were analysed, using chemical tests, thin-layer chromatography and electrophoresis of serum lipoproteins. The patients before the operations showed higher total lipids and triglycerides concentrations, and lower concentrations of diglycerides and free fatty acids in stool. These patients had high triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL-CH concentrations, and low-diglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL-CH concentrations in serum. These data were statistically significant. After the operations and substitution therapy it was observed normalization of the total lipids and lipids fractions levels in stool and in serum. Concentrations of LDL-CH and HDL-CH fractions were irregular. We conclude, that these lipids parameters could be used in diagnosing and monitoring the results of chronic pancreatitis surgical treatment.

  5. Calcium Metabolism in Newborn Infants THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF PARATHYROID FUNCTION AND CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN NORMAL, “SICK,” AND HYPOCALCEMIC NEWBORNS

    PubMed Central

    David, Louis; Anast, Constantine S.

    1974-01-01

    Serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and plasma total calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus levels were determined during the first 9 days of life in 137 normal term infants, 55 “sick” infants, and 43 hypocalcemic (Ca <7.5 mg/100 ml; Ca++<4.0 mg/100 ml) infants. In the cord blood, elevated levels of plasma Ca++ and Ca were observed, while levels of serum iPTH were either undetectable or low. In normal newborns during the first 48 h of life there was a decrease in plasma Ca and Ca++, while the serum iPTH level in most samples remained undetectable or low; after 48 h there were parallel increases in plasma Ca and Ca++ and serum iPTH levels. Plasma Mg and P levels increased progressively after birth in normal infants. In the sick infants, plasma Ca, Ca++ and P levels were significantly lower than in the normal newborns, while no significant differences were found in the plasma Mg levels. The general pattern of serum iPTH levels in the sick infants was similar to that observed in the normal group, though there was a tendency for the increase in serum iPTH to occur earlier and for the iPTH levels to be higher in the sick infants. In the hypocalcemic infants, plasma Mg levels were consistently lower than in the normal infants after 24 h of age, while no significant differences were found in the plasma P levels. Hyperphosphatemia was uncommon and did not appear to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia in most infants. Most of the hypocalcemic infants, including those older than 48 h, had inappropriately low serum iPTH levels. Evidence obtained from these studies indicates that parathyroid secretion is normally low in the early new born period and impaired parathyroid function, characterized by undetectable or low serum iPTH, is present in most infants with neonatal hypocalcemia. Additional unknown factors appear to contribute to the lowering of plasma Ca in the neonatal period. The net effect of unknown plasma

  6. Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini P; Nimal, Sonali; Mastorides, Stephen; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Kahn, C Ronald; Fields, Alan P; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese, Robert V

    2012-04-01

    Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PB1-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that

  7. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism. Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed. Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28658166

  8. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused abnormal serum metabolic profile of cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingyu; Wu, Junfang; Tu, Lingling; Xiong, Xuekai; Hu, Xidan; Huang, Jiong; Xu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Xiansong; Hu, Changmin; Hu, Xueying; Guo, Aizhen; Wang, Yulan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    To re-evaluate virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in cattle, we experimentally infected calves with M. tb andMycobacterium bovisvia intratracheal injection at a dose of 2.0×10(7) CFU and observed the animals for 33 weeks. The intradermal tuberculin test and IFN-γin vitro release assay showed that both M. tb and M. bovis induced similar responses. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary lymph nodes indicated that the antigen MPB83 of both M. tb and M. bovis were similarly distributed in the tissue samples. Histological examinations showed all of the infected groups exhibited neutrophil infiltration to similar extents. Although the infected cattle did not develop granulomatous inflammation, the metabolic profiles changed significantly, which were characterized by a change in energy production pathways and increased concentrations of N-acetyl glycoproteins. Glycolysis was induced in the infected cattle by decreased glucose and increased lactate content, and enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation was induced by decreased TG content, and decreased gluconeogenesis indicated by the decreased concentration of glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids promoted utilization of substances other than glucose as energy sources. In addition, an increase in acute phase reactive serum glycoproteins, together with neutrophil infiltration and increased of IL-1β production indicated an early inflammatory response before granuloma formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that both M. tb and M.bovis were virulent to cattle. Therefore, it is likely that cattle with M. tb infections would be critical to tuberculosis transmission from cattle to humans. Nuclear magnetic resonance was demonstrated to be an efficient method to systematically evaluate M. tb and M. bovi sinfection in cattle.

  9. Regulation of the reserve carbohydrate metabolism by alkaline pH and calcium in Neurospora crassa reveals a possible cross-regulation of both signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Ambrosio, Daniela Luz; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2017-06-09

    Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism. In this work, we present evidence that in N. crassa the glycogen and trehalose metabolism is modulated by alkaline pH and calcium stresses. We demonstrated that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa controls the accumulation of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose via the PAC-3 transcription factor, which is the central regulator of the signaling pathway. The protein binds to the promoters of most of the genes encoding enzymes of glycogen and trehalose metabolism and regulates their expression. We also demonstrated that the reserve carbohydrate levels and gene expression are both modulated under calcium stress and that the response to calcium stress may involve the concerted action of PAC-3. Calcium activates growth of the Δpac-3 strain and influences its glycogen and trehalose accumulation. In addition, calcium stress differently regulates glycogen and trehalose metabolism in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. While glycogen levels are decreased in both strains, the trehalose levels are significantly increased in the wild-type strain and not affected by calcium in the mutant strain when compared to mycelium not exposed to calcium. We previously reported the role of PAC-3 as a transcription factor involved in glycogen metabolism regulation by controlling the expression of the gsn gene, which encodes an enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In this work, we extended the investigation by studying in greater detail the effects of pH on the metabolism of the

  10. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05–3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P < 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate

  11. Study on the relationship between the expression of IGF-1 in umbilical cord blood and abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Wu, H-Y; Xu, Y-H

    2017-02-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in neonatal umbilical cord blood and abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. We have selected 63 cases of delivery randomly, term birth and maternal from January 2015 to January 2016 in our hospital, gestational diabetes mellitus for Group A, abnormal gestational glucose tolerance for Group B and normal for Group C with 21 cases in each group. The venous blood samples were collected from all the pregnant females 2 weeks before delivery, and the levels of HbA1c in serum were detected by Elisa method. During the delivery, the umbilical cord blood was collected and the levels of IGF-1 were measured by double site immune enzyme analysis. The neonatal weight was recorded and the correlation analysis was made in respect of the measurement results. The level of HbA1c in Group A was significantly higher than that in Group C (p < 0.05); IGF-1 level and neonatal weight of Group B were significantly higher than that of Group C (p < 0.05), IGF-1 has a significant correlation with neonatal weight in Group C, and HbA1c and IGF-1 were positively correlated (p < 0.05); IGF-1 was positively correlated with neonatal weight in Group A and Group B (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the IGF-1 level of neonatal umbilical cord blood and the neonatal weight (p < 0.05). Also, the level of HbA1c was positively correlated with the level of IGF-1 in neonatal umbilical cord blood at the end of pregnancy (p < 0.05). The expression level of IGF-1 in the final stage of pregnant females can be detected to predict the expression level of IGF-1 in newborn infants and then the growth status of the fetus can be obtained.

  12. Changes in Hematology and Calcium Metabolism After Gastric Bypass Surgery--a 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Worm, Dorte; Madsbad, Sten; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Naver, Lars; Hansen, Dorte Lindqvist

    2015-09-01

    Concerns regarding nutritional deficiencies have recently emerged after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 835 subjects underwent RYGB, age 43.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 47.2 kg/m(2). Hematological and calcium metabolic variables were measured before, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Daily supplement of 800 mg calcium, 800 U vitamin D, a multivitamin, and a vitamin B12 injection (1 mg) every third month was recommended. In subjects with low ferritin and decreasing hemoglobin levels, oral, or intravenous iron was administered. Hemoglobin concentration decreased from before surgery to month 24 for both men (9.3 ± 0.05 vs. 8.3 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p < 0.001) and women (8.4 ± 0.03 vs. 7.7 ± 0.06 mmol/L, p < 0.001). At 24 months, anemia was present in 25.8 % of women and 22.1 % of men. Predictors of anemia in both sexes were baseline hemoglobin (p < 0.001), excessive weight loss in men, and younger age in women (p < 0.001). Plasma ferritin levels decreased in both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 increased from before surgery to 24 months after surgery (p < 0.001). Vitamin D increased from baseline to month 24 in both sexes (p < 0.01). In women, PTH increased from baseline to month 24 (p < 0.05) with no changes in calcium or magnesium. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D was sufficient. Iron substitution did not prevent anemia, which especially affected premenopausal women. More attention should be given to iron substitution after RYGB.

  13. Metabolic Abnormalities Detected in Phase II Evaluation of Doxycycline in Dogs with Multicentric B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kelly R; Sylvester, Skylar R; Borlle, Lucia; Balkman, Cheryl E; McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L; Pulvino, Mary; Casulo, Carla; Zhao, Jiyong

    2018-01-01

    Doxycycline has antiproliferative effects in human lymphoma cells and in murine xenografts. We hypothesized that doxycycline would decrease canine lymphoma cell viability and prospectively evaluated its clinical tolerability in client-owned dogs with spontaneous, nodal, multicentric, substage a, B-cell lymphoma, not previously treated with chemotherapy. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 8 weeks (median and mean, 3 weeks). Dogs were treated with either 10 ( n  = 6) or 7.5 ( n  = 7) mg/kg by mouth twice daily. One dog had a stable disease for 6 weeks. No complete or partial tumor responses were observed. Five dogs developed grade 3 and/or 4 metabolic abnormalities suggestive of hepatopathy with elevations in bilirubin, ALT, ALP, and/or AST. To evaluate the absorption of oral doxycycline in our study population, serum concentrations in 10 treated dogs were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum levels were variable and ranged from 3.6 to 16.6 µg/ml (median, 7.6 µg/ml; mean, 8.8 µg/ml). To evaluate the effect of doxycycline on canine lymphoma cell viability in vitro , trypan blue exclusion assay was performed on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines (17-71 and CLBL) and primary B-cell lymphoma cells from the nodal tissue of four dogs. A doxycycline concentration of 6 µg/ml decreased canine lymphoma cell viability by 80%, compared to matched, untreated, control cells (mixed model analysis, p  < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p  = 0.0313). Although the short-term administration of oral doxycycline is not associated with the remission of canine lymphoma, combination therapy may be worthwhile if future research determines that doxycycline can alter cell survival pathways in canine lymphoma cells. Due to the potential for metabolic abnormalities, close monitoring is recommended with the use of this drug in tumor-bearing dogs. Additional research is needed to assess the tolerability of chronic doxycycline

  14. Metabolic Abnormalities Detected in Phase II Evaluation of Doxycycline in Dogs with Multicentric B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Kelly R.; Sylvester, Skylar R.; Borlle, Lucia; Balkman, Cheryl E.; McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L.; Pulvino, Mary; Casulo, Carla; Zhao, Jiyong

    2018-01-01

    Doxycycline has antiproliferative effects in human lymphoma cells and in murine xenografts. We hypothesized that doxycycline would decrease canine lymphoma cell viability and prospectively evaluated its clinical tolerability in client-owned dogs with spontaneous, nodal, multicentric, substage a, B-cell lymphoma, not previously treated with chemotherapy. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 8 weeks (median and mean, 3 weeks). Dogs were treated with either 10 (n = 6) or 7.5 (n = 7) mg/kg by mouth twice daily. One dog had a stable disease for 6 weeks. No complete or partial tumor responses were observed. Five dogs developed grade 3 and/or 4 metabolic abnormalities suggestive of hepatopathy with elevations in bilirubin, ALT, ALP, and/or AST. To evaluate the absorption of oral doxycycline in our study population, serum concentrations in 10 treated dogs were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum levels were variable and ranged from 3.6 to 16.6 µg/ml (median, 7.6 µg/ml; mean, 8.8 µg/ml). To evaluate the effect of doxycycline on canine lymphoma cell viability in vitro, trypan blue exclusion assay was performed on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines (17-71 and CLBL) and primary B-cell lymphoma cells from the nodal tissue of four dogs. A doxycycline concentration of 6 µg/ml decreased canine lymphoma cell viability by 80%, compared to matched, untreated, control cells (mixed model analysis, p < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p = 0.0313). Although the short-term administration of oral doxycycline is not associated with the remission of canine lymphoma, combination therapy may be worthwhile if future research determines that doxycycline can alter cell survival pathways in canine lymphoma cells. Due to the potential for metabolic abnormalities, close monitoring is recommended with the use of this drug in tumor-bearing dogs. Additional research is needed to assess the tolerability of chronic doxycycline therapy

  15. Differences in physical activity domains, guideline adherence, and weight history between metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal obese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Thakkar, Niels A; Kuk, Jennifer L; Churilla, James R; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-05-16

    Despite the accepted health consequences of obesity, emerging research suggests that a significant segment of adults with obesity are metabolically healthy (MHO). To date, MHO individuals have been shown to have higher levels of physical activity (PA), but little is known about the importance of PA domains or the influence of weight history compared to their metabolically abnormal (MAO) counterpart. To evaluate the relationship between PA domains, PA guideline adherence, and weight history on MHO. Pooled cycles of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 (≥20 y; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); N = 2,753) and harmonized criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Participants were categorized as "inactive" (no reported PA), "somewhat active" (>0 to < 500 metabolic equivalent (MET) min/week), and "active" (PA guideline adherence, ≥ 500 MET min/week) according to each domain of PA (total, recreational, transportation and household). Logistic and multinomial regressions were modelled for MHO and analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, income, smoking and alcohol intake. Compared to MAO, MHO participants were younger, had lower BMI, and were more likely to be classified as active according to their total and recreational PA level. Based on total PA levels, individuals who were active had a 70% greater likelihood of having the MHO phenotype (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.19-2.43); however, once stratified by age (20-44 y; 45-59 y; and; ≥60 y), the association remained significant only amongst those aged 45-59 y. Although moderate and vigorous PA were inconsistently related to MHO following adjustment for covariates, losing ≥30 kg in the last 10 y and not gaining ≥10 kg since age 25 y were significant predictors of MHO phenotype for all PA domains, even if adherence to the PA guidelines were not met. Although PA is associated with MHO, the beneficial effects of PA may be moderated by longer-term changes in

  16. Metabolic factors associated with urinary calculi in children.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mitra; Varasteh, Abdol Reza; Alamdaran, Seied Ali

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to identify metabolic and anatomical abnormalities present in children with urinary calculi. Metabolic evaluation was done in 142 pediatric calculus formers. Evaluation included serum biochemistry; measurement of daily excretion of urinary calcium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium (in older children); and measurement of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and creatinine in random urine samples in nontoilet-trained patients. Urinary tests for cystinuria were also performed. All of the patients underwent renal ultrasonography. Sixty-one patients (42.7%) had metabolic abnormalities. Anatomical abnormalities were found in 12 patients (8.4%). Three children (2.1%) had infectious calculi, and 3(2.1%) had a combination of metabolic and anatomic abnormalities. In 66 children (46.2 %) we did not find any reasons for calculus formation (idiopathic). Urinalysis revealed hypercalciuria in 25 (17.6%), hyperuricosuria in 23 (16.1%), hyperoxaluria in 17 (11.9%), cystinuria in 9 (6.3%), hypocitraturia in 3 (2.1%), and low urinary magnesium level in 1 (0.7%) patients. Sixteen patients (11.2%) had mixed metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormalities are common in pediatric patients with urinary calculi. In our study, calcium and uric acid abnormalities were the most common, and vesicoureteral reflux seemed to be the most common urological abnormality which led to urinary stasis and calculus formation.

  17. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol as an antagonist of adverse corticosteroid effects on phosphate and calcium metabolism in man.

    PubMed

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Turchetti, V; Righi, G

    1984-10-01

    The present study was performed in 30 patients who needed steroid therapy: courses of triamcinolone or DTM 8-15 given orally lasted 30 days. In 15 of these patients glucoactive corticosteroids were administered in combination with 5 micrograms/day of 25OH-vitamin D3 (25OHD3). 47Calcium oral test and 99mTc-MDP kinetics, as an index of bone turnover, were performed at the beginning of the therapy and after 30 days. At the end of treatment a significant improvement of intestinal radiocalcium transport together with a decrease in bone turnover in the group of patients treated with 25OHD3 was observed. As it concerns plasma calcium level, inorganic phosphate, the urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyproline no significant difference between the two groups examined were noticed. These results indicate that the adverse effects of glucoactive corticosteroids on intestinal calcium transport and bone turnover may be counteracted by the combined administration of physiological doses of 25OHD3.

  18. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  19. Metabolic diagnosis and medical prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis and its systemic manifestations: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Croppi, Emanuele; Coe, Fredric; Lingeman, James; Moe, Orson; Worcester, Elen; Buchholz, Noor; Bushinsky, David; Curhan, Gary C; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Fuster, Daniel; Goldfarb, David S; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Hess, Bernard; Lieske, John; Marangella, Martino; Milliner, Dawn; Preminger, Glen M; Reis Santos, Jose' Manuel; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Sarica, Kemal; Siener, Roswitha; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Williams, James C

    2016-12-01

    Recently published guidelines on the medical management of renal stone disease did not address relevant topics in the field of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, which are important also for clinical research. A steering committee identified 27 questions, which were proposed to a faculty of 44 experts in nephrolithiasis and allied fields. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and 5216 potentially relevant articles were selected; from these, 407 articles were deemed to provide useful scientific information. The Faculty, divided into working groups, analysed the relevant literature. Preliminary statements developed by each group were exhaustively discussed in plenary sessions and approved. Statements were developed to inform clinicians on the identification of secondary forms of calcium nephrolithiasis and systemic complications; on the definition of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis; on the use of urinary tests of crystallization and of surgical observations during stone treatment in the management of these patients; on the identification of patients warranting preventive measures; on the role of fluid and nutritional measures and of drugs to prevent recurrent episodes of stones; and finally, on the cooperation between the urologist and nephrologist in the renal stone patients. This document has addressed idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis from the perspective of a disease that can associate with systemic disorders, emphasizing the interplay needed between urologists and nephrologists. It is complementary to the American Urological Association and European Association of Urology guidelines. Future areas for research are identified.

  20. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  1. The Role of Nutrition in the Changes in Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    On Earth, the primary purpose of the skeleton is provide structural support for the body. In space, the support function of the skeleton is reduced since, without gravity, structures have only mass and no weight. The adaptation to space flight is manifested by shifts in mineral distribution, altered bone turnover, and regional mineral deficits in weight-bearing bones. The shifts in mineral distribution appear to be related to the cephalic fluid shift. The redistribution of mineral from one bone to another or to and from areas in the same bone in response to alterations in gravitational loads is more likely to affect skeletal function than quantitative whole body losses and gains. The changes in bone turnover appear dependent upon changes in body weight with weight loss tending to increase bone resorption as well as decrease bone formation. During bedrest, the bone response to unloading varies depending upon the routine activity level of the subjects with more active subjects showing a greater suppression of bone formation in the iliac crest with inactivity. Changes in body composition during space flight are predicted by bedrest studies on Earth which show loss of lean body mass and increase tn body fat in adult males after one month. In ambulatory studies on Earth, exercising adult males of the same age, height, g weight, body mass index, and shoe size show significantly higher whole body mineral and lean body mass. than non-exercising subjects. Nutritional preference appears to change with activity level. Diet histories in exercisers and nonexercisers who maintain identical body weights show no differences in nutrients except for slightly higher carbohydrate intake in the exercisers. The absence of differences in dietary calcium in men with higher total body calcium is noteworthy. In this situation, the increased bone mineral content was facilitated by the calcium endocrine system. This regulatory system can be by-passed by raising dietary calcium. Increased

  2. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation through fortified dairy products counterbalances seasonal variations of bone metabolism indices: the Postmenopausal Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tenta, Roxane; Moschonis, George; Koutsilieris, Michael; Manios, Yannis

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women. Forty postmenopausal women (55-65 years old) were equally randomized into a dietary group (DG), receiving daily and for 30 months, 1,200 mg of calcium and 7.5 μg of vitamin D(3) for the first 12 months that increased to 22.5 μg for the remaining 18 months of intervention through fortified dairy products; and a control group (CG). Differences in the changes of bone metabolism and bone mass indices were examined with repeated measures ANOVA. A significant increase was observed for PTH levels only in the CG during the first six winter months of intervention (p = 0.049). After 30 months of intervention, during winter, serum 25(OH)D significantly decreased in the CG while remained in the same high levels as in the summer period in the DG. Serum RANKL levels decreased significantly in the DG compared with the increase in the CG during the 30-month intervention period (p = 0.005). Serum CTx decreased significantly in the DG after six (-0.08; -0.12 to -0.03) and 12 (-0.03; -0.08 to -0.02) months of intervention. Finally, the DG had more favorable changes in total body BMD than the CG (p < 0.001). Increasing dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D in osteopenic postmenopausal women appears to be effective in producing favorable changes in several bone metabolism and bone mass indices and in counterbalancing seasonal variations in hormonal and biochemical molecules.

  3. Metabolic differentiation and classification of abnormal Savda Munziq's pharmacodynamic role on rat models with different diseases by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda.

  4. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.

  5. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  6. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism revealed by (1)H-NMR-based metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-04-14

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC.

  7. The effects of UV light on calcium metabolism in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Hedley, J; Eatwell, K

    2013-10-12

    Despite the popularity of keeping snakes in captivity, there has been limited investigation into the effects of UV radiation on vitamin D levels in snakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UV-b radiation on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations in ball pythons (Python regius). Blood samples were taken from 14 ball pythons, which had never been exposed to UV-b light, to obtain baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and ionised calcium concentrations. Blood samples were then taken again from the same snakes 70 days later after one group (Group 1, n=6 females) were exposed to UV-b radiation daily, and the other group (Group 2, n=5 males and 3 females) were exposed to no UV-b radiation. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels on day 0 in Group 1 were 197±35 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 203.5±13.8 nmol/l. Mean±sd 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in Group 2 on day 0 were 77.7±41.5 nmol/l, and on day 70 were 83.0±41.9 nmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.84±0.05 mmol/l for Group 1, and on day 70 were 1.78±0.07 mmol/l. Mean±sd ionised calcium levels at day 0 were 1.79±0.07 mmol/l for Group 2, and on day 70 were 1.81±0.05 mmol/l. No association was demonstrated between exposure to UV-b radiation and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and ionised calcium concentrations. These results may provide baseline parameters for future studies in this and other snake species to determine ability to utilise UV-b light for vitamin D production.

  8. Effects of dietary omega-3 on dystrophic cardiac and diaphragm muscles as evaluated by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Metabolic profile and calcium-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Maurício, Adriana Fogagnolo; de Carvalho, Samara Camaçari; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2017-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the absence of dystrophin and muscle degeneration. Calcium dysregulation and oxidative stress also contribute to the disease progression. We evaluated the potential therapeutic benefits of supplementation with omega-3 on the metabolic profile, calcium-related proteins and oxidative stress response in the heart and diaphragm (DIA) of the mdx mouse model of DMD at later stages of the disease (13 months). Mdx mice (8 months old) received omega-3 via a dietary supplement for 5 months. Metabolites were analyzed by 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Muscle total calcium was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Calsequestrin, TRPC1 and 4-HNE were determined via Western blot. Omega-3 decreased the metabolites taurine (related to calcium regulation and oxidative stress), aspartate (related to inflammation) and oxypurinol (related to oxidative stress) in the heart (aspartate) and DIA (taurine, aspartate and oxypurinol). Omega-3 also significantly decreased total calcium and TRPC1 levels in cardiac and DIA muscles and increased the levels of calsequestrin (cardiac and skeletal) and decreased the oxidative stress marker 4-HNE. The current study suggests that supplementation with omega-3 may generate therapeutic benefits on dystrophy progression, at later stages of the disease, with changes in the metabolic profile that may be correlated to omega-3 therapy. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistance training in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of resistance training on metabolic clustering in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Siebert, Uwe; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, investigators have given increased attention to the effects of resistance training (RT) on several metabolic syndrome variables. The metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, as a result of normal aging or decreased physical activity, lead to a high prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is: (i) to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effect of RT on obesity-related impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (ii) to investigate the existence of a dose-response relationship between intensity, duration and frequency of RT and the metabolic clustering. Thirteen RCTs were identified through a systematic literature search in MEDLINE ranging from January 1990 to September 2007. We included all RCTs comparing RT with a control group in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. For data analysis, we performed random effects meta-analyses to determine weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each endpoint. All data were analysed with the software package Review Manager 4.2.10 of the Cochrane Collaboration. In the 13 RCTs included in our analysis, RT reduced glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) by 0.48% (95% CI -0.76, -0.21; p = 0.0005), fat mass by 2.33 kg (95% CI -4.71, 0.04; p = 0.05) and systolic blood pressure by 6.19 mmHg (95% CI 1.00, 11.38; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant effect of RT on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and diastolic blood pressure. Based on our meta-analysis, RT has a clinically and statistically significant effect on metabolic syndrome risk factors such as obesity, HbA(1c) levels and systolic blood pressure, and therefore should be recommended in the management of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.

  10. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    reduce risks of obesity and metabolic abnormalities; however, individuals who consume sugar-sweetened beverages should be advised on the adverse effects of those beverages on the risk of obesity and MetS.

  11. Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2017-11-01

    The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features. The main nutrient targets include impaired mitochondria and the associated oxidative/nitrosative stress, calcium stress and impaired gene transcription induced by pathogenic forms of alpha- synuclein. Benefits may be achieved via nutrient influence on epigenetic signaling pathways governing transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defences and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, via regulation of the metabolic energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR. Nutrients also benefit expression of the transcription factor for neuronal survival (NR4A2), trophic factors GDNF and BDNF, and age-related calcium signals. In addition a number of non-motor related dysfunctions in circadian control, clock genes and associated metabolic, endocrine and sleep-wake activity are briefly addressed, as are late-stage complications in respect of cognitive decline and osteoporosis. Analysis of the network of nutrient effects reveals how beneficial synergies may counter the accumulation and promote clearance of pathogenic alpha-synuclein. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the mediating roles of binge eating and emotional eating in the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Reuning-Scherer, Jonathan; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    To test whether binge eating and emotional eating mediate the relationships between self-reported stress, morning cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference. We also explored the moderators of gender and age. Data were from 249 adults (mean BMI = 26.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2; mean age = 28.3 ± 8.3 years; 54.2 % male; 69.5 % white) recruited from the community who were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel of psychological and physiological assessments including a morning blood draw for plasma cortisol. We found negative relationships between stress and morning cortisol (r = −0.15 to −0.21; p < 0.05), and cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference (r = −0.16, −0.25, respectively; p < 0.05). There was not statistical support for binge eating or emotional eating as mediators and no support for moderated mediation for either gender or age; however, gender moderated several paths in the model. These include the paths between perceived stress and emotional eating (B = 0.009, p < 0.001), perceived stress and binge eating (B = 0.01, p = 0.003), and binge eating and increased HOMA-IR (B = 0.149, p = 0.018), which were higher among females. Among women, perceived stress may be an important target to decrease binge and emotional eating. It remains to be determined what physiological and psychological mechanisms underlie the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26686376

  14. Relationship of metabolic syndrome with incident aortic valve calcium and aortic valve calcium progression: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Katz, Ronit; Budoff, Matthew J; Takasu, Junichiro; Shavelle, David M; Bertoni, Alain; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ouyang, Pamela; Wong, Nathan D; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2009-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with increased prevalence of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and with increased progression of aortic stenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MetS is associated with increased risks for the development of new ("incident") AVC or for progression of established AVC as assessed by CT. The relationships of MetS or its components as well as of diabetes to risks for incident AVC or AVC progression were studied among participants with CT scans performed at baseline and at either year 2 or year 3 examinations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Of 5,723 MESA participants meeting criteria for inclusion, 1,674 had MetS by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, whereas 761 had diabetes. Among the 5,123 participants without baseline AVC, risks for incident AVC, adjusted for time between scans, age, sex, race/ethnicity, LDL cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, and smoking, were increased significantly for MetS (odds ratio [OR] 1.67 [95% CI 1.21-2.31]) or diabetes (2.06 [1.39-3.06]). In addition, there was an increase in incident AVC risk with increasing number of MetS components. Similar results were found using the International Diabetes Federation MetS criteria. Among the 600 participants (10.5%) with baseline AVC, neither MetS nor diabetes was associated with AVC progression. In the MESA cohort, MetS was associated with a significant increase in incident ("new") AVC, raising the possibility that MetS may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent AVC development.

  15. Severity of psychosis syndrome and change of metabolic abnormality in chronic schizophrenia patients: severe negative syndrome may be related to a distinct lipid pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-F; Hu, T-M; Lan, T-H; Chiu, H-J; Sheen, L-Y; Loh, E-W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients. We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients. Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006. Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology. Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Microgravity effects during fertilization, cell division, development, and calcium metabolism in sea urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the role of microgravity during fertilization, early development, cytoskeletal organization, and skeletal calcium deposition in a model development system: the sea urchin eggs and embryos. While pursuing these objectives, we have also helped to develop, test, and fly the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) system. Cells were fixed at preselected time points to preserve the structures and organelles of interest with regards to cell biology events during development. The protocols used for the analysis of the results had been developed during the earlier part of this research and were applied for post-flight analysis using light and (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The structures of interest are: microtubules during fertilization, cell division, and cilia movement; microfilaments during cell surface restructuring and cell division; centrosomes and centrioles during cell division, cell differentiation, and cilia formation and movement; membranes, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chromosomes at all stages of development; and calcium deposits during spicule formation in late-stage embryos. In addition to further explore aspects important or living in space, several aspects of this research are also aimed at understanding diseases that affect humans on Earth which may be accelerated in space.

  17. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  18. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation.

    PubMed

    Rayssiguier, Yves; Libako, Patrycja; Nowacki, Wojciech; Rock, Edmond

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The

  19. Biochemical effects of lead exposure on battery manufacture workers with reference to blood pressure, calcium metabolism and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Nilima N; Suryakar, Adinath N; Patil, Arun J; Hundekari, Indira A; Devarnavadagi, Basavaraj B

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, Ionized calcium, phosphorus were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in all the three study groups. Serum vitamin D levels were lowered (P < 0.01) and serum PTH was increased (P < 0.01) in workers as compared to controls. The results of this study clearly indicate that the absorption of lead is more in these workers which adversely affects blood pressure, disturbs calcium and phosphorus metabolism which further impairs mineralization of bone resulting in decreased bone mineral density observed in these workers. Lead toxicity is still persistent in battery manufacture workers though they are using sophisticated techniques in these industries. There is a need to protect the workers from the health hazards of occupational lead exposure.

  20. Substrate specific effects of calcium on metabolism of rat heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Scaduto, R C

    1996-04-01

    Oxidative metabolism in the heart is tightly coupled to mechanical work. Because this coupling process is believed to involve Ca2+, the roles of mitochondrial Ca2+ in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation was studied in isolated rat heart mitochondria. The electrical component of the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi) and the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides were determined during the oxidation of various substrates under different metabolic states. In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, the NADP+ redox couple was almost completely reduced, regardless of the specific substrate and the presence of Ca2+, whereas NAD+ couple redox state was highly dependent on the substrate type and the presence of Ca2+. Titration of respiration with ADP, in the presence of excess hexokinase and glucose, showed that both respiration and NAD(P)+ reduction were very sensitive to ADP. The maximal enzyme reaction rate of ADP-stimulated respiration Michaelis constants (Km) for ADP were dependent on the particular substrate employed. delta psi was much less sensitive to ADP. With either alpha-ketoglutarate or glutamate as substrate, Ca2+ significantly increased reduction of NAD(P)+.Ca2+ did not influence NAD(P)+ reduction with either acetylcarnitine or pyruvate as substrate. In the presence of ADP, delta psi was increased by Ca2+ at all metabolic states with glutamate plus malate, 0.5 mM alpha-ketoglutarate plus malate, or pyruvate plus malate as substrates. The data presented support the hypothesis that cardiac respiration is controlled by the availability of both Ca2+ and ADP to mitochondria. The data indicate that an increase in substrate supply to mitochondria can increase mitochondrial respiration at given level of ADP. This effect can be produced by Ca2+ with substrates such as glutamate, which utilize alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity for oxidation. Increases in respiration by Ca2+ may mitigate an increase in ADP during periods of increased

  1. Amelioration of hyperglycemia and associated metabolic abnormalities by a combination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-09-26

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) are independently known to have antidiabetic effects through different mechanisms. The beeneficial influence of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion on hyperglycemia and its associated metabolic abnormalities were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was experimentally induced with streptozotocin and diabetic rats were fed with 10% fenugreek or 3% onion or their combination for 6 weeks. These dietary interventions significantly countered hyperglycemia, partially improved peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, reduced β-cell mass and markedly reversed the abnormalities in plasma albumin, urea, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products in diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were highest in the fenugreek+onion group. Diabetic rats with these dietary interventions excreted lesser glucose, albumin, urea and creatinine, which were accompanied by improved body weights compared with the diabetic controls. These dietary interventions produced ameliorative effects on pancreatic pathology as reflected by near-normal islet cells, restored glycogen and collagen fiber deposition in diabetic rats. This study documented the hypoglycemic and insulinotropic effects of dietary fenugreek and onion, which were associated with countering of metabolic abnormalities and pancreatic pathology. It may be strategic to derive maximum nutraceutical antidiabetic benefits from these functional food ingredients by consuming them together.

  2. Effects of calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation on metabolic profiles in vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tabesh, Marjan; Azadbakht, Leila; Faghihimani, Elham; Tabesh, Maryam; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on the metabolic profiles of vitamin D insufficient persons with type 2 diabetes. In a parallel designed randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 118 non-smoker individuals with type 2 diabetes and insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D, aged >30 years, were recruited from the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Centre. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups receiving: (1) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + calcium placebo; (2) 1,000 mg/day calcium + vitamin D placebo; (3) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + 1,000 mg/day calcium; or (4) vitamin D placebo + calcium placebo for 8 weeks. A study technician carried out the random allocations using a random numbers table. All investigators, participants and laboratory technicians were blinded to the random assignments. All participants provided 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records throughout the intervention. Blood samples were taken to quantify glycaemic and lipid profiles at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. 30 participants were randomised in each group. During the intervention, one participant from the calcium group and one from the vitamin D group were excluded because of personal problems. Calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation resulted in reduced serum insulin (changes from baseline: -14.8 ± 3.9 pmol/l, p = 0.01), HbA1c [-0.70 ± 0.19% (-8.0 ± 0.4 mmol/mol), p = 0.02], HOMA-IR (-0.46 ± 0.20, p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-10.36 ± 0.10 mmol/l, p = 0.04) and total/HDL-cholesterol levels (-0.91 ± 0.16, p = 0.03) compared with other groups. We found a significant increase in QUICKI (0.025 ± 0.01, p = 0.004), HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-B; 11.8 ± 12.17, p = 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (0.46 ± 0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.03) in the calcium-vitamin D group compared with others. Joint calcium and vitamin D supplementation might improve the glycaemic status and lipid profiles of

  3. Metabolic Acidosis Increases Intracellular Calcium in Bone Cells Through Activation of the Proton Receptor OGR1

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin K; Krieger, Nancy S; Nehrke, Keith; Bushinsky, David A

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis increases urine Ca without increasing intestinal absorption, leading to bone Ca loss. It is unclear how bone cells detect the increase in proton concentration. To determine which G protein-coupled proton sensing receptors are expressed in bone, PCR was performed, and products were detected for OGR1, TDAG8, G2A, and GPR4. We tested the hypothesis that the G protein-coupled proton sensor, OGR1, is an H+-sensing receptor in bone. To determine whether acid-induced bone resorption involves OGR1, we incubated mouse calvariae in neutral pH (NTL) or acidic (MET) medium ± the OGR1 inhibitor CuCl2. CuCl2 decreased MET-induced Ca efflux. We used fluorescent imaging of perfused bone cells to determine whether MET increases Cai. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid, flow-independent, increase in Cai in individual bone cells. To determine whether transfection of OGR1 into a heterologous cell type would increase Cai in response to H+, we perfused Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with mouse OGR1 cDNA. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid increase in Cai in OGR1-transfected CHO cells. These data indicate that OGR1 induces an increase in Cai in response to MET and is a prime candidate for an osteoblast proton sensor. PMID:18847331

  4. Metabolic acidosis increases intracellular calcium in bone cells through activation of the proton receptor OGR1.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin K; Krieger, Nancy S; Nehrke, Keith; Bushinsky, David A

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis increases urine Ca without increasing intestinal absorption, leading to bone Ca loss. It is unclear how bone cells detect the increase in proton concentration. To determine which G protein-coupled proton sensing receptors are expressed in bone, PCR was performed, and products were detected for OGR1, TDAG8, G2A, and GPR4. We tested the hypothesis that the G protein-coupled proton sensor, OGR1, is an H(+)-sensing receptor in bone. To determine whether acid-induced bone resorption involves OGR1, we incubated mouse calvariae in neutral pH (NTL) or acidic (MET) medium +/- the OGR1 inhibitor CuCl(2). CuCl(2) decreased MET-induced Ca efflux. We used fluorescent imaging of perfused bone cells to determine whether MET increases Ca(i). Perfusion with MET induced a rapid, flow-independent, increase in Ca(i) in individual bone cells. To determine whether transfection of OGR1 into a heterologous cell type would increase Ca(i) in response to H(+), we perfused Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with mouse OGR1 cDNA. Perfusion with MET induced a rapid increase in Ca(i) in OGR1-transfected CHO cells. These data indicate that OGR1 induces an increase in Ca(i) in response to MET and is a prime candidate for an osteoblast proton sensor.

  5. Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Hanumantra, Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-05-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effect of the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The rats were divided into eight groups: Control, isoproterenol, ferulic acid alone, ascorbic acid alone, ferulic acid+ascorbic acid, ferulic acid+isoproterenol, ascorbic acid+isoproterenol and ferulic acid+ascorbic acid+isoproterenol. Ferulic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.t.) and ascorbic acid (80 mg/kg b.w.t.) both alone and in combination was administered orally for 6 days and on the fifth and the sixth day, isoproterenol (150 mg/kg b.w.t.) was injected intraperitoneally to induce myocardial injury to rats. Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, free and ester cholesterol in both serum and cardiac tissue. A rise in the levels of phospholipids, lipid peroxides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Further, a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein in serum and in the phospholipid levels, in the heart of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats was observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes: total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase. Pre-cotreatment with the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels to near normal when compared to individual treatment groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Bonanome, A; Grundy, S M; Unger, R H; Breslau, N A; Pak, C Y

    1990-04-01

    Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

  7. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  8. An integrated model of cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism and calcium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A; Marbán, Eduardo; Winslow, Raimond L; O'Rourke, Brian

    2003-04-01

    We present an integrated thermokinetic model describing control of cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics. The model describes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. The kinetic component of the model includes effectors of the TCA cycle enzymes regulating production of NADH and FADH(2), which in turn are used by the electron transport chain to establish a proton motive force (Delta mu(H)), driving the F(1)F(0)-ATPase. In addition, mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+), determined by Ca(2+) uniporter and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger activities, regulates activity of the TCA cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The model is described by twelve ordinary differential equations for the time rate of change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)), and matrix concentrations of Ca(2+), NADH, ADP, and TCA cycle intermediates. The model is used to predict the response of mitochondria to changes in substrate delivery, metabolic inhibition, the rate of adenine nucleotide exchange, and Ca(2+). The model is able to reproduce, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, experimental data concerning mitochondrial bioenergetics, Ca(2+) dynamics, and respiratory control. Significant increases in oxygen consumption (V(O(2))), proton efflux, NADH, and ATP synthesis, in response to an increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), are obtained when the Ca(2+)-sensitive dehydrogenases are the main rate-controlling steps of respiratory flux. These responses diminished when control is shifted downstream (e.g., the respiratory chain or adenine nucleotide translocator). The time-dependent behavior of the model, under conditions simulating an increase in workload, closely reproduces experimentally observed mitochondrial NADH dynamics in heart trabeculae subjected to changes in pacing frequency. The steady-state and time-dependent behavior of the model support the hypothesis that mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) plays an

  9. An Integrated Model of Cardiac Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A.; Marbán, Eduardo; Winslow, Raimond L.; O'Rourke, Brian

    2003-01-01

    We present an integrated thermokinetic model describing control of cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics. The model describes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. The kinetic component of the model includes effectors of the TCA cycle enzymes regulating production of NADH and FADH2, which in turn are used by the electron transport chain to establish a proton motive force (ΔμH), driving the F1F0-ATPase. In addition, mitochondrial matrix Ca2+, determined by Ca2+ uniporter and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activities, regulates activity of the TCA cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The model is described by twelve ordinary differential equations for the time rate of change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and matrix concentrations of Ca2+, NADH, ADP, and TCA cycle intermediates. The model is used to predict the response of mitochondria to changes in substrate delivery, metabolic inhibition, the rate of adenine nucleotide exchange, and Ca2+. The model is able to reproduce, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, experimental data concerning mitochondrial bioenergetics, Ca2+ dynamics, and respiratory control. Significant increases in oxygen consumption (VO2), proton efflux, NADH, and ATP synthesis, in response to an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, are obtained when the Ca2+-sensitive dehydrogenases are the main rate-controlling steps of respiratory flux. These responses diminished when control is shifted downstream (e.g., the respiratory chain or adenine nucleotide translocator). The time-dependent behavior of the model, under conditions simulating an increase in workload, closely reproduces experimentally observed mitochondrial NADH dynamics in heart trabeculae subjected to changes in pacing frequency. The steady-state and time-dependent behavior of the model support the hypothesis that mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ plays an important role in matching energy supply with demand in

  10. Mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase type 8 exhibit motor dysfunctions and abnormal calcium dynamics in the somatic region of cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Matthew G; Weber, John T

    2015-06-01

    The waddles (wdl) mouse is characterized by a namesake "side-to-side" waddling gait due to a homozygous mutation of the Car8 gene. This mutation results in non-functional copies of the protein carbonic anhydrase type 8. Rota-rod testing was conducted to characterize the wdl mutations' effect on motor output. Results indicated that younger homozygotes outperformed their older cohorts, an effect not seen in previous studies. Heterozygotes, which were thought to be free of motor impairment, displayed motor learning deficiencies when compared with wild type performance. Acute cerebellar slices were then utilized for fluorescent calcium imaging experiments, which revealed significant alterations in cerebellar granule cell somatic calcium signaling when exposed to glutamate. The contribution of GABAergic signaling to these alterations was also verified using bath application of bicuculline. Changes in somatic calcium signals were found to be applicable to an in vivo scenario by comparing group responses to electrical stimulation of afferent mossy fiber projections. Finally, intracellular calcium store function was also found to be altered by the wdl mutation when slices were treated with thapsigargin. These findings, taken together with previous work on the wdl mouse, indicate a widespread disruption in cerebellar circuitry hampering proper neuronal communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipoprotein (a), metabolic syndrome and coronary calcium score in a large occupational cohort.

    PubMed

    Sung, K-C; Wild, S H; Byrne, C D

    2013-12-01

    Whether lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentration is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and pre-clinical atherosclerosis in different ethnic groups is uncertain. The association between Lp(a), MetS and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis was studied in a large Asian cohort. Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort who underwent a cardiac computed tomography (CT) estimation of CAC score and measurements of cardiovascular risk factors (n = 14,583 people). The key exposure was an Lp(a) concentration in the top quartile (>38.64 mg/dL)) with a CAC score >0 as the outcome variable and measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to describe the associations. 1462 participants had a CAC score >0. In the lowest Lp(a) quartile (<11.29 mg/dL), 25.8% had MetS, compared with 16.1% in the highest Lp(a) quartile (>38.64 mg/dL (p < 0.001). MetS, and component features, were inversely related to Lp(a) concentration (all p < 0.0001). In the highest Lp(a) quartile group, there was an association between Lp(a) and CAC score >0 in men (OR 1.21[1.05, 1.40], p = 0.008), and women (OR 1.62[1.03, 2.55], p = 0.038), after adjustment for age, sex, lipid lowering therapy, and multiple cardiovascular risk factors. There was no evidence of an interaction between highest quartile Lp(a) and either high LDLc (>147 mg/dL) (p = 0.99), or MetS (p = 0.84) on the association with CAC score >0. Lp(a) levels are inversely related to MetS and its components. There was a robust association between Lp(a) concentration >38.6 mg/dL and marker of early atherosclerosis in both men and women, regardless of LDLc, level MetS or other cardiovascular risk factors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, Swarnendu, E-mail: Swarna.bag@gmail.com; Banerjee, Deb Ranjan, E-mail: debranjan2@gmail.com; Basak, Amit, E-mail: absk@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature.more » Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.« less

  13. Retinal and Nonocular Abnormalities in Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− Mice with Dysfunctional Metabolism of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Saadane, Aicha; Mast, Natalia; Charvet, Casey D.; Omarova, Saida; Zheng, Wenchao; Huang, Suber S.; Kern, Timothy S.; Peachey, Neal S.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol elimination from nonhepatic cells involves metabolism to side-chain oxysterols, which serve as transport forms of cholesterol and bioactive molecules modulating a variety of cellular processes. Cholesterol metabolism is tissue specific, and its significance has not yet been established for the retina, where cytochromes P450 (CYP27A1 and CYP46A1) are the major cholesterol-metabolizing enzymes. We generated Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− mice, which were lean and had normal serum cholesterol and glucose levels. These animals, however, had changes in the retinal vasculature, retina, and several nonocular organs (lungs, liver, and spleen). Changes in the retinal vasculature included structural abnormalities (retinal-choroidal anastomoses, arteriovenous shunts, increased permeability, dilation, nonperfusion, and capillary degeneration) and cholesterol deposition and oxidation in the vascular wall, which also exhibited increased adhesion of leukocytes and activation of the complement pathway. Changes in the retina included increased content of cholesterol and its metabolite, cholestanol, which were focally deposited at the apical and basal sides of the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal macrophages of Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− mice were activated, and oxidative stress was noted in their photoreceptor inner segments. Our findings demonstrate the importance of retinal cholesterol metabolism for maintenance of the normal retina, and suggest new targets for diseases affecting the retinal vasculature. PMID:25065682

  14. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  15. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  16. Evolving Role of Molecular Imaging with (18)F-Sodium Fluoride PET as a Biomarker for Calcium Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raynor, William; Houshmand, Sina; Gholami, Saeid; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Werner, Thomas J; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Baker, Joshua F; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) as an imaging tracer portrays calcium metabolic activity either in the osseous structures or in soft tissue. Currently, clinical use of NaF-PET is confined to detecting metastasis to the bone, but this approach reveals indirect evidence for disease activity and will have limited use in the future in favor of more direct approaches that visualize cancer cells in the read marrow where they reside. This has proven to be the case with FDG-PET imaging in most cancers. However, a variety of studies support the application of NaF-PET to assess benign osseous diseases. In particular, bone turnover can be measured from NaF uptake to diagnose osteoporosis. Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of bisphosphonates and their lasting effects as treatment for osteoporosis using bone turnover measured by NaF-PET. Additionally, NaF uptake in vessels tracks calcification in the plaques at the molecular level, which is relevant to coronary artery disease. Also, NaF-PET imaging of diseased joints is able to project disease progression in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies suggest potential use of NaF-PET in domains such as back pain, osteosarcoma, stress-related fracture, and bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The critical role of NaF-PET in disease detection and characterization of many musculoskeletal disorders has been clearly demonstrated in the literature, and these methods will become more widespread in the future. The data from PET imaging are quantitative in nature, and as such, it adds a major dimension to assessing disease activity.

  17. Stimulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 by metabolic acidosis requires osteoblastic intracellular calcium signaling and prostaglandin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Bushinsky, David A

    2017-10-01

    Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases progressively in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the factors regulating its production are not clear. Patients with CKD have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis (MET). During MET, acid is buffered by bone with release of mineral calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P). MET increases intracellular Ca signaling and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-induced prostaglandin production in the osteoblast, leading to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. We found that MET directly stimulates FGF23 in mouse bone organ cultures and primary osteoblasts. We hypothesized that MET increases FGF23 through similar pathways that lead to bone resorption. Neonatal mouse calvariae were incubated in neutral (NTL, pH = 7.44, Pco 2 = 38 mmHg, [HCO 3 - ] = 27 mM) or acid (MET, pH = 7.18, Pco 2 = 37 mmHg, [HCO 3 - ] = 13 mM) medium without or with 2-APB (50 μM), an inhibitor of intracellular Ca signaling or NS-398 (1 μM), an inhibitor of COX2. Each agent significantly inhibited MET stimulation of medium FGF23 protein and calvarial FGF23 RNA as well as bone resorption at 48 h. To exclude the potential contribution of MET-induced bone P release, we utilized primary calvarial osteoblasts. In these cells each agent inhibited MET stimulation of FGF23 RNA expression at 6 h. Thus stimulation of FGF23 by MET in mouse osteoblasts utilizes the same initial signaling pathways as MET-induced bone resorption. Therapeutic interventions directed toward correction of MET, especially in CKD, have the potential to not only prevent bone resorption but also lower FGF23 and perhaps decrease mortality. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Abnormalities of Calcium Handling Proteins in Skeletal Muscle Mirror those of the Heart in Humans with Heart Failure: a Shared Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Middlekauff, Holly R.; Vigna, Chris; Verity, M. Anthony; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Hamilton, Michele A.; Shieh, Perry; Tupling, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background In the failing human heart, abnormalities of Ca2+ cycling have been described, but there is scant knowledge about Ca2+ handling in the skeletal muscle of humans with HF. We tested the hypothesis that in humans with HF, Ca2+ cycling proteins in skeletal muscle are abnormal. Methods and Results Ten advanced HF patients (50.4±3.7 years), and 9 age matched controls underwent vastus lateralis biopsy. Western blot analysis showed that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)2a, which is responsible for Ca2+ sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR), was lower in HF vs controls (4.8±0.5vs7.5±0.8AU, p=0.01). Although phospholamban (PLN), which inhibits SERCA2a, was not different in HF vs controls, phosphorylation (SER16 site) of PLN, which relieves this inhibition, was reduced (0.8±0.1vs3.9±0.9AU, p=0.004). Dihydropyridine receptors were reduced in HF, (2.1±0.4vs3.6±0.5AU, p=0.04). We tested the hypothesis that these abnormalities of Ca2+ handling protein content and regulation were due to increased oxidative stress, but oxygen radical scavenger proteins were not elevated in the skeletal muscle of HF patients. Conclusion In chronic HF, marked abnormalities of Ca2+ handling proteins are present in skeletal muscle, which mirror those in failing heart tissue. This suggests a common mechanism, such as chronic augmentation of sympathetic activity and autophosphorylation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase II. PMID:22939042

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the infarcted heart: a role in minimizing abnormalities in cardiac-specific energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Virginia L.; Ma, Lianli; James, Freyja D.; Young, Pampee P.; Wasserman, David H.; Rottman, Jeffrey N.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Intense interest has been focused on cell-based therapy for the infarcted heart given that stem cells have exhibited the ability to reduce infarct size and mitigate cardiac dysfunction. Despite this, it is unknown whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can prevent metabolic remodeling following a myocardial infarction (MI). This study examines the ability of MSCs to rescue the infarcted heart from perturbed substrate uptake in vivo. C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce a MI. Echocardiography was performed on conscious mice at baseline as well as 7 and 23 days post-MI. Twenty-eight days following the ligation procedure, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps assessed in vivo insulin sensitivity. Isotopic tracer administration evaluated whole body, peripheral tissue, and cardiac-specific glucose and fatty acid utilization. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which MSCs modulate metabolism, mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry using permeabilized cardiac fibers. Data show that MSC transplantation preserves insulin-stimulated fatty acid uptake in the peri-infarct region (4.25 ± 0.64 vs. 2.57 ± 0.34 vs. 3.89 ± 0.54 μmol·100 g−1·min−1, SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05) and prevents increases in glucose uptake in the remote left ventricle (3.11 ± 0.43 vs. 3.81 ± 0.79 vs. 6.36 ± 1.08 μmol·100 g−1·min−1, SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05). This was associated with an enhanced efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a respiratory control ratio of 3.36 ± 0.18 in MSC-treated cardiac fibers vs. 2.57 ± 0.14 in the infarct-only fibers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MSC therapy exhibits the potential to rescue the heart from metabolic aberrations following a MI. Restoration of metabolic flexibility is important given the metabolic demands of the heart and the role of energetics in the progression to heart failure. PMID:21971524

  20. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  1. Impact of Calcium and Two Doses of Vitamin D on Bone Metabolism in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rahme, Maya; Sharara, Sima Lynn; Baddoura, Rafic; Habib, Robert H; Halaby, Georges; Arabi, Asma; Singh, Ravinder J; Kassem, Moustapha; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Hoteit, Maha; Daher, Rose T; Bassil, Darina; El Ferkh, Karim; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2017-07-01

    The optimal dose of vitamin D to optimize bone metabolism in the elderly is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D, at a dose higher than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), has a beneficial effect on bone remodeling and mass. In this double-blind trial we randomized 257 overweight elderly subjects to receive 1000 mg of elemental calcium citrate/day, and the daily equivalent of 3750 IU/day or 600 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 1 year. The subjects' mean age was 71 ± 4 years, body mass index 30 ± 4 kg/m 2 , 55% were women, and 222 completed the 12-month follow-up. Mean serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 20 ng/mL, and rose to 26 ng/mL in the low-dose arm, and 36 ng/mL in the high-dose arm, at 1 year (p < 0.05). Plasma parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptide (Cross Laps) levels decreased significantly by 20% to 22% in both arms, but there were no differences between the two groups for any variable, at 6 or 12 months, with the exception of serum calcitriol, which was higher in the high-dose group at 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) increased significantly at the total hip and lumbar spine, but not the femoral neck, in both study arms, whereas subtotal body BMD increased in the high-dose group only, at 1 year. However, there were no significant differences in percent change BMD between the two study arms at any skeletal site. Subjects with serum 25OHD <20 ng/mL and PTH level >76 pg/mL showed a trend for higher BMD increments at all skeletal sites, in the high-dose group, that reached significance at the hip. Adverse events were comparable in the two study arms. This controlled trial shows little additional benefit in vitamin D supplementation at a dose exceeding the IOM recommendation of 600 IU/day on BMD and bone markers, in overweight elderly individuals. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Analysis of gene expression and regulation implicates C2H9orf152 has an important role in calcium metabolism and chicken reproduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Fan, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhenhe; Yang, Chan; Geng, Tuoyu; Gong, Daoqing; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2017-01-01

    The reproductive system of a female bird is responsible for egg production. The genes highly expressed in oviduct are potentially important. From RNA-seq analysis, C2H9orf152 (an orthologous gene of human C9orf152) was identified as highly expressed in chicken uterus. To infer its function, we obtained and characterized its complete cDNA sequence, determined its spatiotemporal expression, and probed its transcription factor(s) through pharmaceutical approach. Data showed that the complete cDNA sequence was 1468bp long with a 789bp of open reading frame. Compared to other tested tissues, this gene was highly expressed in the oviduct and liver tissues, especially uterus. Its expression in uterus was gradually increased during developmental and reproductive periods, which verified its involvement in the growth and maturity of reproductive system. In contrast, its expression was not significant different between active and quiescent uterus, suggesting the role of C2H9orf152 in reproduction is likely due to its long-term effect. Moreover, based on its 5'-flanking sequence, Foxd3 and Hnf4a were predicted as transcription factors of C2H9orf152. Using berberine or retinoic acid (which can regulate the activities of Hnf4a and Foxd3, respectively), we demonstrated suppression of C2H9orf152 by the chemicals in chicken primary hepatocytes. As retinoic acid regulates calcium metabolism, and Hnf4a is a key nuclear factor to liver, these findings suggest that C2H9orf152 is involved in liver function and calcium metabolism of reproductive system. In conclusion, C2H9orf152 may have a long-term effect on chicken reproductive system by regulating calcium metabolism, suggesting this gene has an important implication in the improvement of egg production and eggshell quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  4. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  5. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones.

  6. Calcilytic Ameliorates Abnormalities of Mutant Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Knock-In Mice Mimicking Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (ADH).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingzi; Endo, Itsuro; Ohnishi, Yukiyo; Kondo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Abe, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH). ADH patients develop hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalciuria, similar to the clinical features of hypoparathyroidism. The current treatment of ADH is similar to the other forms of hypoparathyroidism, using active vitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these treatments aggravate hypercalciuria and renal calcification. Thus, new therapeutic strategies for ADH are needed. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and may be effective for the treatment of ADH caused by activating mutations of CaSR. In order to examine the effect of calcilytic JTT-305/MK-5442 on CaSR harboring activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains in vitro, we first transfected a mutated CaSR gene into HEK cells. JTT-305/MK-5442 suppressed the hypersensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+) of HEK cells transfected with the CaSR gene with activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains. We then selected two activating mutations locating in the extracellular (C129S) and transmembrane (A843E) domains, and generated two strains of CaSR knock-in mice to build an ADH mouse model. Both mutant mice mimicked almost all the clinical features of human ADH. JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment in vivo increased urinary cAMP excretion, improved serum and urinary calcium and phosphate levels by stimulating endogenous PTH secretion, and prevented renal calcification. In contrast, PTH(1-34) treatment normalized serum calcium and phosphate but could not reduce hypercalciuria or renal calcification. CaSR knock-in mice exhibited low bone turnover due to the deficiency of PTH, and JTT-305/MK-5442 as well as PTH(1-34) increased bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in these mice. These results demonstrate that calcilytics can reverse almost all the phenotypes of ADH including hypercalciuria and renal calcification, and suggest that calcilytics can become a

  7. Comparison of ion-pair chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis for the assay of organic acids as markers of abnormal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Liao, Chiou-Shyi

    2004-10-08

    The abnormal organic acids in urine are closely related with physiological metabolism. To determinate the low-molecular-mass metabolites in human biological fluids, although there were some previous reports by both of capillary electrophoresis and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, but it was rarely found by reverse phase of liquid chromatography using ion pair reagent. The objective of this study was aimed to suggest and compare two methods, an additional chromatographic method-ion-pair chromatography (IPC) and a sharp capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), to determinate organic acids, acting as the abnormal metabolic markers, namely uric acid, orotic acid, pyruvic acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, fumaric acid, and hippuric acid. The proposed method of IPC possessed both the extreme stability for column and the good results of reproducibility, linearity and detection limit. The optimum mobile phase was 22% methanol and 10 mM tetra-n-butyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (pH 4) by gradient elution. As well as the optimum condition of CZE was 5% acetonitrile and 0.5 mM CTAB in phosphate buffer. From the results, CZE showed better recovery and sharp lucid electropherogram. Finally, the two proposed analytical methods were applied to assay human urine with direct and spiked analysis. CZE showed good potency to overcome the sample-to sample variation with standard deviation less than 10%. By comparison results of urinary spiked analysis between IPC and CZE by statistical paired t-test, the results were evaluated no significant difference under P < 0.05. The quantitative linearity of both methods was fitted in application of clinical biological analysis even with 50-fold dilution.

  8. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  9. [Abnormal expression of genes that regulate retinoid metabolism and signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E S; Zinovieva, O L; Oparina, N Yu; Prokofjeva, M M; Spirin, P V; Favorskaya, I A; Zborovskaya, I B; Lisitsyn, N A; Prassolov, V S; Mashkova, T D

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids are signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes and possess antitumor activity. This work presents a comprehensive description of changes in the expression of 23 genes that regulate retinoid metabolism and signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues obtained using RT-PCR. Even at early stages of malignant transformation, a significant decrease in ADH1B, ADH3, RDHL, and RALDH1 mRNA levels was observed in 82, 79, 73, and 64% of tumor specimens, respectively, and a considerable increase in AKR1B10 mRNA content was observed in 80% of tumors. Dramatic changes in the levels of these mRNAs can impair the synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid, a key natural regulatory retinoid. Apart from that, it was found that mRNA levels of nuclear retinoid receptor genes RXRγ, RARα, RXRα, and gene RDH11 were significantly decreased in 80, 67, 57, and 66% of tumor specimens, respectively. Thus, neoplastic transformation of lung tissue cells is accompanied with deregulated expression of key genes of retinoid metabolism and function.

  10. The GLP-1 response to glucose does not mediate beta and alpha cell dysfunction in Hispanics with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth; Genter, Pauline; Keefe, Emma; Sandow, Kevin; Gray, Virginia; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ipp, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) contributes to insulin secretion after meals. Though Hispanics have increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is unknown if impaired GLP-1 secretion contributes to this risk. We therefore studied plasma GLP-1 secretion and action in Hispanic adults. Hispanic (H; n = 31) and non-Hispanic (nH; n = 15) participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All participants were categorized by glucose tolerance into four groups: normal glucose tolerant non-Hispanic (NGT-nH; n = 15), normal glucose tolerant Hispanic (NGT-H; n = 12), impaired glucose tolerant Hispanic (IGT-H; n = 11), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, Hispanic (T2D-H; n = 8). Glucose-induced increments in plasma GLP-1 (Δ-GLP-1) were not different in NGT-H and NGT-nH (p = .38), nor amongst Hispanic subgroups with varying degrees of glucose homeostasis (p = .6). In contrast, the insulinogenic index in T2D-H group was lower than the other groups (p = .016). Subjects with abnormal glucose homeostasis (AGH), i.e., T2D-H plus IGT-H, had a diminished glucagon suppression index compared to patients with normal glucose homeostasis (NGT-H plus NGT-nH) (p = .035). GLP-1 responses to glucose were similar in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic NGT. Despite similar glucose-induced Δ-GLP-1, insulin and glucagon responses were abnormal in T2D-H and AGH, respectively. Thus, impaired GLP-1 secretion is unlikely to play a role in islet dysfunction in T2D. Although GLP-1 therapeutics enhance insulin secretion and glucagon suppression, it is likely due to pharmacological amplification of the GLP-1 pathways rather than treatment of hormonal deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal polyamine metabolism is unique to the neuropathic forms of MPS: potential for biomarker development and insight into pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Christian; Katz, Nathan; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Bell, Peter; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J; Lund, Troy C; Nayal, Mohamad; Weng, Liwei; Mesaros, Clementina; de Souza, Carolina F M; Dalla Corte, Amauri; Giugliani, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2017-10-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare genetic disorders marked by severe somatic and neurological symptoms. Development of treatments for the neurological manifestations of MPS has been hindered by the lack of objective measures of central nervous system disease burden. Identification of biomarkers for central nervous system disease in MPS patients would facilitate the evaluation of new agents in clinical trials. High throughput metabolite screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a canine model of MPS I revealed a marked elevation of the polyamine, spermine, in affected animals, and gene therapy studies demonstrated that reduction of CSF spermine reflects correction of brain lesions in these animals. In humans, CSF spermine was elevated in neuropathic subtypes of MPS (MPS I, II, IIIA, IIIB), but not in subtypes in which cognitive function is preserved (MPS IVA, VI). In MPS I patients, elevated CSF spermine was restricted to patients with genotypes associated with CNS disease and was reduced following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is the only therapy currently capable of improving cognitive outcomes. Additional studies in cultured neurons from MPS I mice showed that elevated spermine was essential for the abnormal neurite overgrowth exhibited by MPS neurons. These findings offer new insights into the pathogenesis of CNS disease in MPS patients, and support the use of spermine as a new biomarker to facilitate the development of next generation therapeutics for MPS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation.

  13. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D.

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation. PMID:28961260

  14. [Role of calcium ions in the mechanism of action of acetylcholine on energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Vatamaniuk, M Z; Artym, V V; Kuka, O B; Doliba, M M; Shostakovs'ka, I V

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that administration of acetylcholine to animals (50 micrograms per 100 g of body weight) leads to the activation of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in the rat liver mitochondria under oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate; this effect depends on the concentration of calcium ions in the incubation medium of mitochondria. The rate of ADP-stimulated respiration of mitochondria of experimental animals reaches its maximum level under lower concentrations of Ca2+ than in the control animals. The results of investigation of dependence of acetyl choline effect on respiration of mitochondria on the concentration of alpha-ketoglutarate in calcium and calcium-free incubation medium have shown that the half-maximum effect of acetylcholine is observed in calcium medium at lower concentration of the substrate than in calcium-free medium. The latter indicates to the increase of affinity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase to alpha-ketoglutarate under these conditions. It is found out that acetylcholine (1.10(-8) M) increases the rate of ADP- and Ca(2+)-stimulated respiration of mitochondria of isolated perfused rat liver, while mutual effect of verapamyl and niphedipin removes this effect.

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men.

    PubMed

    Risérus, Ulf; Sprecher, Dennis; Johnson, Tony; Olson, Eric; Hirschberg, Sandra; Liu, Aixue; Fang, Zeke; Hegde, Priti; Richards, Duncan; Sarov-Blat, Leli; Strum, Jay C; Basu, Samar; Cheeseman, Jane; Fielding, Barbara A; Humphreys, Sandy M; Danoff, Theodore; Moore, Niall R; Murgatroyd, Peter; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Sutton, Pauline; Willson, Tim; Hassall, David; Frayn, Keith N; Karpe, Fredrik

    2008-02-01

    Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), a comparator PPARalpha agonist (20 mug o.d. GW590735), and placebo were given in a double-blind, randomized, three-parallel group, 2-week study to six healthy moderately overweight subjects in each group. Metabolic evaluation was made before and after treatment including liver fat quantification, fasting blood samples, a 6-h meal tolerance test with stable isotope fatty acids, skeletal muscle biopsy for gene expression, and urinary isoprostanes for global oxidative stress. Treatment with GW501516 showed statistically significant reductions in fasting plasma triglycerides (-30%), apolipoprotein B (-26%), LDL cholesterol (-23%), and insulin (-11%), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. A 20% reduction in liver fat content (P < 0.05) and 30% reduction in urinary isoprostanes (P = 0.01) were also observed. Except for a lowering of triglycerides (-30%, P < 0.05), none of these changes were observed in response to GW590735. The relative proportion of exhaled CO(2) directly originating from the fat content of the meal was increased (P < 0.05) in response to GW501516, and skeletal muscle expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1b (CPT1b) was also significantly increased. The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. The effect is probably caused by increased fat oxidation in skeletal muscle.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Metabolic Alterations, Calcium Dysregulation, and Increased Expression of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Laminin α2 Chain–deficient Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Bruno Menezes; Matsumura, Cintia Y.; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely C.; Gawlik, Kinga I.; Acosta, Helena; Wernhoff, Patrik; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain deficiency (MDC1A) is one of the most severe forms of muscular disease and is characterized by severe muscle weakness and delayed motor milestones. The genetic basis of MDC1A is well known, yet the secondary mechanisms ultimately leading to muscle degeneration and subsequent connective tissue infiltration are not fully understood. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying MDC1A, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of affected muscles (diaphragm and gastrocnemius) from laminin α2 chain–deficient dy3K/dy3K mice, using multidimensional protein identification technology combined with tandem mass tags. Out of the approximately 700 identified proteins, 113 and 101 proteins, respectively, were differentially expressed in the diseased gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles compared with normal muscles. A large portion of these proteins are involved in different metabolic processes, bind calcium, or are expressed in the extracellular matrix. Our findings suggest that metabolic alterations and calcium dysregulation could be novel mechanisms that underlie MDC1A and might be targets that should be explored for therapy. Also, detailed knowledge of the composition of fibrotic tissue, rich in extracellular matrix proteins, in laminin α2 chain–deficient muscle might help in the design of future anti-fibrotic treatments. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000978 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000978). PMID:24994560

  17. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  18. Associations of circulating calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in European and South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, Donald C; Scally, Andrew J; Tuffnell, Derek J; Davies, T Jeffrey; Fraser, William D; Bhopal, Raj S; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is thought to impair insulin action and glucose metabolism; however, previous studies have not examined ethnic differences or the influence of calcium and parathyroid hormone. We investigated this in a cohort of predominantly white European and south Asian women during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study from an urban population in northern England (53.8°N), 1467 women were recruited when undergoing glucose tolerance testing (75 g oral glucose tolerance test) at 26 weeks' gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was diagnosed in 137 women (9.3%). Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration for the study population was 9.3 ng/mL (interquartile range 5.2, 16.9) and was higher in European [15.2 ng/mL (10.7, 23.5)] than in south Asian women [5.9 ng/mL (3.9, 9.4), P < .001]. After appropriate adjustment for confounders, 25-hydroxyvitamin D showed a weak inverse association with fasting plasma glucose (FPG; mean difference 1.0% per 1 SD; the ratio of geometric means (RGM) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 1.00), and PTH was weakly associated with FPG (RGM 1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02), but neither was associated with fasting insulin, postchallenge glucose, or GDM. Serum calcium (albumin adjusted) was strongly associated with fasting insulin (RGM 1.06; 95% CI 1.03, 1.08), postchallenge glucose (RGM 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.04), and GDM (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.06, 1.66) but not with FPG. Associations were similar in European and south Asian women. These findings do not indicate any important association between vitamin D status and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Relationships between circulating calcium and glucose metabolism warrant further investigation.

  19. Metabolic Abnormalities and Viral Replication is Associated with Biomarkers of Vascular Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Borkowsky, William; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Dooley, Laurie; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Hazra, Rohan; McFarland, Elizabeth J.; Mendez, Armando J.; Patel, Kunjal; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Worrell, Carol J.; Jacobson, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction among HIV-infected children with and without hyperlipidemia to HIV-exposed, uninfected children (HEU) enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)); coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin); endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), and E-selectin); and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Results The median ages were 12.3 y (HIV-infected) and 10.1 y (HEU). Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores, waist and hip circumference, and percent body fat were lower among HIV-infected. Total and non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM, and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavorable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL6, MCP1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM). Conclusions HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavorable lipid levels and active HIV replication. PMID:22136114

  20. Preclinical Demonstration of Lentiviral Vector-mediated Correction of Immunological and Metabolic Abnormalities in Models of Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Denise A; Zhang, Lin; Jin, Xiangyang; Montiel-Equihua, Claudia; Geiger, Sabine; Carmo, Marlene; Cooper, Aaron; Fairbanks, Lynette; Kaufman, Michael L; Sebire, Neil J; Hollis, Roger P; Blundell, Michael P; Senadheera, Shantha; Fu, Pei-Yu; Sahaghian, Arineh; Chan, Rebecca Y; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cornetta, Kenneth; Thrasher, Adrian J; Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells by γ-retroviral vectors (gRV) is an effective treatment for adenosine deaminase (ADA)–deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, current gRV have significant potential for insertional mutagenesis as reported in clinical trials for other primary immunodeficiencies. To improve the efficacy and safety of ADA-SCID gene therapy (GT), we generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV) with a codon-optimized human cADA gene under the control of the short form elongation factor-1α promoter (LV EFS ADA). In ADA−/− mice, LV EFS ADA displayed high-efficiency gene transfer and sufficient ADA expression to rescue ADA−/− mice from their lethal phenotype with good thymic and peripheral T- and B-cell reconstitution. Human ADA-deficient CD34+ cells transduced with 1–5 × 107 TU/ml had 1–3 vector copies/cell and expressed 1–2x of normal endogenous levels of ADA, as assayed in vitro and by transplantation into immune-deficient mice. Importantly, in vitro immortalization assays demonstrated that LV EFS ADA had significantly less transformation potential compared to gRV vectors, and vector integration-site analysis by nrLAM-PCR of transduced human cells grown in immune-deficient mice showed no evidence of clonal skewing. These data demonstrated that the LV EFS ADA vector can effectively transfer the human ADA cDNA and promote immune and metabolic recovery, while reducing the potential for vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis. PMID:24256635

  1. Plasma Amino Acid Abnormalities in Chronic Heart Failure. Mechanisms, Potential Risks and Targets in Human Myocardium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Corbellini, Daniela; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Barbieri, Annalisa; Condino, Anna Maria; Boschi, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV) were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations. Calorie (KcalI), protein-, fat-, carbohydrate-intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), total daily energy expenditure (REE × 1.3), and cardiac right catheterization variables were all measured. Eight matched controls were compared for all measurements, with the exception of cardiac catheterization. Compared with controls, CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels, of which both their number and reduced rates are related to Heart Failure (HF) severity. Arterial aspartic acid correlated with stroke volume index (r = 0.6263; p < 0.0001) and cardiac index (r = 0.4243; p = 0.0028). The value of arterial aspartic acid (µmol/L) multiplied by the cardiac index was associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.3765; p = 0.0076). All NYHA groups had adequate protein intake (≥1.1 g/kg/day) and inadequate calorie intake (KcalI < REE × 1.3) was found only in class IV patients. This study showed that CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels directly related to clinical disease severity and left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:29140312

  2. Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus Metabolism, and Parathyroid- Calcitonin Function during Prolonged Exposure to Elevated CO2 Concentrations on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    renal regulation, determine acid- base balance. calcitonin activity calcium excretion chronic hypercapnia magnesium parathyroid phosphorus...Mg increased. An important aspect of acid- base and electrolyte balance is the renal handling of an acid load. Figure 2 presents data on urine...E. SCHAEFER Navat Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Naval Submarine Base , Groton, CT 06340 Messier, A. A., E. Heyder, W. R. Braithwaite, C

  3. Continued investigation of kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism. [determining body calcium by measuring argon after neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The total body calcium in humans was determined by measuring expired Ar-37 after neutron irradiation. The excretion of Ar-37 from humans was found to be much slower than the excretion from rats and dogs, and to be related to the age of a person. A study of the uniformity of the Ar-37 production throughout the thickness of the body was studied using phantoms. The results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a uniformity within plus or minus 3% for the production of Ar-37 per unit of calcium by using a bilateral irradiation. New low background, large volume proportional counters were developed and constructed, for more sensitive measurement of Ar-37 in the expired air from patients. A new irradiation enclosure was developed for measuring total body calcium in rats by the Ar-37 method. With this enclosure the Ar-37 production per gram of calcium is constant with a standard deviation of plus or minus 2.8% for any size rat between 100 and 500 grams. The use of Na-22 as measure of bone replacement in the fractured femur of a dog was not successful.

  4. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  5. The metabolic impact of β-hydroxybutyrate on neurotransmission: Reduced glycolysis mediates changes in calcium responses and KATP channel receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lund, Trine M; Ploug, Kenneth B; Iversen, Anne; Jensen, Anders A; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2015-03-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate for neurons, and ketone bodies are known to be alternative substrates. However, the capacity of ketone bodies to support different neuronal functions is still unknown. Thus, a change in energy substrate from glucose alone to a combination of glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate might change neuronal function as there is a known coupling between metabolism and neurotransmission. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the effects of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on glycolysis and neurotransmission in cultured murine glutamatergic neurons. Previous studies have shown an effect of β-hydroxybutyrate on glucose metabolism, and the present study further specified this by showing attenuation of glycolysis when β-hydroxybutyrate was present in these neurons. In addition, the NMDA receptor-induced calcium responses in the neurons were diminished in the presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, whereas a direct effect of the ketone body on transmitter release was absent. However, the presence of β-hydroxybutyrate augmented transmitter release induced by the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide, thus giving an indirect indication of the involvement of KATP channels in the effects of ketone bodies on transmitter release. Energy metabolism and neurotransmission are linked and involve ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels. However, it is still unclear how and to what degree available energy substrate affects this link. We investigated the effect of changing energy substrate from only glucose to a combination of glucose and R-β-hydroxybutyrate in cultured neurons. Using the latter combination, glycolysis was diminished, NMDA receptor-induced calcium responses were lower, and the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide caused a higher transmitter release. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  7. Metabolic abnormalities associated with elevated serum cystatin C in adults with an estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Vupputuri, Suma; Coresh, Josef; Uribarri, Jaime; Fox, Caroline S.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated serum cystatin C may represent an early stage of kidney disease. It is unclear whether metabolic abnormalities typically seen in advanced chronic kidney disease are present in adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated cystatin C. Participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=6722) were categorized into three groups: estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and cystatin C <1.09 mg/L (normal cystatin C); estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 and cystatin C ≥1.09 mg/L (elevated cystatin C); and estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 ml/min/1.73m2 (stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease). Among those with normal cystatin C, elevated cystatin C, and stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease, the age, race-ethnicity, sex standardized prevalence of serum hemoglobin <12 g/dL (<13 g/dL for men) was 4.3%, 8.2%, and 13.8%; serum uric acid ≥ 5.9 mg/dL (≥7.4 mg/dL for men) was 12.6%, 30.0%, and 45.0%; serum homocysteine ≥13 μmol/L was 12.1%, 25.1%, and 41.0%; serum phosphorus ≥3.9 mg/dL was 17.2%, 23.2%, and 25.8%; serum albumin <3.8 mg/dL was 14.5%, 20.0%, and 20.4%; plasma fibrinogen ≥352 mg/dL was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 23.2%; and C-reactive protein ≥1.0 g/dL was 7.5%, 22.5%, and 21.6% (each p-trend<0.001). Among adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2, elevated serum cystatin C is associated with an increased prevalence of several metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19295502

  8. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Metabolic Abnormalities in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kahal, Hassan; Kyrou, Ioannis; Uthman, Olalekan; Brown, Anna; Johnson, Samantha; Wall, Peter; Metcalfe, Andrew; Tahrani, Abd A; Randeva, Harpal S

    2018-05-02

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and metabolic abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, Opengrey, CENTRAL), conference abstracts, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. No restriction was applied for language or publication status. Six studies involving 252 participants were included. Women with PCOS and OSA had significantly higher body mass index (mean difference [MD]: 6.01 kg/m 2, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 4.69-7.33), waist circumference (MD: 10.93 cm, 95% CI: 8.03-13.83), insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as worse lipids' profile and impaired glucose regulation compared to women with PCOS without OSA. Most studies did not adjust for weight in their between groups analysis. Total and free testosterone levels were not significantly different between the two groups. The majority of studies were found to be at high risk of selection bias; did not account for important confounders; were conducted in one country (USA); and used different methodologies to assess testosterone levels (preventing a meta-analysis for this specific outcome). OSA is associated with obesity and worse metabolic profiles in women with PCOS. However, whether the effects of OSA are independent of obesity remain unclear. As OSA is a treatable condition, research focused on the independent effects of OSA on key clinical outcomes in women with PCOS, including fertility, psychological health, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk is lacking and needed.

  9. Effects of calorie restriction plus fish oil supplementation on abnormal metabolic characteristics and the iron status of middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Utami, Fasty Arum; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Su, Chien-Tien; Guo, Yu-Ru; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2018-02-21

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide as well as in Taiwan. Middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared with men with equal visceral fat levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of calorie restriction (CR) and fish oil supplementation (CRF) on middle-aged Taiwanese women with MetS. An open-label, parallel-arm, controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. A total of 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned to the CR or CRF group. Both the dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. Changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. A total of 71 participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants' inflammatory status. CR significantly increased the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels in women aged >45 years. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. Both interventions improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics, including body weight, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and the score of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. In conclusion, the 12-week dietary interventions improved the abnormal metabolic status of middle-aged obese women. CRF was demonstrated to be more effective in ameliorating postprandial glucose level and TIBC in women aged >45 years than in those aged ≤45 years.

  10. Kinetic activity, membrane mitochondrial potential, lipid peroxidation, intracellular pH and calcium of frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa treated with metabolic enhancers.

    PubMed

    Boni, R; Gallo, A; Cecchini, S

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the progressive decline of sperm motility during storage there is a need to find substances capable of enhancing sperm energy metabolism and motility and/or preserving it from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate in frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa the effect of several compounds, such as myo-inositol, pentoxifylline, penicillamine + hypotaurine + epinephrine mixture (PHE), caffeine and coenzyme Q10+ zinc + d-aspartate mixture (CZA), on either kinetic or metabolic parameters. Sperm kinetics was evaluated by Sperm Class Analyser whereas specific fluorochromes were used to evaluated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, intracellular calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was also evaluated by TBARS analysis. Treatments significantly affected total and progressive motility with different dynamics in relation to the incubation time. After the first hour of incubation, CZA treatment produced the best performance in total and progressive sperm motility as well as in curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of head displacement, whereas pentoxifylline stimulated the highest straight-line velocity. MMP showed higher values (p < 0.01) after treatment with pentoxifylline and PHE. Intracytoplasmic calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the incubation time rather than the treatments. Intracellular pH varied significantly (p < 0.01) in relation to either the incubation time or treatments. In particular, it showed a progressive increase throughout incubation with values in control group significantly higher than in myo-inositol, PHE, caffeine, pentoxifylline and CZA groups (7.37 ± 0.03 vs. 7.29 ± 0.03, 7.28 ± 0.03, 7.26 ± 0.03, 7.22 ± 0.03 and 7.00 ± 0.03, respectively; p < 0.01).; however, among treatments, CZA displayed the lowest values. Significant correlations were found between sperm kinetic and metabolic

  11. The L‐type Ca2+ channel facilitates abnormal metabolic activity in the cTnI‐G203S mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Helena; Johnstone, Victoria; Cserne Szappanos, Henrietta; Richman, Tara; Tsoutsman, Tatiana; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Key points Genetic mutations in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) are associated with development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte remodelling, disorganization of cytoskeletal proteins and altered energy metabolism.The L‐type Ca2+ channel is the main route for calcium influx and is crucial to cardiac excitation and contraction. The channel also regulates mitochondrial function in the heart by a functional communication between the channel and mitochondria via the cytoskeletal network.We find that L‐type Ca2+ channel kinetics are altered in cTnI‐G203S cardiac myocytes and that activation of the channel causes a significantly greater increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and metabolic activity in cTnI‐G203S cardiac myocytes.These responses occur as a result of impaired communication between the L‐type Ca2+ channel and cytoskeletal protein F‐actin, involving decreased movement of actin–myosin and block of the mitochondrial voltage‐dependent anion channel, resulting in a ‘hypermetabolic’ mitochondrial state.We propose that L‐type Ca2+ channel antagonists, such as diltiazem, might be effective in reducing the cardiomyopathy by normalizing mitochondrial metabolic activity. Abstract Genetic mutations in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) account for 5% of families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is associated with disorganization of cytoskeletal proteins and altered energy metabolism. The L‐type Ca2+ channel (ICa‐L) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. This involves a functional communication between the channel and mitochondria via the cytoskeletal network. We investigate the role of ICa‐L in regulating mitochondrial function in 25‐ to 30‐week‐old cardiomyopathic mice expressing the human disease‐causing mutation Gly203Ser in cTnI (cTnI‐G203S). The inactivation rate of ICa‐L is significantly faster in cTnI‐G203S myocytes [cTnI‐G203S: τ1 = 40.68 ± 3.22, n

  12. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson ... Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2014:chap ...

  13. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... El metabolismo Metabolism Basics Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical ... that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking ...

  14. Does Adding Intravenous Phosphorus to Parenteral Nutrition Has Any Effects on Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism and Bone Mineral Content in Preterm Neonates?

    PubMed

    Mazouri, Ali; Khosravi, Nastaran; Bordbar, Arash; Khalesi, Nasrin; Saboute, Maryam; Taherifard, Pegah; Mirzababaee, Marjan; Ebrahimi, Mehran

    2017-06-01

    The use of parenteral nutritional supplementation of phosphorus may lead to exhibit higher plasma phosphate concentrations and less radiological features in premature neonates susceptible to osteopenia. The present study aimed to assess the beneficial effects of adding intravenous phosphorus to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm neonates by measuring bone mineral content. This open-labeled randomized clinical trial was conducted on premature neonates who were hospitalized at NICU. The neonates were randomly assigned to two groups received TPN with intravenous sodium glycerophosphate or Glycophos (1.5 mmol/kg/day) or TPN without sodium glycerophosphate. At the end of the four weeks of treatment, the presence of osteopenia was examined using DEXA Scan. After completing treatment protocols, the group received TPN with intravenous Glycophos had significantly lower serum alkaline phosphatase (360±60 versus 762±71, P<0.001), as well as higher serum calcium to creatinine ratio (1.6±0.3 versus 0.44±0.13, P<0.001) compared to the control group received TPN without Glycophos. Those who received TPN with intravenous Glycophos experienced more increase in bone mineral density than those in control group (0.13±0.01 versus 0.10±0.02, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in serum calcium and serum vitamin D between the case and control groups. Adding intravenous sodium glycerophosphate to TPN in premature neonates can compensate the lack of bone mineral content and help to prevent osteopenia.

  15. Calcium metabolism in cows receiving an intramuscular injection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 combined with prostaglandin F(2alpha) closely before parturition.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Norio; Ayukawa, Yu; Lee, Inhyung; Oboshi, Kenji; Naito, Yoshihisa

    2005-06-01

    To determine the effect of exogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] combined with induced parturition on calcium (Ca) metabolism, cows received a single intramuscular injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) closely before calving. Ten late-pregnant, multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1,25(OH)2D3 group (five treated with both 1,25(OH)2D3 and PGF(2alpha)) and control group (five treated with PGF(2alpha)). 1,25(OH)2D3 group showed an increase in plasma Ca concentration around parturition, whereas control group revealed a decrease in plasma Ca level. Plasma Ca concentration in 1,25(OH)2D3 group were significantly higher than that in control group during -0.5 to 3 days after parturition.

  16. Changes in bone metabolic parameters following oral calcium supplementation in an adult patient with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuka; Ito, Nobuaki; Makita, Noriko; Nangaku, Masaomi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2017-06-29

    Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is a rare inherited disorder with decreased tissue responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], caused by loss of function mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Approximately 50 types of mutations have been identified so far that change amino acids in either the N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) or the C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD) of the VDR protein. The degree of responsiveness to 1,25(OH) 2 D varies between patients with VDDR2A, which may depend on their residual VDR function. In this report, we describe a female patient with VDDR2A caused by an early stop codon (R30X) in the VDR gene that resulted in a severely truncated VDR protein. She developed alopecia and bowed legs within a year after birth and was diagnosed with rickets at the age of 2. She had been treated with active vitamin D and oral calcium supplementation until 22 years of age, when she developed secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover. The genetic diagnosis of VDDR2A promoted the discontinuation of active vitamin D treatment in favor of monotherapy with oral calcium supplementation. We observed amelioration of the secondary hyperparathyroidism and normalization of bone metabolic parameters within 6 years.

  17. MICROSCOPIC METABOLISM OF CALCIUM IN BONE. IV. Ca$sup 45$ DEPOSITION AND GROWTH RATE IN CANINE OSTEONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.H.; Jowsey, J.; Rowland, R.E.

    1959-02-01

    The Ca/sup 45/ content of individual osteons in three dogs given single intravenous injections has been measured autoradiographically and correlated with osteon canal diameter measured from microradiographs. An osteon was found to contain up to 10/sup -6/ of the injected activity, its total activity per unit length being approximately proportional to the square of its canal diameter at the time of injection. The activities observed at 12 hours or 2 weeks after injection divided by the corresponding time integral of the blood specific activity yield an accretion rate for calcium at each canal diameter such that the half-diameter time formore » the canal of an average forming osteon in a rather wide distnibution is 3 plus or minus 1 weeks, which is consistent with direct observations of osteon growth. It is concluded that the intense concentrations or in vivo-deposited Ca/sup 45/ which we have observed in canine osteons 12 hours or more after injection are due to accretion of calcium in appositional growth at approximately the specific activity measured in the large veins. The nature of the Ca/sup 45/ uptake in osteons which have completed or arrested appositional growth before injection cannot be inferred from the present data, but such uptake is here of an order of magnitude less than that due to appositional growth. Comparison of calculated blood flow with observed osteon growth rate indieates that an osteon in the early stages of appositiona« less

  18. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  1. Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

  2. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maalox® (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Relief (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Plus (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone)

  3. Compared effects of calcium and sodium polystyrene sulfonate on mineral and bone metabolism and volume overload in pre-dialysis patients with hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yosuke; Ueda, Kaoru; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Sugiyama, Miki; Yoshida, Chika; Kurokawa, Yuka; Nakamura, Nao; Moriyama, Tomofumi; Kodama, Goh; Minezaki, Tomohisa; Ito, Sakuya; Nagata, Akiko; Taguchi, Kensei; Yano, Junko; Kaida, Yusuke; Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Fukami, Kei

    2018-02-01

    Hyperkalemia is prevalent in end-stage renal disease patients, being involved in life-threatening arrhythmias. Although polystyrene sulfonate (PS) is commonly used for the treatment of hyperkalemia, direct comparison of effects between calcium and sodium PS (CPS and SPS) on mineral and bone metabolism has not yet been studied. In a randomized and crossover design, 20 pre-dialysis patients with hyperkalemia (>5 mmol/l) received either oral CPS or SPS therapy for 4 weeks. After 4-week treatments, there was no significant difference of changes in serum potassium (K) from the baseline (ΔK) between the two groups. However, SPS significantly decreased serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and increased intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) values, whereas CPS reduced iPTH. ΔiPTH was inversely correlated with ΔCa and ΔMg (r = -0.53 and r = -0.50, respectively). Furthermore, sodium (Na) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were significantly elevated in patients with SPS, but not with CPS, whereas ΔNa and ΔANP were significantly correlated with each other in all the patients. We also found that ΔNa and Δ(Na to chloride ratio) were positively correlated with ΔHCO 3 - . In artificial colon fluid, CPS increased Ca and decreased Na. Furthermore, SPS greatly reduced K, Mg, and NH 3 . Compared with SPS, CPS may be safer for the treatment of hyperkalemia in pre-dialysis patients, because it did not induce hyperparathyroidism or volume overload.

  4. The use of antioxidants to prevent glutamate-induced derangement of calcium ion metabolism in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Avrova, N F; Shestak, K I; Zakharova, I O; Sokolova, T V; Tyurina, Y Y; Tyurin, V A

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is shown to induce increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), increases in 45Ca2+ influx, decreases in the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and activation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes. NMDA receptor antagonists virtually prevented these effects. Preincubation of synaptosomes with alpha-tocopherol, superoxide dismutase, and ganglioside GM1 normalized [Ca2+]i, 45Ca2+ influx, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes exposed to glutamate. Glutamate and GM1 activated the Na+/K+ exchanger, and their effects were additive. Calcium ions entering cerebral cortex nerve cells via NMDA receptors during exposure to high glutamate concentrations appeared to be only the trigger for the processes activating free-radical reactions. Activation of these reactions led to increases in Ca2+ influx into cells, decreases in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and significant increases in [Ca2+]i, though this could be prevented by antioxidants and gangliosides.

  5. Calciphylaxis: a devastating complication of derangements of calcium-phosphorus metabolism--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carter, Trish; Ratnam, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare and potentially devastating condition also referred to as uremic gangrene syndrome, calcific uremic arteriolopathy, metastatic calcification, and uremic small-vessel disease that can present in patients with end stage renal disease. This article reports a case of a 38-year-old African-American female on peritoneal dialysis for six years with a known history of non-adherence with diet, medications, and prescribed peritoneal dialysis treatment regimen. At her monthly clinic visit, the patient complained of burning sensation in the fingers of both hands with limited fine motor movement due to edema and severe pain. A presumptive diagnosis of calciphylaxis led to hospital admission with confirmation by X-ray of her hands. The patient was switched to hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate, aggressive reduction in phosphorus, diet counseling, use of cinacalcet, and six weeks of intravenous sodium thiosulfate infusion with hemodialysis treatments. The patient's condition improved with resolution of symptoms. This case was chosen based on the rarity of a calciphylaxis presentation and paucity of knowledge regarding diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is magnetic resonance spectroscopy capable of detecting metabolic abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 1 that are not revealed in brain parenchyma of normal appearance?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos Pondé; Ferraz-Filho, José Roberto Lopes; Torres, Ulysses S; da Rocha, Antônio José; Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Souza, Antônio Soares; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in normal-appearing brain and in non-neoplastic brain lesions in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have been discrepant. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyze the metabolic patterns in the basal ganglia of patients with NF1 and examine their correlation with focal hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images (T2-weighted hyperintensities). We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy data of 42 individuals with NF1 (18 with and 24 without T2- weighted hyperintensities) and 25 controls matched for gender and age. A single-voxel technique was employed by manually placing a region of interest with a uniform size over a predetermined anatomical region including the globus pallidum and putamen (capsulolenticular region). We further analyzed the ratios of choline/creatine, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine, and myoinositol/creatine metabolites and the occurrence of T2-weighted hyperintensities in these regions in individuals with NF1. There was a significant difference between the NF1 and control groups with regard to the mean values of myoinositol/creatine and choline/creatine, with higher metabolite values observed in the NF1 group (P < 0.001). Only the myoinositol/creatine ratio was able to discriminate between NF1 subgroups with and without T2-weighted hyperintensities. For the NAA/creatine ratio, there was no significant difference between the NF1 and the control groups. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows the characterization of tissue abnormalities not demonstrable in the structural images of individuals with NF1 through choline and myoinositol metabolite analysis. Yet the preserved NAA values argue against demyelination and axonal degeneration occurring in the region, suggesting instead a functional neuronal stability. Taken in association with the findings of lack of clinical manifestations and the known transient nature of T2-weighted hyperintensities in NF1 as demonstrated by other

  8. [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Safranow, K

    2000-01-01

    separation is simpler in terms of technique and equipment, and therefore more suitable for hospital laboratories. Examination of purine derivatives in stones may be very helpful for the diagnosis of abnormal purine metabolism and urolithiasis, particularly in dihydroxyadeninuria, xanthinuria and during treatment with allopurinol. Gradient separation requiring more sophisticated instrument seems useful for research purposes when the content of methyl derivatives of purines must be known. The present results indicate that urinary purines at concentrations lower than saturation point may nevertheless coprecipitate with oversaturated uric acid and appear as admixtures in urinary stones. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. These findings suggest that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Interpretation of results and practical significance of the determination of purine derivatives in stones is discussed, and future studies to assess the clinical importance of endo- and exogenous purine derivatives in urinary calculi are suggested.

  9. The effect of different amounts of calcium intake on bone metabolism and arterial calcification in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Iimura, Yuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D(3) plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.

  10. Effect of intermittent exposure to 3% CO2 on respiration, acid-base balance, and calcium-phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, K E; Carey, C R; Dougherty, J H; Morgan, C; Messier, A A

    1979-01-01

    One subject was exposed for six days to increasing levels of CO2, rising at a constant rate from 0.03 to 3.0% CO2 within a 15-h period followed by 9 h of air breathing. To assess acid-base parameters, arterialized capillary blood was taken from a finger twice daily (at 8 a.m. and 11 p.m.) at times corresponding to the beginning and end of the intermittent exposure to CO2. Venous blood samples were obtained on alternate days at the same times. Urine specimens were collected twice daily. The subject was on a liquid diet. Resting respiratory minute volume (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tension (PACO2) and PAO2) were measured twice daily. PACO2 and PAO2 were also determined at the end of breath-holding twice daily; CO2 tolerance tests and lung function tests were also carried out. In contrast to the effects of chronic exposure to 3% CO2, the CO2 tolerance tests showed an increased sensitivity (increase of slope) and breath-holding PACO2 did not change, indicating that acclimatization to CO2 did not develop. The ventilatory response to CO2 was not sufficient to prevent CO2 accumulation in the body; this accumulation was eliminated during the nightly air-breathing periods on the fourth and fifth days, indicated by higher values of PaCO2 and PACO2. The known renal response to hypercapnia, consisting of an increased excretion of titratable acidity, ammonia, and hydrogen ion excretion, occurred but was interrupted after the first day and was triggered again on the fourth and fith days when accumulated CO2 was released from body CO2 stores. The second renal response was associated with a marked calcium excretion, which suggests that bone CO2 stores were involved.

  11. Radiological study of the effect of low calcium diet on the mineral metabolism of bone tissue. With reference to mineralization in callus (in Japanese)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.

    1972-01-01

    Deficiency of available food material due either to poor diet or to malabsorption may adversely affect the skeleton. To study the affection, DDN mice were fed low calcium diet to induce low calcium state corresponding to malabsorption of calcium from the intestine. The femur was fractured manually. Then, calcium deposition in the callus was observed by microradiography and tracer technics with /sup 47/Ca. Increase of the body weight in mice fed low calcium diet was much slower than in the control. The affection of the low calcium diet on bone tissue appeared as a decrease of precipitation of calcium salt.more » This tendency was also observed in callus, Tracer study with /sup 47/Ca was performed in mice fed the low calcium diet for 24 days. Incorporation activity of calcium was generally high in each organ except the kidney. Callus in the site of the fracture in mice fed a low calcium diet was formed to the same degree as the control, although the amount of precipitated calcium in it was significantly poorer. In summary, insufficient mineralization in relation to osteogenesis occurred when the supply of the requisite electrolytes was insufficient or inappropriate. On the other hand, the uptake rate of calcinm in the callus was elevated even in the calcium deficient state. (auth)« less

  12. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  13. Effect of a high dose of simvastatin on muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling in healthy volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Galtier, F., E-mail: f-galtier@chu-montpellier.fr; INSERM, CIC 1001, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5; CPID, Faculté de Pharmacie, 15 Av. Charles Flahault, BP 14491, 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5, Montpellier

    Statin use may be limited by muscle side effects. Although incompletely understood to date, their pathophysiology may involve oxidative stress and impairments of mitochondrial function and of muscle Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. In order to simultaneously assess these mechanisms, 24 male healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either simvastatin for 80 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples and a stress test were performed at baseline and at follow-up, and mitochondrial respiration and Ca{sup 2+} spark properties were evaluated on a muscle biopsy 4 days before the second stress test. Simvastatin-treated subjects were separated according to theirmore » median creatine kinase (CK) increase. Simvastatin treatment induced a significant elevation of aspartate amino transferase (3.38 ± 5.68 vs − 1.15 ± 4.32 UI/L, P < 0.001) and CK (− 24.3 ± 99.1 ± 189.3vs 48.3 UI/L, P = 0.01) and a trend to an elevation of isoprostanes (193 ± 408 vs12 ± 53 pmol/mmol creatinine, P = 0.09) with no global change in mitochondrial respiration, lactate/pyruvate ratio or Ca{sup 2+} sparks. However, among statin-treated subjects, those with the highest CK increase displayed a significantly lower Vmax rotenone succinate and an increase in Ca{sup 2+} spark amplitude vs both subjects with the lowest CK increase and placebo-treated subjects. Moreover, Ca{sup 2+} spark amplitude was positively correlated with treatment-induced CK increase in the whole group (r = 0.71, P = 0.0045). In conclusion, this study further supports that statin induced muscular toxicity may be related to alterations in mitochondrial respiration and muscle calcium homeostasis independently of underlying disease or concomitant medication. -- Highlights: ► Statin use may be limited by side effects, particularly myopathy. ► Statins might impair mitochondrial function and muscle Ca2+ signaling in muscle. ► This was tested among healthy volunteers receiving simvastatin 80 mg daily for 8 weeks.

  14. Additive effects of fibroblast growth factor 23 neutralization and dietary phytase on chick calcium and phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z Z; Bütz, D E; Wahhab, A N; Piepenburg, A J; Cook, M E

    2017-05-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytate rendering phosphorus available for intestinal absorption, while systemic neutralization of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), using anti-FGF-23 antibody, has been shown to increase phosphate retention. Hence, neutralization of FGF-23 should be additive with phytase in reducing dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) needs in chickens fed plant-based diets rich in phytic acid. This study was designed to test the additive effects of maternally derived anti-FGF-23 antibody and dietary phytase on the performance of chicks fed a low nPP diet from one to 14 d. Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were vaccinated with either an adjuvant control or a synthetic FGF-23 peptide (GMNPPPYS). Chicks from vaccinated hens with control or anti-FGF-23 maternal antibodies were fed either a diet containing 0.2% nPP and 0.9% calcium with or without 500 unit phytase per kg of diet (2 × 2 factorial with main effects of antibody type and phytase addition, n = 15 pens of chicks/treatment). A significant interaction between dietary phytase and maternally derived anti-FGF-23 antibody on growth and feed efficiency was observed (P ≤ 0.05), in which chicks receiving either phytase or maternally derived anti-FGF-23 antibody had improved body weight gain (21 or 15%, respectively) and feed efficiency (16 or 18%, respectively) as compared to chicks with control antibody and not fed phytase. Both phytase and maternally derived anti-FGF-23 antibody independently increased (P ≤ 0.05) plasma phosphate (11 and 11%, respectively) and percent tibiotarsus ash (13 and 11%, respectively). Significant main effects and the lack of an interaction supported an additive effect of phytase and anti-FGF-23 antibody on plasma phosphate and percent tibiotarsus ash. Feeding phytase to chicks fed 0.2% nPP increased plasma FGF-23 levels by 22% (P ≤ 0.05); however, no effects of anti-FGF-23 antibody on plasma FGF-23 levels were observed. In conclusion, dietary phytase and presence of

  15. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  16. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2013-03-05

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  17. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  18. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  19. Vitamin D status in growing dairy goats and sheep: Influence of ultraviolet B radiation on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, M V; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk. One group of each species was exposed to UVB lamps daily during individual feeding; the other groups served as controls. Serum, urine, and feces samples were taken at the start and at a monthly interval. Serum was analyzed for vitD metabolites, bone markers, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, Ca, and P. Apparent digestibility and urinary excretion of Ca and P were determined. The left metatarsus was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computer tomography for bone mineral density before starting and at the end of the trial. In wk 13, all animals were slaughtered and samples of skin, rumen, duodenum, kidney, and bone (metatarsus) were collected. Content of sterols of vitD synthesis in the skin, Ca flux rates in rumen and duodenum, expression of vitD receptor in duodenum and kidney, renal and intestinal gene expression of Ca transport proteins, and renal enzymes related to vitD metabolism were determined. The UVB exposure led to lower 7-dehydrocholesterol content in the skin and a better vitD status (higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D), but no signs of vitD deficiency were seen in the control groups and no effect of irradiation was detected in the analyzed parameters of Ca homeostasis. Differences between the 2 species were detected: lambs had a higher increase of bone mineral density, lower values of bone markers, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in

  20. Comparative effects of denosumab or bisphosphonate treatment on bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Augoulea, A; Tsakonas, E; Triantafyllopoulos, I; Rizos, D; Armeni, E; Tsoltos, N; Tournis, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Antoniou, A; Lambrinoudaki, I

    2017-03-01

    To clarify potential differences between denosumab (DNS) and bisphosphonates (BIS) in terms of bone density and bone metabolism, in a sample of postmenopausal women. A total of 113 postmenopausal women aged 53-66 years were treated with either DNS or BIS for 12 months. Bone densitometry and laboratory tests were compared between baseline and follow-up. Femoral neck BMD increased in both treatment-arms (FN-BMD, DNS: 0.69±0.07 g/cm 2 to 0.75±0.09 g/cm 2 ; BIS: 0.69±0.06 g/cm 2 to 0.71±0.07 g/cm 2 ; p≤0.001 in both cases). Lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD) increased significantly only in the DNS-group (0.83±0.14 g/cm 2 to 0.89±0.14 g/cm 2 , p=0.0001). Only women under treatment with DNS had a significant increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH: 44.87±17.54 pg/mL to 53.27±15.77 pg/mL, p=0.04), independently of baseline vitamin D levels. DNS-administration resulted in higher increase from baseline in FN-BMD compared to BIS (DNS vs BIS: 8.7%±8.5 vs 3.8%±7.3, p=0.004). Finally, baseline 25OH vitamin D levels did not determine the extent of PTH-increase following administration of DNS- or BIS-treatment. Both treatments increased BMD, however, the effect of DNS on FN-BMD was superior compared to that of BIS. DNS-treatment increased serum PTH. Baseline 25OH vitamin D levels did not predict the extent of PTH increase at follow-up.

  1. Effect of cortisone treatment on the active transport of calcium by the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kimberg, D V; Baerg, R D; Gershon, E; Graudusius, R T

    1971-06-01

    It is generally recognized that glucocorticoid administration may diminish calcium absorption in vivo as well as the active transport of calcium by the intestine in vitro. Recent studies by others have emphasized the possibility of an alteration in the metabolism of vitamin D to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in accounting for the steroid effects on calcium absorption. The results obtained in the present studies fail to support this hypothesis. The present studies confirm that the administration of cortisone or other glucocorticoids to the rat interferes with the active transport of calcium by duodenal gut sacs in vitro. This abnormality is not due to an alteration in the permeability of the intestine to calcium, and it cannot be corrected by the administration of either massive doses of vitamin D(2) or modest doses of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Experiments concerned with the effects of cortisone on the level of the vitamin D-dependent duodenal calcium-binding protein, the amount of bioassayable vitamin D activity in the mucosa, and the distribution and metabolism of (3)H-vitamin D(3), did not provide evidence in favor of a harmone-related defect in either the localization of vitamin D or its metabolism to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Alterations in the transport of iron and D-galactose, not dependent on vitamin D, suggest that cortisone treatment may be responsible for more than a simple antagonism to the effects of vitamin D. The results of the present studies indicate that cortisone administration affects the cellular mechanisms mediating calcium transport in a manner that is opposite to the effects of vitamin D, but seems to be independent of any direct interaction with the parent vitamin or its metabolites. If a disorder in vitamin D metabolism is at all involved, it is at a step subsequent to 25-hydroxylation.

  2. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2′:2,3′-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium. PMID:27186137

  3. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium.

  4. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  5. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  6. Gravity, calcium, and bone - Update, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Recent results obtained on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and bone browth during short-term flights and ground simulated-microgravity experiments are presented. Results demonstrate that two principal components of calcium metabolism respond within days to changes in body position and to weightlessness: the calcium endocrine system and bone characteristics. Furthermore, results of recent studies imply that bone biomechanics are more severely affected by spaceflight exposures than is the bone mass.

  7. Gravity, Calcium, And Bone: Update, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1992-01-01

    Report reviews short-term flight and ground-based experiments on effects of 1 g and 0 g on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and growth processes. Results indicate two principal components of calcium metabolism-calcium endocrine system and bone - respond within days to changes in orientation of body in gravitation and to weightlessness. Effects of spaceflight or bed rest on biomechanics of bones more severe than on total body bone mass.

  8. The Effects of Calcium, Vitamins D and K co-Supplementation on Markers of Insulin Metabolism and Lipid Profiles in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karamali, Maryam; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Razavi, Maryamalsadat; Jamilian, Mehri; Kashanian, Maryam; Akbari, Maryam; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-05-01

    Data on the effects of calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles among vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are scarce. This study was done to determine the effects of calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 55 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups to intake either 500 mg calcium, 200 IU vitamin D and 90 µg vitamin K supplements (n=28) or placebo (n=27) twice a day for 8 weeks. After the 8-week intervention, compared with the placebo, joint calcium, vitamins D and K supplementation resulted in significant decreases in serum insulin concentrations (-1.9±3.5 vs. +1.8±6.6 µIU/mL, P=0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.4±0.7 vs. +0.4±1.4, P=0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (-7.9±14.7 vs. +7.0±30.3, P=0.02) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.008±0.03, P=0.01). In addition, significant decreases in serum triglycerides (-23.4±71.3 vs. +9.9±39.5 mg/dL, P=0.03) and VLDL-cholesterol levels (-4.7±14.3 vs. +2.0±7.9 mg/dL, P=0.03) was observed following supplementation with combined calcium, vitamins D and K compared with the placebo. Overall, calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation for 8 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, serum triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Impaired Calcium Entry into Cells Is Associated with Pathological Signs of Zinc Deficiency12

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Boyd L.; Browning, Jimmy D.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

  10. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  11. Aberrant Subcellular Neuronal Calcium Regulation in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. PMID:20950656

  12. Metabolic Abnormalities and Clinical Lipodystrophy in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Report From a Tertiary Care Center in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prasanna; Suri, Deepti; Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Verma Attri, Savita; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Singh, Surjit

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study from a tertiary care center in India was undertaken to assess and compare the prevalence of blood glucose and lipid profile aberrations in children who received first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART; n = 63) and in children who were naïve to ART (n = 46). Impaired fasting blood glucose values were found in 7 children in ART-experienced group but none in ART-naïve group (P = 0.02). Low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were more prevalent in the ART-naïve group compared with ART-experienced group (54.3% vs. 22.2%; P = 0.001). Hypertriglyceridemia was noted in a significant proportion of both ART-naïve (43.5%) and ART-experienced children (39.7%). Incidence of clinical lipodystrophy was 47.7%, and there was no significant association noted between lipid profile abnormalities and lipodystrophy.

  13. Calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  14. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

  15. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Caruso, Salvatore; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Cianci, Stefano; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Menopause results in metabolic changes that contribute to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases: increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), weight gain are associated with a correspondent increase in incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of isoflavones, calcium vitamin D and inulin in menopausal women. We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 50 patients were randomized to receive either oral preparations of isoflavones (40 mg), calcium (500 mg) vitamin D (300 UI) and inulin (3 g) or placebo (control group). Pre- and post-treatment assessment of quality of life and sexual function were performed through Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); evaluations of anthropometric indicators, body composition through bioelectrical impedance analyser, lumbar spine and proximal femur T-score and lipid profile were performed. After 12 months, a significant reduction in MENQOL vasomotor, physical and sexual domain scores ( p < 0.05) and a significant increase in all FSFI domain scores ( p < 0.05) were observed in treatment group. Laboratory tests showed significant increase in serum levels of HDL ( p < 0.05). No significant changes of lumbar spine and femur neck T-score ( p > 0.05) were found in the same group. According to our data analysis, isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin may exert favourable effects on menopausal symptoms and signs.

  16. A randomized clinical trial of the effects of supplemental calcium and vitamin D3 on markers of their metabolism in normal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Thomas U; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Long, Qi; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Fedirko, Veronika; Daniel, Carrie R; Rutherford, Robin E; Shaukat, Aasma; Bostick, Roberd M

    2011-01-15

    In cancer cell lines and rodent models, calcium and vitamin D favorably modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in colonic epithelia. These effects may be modulated by local expression of the calcium receptor (CaR), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the P450 cytochromes, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1; however, they have yet to be investigated in humans. To address this gap, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2×2 factorial clinical trial. Patients with at least one pathology-confirmed colorectal adenoma were treated with 2 g/d elemental calcium and/or 800 IU/d vitamin D3 versus placebo over 6 months (n=92; 23 per group). CaR, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 expression and distribution in biopsies of normal appearing rectal mucosa were detected by standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis. In the calcium-supplemented group, CaR expression increased 27% (P=0.03) and CYP24A1 expression decreased 21% (P=0.79). In the vitamin D3-supplemented group, CaR expression increased 39% (P=0.01) and CYP27B1 expression increased 159% (P=0.06). In patients supplemented with both calcium and vitamin D3, VDR expression increased 19% (P=0.13) and CaR expression increased 24% (P=0.05). These results provide mechanistic support for further investigation of calcium and vitamin D3 as chemopreventive agents against colorectal neoplasms, and CaR, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 as modifiable, preneoplastic risk biomarkers for colorectal neoplasms. © 2010 AACR.

  17. Effects of calcium magnesium carbonate and roughage level on feedlot performance, ruminal metabolism, and site and extent of digestion in steers fed high-grain diets.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G I; Keeler, C D; Wagner, J J; Krehbiel, C R; Erickson, G E; Crombie, M B; Nunnery, G A

    2008-11-01

    A feedlot growth performance experiment and 2 metabolism experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary roughage concentration and calcium magnesium carbonate in steers fed a high-grain diet. In Exp. 1, one hundred ninety-two crossbred yearling steers (320 +/- 10 kg of initial BW) were fed diets based on steam-flaked corn with 0, 0.75, or 1.5% CaMg(CO(3))(2). There were no effects (P > or = 0.13) on ADG, DMI, G:F, or total water intake due to CaMg(CO(3))(2). In Exp. 2, five ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (263 +/- 9 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design, with 5 dietary treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 + 1 factorial: 1) 3.8% dietary roughage and no CaMg(CO(3))(2); 2) 7.6% dietary roughage and no CaMg(CO(3))(2); 3) 11.4% dietary roughage and no CaMg(CO(3))(2); 4) 3.8% dietary roughage and 1.5% CaMg(CO(3))(2); and 5) 7.6% dietary roughage and 1.5% CaMg(CO(3))(2). Water consumption was less (quadratic, P = 0.003) when 7.6% dietary roughage was fed compared with 3.8 or 11.4% dietary roughage. Intake of DM was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by dietary roughage or by CaMg(CO(3))(2). Poststomach and total tract starch digestion decreased (linear, P < 0.01) as dietary roughage increased. Ruminal pH tended (P = 0.08) to increase as dietary roughage increased but was not affected (P = 0.60) by CaMg(CO(3))(2). In Exp. 3, DMI and ruminal pH were continuously monitored in a 6 x 6 Latin square design using 6 ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein steers (229 +/- 10 kg of initial BW). A 3 x 2 factorial treatment structure was utilized, with factors consisting of dietary roughage concentration (4.5, 9.0, or 13.5%) and CaMg(CO(3))(2) inclusion (0 or 1.0%) to replace MgO and partially replace lime-stone. A dietary roughage x CaMg(CO(3))(2) interaction (P = 0.01) occurred as steers consuming 13.5% roughage, 1.0% CaMg(CO(3))(2) had greater DMI per meal than those consuming 4.5% dietary roughage, no CaMg(CO(3))(2) and 9.0% dietary roughage, 1.0% Ca

  18. Contribution of magnesium and micronutrients to bone metabolism in post menopausal women consuming a fixed amount of calcium and vitamin d: an exploratory study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most research relating diet to bone health and osteoporosis has involved the roles of calcium, vitamin D,and their synergistic activity; however, other nutrients have been shown to also play pivotal roles. In the present study, associations between magnesium and other micronutrients on bone metaboli...

  19. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to high-protein diets during energy deficit in healthy young adults: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although consuming dietary protein above current recommendations during energy deficit enhances blood lipid profiles and preserves lean body mass, concerns have been raised regarding effects of high-protein diets on bone health. To determine whether calcium homeostasis and bone turnover are affected...

  20. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  2. Metabolic Bone Diseases and Total Hip Arthroplasty: Preventing Complications.

    PubMed

    Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Lane, Joseph M; Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of conditions characterized by abnormalities in calcium metabolism and/or bone cell physiology. These unbalanced processes can eventually lead to bony deformities and altered joint biomechanics, resulting in degenerative joint disease. Not infrequently, patients with metabolic bone diseases have restricting hip joint pain that ultimately necessitates hip arthroplasty. To minimize complications, the surgeon must consider the particular characteristics of these patients. The surgical and medical management of patients with metabolic bone diseases undergoing hip arthroplasty requires appropriate preoperative diagnosis, careful attention to the technical challenges of surgery, and strategies to maximize the long-term results of the surgical intervention, such as the use of bone anabolic and anticatabolic agents.

  3. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The antioxidant prevention of disorders in calcium ion metabolism under the action of glutamate on the synaptosomes of the rat cerebral cortex].

    PubMed

    Avrova, N F; Shestak, K I; Zakharova, I O; Sokolova, T V; Tiurina, Iu Iu; Tiurin, V A

    1999-04-01

    An increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration and of the 45Ca2+ entry, a decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, and activation of Na+/Ca2+ exchange were shown to be initiated by glutamate in the rat brain cortex synaptosomes. These effects could be prevented with antagonists and blocking agents of the NMDA receptors. Pre-incubation of the synaptosomes with alpha-tocopherol, superoxide dismutase, and ganglioside GM1 was shown to normalise [45Ca2+], the rate of 45Ca2+ entry, and the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the synaptosomes. The data obtained suggest that calcium ions entering the brain cortex neurones via the NMDA receptors in presence of excessive glutamate, trigger activation of free radical reactions damaging the neurones in ischemia, cerebral lesions, and other pathological conditions.

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  7. Abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy: In vitro, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy based observation in early phase of the disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    /control individuals. Results clearly indicate alteration of lipid metabolism in patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease. Moreover, further evaluation is required to understand whether these changes are primary or secondary to muscular dystrophy. In future, these findings may prove an additional and improved approach for the diagnosis of different forms of muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  9. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  10. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Salvatore; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Cianci, Stefano; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Menopause results in metabolic changes that contribute to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases: increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), weight gain are associated with a correspondent increase in incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of isoflavones, calcium vitamin D and inulin in menopausal women. Material and methods We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 50 patients were randomized to receive either oral preparations of isoflavones (40 mg), calcium (500 mg) vitamin D (300 UI) and inulin (3 g) or placebo (control group). Pre- and post-treatment assessment of quality of life and sexual function were performed through Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); evaluations of anthropometric indicators, body composition through bioelectrical impedance analyser, lumbar spine and proximal femur T-score and lipid profile were performed. Results After 12 months, a significant reduction in MENQOL vasomotor, physical and sexual domain scores (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in all FSFI domain scores (p < 0.05) were observed in treatment group. Laboratory tests showed significant increase in serum levels of HDL (p < 0.05). No significant changes of lumbar spine and femur neck T-score (p > 0.05) were found in the same group. Conclusions According to our data analysis, isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin may exert favourable effects on menopausal symptoms and signs. PMID:29725283

  11. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  12. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. PMID:27468975

  13. Metabolically-healthy obesity and coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Yun, Kyung Eun; Cho, Juhee; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Choi, Yuni; Ahn, Jiin; Lima, João A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo; Ryu, Seungho

    2014-06-24

    The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of metabolically-healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals in a large sample of apparently healthy men and women. The risk of cardiovascular disease among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, referred to as MHO, is controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 14,828 metabolically-healthy adults with no known cardiovascular disease who underwent a health checkup examination that included estimation of CAC scores by cardiac tomography. Being metabolically healthy was defined as not having any metabolic syndrome component and having a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance <2.5. MHO individuals had a higher prevalence of coronary calcification than normal weight subjects. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratio comparing MHO with normal-weight participants was 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.48 to 3.43). In mediation analyses, further adjustment for metabolic risk factors markedly attenuated this association, which was no longer statistically significant (CAC score ratio 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 0.79 to 1.96). These associations did not differ by clinically-relevant subgroups. MHO participants had a higher prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis than metabolically-healthy normal-weight participants, which supports the idea that MHO is not a harmless condition. This association, however, was mediated by metabolic risk factors at levels below those considered abnormal, which suggests that the label of metabolically healthy for obese subjects may be an artifact of the cutoff levels used in the definition of metabolic health. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Nava, Azalia; Noriega, Lilia G; Tovar, Armando R; Granados, Omar; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-01-01

    There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form. Following induction of obesity, rats were fed PMD. PMD consumption decreased glucose intolerance, body weight gain, serum and liver triglycerides and leptin. In addition, PMD decreased the size of the adipocytes, and increased the protein abundance of UCP-1, PPAR-α, PGC1-α and Tbx-1 in white adipose tissue. Finally, the PMD significant decreased hepatic levels of ROS, oxidized proteins and GSSG/GSH ratio and an increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and the improvement of cognitive function. Consumption of a PMD decreased the glucose intolerance and the biochemical abnormalities caused by the obesity by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, decreasing the oxidative stress and modifying the gut microbiota. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.

  17. Effects of ascorbate on leucocytes: Part II. Effects of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate on neutrophil phagocytosis and post-phagocytic metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R

    1979-09-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate at a concentration range of 10(-6)M - 10(-1)M on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) phagocytosis of Candida albicans and post-phagocytic nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity and myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of ingested protein were investigated. Phagocytosis of C. albicans was unaffected by ascorbate concentrations of 10(-6)M - 10(-2)M; however, progressive inhibition was observed at concentrations of 10(-2)M upwards. Enhancement of resting and stimulated HMS activity and NBT reduction was evident at ascorbate concentrations of 10(-5) M - 10(-2)M. The stimulations of HMS activity and NBT reduction was independent of myeloperoxidase iodination of ingested protein and this latter function was strongly inhibited by ascorbate. Concentrations of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate which caused inhibition of phagocytosis and HMS activity were the same as those which mediated stimulation of cell motility, indicating that independent cellular mechanisms may govern motility and phagocytosis.

  18. Milk of calcium in abdomen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Kuo-How; Chang, Chin-Chen; Liu, Kao-Lang

    2011-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman had an asymptomatic abnormality on a screening abdominal radiograph. The radiopaque mass in her right upper abdomen was surrounded by numerous "pearls" and resembled an abalone on the supine abdominal radiograph. We advised an additional upright abdominal radiograph, which showed a calcium fluid level. We also clarified the location of the cystic lesion at the right floating kidney, which changed its location between the supine and upright positions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right renal cyst with a calcium-fluid interface owing to the milk of calcium. The patient was then followed up without additional investigation or the need for intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mineral metabolism in dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    George, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Complications such as ascites during the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis may lead to several abnormalities in mineral metabolism. In the present investigation, we have monitored serum and liver concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium during experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. The liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injections of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDMA) in doses 1 mg/100 g body weight on 3 consecutive days of each week over a period of 21 days. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the serum and liver on days 7, 14 and 21 after the start of DMN administration. Negative correlations were observed between liver function tests and serum mineral levels, except with albumin. Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium concentrations in the serum were decreased after the induction of liver injury. The liver calcium content was increased after DMN treatment. No change occurred in liver sodium content. However, magnesium and potassium content was significantly reduced in the hepatic tissue. The results suggest that DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis plays certain role in the alteration of essential elements. The low levels of albumin and the related ascites may be one of the major causes of the imbalance of mineral metabolism in hepatic fibrosis and further aggravation of the disease.

  20. Abnormalities of peptide metabolism in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Maï; Rholam, Mohamed; Brakch, Noureddine

    2004-10-01

    The steady-state level of peptide hormones represents a balance between their biosynthesis and proteolytic processing by convertases and their catabolism by proteolytic enzymes. Low levels of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor, described in Alzheimer disease (AD), were related to a defect in proteolytic processing of their protein precursors. In contrast the abundance of beta-amyloid peptides, the major protein constituents of senile plaques is likely related to inefficient catabolism. Therefore, attention is mainly focused on convertases that generate active peptides and counter-regulatory proteases that are involved in their catabolism. Some well-described proteases such as NEP are thought to be involved in beta-amyloid catabolism. The search of other possible candidates represents a primary effort in the field. A variety of vascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and arteriosclerosis suggest that the functional vascular defect contributes to AD pathology. It has also been described that beta-amyloid peptides potentiate endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction. In this review, we will critically evaluate evidence relating proteases implicated in amyloid protein precursor proteolytic processing and beta-amyloid catabolism.

  1. Serum calcium and incident type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Mary R; Pankow, James S; Sibley, Shalamar D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Reis, Jared P; Michos, Erin D; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2016-10-01

    Elevated serum calcium has been associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities and may be associated with a greater risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum calcium concentration is positively and independently associated with the incidence of diabetes and to evaluate the association of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801725 with incident diabetes. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants free of diabetes at baseline (n = 12,800; mean age: 53.9 y; 22.6% black) were studied for incident diabetes. Serum calcium was measured at baseline and corrected for serum albumin. Diabetes was defined by use of glucose concentrations, self-report, or medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used. During a mean 8.8 y of follow-up, 1516 cases of diabetes were reported. Participants in the highest compared with lowest calcium quintile were at greater risk of incident diabetes after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors [HR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.14, 1.57); P-trend across quintiles <0.0001] and with further adjustment for waist circumference and body mass index [1.26 (1.07, 1.48); P-trend = 0.004]. Additional adjustment for biomarkers on the metabolic pathway (e.g., 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus) had little impact. The calcium-diabetes association was statistically significant in blacks [1.48 (1.11, 1.98); P-trend = 0.002] but not whites [1.17 (0.96, 1.43); P-trend = 0.17] after adjustment for adiposity. In whites, CaSR gene SNP rs1801725 was associated with serum calcium but not with risk of diabetes. Consistent with 3 previous cohort studies, elevated serum calcium was found to be associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to understand the role, if any, that calcium plays in the pathogenesis of diabetes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Neurologic disorders of mineral metabolism and parathyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Lily; Habib, Zeina; Emanuele, Nicholas V

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of mineral metabolism may cause neurologic manifestations of the central and peripheral nervous systems. This is because plasma calcium stabilizes excitable membranes in the nerve and muscle tissue, magnesium is predominantly intracellular and is required for activation of many intracellular enzymes, and extracellular magnesium affects synaptic transmission. This chapter reviews abnormalities in electrolytes and minerals which can be associated with several neuromuscular symptoms including neuromuscular irritability, mental status changes, cardiac and smooth muscle changes, etc. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineral Metabolism in European Children Living with a Renal Transplant: A European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 1237 children (0–17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines on prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure. Results Abnormal serum phosphorus levels were observed in 25% (14% hypophosphatemia and 11% hyperphosphatemia), altered serum calcium in 30% (19% hypocalcemia, 11% hypercalcemia), and hyperparathyroidism in 41% of the patients. A longer time since transplantation was associated with a lower risk of having mineral levels above target range. Serum phosphorus levels were inversely associated with eGFR, and levels above the recommended targets were associated with a higher risk of graft failure independently of eGFR. Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are common after pediatric renal transplantation in Europe and are associated with graft dysfunction. PMID:25710805

  4. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thaís; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 18–50 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ≥ 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  6. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  7. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  8. Cilostazol ameliorates metabolic abnormalities with suppression of proinflammatory markers in a db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcription.

    PubMed

    Park, So Youn; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chi Dae; Lee, Won Suk; Rhim, Byung Yong; Hong, Ki Whan

    2009-05-01

    In a previous study, cilostazol promoted differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes and improved insulin sensitivity by stimulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma transcription. This study evaluated the in vivo efficacy of cilostazol to protect a db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes against altered metabolic abnormalities and proinflammatory markers via activation of PPARgamma transcription. Eight-week-old db/db mice were treated with cilostazol or rosiglitazone for 12 days. Cilostazol significantly decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, as did rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist. Elevated plasma insulin and resistin levels were significantly decreased by cilostazol, and decreased adiponectin mRNA expression was elevated along with increased plasma adiponectin. Cilostazol significantly increased both adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fatty acid transport protein-1 mRNA expressions with increased glucose transport 4 in the adipose tissue. Cilostazol and rosiglitazone significantly suppressed proinflammatory markers (superoxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in the carotid artery of db/db mice. In an in vitro study with 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, cilostazol significantly increased PPARgamma transcription activity, as did rosiglitazone. The transcription activity stimulated by cilostazol was attenuated by KT5720 [(9R,10S,12S)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9, 12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo [3,4-I][1,6]-benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid hexyl ester], a cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide), an antagonist of PPARgamma activity, indicative of implication of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signal pathway. These results suggest that cilostazol may improve insulin sensitivity along with anti-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetic patients via activation of both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and

  9. P2X₇-mediated calcium influx triggers a sustained, PI3K-dependent increase in metabolic acid production by osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Grol, Matthew W; Zelner, Irene; Dixon, S Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    The P2X₇ receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types, including osteoblasts. Genetically modified mice with loss of P2X₇ function exhibit altered bone formation. Moreover, activation of P2X₇ in vitro stimulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because osteogenesis is associated with enhanced cellular metabolism, our goal was to characterize the effects of nucleotides on metabolic acid production (proton efflux) by osteoblasts. The P2X₇ agonist 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP; 300 μM) induced dynamic membrane blebbing in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells (consistent with activation of P2X₇ receptors) but did not induce cell death. Using a Cytosensor microphysiometer, we found that 9-min exposure to BzATP (300 μM) caused a dramatic increase in proton efflux from MC3T3-E1 cells (∼2-fold), which was sustained for at least 1 h. In contrast, ATP or UTP (100 μM), which activate P2 receptors other than P2X₇, failed to elicit a sustained increase in proton efflux. Specific P2X₇ receptor antagonists A 438079 and A 740003 inhibited the sustained phase of the BzATP-induced response. Extracellular Ca²⁺ was required during P2X₇ receptor stimulation for initiation of sustained proton efflux, and removal of extracellular glucose within the sustained phase abolished the elevation elicited by BzATP. In addition, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase blocked the maintenance but not initiation of the sustained phase. Taken together, we conclude that brief activation of P2X₇ receptors on osteoblast-like cells triggers a dramatic, Ca²⁺-dependent stimulation of metabolic acid production. This increase in proton efflux is sustained and dependent on glucose and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity.

  10. Effectiveness of using thyrocalcitonin for the prevention of a calcium metabolic disorder in the mineralized tissues of rabbits with 30 days hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Shashkov, V. S.; Dmitriyev, B. S.; Yegorov, B. B.; Lobachik, V. I.; Brishin, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A 30 day hypokinesia in rabbits led to a considerable lag in weight gain for the skeletal bones, reduction in Ca45 uptake, and an increase in isotope resorption rate in the rapidly metabolized fraction of extremity bones. On the other hand, Ca45 content in the teeth and maxillae increased, which may be explained by redistribution of isotope among the various mineralized tissues. Injection of thyrocalcitonin (50 IU/day) produced a distinct normalizing effect on Ca45 uptake and resorption in the mineralized tissues of rabbits kept hypokinetic.

  11. National Institutes of Health, Rodent 4 (NIH.R4); Calcium Metabolism and Vascular Function After Spaceflight: A Collaborative Series with NASA and NIH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Steele, Marianne; Aquillina, Rudy; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NIH.R4 payload was a collaborative experiment conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This middeck payload was the fourth in a series of experiments focusing on developmental biology and the effects of microgravity on mammalian systems. The NIH.R4 payload was flown onboard STS-80, which launched November 19, 1996, and landed at Kennedy Space Center on December 7, 1996, and was the longest shuttle mission to date. Fourteen male Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR) were flown; seven in each of two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEM) in the shuttle middeck. The flight animals were exposed to 18 days of microgravity. Two synchronous control groups were utilized for this study in addition to an asynchronous post-flight AEM control study conducted at the PI lab. The animals were fed two different calcium diets in the NASA food bar (2.0% and 0.2%) three weeks prior to launch and insight. Blood pressures were taken at pre-determined intervals and were the basis for flight selection. Upon recovery Dwight animals blood pressure was measured and a variety of tissues were collected. Project testing and data will be presented.

  12. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  13. Calcium revisited, part III: effect of dietary calcium on BMD and fracture risk

    PubMed Central

    Burckhardt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Food can be an excellent source of calcium. Dietary calcium is in general as well absorbed as calcium supplements, and exerts the same effects on bone. The main sources are dairy products, but also some vegetables and fruits contain considerable amounts of calcium. Mineral water can serve as a supplement. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and some interventional trials have shown positive effects on bone metabolism, bone density and bone loss. But the effect on fracture incidence is less certain, and that of milk, the most studied dairy product, still unproven. PMID:26331006

  14. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your bones. Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for life. In addition to building bones and keeping them healthy, calcium enables our ...

  17. The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

    PubMed

    Asemi, Zatollah; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Rezavandi, Zohreh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Rafiee, Motahereh; Poladchang, Somayyeh; Darooghegi Mofrad, Manijeh; Taheri, Sara; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (-0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, P<0·001), Ca (+0·6 (sd 0·3) v. +0·1 (sd 0·1) mg/dl, P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (-0·9 (sd 3·1) v. +2·6 (sd 7·2) µIU/ml, P=0·01), homoeostasis model for assessment of estimated insulin resistance (-0·4 (sd 1·2) v. +0·7 (sd 2·3), P=0·01), β-cell function (-2·1 (sd 9·0) v. +8·9 (sd 23·7), P=0·01) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·007 (sd 0·01) v. -0·006 (sd 0·02), P=0·01) in supplemented patients were significantly different from those in patients in the placebo group. Supplementation resulted in significant changes in HDL-cholesterol (+2·7 (sd 7·0) v. -2·5 (sd 5·7) mg/dl, P=0·002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-1320·1 (sd 3758·3) v. +464·0 (sd 3053·3) ng/ml, P=0·03) and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (-0·4 (sd 0·5) v. -1·0 (sd 1·1) µmol/l, P=0·007) compared with placebo. Overall, vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance

  18. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yajin; Dong, Yuan; Cheng, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28208618

  19. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome. PMID:24288027

  1. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  2. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  3. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer layer of the tooth. ... Infections Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the ...

  4. Physiology of Calcium, Phosphate, Magnesium and Vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Allgrove, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of calcium and the other minerals involved in its metabolism is complex and intimately linked to the physiology of bone. Five principal humoral factors are involved in maintaining plasma concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphate and in coordinating the balance between their content in bone. The transmembrane transport of these elements is dependent on a series of complex mechanisms that are partly controlled by these hormones. The plasma concentration of calcium is initially sensed by a calcium-sensing receptor, which then sets up a cascade of events that initially determines parathyroid hormone secretion and eventually results in a specific action within the target organs, mainly bone and kidney. This chapter describes the physiology of these humoral factors and relates them to the pathological processes that give rise to disorders of calcium, phosphate and magnesium metabolism as well as of bone metabolism. This chapter also details the stages in the calcium cascade, describes the effects of calcium on the various target organs, gives details of the processes by which phosphate and magnesium are controlled and summarises the metabolism of vitamin D. The pathology of disorders of bone and calcium metabolism is described in detail in the relevant chapters. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex alters mitochondrial function and cellular calcium regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsueh-Meei; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E

    2003-01-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) catalyzes a key and arguably rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). A reduction in the activity of the KGDHC occurs in brains and cells of patients with many of these disorders and may underlie the abnormal mitochondrial function. Abnormalities in calcium homeostasis also occur in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in cells bearing mutations that lead to AD. Thus, the present studies test whether the reduction of KGDHC activity can lead to the alterations in mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis. alpha-Keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) inhibits KGDHC activity in living N2a cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, concentration of KMV that inhibit in situ KGDHC by 80% does not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, similar concentrations of KMV induce the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, reduce basal [Ca(2+)](i) by 23% (P<0.005), and diminish the bradykinin (BK)-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by 46% (P<0.005). This result suggests that diminished KGDHC activities do not lead to the Ca(2+) abnormalities in fibroblasts from AD patients or cells bearing PS-1 mutations. The increased release of cytochrome c with diminished KGDHC activities will be expected to activate other pathways including cell death cascades. Reductions in this key mitochondrial enzyme will likely make the cells more vulnerable to metabolic insults that promote cell death.

  6. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Effects of feeding dry or modified wet distillers grains with solubles with or without supplemental calcium oxide on ruminal metabolism and microbial enzymatic activity of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A R; Iakiviak, M; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    concentration were found when comparing DGS type or supplemental CaO. In conclusion, the type of DGS fed had little effect on ruminal metabolism. Even though CaO increased ruminal pH and cellulase activity at some times postfeeding, it was not enough to affect in situ fiber disappearance.

  8. Calcium signaling in liver.

    PubMed

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  9. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Control of renal calcium, phosphate, electrolyte, and water excretion by the calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Tyler Miller, R

    2013-06-01

    Through regulation of excretion, the kidney shares responsibility for the metabolic balance of calcium (Ca(2+)) with several other tissues including the GI tract and bone. The balances of Ca(2+) and phosphate (PO4), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), and water (H2O) are linked via regulatory systems with overlapping effects and are also controlled by systems specific to each of them. Cloning of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) along with the recognition that mutations in the CaSR gene are responsible for two familial syndromes characterized by abnormalities in the regulation of PTH secretion and Ca(2+) metabolism (Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia, FHH, and Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia, ADH) made it clear that extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)o) participates in its own regulation via a specific, receptor-mediated mechanism. Demonstration that the CaSR is expressed in the kidney as well as the parathyroid glands combined with more complete characterizations of FHH and ADH established that the effects of elevated Ca(2+) on the kidney (wasting of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and H2O) are attributable to activation of the CaSR. The advent of positive and negative allosteric modulators of the CaSR along with mouse models with global or tissue-selective deletion of the CaSR in the kidney have allowed a better understanding of the functions of the CaSR in various nephron segments. The biology of the CaSR is more complicated than originally thought and difficult to define precisely owing to the limitations of reagents such as anti-CaSR antibodies and the difficulties inherent in separating direct effects of Ca(2+) on the kidney mediated by the CaSR from associated CaSR-induced changes in PTH. Nevertheless, renal CaSRs have nephron-specific effects that contribute to regulating Ca(2+) in the circulation and urine in a manner that assures a narrow range of Ca(2+)o in the blood and avoids excessively high concentrations of Ca(2

  12. Electrocardiogram abnormalities and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1). Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  13. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Siamak; Grobbee, Diederick; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne; Bots, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG) can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence, and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ECG abnormalities with CAC. Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle) was obtained using electrocardiography. Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS) was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification. Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15) of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34), whereas 8.5% (n = 48) had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4–10.2). Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0–4.1). Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities. PMID:23074563

  14. Metabolic and toxic causes of canine seizure disorders: A retrospective study of 96 cases.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Christina; Jambroszyk, Melanie; Tipold, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    A wide variety of intoxications and abnormal metabolic conditions can lead to reactive seizures in dogs. Patient records of dogs suffering from seizure disorders (n=877) were reviewed, and 96 cases were associated with an underlying metabolic or toxic aetiology. These included intoxications by various agents, hypoglycaemia, electrolyte disorders, hepatic encephalopathy, hypothyroidism, uraemic encephalopathy, hypoxia and hyperglycaemia. The incidence of the underlying diseases was determined. The most common causes of reactive seizures were intoxications (39%, 37 dogs) and hypoglycaemia (32%, 31 dogs). Hypocalcaemia was the most frequent electrolyte disorder causing reactive seizures (5%) and all five of these dogs had ionised calcium concentrations ≤0.69 mmol/L. Eleven per cent of dogs with seizures had metabolic or toxic disorders and this relatively high frequency emphasises the importance of a careful clinical work-up of cases presented with seizures in order to reach a correct diagnosis and select appropriate treatment options. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Cellular metabolism and disease: what do metabolic outliers teach us?

    PubMed Central

    DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of metabolic pathways based solely on biochemistry textbooks would underestimate the pervasive role of metabolism in essentially every aspect of biology. It is evident from recent work that many human diseases involve abnormal metabolic states – often genetically programmed – that perturb normal physiology and lead to severe tissue dysfunction. Understanding these metabolic outliers is now a crucial frontier in disease-oriented research. This review discusses the broad impact of metabolism in cellular function, how modern concepts of metabolism can inform our understanding of common diseases like cancer, and considers the prospects of developing new metabolic approaches to disease treatment. PMID:22424225

  17. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  19. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  20. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.