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Sample records for abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

  1. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirch, D G; Kaufmann, C A; Papadopoulos, N M; Martin, B; Weinberger, D R

    1985-10-01

    Determinations of albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 subjects with schizophrenia. These determinations allowed calculation of two indices, one that is an indicator of integrity of the blood-brain barrier and the other a measure of selective IgG production within the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison with previously determined reference values, 7 of 24 (29%) subjects showed increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and 8 of 24 (33%) demonstrated elevated endogenous CNS IgG production. One of these eight also demonstrated oligoclonal banding on high-resolution protein electrophoresis of the CSF.

  2. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry in biotinidase deficiency causing diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Deepa; Maw, Anna; Brown, Richard; Hogg, Sarah; Calvin, Jackie; Parker, Alasdair P J

    2014-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a treatable cause of infantile epilepsy and the presentation can be nonspecific. The seizures are difficult to differentiate from other causes of epileptic encephalopathy, which generally have a poor prognosis. We report 2 infants who presented with seizures, and whose low cerebrospinal fluid glucose and high cerebrospinal lactate caused a diagnostic dilemma. Subsequent urine organic acids pointed to the correct diagnosis and avoided invasive investigation. The children had a good clinical outcome with resolution of their seizures on biotin treatment.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizingmore » these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.« less

  4. Clinically severe Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis with mild cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in an immunocompetent adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Ilka; Nasser, Hala; Belmiloudi, Soufien; Le Guern, Rémi; Dewilde, Anny; Vallée, Louis; Hober, Didier

    2013-06-01

    A 15-year-old boy developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis, a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. The severe clinical picture and the marked neuroimaging changes were in contrast with mild cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities: leukocyte count was normal and protein level was only slightly elevated. EBV DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, Rosan A; Underwood, Jonathan; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Cole, James H; Wit, Ferdinand W; Caan, Matthan W A; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B L M; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter

    2017-12-27

    Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PLWH receiving suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years, from the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Compared with controls, PLWH had lower gray matter volumes (-13.7 mL; 95% confidence interval, -25.1 to -2.2) and fractional anisotropy (-0.0073; 95% confidence interval, -.012 to -.0024), with the largest differences observed in those with prior clinical AIDS. Hypertension and the soluble CD14 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid were associated with lower fractional anisotropy. These associations were independent of HIV serostatus (Pinteraction = .32 and Pinteraction = .59, respectively) and did not explain the greater abnormalities in brain structure in relation to HIV infection. The presence of lower gray matter volumes and more white matter microstructural abnormalities in well-treated PLWH partly reflect a combination of historical effects of AIDS, as well as the more general influence of systemic factors, such as hypertension and ongoing neuroinflammation. Additional mechanisms explaining the accentuation of brain structure abnormalities in treated HIV infection remain to be identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Connective tissue spectrum abnormalities associated with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Pariani, Mitchel; Bannykh, Serguei; Rimoin, David L; Schievink, Wouter I

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to assess the frequency of connective tissue abnormalities among patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in a prospective study using a large cohort of patients. We enrolled a consecutive group of 50 patients, referred for consultation because of CSF leak. All patients have been carefully examined for the presence of connective tissue abnormalities, and based on findings, patients underwent genetic testing. Ancillary diagnostic studies included echocardiography, eye exam, and histopathological examinations of skin and dura biopsies in selected patients. We identified nine patients with heritable connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and other unclassified forms. In seven patients, spontaneous CSF leak was the first noted manifestation of the genetic disorder. We conclude that spontaneous CSF leaks are associated with a spectrum of connective tissue abnormalities and may be the first noted clinical presentation of the genetic disorder. We propose that there is a clinical basis for considering spontaneous CSF leak as a clinical manifestation of heritable connective tissue disorders, and we suggest that patients with CSF leaks should be screened for connective tissue and vascular abnormalities.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Internet]. Allina Health; c2017. Cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, quantitative [updated 2016 Mar 29; cited 2017 Oct 22]; [ ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2017. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap): Risks; 2014 ...

  10. 6-Mercaptopurine modifies cerebrospinal fluid T cell abnormalities in paediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus as steroid sparer.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, M R; Tate, E D; Allison, T J

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), a known immunosuppressant, to normalize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte frequencies in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and function as a steroid sparer. CSF and blood lymphocytes were immunophenotyped in 11 children with OMS (without CSF B cell expansion) using a comprehensive panel of cell surface adhesion, activation and maturation markers by flow cytometry, and referenced to 18 paediatric controls. Drug metabolites, lymphocyte counts and liver function tests were used clinically to monitoring therapeutic range and toxicity. In CSF, adjunctive oral 6-MP was associated with a 21% increase in the low percentage of CD4 + T cells in OMS, restoring the CD4/CD8 ratio. The percentage of CD4 + T cells that were interferon (IFN)-γ + was reduced by 66%, shifting the cytokine balance away from T helper type 1 (Th1) (proinflammatory) predominance. The percentage of natural killer (NK) cells decreased significantly in CSF (-32%) and blood (-67 to -82%). Low blood absolute lymphocyte count was more predictive of improvement in CSF lymphocyte proportions (correlated with % CD4 + T cells) than the 6-thioguanine level (no correlation). 6-MP was difficult to titrate: 50% achieved the target absolute lymphocyte count (< 1·5 K/mm); 20%, the 'therapeutic' 6-thioguanine level; and 40% the non-toxic 6-methylmercaptopurine level. Side effects and transaminase elevation were mild and reversible. Clinical steroid-sparing properties and lowered relapse frequency were demonstrated. 6-MP displayed unique pharmacodynamic properties that may be useful in OMS and other autoimmune disorders. Its steroid sparer capacity is limited to children in whom the therapeutic window can be reached without limiting pharmacokinetic factors or side effects. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarker abnormalities suggest early neurological injury in a subset of individuals during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Price, Richard W; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolites. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = -0.35, P = .02; r = -0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarker Abnormalities Suggest Early Neurological Injury in a Subset of Individuals During Primary HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Michael J.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Price, Richard W.; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C.; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J.; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. Methods. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)–based metabolites. Results. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = −0.35, P = .02; r = −0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation. PMID:23460748

  13. Dissecting spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid collection.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Crevier, Louis; Weil, Alexander G

    2018-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common condition in the pediatric population known to have many causes and presentation patterns. We report from the analysis of 2 cases the existence of a new complication of pediatric hydrocephalus. Naming this entity "dissecting intraparenchymal cerebrospinal fluid collection", we advance a hypothesis regarding its pathophysiology and discuss its clinical implications and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea due to cochlear dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2005-07-01

    Cochlear dysplasia associated with defect in stapes footplate can be a cause of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak in these cases is usually done by packing the vestibule with muscle or fascia. This traditional method of repair has 30-60% failure rate. Cerebrospinal fluid leak in four such patients was successfully repaired using multiple layer packing of vestibule, reinforced by pedicle temporalis muscle graft. Intraoperatively continuous lumbar drain was done. Magnetic resonance imaging of inner ear using 3D FSE T2WI and 3D FIESTA sequences was found helpful noninvasive investigation to localize site and route of cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  15. Abnormality in glutamine-glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, L-serine and D-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine-glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression.

  16. The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid's presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid's discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie. PMID:24396600

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Williams, B; Sgouros, S; Nenji, E

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-eight years of experience with syringomyelia of various causes in the syringomyelia clinic at the Midland Centre for Neurosurgery and Neurology has provided a database of 723 patients, mostly adults, with either hindbrain herniation, syringomyelia or both. Treatment of syringomyelia by drainage has never been the optimum primary treatment on the basis that the cavity is usually secondary to some other disturbance of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Over this period 73 patients had either syrinx drainage (56 syringopleural, 14 syringo-subarachnoid shunts) or other procedure such as myelotomy and cord transection. Ten years after operation only 53.5% and 50% of these two groups respectively continued to remain clinically stable. A complication rate of 15.7% included fatal haemorrhage, infection and displacement of drains. At second operation or necropsy at least 5% of shunts were found to be blocked. All the shunts were inserted without a valve and the lowering of the intrasyrinx pressure has therefore been energetic when the lower end of the drainage tube has been taken to the pleural or peritoneal cavities. This produced collapse of the cord cavities around the tip of the drainage tube and increased the likelihood of blockage. If the mechanisms which were responsible for the syringomyelia were still operative then recurrence was likely to occur alongside the drainage tube leaving the tube immured in the wall of the syrinx cavity. When hydrocephalus was present, in addition treatment of the hydrocephalus by a valved shunt to the peritoneum or to the right atrium was often effective in improving the syringomyelia. This treatment has also been used in patients without hydrocephalus. The mechanisms of improvement were unclear but this treatment stratagem has nevertheless been employed in 45 cases. In 30 out of these 45 cases the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from outside the syrinx cavities seemed to be worthwhile; 10 patients suffered some form of

  18. Expanding the cerebrospinal fluid endopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Karl T; Skillbäck, Tobias; Pernevik, Elin; Kern, Silke; Portelius, Erik; Höglund, Kina; Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gobom, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders are needed to assist in diagnosis, to monitor disease progression and therapeutic interventions, and to provide insight into disease mechanisms. One route to identify such biomarkers is by proteomic and peptidomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the current study, we performed an in-depth analysis of the human CSF endopeptidome to establish an inventory that may serve as a basis for future targeted biomarker studies. High-pH RP HPLC was employed for off-line sample prefractionation followed by low-pH nano-LC-MS analysis. Different software programs and scoring algorithms for peptide identification were employed and compared. A total of 18 031 endogenous peptides were identified at a FDR of 1%, increasing the number of known endogenous CSF peptides 10-fold compared to previous studies. The peptides were derived from 2 053 proteins of which more than 60 have been linked to neurodegeneration. Notably, among the findings were six peptides derived from microtubule-associated protein tau, three of which span the diagnostically interesting threonine-181 (Tau-F isoform). Also, 213 peptides from amyloid precursor protein were identified, 58 of which were partially or completely within the sequence of amyloid β 1-40/42, as well as 109 peptides from apolipoprotein E, spanning sequences that discriminate between the E2/E3/E4 isoforms of the protein. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ville; Vanninen, Ritva; Rauramaa, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocephalus (HC) is classically defined as dynamic imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leading to enlarged ventricles. Potential causative factors include various brain disorders like tumors causing obstruction of CSF flow within the ventricular system or the subarachnoid space. Classification of HC is based on the site of CSF flow obstruction guiding optimal treatment, with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in intraventricular obstruction and CSF shunt in communicating HC. Another clinically relevant classification is acute and chronic; the most frequent chronic form is idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The reported incidence of HC varies according to the study population and classification used. The incidence of congenital HC is approximately 0.4-0.6/1,000 newborns and the annual incidence of iNPH varies from 0.5/100,000 to 5.5/100,000. Radiologically, ventricular dilatation may be nonspecific, and differentiation of iNPH from other neurodegenerative diseases may be ambiguous. There are no known specific microscopic findings of HC but a systematic neuropathologic examination is needed to detect comorbid diseases and possible etiologic factors of HC. Depending on the etiology of HC, there are several nonspecific signs potentially to be seen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a submicroscopic X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Joy, J E; Poglod, R; Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Merril, C R

    1991-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and, in many cases, mental retardation. Some Norrie disease cases have been shown to be associated with a submicroscopic deletion in chromosomal region Xp11.3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from four male patients with an X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease. CSF proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and then analyzed by computer using the Elsie V program. Our analysis revealed a protein that appears to be altered in patients with Norrie disease deletion.

  1. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID STASIS AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    PubMed Central

    Whedon, James M.; Glassey, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breathwork, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted. PMID:19472865

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid ATP metabolites in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lazzarino, G; Amorini, A M; Eikelenboom, M J; Killestein, J; Belli, A; Di Pietro, V; Tavazzi, B; Barkhof, F; Polman, C H; Uitdehaag, B M J; Petzold, A

    2010-05-01

    Increased axonal energy demand and mitochondrial failure have been suggested as possible causes for axonal degeneration and disability in multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to test whether ATP depletion precedes clinical, imaging and biomarker evidence for axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis. The method consisted of a longitudinal study which included 21 patients with multiple sclerosis. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify biomarkers of the ATP metabolism (oxypurines and purines) from the cerebrospinal fluid at baseline. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, MRI brain imaging measures for brain atrophy (ventricular and parenchymal fractions), and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for axonal damage (phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated neurofilaments) were quantified at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Central ATP depletion (sum of ATP metabolites >19.7 micromol/litre) was followed by more severe progression of disability if compared to normal ATP metabolites (median 1.5 versus 0, p< 0.05). Baseline ATP metabolite levels correlated with change of Expanded Disability Status Scale in the pooled cohort (r= 0.66, p= 0.001) and subgroups (relapsing-remitting patients: r= 0.79, p< 0.05 and secondary progressive/primary progressive patients: r= 0.69, p< 0.01). There was no relationship between central ATP metabolites and either biomarker or MRI evidence for axonal degeneration. The data suggests that an increased energy demand in multiple sclerosis may cause a quantifiable degree of central ATP depletion. We speculate that the observed clinical disability may be related to depolarisation associated conduction block.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daft, Barbara M; Barr, Bradd C; Gardner, Ian A; Read, Deryck; Bell, William; Peyser, Karen G; Ardans, Alex; Kinde, Hailu; Morrow, Jennifer K

    2002-10-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.

  4. A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation. PMID:24817998

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives. PMID:23346074

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Mechanics and Its Coupling to Cerebrovascular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linninger, Andreas A.; Tangen, Kevin; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Frim, David

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not stagnant but displays fascinating oscillatory flow patterns inside the ventricular system and reversing fluid exchange between the cranial vault and spinal compartment. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of pulsatile CSF motion. Observations contradicting classical views about its bulk production and clearance are highlighted. A clinical account of diseases of abnormal CSF flow dynamics, including hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, Chiari malformation type 1, and pseudotumor cerebri, is also given. We survey medical imaging modalities used to observe intracranial dynamics in vivo. Additionally, we assess the state of the art in predictive models of CSF dynamics. The discussion addresses open questions regarding CSF dynamics as they relate to the understanding and management of diseases.

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Lauren M; Wild, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is enriched in brain-derived components and represents an accessible and appealing means of interrogating the CNS milieu to study neurodegenerative diseases and identify biomarkers to facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Many such CSF biomarkers have been proposed for Huntington's disease (HD) but none has been validated for clinical trial use. Across many studies proposing dozens of biomarker candidates, there is a notable lack of statistical power, consistency, rigor and validation. Here we review proposed CSF biomarkers including neurotransmitters, transglutaminase activity, kynurenine pathway metabolites, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers, neuroendocrine markers, protein markers of neuronal death, proteomic approaches and mutant huntingtin protein itself. We reflect on the need for large-scale, standardized CSF collections with detailed phenotypic data to validate and qualify much-needed CSF biomarkers for clinical trial use in HD.

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting Complications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hanak, Brian W.; Bonow, Robert H.; Harris, Carolyn A.; Browd, Samuel R.

    2018-01-01

    Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is the most common procedure performed by pediatric neurosurgeons, shunts remain among the most failure-prone life-sustaining medical devices implanted in modern medical practice. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms of CSF shunt failure for the 3 most commonly employed definitive CSF shunts in the practice of pediatric neurosurgery: ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculopleural, and ventriculoatrial. The text has been partitioned into the broad modes of shunt failure: obstruction, infection, mechanical shunt failure, overdrainage, and distal catheter site-specific failures. Clinical management strategies for the various modes of shunt failure are discussed as are research efforts directed towards reducing shunt complication rates. As it is unlikely that CSF shunting will become an obsolete procedure in the foreseeable future, it is incumbent on the pediatric neurosurgery community to maintain focused efforts to improve our understanding of and management strategies for shunt failure and shunt-related morbidity. PMID:28249297

  9. Glycoproteomics of cerebrospinal fluid in neurodegenerative disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihlbom, Carina; Davidsson, Pia; Emmett, Mark R.; Marshall, Alan G.; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individual patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) was separated by narrow range two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and analyzed by electrospray FT-ICR MS in this glycoproteomic study. Because several altered proteins in the comparison between AD patients and healthy controls individuals are isoforms of glycoproteins, it is important to determine if the modifying glycans are also altered. FT-ICR MS and fragmentation of glycopeptides with infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) offers abundant fragment ions through breakage at the glycosidic linkages with excellent mass accuracy, which facilitates the structural determination of the site-specific N-linked glycosylation. We present results from a structural comparison of proteins from three AD patients and three control individuals of different glycosylated isomers of [alpha]-1-antitrypsin, [beta]-trace and apolipoprotein J.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia and sterile shunt malfunction.

    PubMed

    Traynelis, V C; Powell, R G; Koss, W; Schochet, S S; Kaufman, H H

    1988-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia is a rare finding most often associated with central nervous system inflammatory processes, including parasitic, bacterial, and mycotic infections. It has also been seen as an allergic phenomenon. We present two cases of CSF eosinophilia occurring concurrently with sterile shunt malfunction. We speculate that CSF eosinophilia in our patients might have resulted from an allergic response to a foreign material such as suture, surgical glove powder, hair, cotton fibers, antibiotics, or silicone rubber. The incidence of sterile CSF eosinophilia after shunting is not known. Information concerning the role of eosinophilia in the development of shunt malfunctions is also lacking. An increased awareness of this possibility and further investigation are warranted.

  11. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% falsemore » discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.« less

  12. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. PMID:24744920

  13. Imhotep and the discovery of cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned.

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gisslen, Magnus; Cinque, Paola; Price, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.

  15. National audit of cerebrospinal fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Ian; Beetham, Robert; Cruickshank, Anne; Egner, William; Fahie-Wilson, Mike; Keir, Geoff; Patel, Dina; Watson, Ian; White, Peter

    2007-09-01

    UK National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS) Specialist Advisory Group for EQA of CSF Proteins and Biochemistry was interested in current practice for the biochemical investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the UK. A questionnaire was sent to laboratories via regional audit committees and the results collated. Most laboratories were analysing CSF in a satisfactory manner. There was some variation in the reference ranges used for glucose, protein and lactate. There was concern about the rejection policies of some laboratories on these unrepeatable samples and the wavelengths used to measure bilirubin. The survey revealed the lack of spectrophotometric scanning for haem pigments and bilirubin in some hospitals. The current practice for the measurement of CSF samples in the UK is satisfactory in most laboratories responding to the questionnaire. National agreement on reference ranges for glucose, protein and lactate should be achievable. Those performing spectrophotometric scanning of the CSF were doing so in concordance with the national guidelines. Some hospitals in the UK may not have responded to the questionnaire because they did not offer spectrophotometric scanning.

  16. Imaging review of cerebrospinal fluid leaks

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Naga V; Karanam, Lakshmi S P; Manchikanti, Venkatesh; Dandamudi, Srinivas; Puvvada, Sampath K; Vemuri, Vineet K

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs due to a defect in the dura and skull base. Trauma remains the most common cause of CSF leak; however, a significant number of cases are iatrogenic, and result from a complication of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Early diagnosis of CSF leak is of paramount importance to prevent life-threatening complications such as brain abscess and meningitis. Imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and characterization of CSF leaks. Three-dimensional, isotropic, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) accurately detects the site and size of the bony defect. CT cisternography, though invasive, helps accurately identify the site of CSF leak, especially in the presence of multiple bony defects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accurately detects CSF leaks and associated complications such as the encephaloceles and meningoceles. In this review, we emphasize the importance and usefulness of 3D T2 DRIVE MR cisternography in localizing CSF leaks. This sequence has the advantages of effective bone and fat suppression, decreased artefacts, faster acquisition times, three-dimensional capability, y and high spatial resolution in addition to providing very bright signal from the CSF. PMID:29379240

  17. Flow cytometric characterization of cerebrospinal fluid cells.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Marieke T; de Jongste, Arjen H C; Kraan, Jaco; Boonstra, Joke G; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Gratama, Jan W

    2011-09-01

    Flow cytometry facilitates the detection of a large spectrum of cellular characteristics on a per cell basis, determination of absolute cell numbers and detection of rare events with high sensitivity and specificity. White blood cell (WBC) counts in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important for the diagnosis of many neurological disorders. WBC counting and differential can be performed by microscopy, hematology analyzers, or flow cytometry. Flow cytometry of CSF is increasingly being considered as the method of choice in patients suspected of leptomeningeal localization of hematological malignancies. Additionally, in several neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, flow cytometry is commonly performed to obtain insight into the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Technically, the low cellularity of CSF samples, combined with the rapidly declining WBC viability, makes CSF flow cytometry challenging. Comparison of flow cytometry with microscopic and molecular techniques shows that each technique has its own advantages and is ideally combined. We expect that increasing the number of flow cytometric parameters that can be simultaneously studied within one sample, will further refine the information on CSF cell subsets in low-cellular CSF samples and enable to define cell populations more accurately. Copyright © 2011 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. Imaging review of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Naga V; Karanam, Lakshmi S P; Manchikanti, Venkatesh; Dandamudi, Srinivas; Puvvada, Sampath K; Vemuri, Vineet K

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs due to a defect in the dura and skull base. Trauma remains the most common cause of CSF leak; however, a significant number of cases are iatrogenic, and result from a complication of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Early diagnosis of CSF leak is of paramount importance to prevent life-threatening complications such as brain abscess and meningitis. Imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and characterization of CSF leaks. Three-dimensional, isotropic, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) accurately detects the site and size of the bony defect. CT cisternography, though invasive, helps accurately identify the site of CSF leak, especially in the presence of multiple bony defects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accurately detects CSF leaks and associated complications such as the encephaloceles and meningoceles. In this review, we emphasize the importance and usefulness of 3D T2 DRIVE MR cisternography in localizing CSF leaks. This sequence has the advantages of effective bone and fat suppression, decreased artefacts, faster acquisition times, three-dimensional capability, y and high spatial resolution in addition to providing very bright signal from the CSF.

  19. Prevention of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks by lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage during surgery for pituitary macroadenomas.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gautam U; Oldfield, Edward H

    2012-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leakage is a major complication of transsphenoidal surgery. An intraoperative CSF leak, which occurs in up to 50% of pituitary tumor cases, is the only modifiable risk factor for postoperative leaks. Although several techniques have been described for surgical repair when an intraoperative leak is noted, none has been proposed to prevent an intraoperative CSF leak. The authors postulated that intraoperative CSF drainage would diminish tension on the arachnoid, decrease the rate of intraoperative CSF leakage during surgery for larger tumors, and reduce the need for surgical repair of CSF leaks. The results of 114 transsphenoidal operations for pituitary macroadenoma performed without intraoperative CSF drainage were compared with the findings from 44 cases in which a lumbar subarachnoid catheter was placed before surgery to drain CSF at the time of dural exposure and tumor removal. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage reduced the rate of intraoperative CSF leakage from 41% to 5% (p < 0.001). This reduction occurred in macroadenomas with (from 57% to 5%, p < 0.001) and those without suprasellar extension (from 29% to 0%, p = 0.31). The rate of postoperative CSF leakage was similar (5% vs 5%), despite the fact that intraoperative CSF drainage reduced the need for operative repair (from 32% to 5%, p < 0.001). There were no significant catheter-related complications. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage during transsphenoidal surgery for macroadenomas reduces the rate of intraoperative CSF leaks. This preventative measure obviated the need for surgical repair of intraoperative CSF leaks using autologous fat graft placement, other operative techniques, postoperative lumbar drainage, and/or reoperation in most patients and is associated with minimal risks.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics study in communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vengalathur Ganesan; Narasimhan, Vidhya; Balasubramanian, Chandramouli

    2017-01-01

    Communicating hydrocephalus often poses a challenge in diagnosis and management decisions. The objective of this study is to measure the opening pressure (P o ), pressure volume index (PVI), and cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance (R out ), in patients with communicating hydrocephalus using bolus lumbar injection method and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic value. The study was conducted in 50 patients with communicating hydrocephalus, including normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) (19), post-meningitic hydrocephalus (23) and post-traumatic hydrocephalus (8). An improvised bolus lumbar injection method [the Madras Institute of Neurology (MIN) method] was used. In the NPH Group, the CSF dynamics studies correlated well with the clinico-radiological classification. The prediction of shunt responsiveness by CSF dynamics studies correlated with good outcome in 87.5%. In the post-meningitic hydrocephalus group, the value of CSF dynamics studies in predicting patients needing shunt was 89.5%. The CSF dynamics studies detected patients who needed shunt earlier than clinical or radiological indications. In the post-traumatic hydrocephalus group, 62.5% of patients improved with the treatment based on CSF dynamics studies. The improvised bolus lumbar injection method (MIN method) is a very simple test with fairly reliable and reproducible results. Study of CSF dynamics is a valuable tool in communicating hydrocephalus for confirmation of diagnosis and predicting shunt responsiveness. This is the first time that the value of CSF dynamics has been studied in patients with post-meningitic hydrocephalus. It was also useful for early selection of cases for shunting and for identifying patients with atrophic ventriculomegaly, thereby avoiding unnecessary shunt.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics study in communicating hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Vengalathur Ganesan; Narasimhan, Vidhya; Balasubramanian, Chandramouli

    2017-01-01

    Context: Communicating hydrocephalus often poses a challenge in diagnosis and management decisions. Aims: The objective of this study is to measure the opening pressure (Po), pressure volume index (PVI), and cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance (Rout), in patients with communicating hydrocephalus using bolus lumbar injection method and to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic value. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 50 patients with communicating hydrocephalus, including normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) (19), post-meningitic hydrocephalus (23) and post-traumatic hydrocephalus (8). An improvised bolus lumbar injection method [the Madras Institute of Neurology (MIN) method] was used. Results: In the NPH Group, the CSF dynamics studies correlated well with the clinico-radiological classification. The prediction of shunt responsiveness by CSF dynamics studies correlated with good outcome in 87.5%. In the post-meningitic hydrocephalus group, the value of CSF dynamics studies in predicting patients needing shunt was 89.5%. The CSF dynamics studies detected patients who needed shunt earlier than clinical or radiological indications. In the post-traumatic hydrocephalus group, 62.5% of patients improved with the treatment based on CSF dynamics studies. Conclusions: The improvised bolus lumbar injection method (MIN method) is a very simple test with fairly reliable and reproducible results. Study of CSF dynamics is a valuable tool in communicating hydrocephalus for confirmation of diagnosis and predicting shunt responsiveness. This is the first time that the value of CSF dynamics has been studied in patients with post-meningitic hydrocephalus. It was also useful for early selection of cases for shunting and for identifying patients with atrophic ventriculomegaly, thereby avoiding unnecessary shunt. PMID:28484522

  2. Therapeutic Amprenavir Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Letendre, Scott; Best, Brookie M.; Rossi, Steven S.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Way, Lauren; Capparelli, Edmund; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Antiretrovirals that reach higher concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with better control of HIV in CSF and possibly better neurocognitive performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether amprenavir (APV) concentrations in CSF are in the therapeutic range. Individuals were selected based on the use of regimens that included fosamprenavir (FPV), a prodrug of APV, and the availability of stored CSF and matched plasma. Total APV was measured in 119 matched CSF-plasma pairs from 75 subjects by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (plasma) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (CSF). Concentrations were compared to the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for wild-type HIV (5.6 ng/ml). Subjects were predominantly middle-aged (median 44 years) white (57%) men (78%) with AIDS (77%). APV was detected in all but 4 CSF specimens, with a median concentration of 24.8 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 16.2 to 44.0). The median CSF-to-plasma ratio was 0.012 (IQR, 0.008 to 0.018). CSF concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (rho = 0.61; P < 0.0001) and with postdose sampling interval (rho = −0.29; P = 0.0019). APV concentrations in CSF exceeded the median IC50 for wild-type HIV in more than 97% of CSF specimens with detectable APV by a median of 4.4-fold (IQR, 2.9 to 7.9). We conclude that administration of fosamprenavir should contribute to control of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS) as a component of effective antiretroviral regimens. PMID:22290964

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Monoamine Metabolites in the Epileptic Baboon

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Patel, Mayuri; Uteshev, Victor V.

    2016-01-01

    The baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In this retrospective study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated in 263 baboons of a pedigreed colony. CSF monoamine abnormalities have been linked to reduced seizure thresholds, behavioral abnormalities and SUDEP in various animal models of epilepsy. The levels of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and homovanillic acid in CSF samples drawn from the cisterna magna were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These levels were compared between baboons with seizures (SZ), craniofacial trauma (CFT) and asymptomatic, control (CTL) baboons, between baboons with abnormal and normal EEG studies. We hypothesized that the CSF levels of major monoaminergic metabolites (i.e., dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine) associate with the baboons’ electroclinical status and thus can be used as clinical biomarkers applicable to seizures/epilepsy. However, despite apparent differences in metabolite levels between the groups, usually lower in SZ and CFT baboons and in baboons with abnormal EEG studies, we did not find any statistically significant differences using a logistic regression analysis. Significant correlations between the metabolite levels, especially between 5-HIAA and HVA, were preserved in all electroclinical groups. While we were not able to demonstrate significant differences in monoamine metabolites in relation to seizures or EEG markers of epilepsy, we cannot exclude the monoaminergic system as a potential source of pathogenesis in epilepsy and SUDEP. A prospective study evaluating serial CSF monoamine levels in baboons with recently witnessed seizures, and evaluation of abnormal expression and function of monoaminergic receptors and transporters within epilepsy-related brain regions, may impact the electroclinical status. PMID:26924854

  4. [Diagnosis of spinal diseases by cerebrospinal fluid examination].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R M

    1979-01-01

    In this work, changes in the cerebrospinal fluid in acute and chronic polyneuritis as well as in the Guillan-Barré-Strohl syndrome are discussed and and it is pointed out that a specific coordination of the inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid syndromes to certain pathogens or noxae cannot be made. For the differentiation of the Guillain-Barré-Strohl syndrome and existence of increased gamma-globulin bands with identical mobility in the serum is pointed out. In myelitic disease pictures, acute and chronic cerebrospinal fluid syndromes are distinguished also in the cerebrospinal fluid according to the clinical course; regular changes, however, cannot be derived. Syphilitic cerebrospinal-fluid syndromes can easily be differentiated by their immunoactive findings. In multiple sclerosis, we distinguish between typical and atypical changes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Above all, the oligoclonal bands, i. e. the discontinuous proceeding of the gamma-globulin zone and the existence of several bands in the agar gel electrophoresis, play an essential role. In 95 per cent of the cases, oligoclonal bands can be shown. There are no greater differences with respect to oligoclonal bands between intermittent and chronic-progressive courses. For the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic syndromes, the cerebrospinal fluid cell picture can make a considerable contribution. Macrophages loaded with erythrocytes indicate that a haemorrhage occurred 12 to 18 hours before; macrophages loaded with haemosiderin indicate a haemorrhage that occurred 6 to 8 days before; and macrophages loaded with erythrocytes and haemosiderin indicate a seeping haemorrhage or an event that occurred several times. The Nonne-Froin syndrome indicates a massive protein increase often with a regular or only slightly increased number of cells. The importance of the Queckenstedt tests is pointed out. A particular role is played by meningitis carcinomatosa et sarcomatosa with the demonstration of a great number of

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Decreases with Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, David; Berdahl, John P.; Zaydlarova, Jana; Stinnett, Sandra; Fautsch, Michael P.; Allingham, R. Rand

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Clinical studies implicate low cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) or a high translaminar pressure difference in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG). This study was performed to examine the effect of age, sex, race and body mass index (BMI) on CSFP. Methods Electronic medical records from all patients who had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed at the Mayo Clinic from 1996–2009 were reviewed. Information including age, sex, race, height and weight, ocular and medical diagnoses, intraocular pressure (IOP) and LP opening pressure was obtained. Patients using medications or with medical diagnoses known to affect CSFP, and those who underwent neurosurgical procedures or where more than one LP was performed were excluded from analysis. Results Electronic medical records of 33,922 patients with a history of having an LP during a 13-year period (1996–2009) were extracted. Of these, 12,118 patients met all entry criteria. Relative to mean CSFP at age group 20–49 (mean 11.5±2.8 mmHg), mean CSFP declined steadily after age 50, with percent reduction of 2.5% for the 50–54 age group (mean 11.2±2.7 mmHg, p<0.002) to 26.9% for the 90–95 group (mean 8.4±2.4 mmHg, p<0.001). Females had lower CSFP than males throughout all age groups. BMI was positively and independently associated with CSFP within all age groups. Conclusion There is a sustained and significant reduction of CSFP with age that begins in the 6th decade. CSFP is consistently lower in females. BMI is positively and independently associated with CSFP in all age groups. The age where CSFP begins to decline coincides with the age where the prevalence of POAG increases. These data support the hypothesis that reduced CSFP may be a risk factor for POAG and may provide an explanation for the mechanism that underlies the age-related increase in the prevalence of POAG and NTG. PMID:23300737

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of infantile congenital hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick, David D.; Baksh, Brandon; Morgan, Clinton D.; Habiyaremye, Gakwaya; McAllister, James P.; Inder, Terrie E.; Mercer, Deanna; Holtzman, David M.; Strahle, Jennifer; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Morales, Diego M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hydrocephalus is a complex neurological disorder with a pervasive impact on the central nervous system. Previous work has demonstrated derangements in the biochemical profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in hydrocephalus, particularly in infants and children, in whom neurodevelopment is progressing in parallel with concomitant neurological injury. The objective of this study was to examine the CSF of children with congenital hydrocephalus (CHC) to gain insight into the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus and identify candidate biomarkers of CHC with potential diagnostic and therapeutic value. Methods CSF levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and derivative isoforms (sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ42), tau, phosphorylated tau (pTau), L1CAM, NCAM-1, aquaporin 4 (AQP4), and total protein (TP) were measured by ELISA in 20 children with CHC. Two comparative groups were included: age-matched controls and children with other neurological diseases. Demographic parameters, ventricular frontal-occipital horn ratio, associated brain malformations, genetic alterations, and surgical treatments were recorded. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to examine the association of each CSF protein with CHC. Results CSF levels of APP, sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ42, tau, pTau, L1CAM, and NCAM-1 but not AQP4 or TP were increased in untreated CHC. CSF TP and normalized L1CAM levels were associated with FOR in CHC subjects, while normalized CSF tau levels were associated with FOR in control subjects. Predictive ability for CHC was strongest for sAPPα, especially in subjects ≤12 months of age (p<0.0001 and AUC = 0.99), followed by normalized sAPPβ (p = 0.0001, AUC = 0.95), tau, APP, and L1CAM. Among subjects ≤12 months, a normalized CSF sAPPα cut-point of 0.41 provided the best prediction of CHC (odds ratio = 528, sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 0.97); these infants were 32 times more likely to have CHC. Conclusions CSF proteins such as s

  7. Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Jon B.; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Harten, Argonde C.; Glodzik, Lidia; Martinez-Lage, Pablo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Rami, Lorena; Hansson, Oskar; Sperling, Reisa; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Vandijck, Manu; Hampel, Harald; Teipl, Stefan; Moghekar, Abhay; Albert, Marilyn; Hu, William T.; Monge Argilés, Jose A.; Gorostidi, Ana; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Molinuevo, Jose L.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Linazasoro, Gurutz; de Leon, Mony J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40–84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype

  8. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) in a patient with confusional symptoms, diffuse EEG abnormalities, and bilateral vasospasm in transcranial Doppler ultrasound: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo de la Cruz, M; Domínguez Rubio, R; Luque Buzo, E; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Orcajo Rincón, J; Prieto Montalvo, J; Contreras Chicote, A; Grandas Pérez, F

    2017-04-17

    HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who experienced headache and confusional symptoms and displayed pleocytosis, diffuse slow activity on EEG, increased blood flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries on TCD, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings suggestive of diffuse involvement, especially in the left hemisphere. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a patient with HaNDL, confusional symptoms, diffuse slow activity on EEG, and increased blood flow velocity in TCD. Our findings suggest a relationship between cerebral vasomotor changes and the pathophysiology of HaNDL. TCD may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of HaNDL. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced cerebrospinal fluid ethanolamine concentration in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Hattori, Kotaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Yokota, Yuki; Matsumura, Ryo; Matsuo, Junko; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yoshida, Sumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hajime; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids play key roles in the function of the central nervous system, and their alterations are implicated in psychiatric disorders. In the search for a biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD), we used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure amino acids and related molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 52 patients with MDD (42 depressed and 10 remitted; DSM-IV) and 54 matched controls. Significant differences were found in four amino acid concentrations between the depressed patients and controls. After Bonferroni correction, only ethanolamine (EA) levels remained significantly reduced in depressed patients (nominal P = 0.0000011). A substantial proportion of the depressed patients (40.5%) showed abnormally low CSF EA levels (<12.1 μM) (P = 0.000033; OR = 11.6, 95% CI: 3.1–43.2). When patients with low EA and those with high EA levels were compared, the former had higher scores for overall depression severity (P = 0.0033) and ‘Somatic Anxiety’ symptoms (P = 0.00026). In unmedicated subjects, CSF EA levels showed a significant positive correlation with levels of homovanillic acid (P = 0.0030) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (P = 0.019). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that patients with MDD have significantly lower CSF EA concentrations compared with control subjects. CSF EA could be a state-dependent biomarker for a subtype of MDD. PMID:25589364

  10. MicroRNA Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria; Laigaard, Finn Pedersen; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Møller, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pathophysiologically involved in acute cerebral ischemia. This study compared miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid from neurologically healthy patients, as well as SAH patients with and without subsequent development of DCI. Methods— In a prospective case–control study of SAH patients treated with external ventricular drainage and neurologically healthy patients, miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid were screened and validated using 2 different high-throughput real-time quantification polymerase chain reaction techniques. The occurrence of DCI was documented in patient charts and subsequently reviewed independently by 2 physicians. Results— MiRNA profiles from 27 SAH patients and 10 neurologically healthy patients passed quality control. In the validation, 66 miRNAs showed a relative increase in cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients compared with neurologically healthy patients (P<0.001); 2 (miR-21 and miR-221) showed a relative increase in SAH patients with DCI compared with those without (P<0.05) in both the screening and validation. Conclusions— SAH is associated with marked changes in the cerebrospinal fluid miRNA profile. These changes could be associated to the development of DCI. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01791257. PMID:28768799

  11. MicroRNA Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bache, Søren; Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria; Laigaard, Finn Pedersen; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Møller, Kirsten

    2017-09-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pathophysiologically involved in acute cerebral ischemia. This study compared miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid from neurologically healthy patients, as well as SAH patients with and without subsequent development of DCI. In a prospective case-control study of SAH patients treated with external ventricular drainage and neurologically healthy patients, miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid were screened and validated using 2 different high-throughput real-time quantification polymerase chain reaction techniques. The occurrence of DCI was documented in patient charts and subsequently reviewed independently by 2 physicians. MiRNA profiles from 27 SAH patients and 10 neurologically healthy patients passed quality control. In the validation, 66 miRNAs showed a relative increase in cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients compared with neurologically healthy patients ( P <0.001); 2 (miR-21 and miR-221) showed a relative increase in SAH patients with DCI compared with those without ( P <0.05) in both the screening and validation. SAH is associated with marked changes in the cerebrospinal fluid miRNA profile. These changes could be associated to the development of DCI. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01791257. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Lymphoma cells in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed by chromosome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, J; Ilgren, EB; Spriggs, AI

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of malignant lymphoma are reported, in which lymphoma cells were undergoing cell division in the cerebrospinal fluid. In each case it was possible to perform chromosome counts and karyotype analyses, and in this way to establish that a neoplastic clone was present. Images PMID:7174842

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid cutaneous fistula following obstetric epidural analgaesia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Fedriani de Matos, J J; Quintero Salvago, A V; Gómez Cortés, M D

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous fistula of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare complication of neuroaxial blockade. We report the case of a parturient in whom an epidural catheter was placed for labour analgesia and 12h after the catheter was removed, presented an abundant asymptomatic fluid leak from the puncture site, compatible in the cyto-chemical analysis with cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with acetazolamide, compression of skin orifice of the fluid leakage, antibiotic prophylaxis, hydration and rest, and progressed satisfactorily without requiring blood patch. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical Cerebrospinal System Modeling in Fluid-Structure Interaction.

    PubMed

    Garnotel, Simon; Salmon, Stéphanie; Balédent, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume in the aqueduct is widely used to evaluate CSF dynamics disorders. In a healthy population, aqueduct stroke volume represents around 10% of the spinal stroke volume while intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume represents 90%. The amplitude of the CSF oscillations through the different compartments of the cerebrospinal system is a function of the geometry and the compliances of each compartment, but we suspect that it could also be impacted be the cardiac cycle frequency. To study this CSF distribution, we have developed a numerical model of the cerebrospinal system taking into account cerebral ventricles, intracranial subarachnoid spaces, spinal canal and brain tissue in fluid-structure interactions. A numerical fluid-structure interaction model is implemented using a finite-element method library to model the cerebrospinal system and its interaction with the brain based on fluid mechanics equations and linear elasticity equations coupled in a monolithic formulation. The model geometry, simplified in a first approach, is designed in accordance with realistic volume ratios of the different compartments: a thin tube is used to mimic the high flow resistance of the aqueduct. CSF velocity and pressure and brain displacements are obtained as simulation results, and CSF flow and stroke volume are calculated from these results. Simulation results show a significant variability of aqueduct stroke volume and intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume in the physiological range of cardiac frequencies. Fluid-structure interactions are numerous in the cerebrospinal system and difficult to understand in the rigid skull. The presented model highlights significant variations of stroke volumes under cardiac frequency variations only.

  15. More Than the Brain's Drain: Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Help the Brain Convey Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, John

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless liquid that constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord. Scientists argue that cerebrospinal fluid carries important signals for sleep, appetite, and sex. Evaluates past and current research documenting the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (CCM)

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin decay characteristics after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Fuchs, Dietmar; Price, Richard W; Crozier, Kathryn; Hagberg, Lars; Spudich, Serena; Gisslén, Magnus

    2013-05-10

    Neopterin, a biomarker of macrophage activation, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of most HIV-infected individuals and decreases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied decay characteristics of neopterin in CSF and blood after commencement of ART in HIV-infected subjects and estimated the set-point levels of CSF neopterin after ART-mediated viral suppression. CSF and blood neopterin were longitudinally measured in 102 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects who were treatment-naïve or had been off ART for ≥ 6 months. We used a non-linear model to estimate neopterin decay in response to ART and a stable neopterin set-point attained after prolonged ART. Seven subjects with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) who initiated ART were studied for comparison. Non-HAD patients were followed for a median 84.7 months. Though CSF neopterin concentrations decreased rapidly after ART initiation, it was estimated that set-point levels would be below normal CSF neopterin levels (<5.8 nmol/L) in only 60/102 (59%) of these patients. Pre-ART CSF neopterin was the primary predictor of set-point (P <0.001). HAD subjects had higher baseline median CSF neopterin levels than non-HAD subjects (P <0.0001). Based on the non-HAD model, only 14% of HAD patients were predicted to reach normal levels. After virologically suppressive ART, abnormal CSF neopterin levels persisted in 41% of non-HAD and the majority of HAD patients. ART is not fully effective in ameliorating macrophage activation in CNS as well as blood, especially in subjects with higher pre-ART levels of immune activation.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  18. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Gerald; Mayo, Martha; Saul, Thomas; Fellmann, Jere; McGuire, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and turnover, seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and in Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be an important cause of amyloid retention in the brain and may relate the two diseases. There is a high incidence of AD pathology in patients being shunted for NPH, the AD-NPH syndrome. We now report elevated CSF pressure (CSFP), consistent with very early hydrocephalus, in a subset of AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial of chronic low-flow CSF drainage. Our objective was to determine the frequency of elevated CSFP in subjects meeting National Institutes of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria for AD, excluding those with signs of concomitant NPH. Methods AD subjects by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (n = 222), were screened by history, neurological examination, and radiographic imaging to exclude those with clinical or radiographic signs of NPH. As part of this exclusion process, opening CSFP was measured supine under general anesthesia during device implantation surgery at a controlled pCO2 of 40 Torr (40 mmHg). Results Of the 222 AD subjects 181 had pressure measurements recorded. Seven subjects (3.9%) enrolled in the study had CSFP of 220 mmH20 or greater, mean 249 ± 20 mmH20 which was significantly higher than 103 ± 47 mmH2O for the AD-only group. AD-NPH patients were significantly younger and significantly less demented on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS). Conclusion Of the AD subjects who were carefully screened to exclude those with clinical NPH, 4% had elevated CSFP. These subjects were presumed to have the AD-NPH syndrome and were withdrawn from the remainder of the study. PMID:16737542

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and their ratio.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2013-05-01

    Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09mM and 0.03-0.15mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin decay characteristics after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neopterin, a biomarker of macrophage activation, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of most HIV-infected individuals and decreases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied decay characteristics of neopterin in CSF and blood after commencement of ART in HIV-infected subjects and estimated the set-point levels of CSF neopterin after ART-mediated viral suppression. Methods CSF and blood neopterin were longitudinally measured in 102 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects who were treatment-naïve or had been off ART for ≥ 6 months. We used a non-linear model to estimate neopterin decay in response to ART and a stable neopterin set-point attained after prolonged ART. Seven subjects with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) who initiated ART were studied for comparison. Results Non-HAD patients were followed for a median 84.7 months. Though CSF neopterin concentrations decreased rapidly after ART initiation, it was estimated that set-point levels would be below normal CSF neopterin levels (<5.8 nmol/L) in only 60/102 (59%) of these patients. Pre-ART CSF neopterin was the primary predictor of set-point (P <0.001). HAD subjects had higher baseline median CSF neopterin levels than non-HAD subjects (P <0.0001). Based on the non-HAD model, only 14% of HAD patients were predicted to reach normal levels. Conclusions After virologically suppressive ART, abnormal CSF neopterin levels persisted in 41% of non-HAD and the majority of HAD patients. ART is not fully effective in ameliorating macrophage activation in CNS as well as blood, especially in subjects with higher pre-ART levels of immune activation. PMID:23664008

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid findings after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate ictally-induced CSF parameter changes after seizures in adult patients without acute inflammatory diseases or infectious diseases associated with the central nervous system. In total, 151 patients were included in the study. All patients were admitted to our department of neurology following acute seizures and received an extensive work-up including EEG, cerebral imaging, and CSF examinations. CSF protein elevation was found in most patients (92; 60.9%) and was significantly associated with older age, male sex, and generalized seizures. Abnormal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio was found in only nine patients (5.9%) and did not show any significant associations. CSF lactate was elevated in 34 patients (22.5%) and showed a significant association with focal seizures with impaired consciousness, status epilepticus, the presence of EEG abnormalities in general and epileptiform potentials in particular, as well as epileptogenic lesions on cerebral imaging. Our results indicate that non-inflammatory CSF elevation of protein and lactate after epileptic seizures is relatively common, in contrast to changes in CSF-to-serum glucose ratio, and further suggest that these changes are caused by ictal activity and are related to seizure type and intensity. We found no indication that these changes may have further-reaching pathological implications besides their postictal character.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid hypersecretion in pediatric hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Karimy, Jason K; Duran, Daniel; Hu, Jamie K; Gavankar, Charuta; Gaillard, Jonathan R; Bayri, Yasar; Rice, Hunter; DiLuna, Michael L; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Marc Simard, J; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2016-11-01

    Hydrocephalus, despite its heterogeneous causes, is ultimately a disease of disordered CSF homeostasis that results in pathological expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Our current understanding of the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus is inadequate but evolving. Over this past century, the majority of hydrocephalus cases has been explained by functional or anatomical obstructions to bulk CSF flow. More recently, hydrodynamic models of hydrocephalus have emphasized the role of abnormal intracranial pulsations in disease pathogenesis. Here, the authors review the molecular mechanisms of CSF secretion by the choroid plexus epithelium, the most efficient and actively secreting epithelium in the human body, and provide experimental and clinical evidence for the role of increased CSF production in hydrocephalus. Although the choroid plexus epithelium might have only an indirect influence on the pathogenesis of many types of pediatric hydrocephalus, the ability to modify CSF secretion with drugs newer than acetazolamide or furosemide would be an invaluable component of future therapies to alleviate permanent shunt dependence. Investigation into the human genetics of developmental hydrocephalus and choroid plexus hyperplasia, and the molecular physiology of the ion channels and transporters responsible for CSF secretion, might yield novel targets that could be exploited for pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

  3. Analysis of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khoonsari, Payam Emami; Häggmark, Anna; Lönnberg, Maria; Mikus, Maria; Kilander, Lena; Lannfelt, Lars; Bergquist, Jonas; Ingelsson, Martin; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder accounting for more than 50% of cases of dementia. Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease relies on cognitive tests and analysis of amyloid beta, protein tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid. Although these markers provide relatively high sensitivity and specificity for early disease detection, they are not suitable for monitor of disease progression. In the present study, we used label-free shotgun mass spectrometry to analyse the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of Alzheimer’s disease patients and non-demented controls to identify potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. We processed the data using five programs (DecyderMS, Maxquant, OpenMS, PEAKS, and Sieve) and compared their results by means of reproducibility and peptide identification, including three different normalization methods. After depletion of high abundant proteins we found that Alzheimer’s disease patients had lower fraction of low-abundance proteins in cerebrospinal fluid compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Consequently, global normalization was found to be less accurate compared to using spiked-in chicken ovalbumin for normalization. In addition, we determined that Sieve and OpenMS resulted in the highest reproducibility and PEAKS was the programs with the highest identification performance. Finally, we successfully verified significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of eight proteins (A2GL, APOM, C1QB, C1QC, C1S, FBLN3, PTPRZ, and SEZ6) in Alzheimer’s disease compared to controls using an antibody-based detection method. These proteins are involved in different biological roles spanning from cell adhesion and migration, to regulation of the synapse and the immune system. PMID:26950848

  4. [Endoscopic endonasal detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage with topical fluorescein].

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Kishida, Yugo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tani, Akiko; Tada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takamitsu; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sakuma, Jun; Omori, Koichi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intraoperative topical application of fluorescein to detect the leakage point of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)rhinorrhea. Three patients with CSF rhinorrhea were treated with an endoscopic endonasal technique. Ten percent fluorescein was topically used for intraoperative localization of the leak site. A change of the fluorescein color from brown to green due to dilation of CSF were recognized as evidence of CSF rhinorrhea. We repeated the procedure to detect any small defects. All CSF rhinorrheas were successfully repaired by this endoscopic endonasal approach. Topical application of fluorescein is simple and sensitive for identifying intraoperative CSF rhinorrhea.

  5. Rapid spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak detected in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong Yun; Sen, Papia; Stein, Evan G; Freeman, Leonard M

    2014-02-01

    There are many causes of cerebrospinal (CSF) leaks. Most cases are secondary to blunt trauma and iatrogenic trauma caused by postoperative sequelae. Occasionally, CSF leakage may occur from nontraumatic or "spontaneous" causes, such as benign intracranial hypertension and "empty sella syndrome." Mass effect due to an encephalocele or meningocele may also be seen. Radionuclide cisternography is a sensitive method of determining CSF leak when combined with intranasal cotton pledget placement and analysis. We present a spontaneous CSF fluid leak that was detected when scintigraphic activity appeared first in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Viral loads of cerebrospinal fluid in infants with enterovirus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hisashi; Ioi, Hiroaki; Ishii, Chiako; Hasegawa, Yuka; Amaha, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the role of the viral load, free radicals, and cytokines in viral meningitis, we surveyed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients below 1 year of age who showed positive for enterovirus. In their first examinations interleukin (IL)-6 and free radicals increased whereas pleocytosis was rarely observed. IL-6 decreased within the short period. Viral loads and free radicals increased simultaneously. IL-6 and free radicals of CSF are helpful for diagnosis and treatment of viral meningitis at an early stage. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Confocal Raman microscopy of pathologic cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Lonkina, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Migmanov, T. E.; Lademann, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the spatial localization of leucocytes, bacteria, and erythrocytes in the crystal pattern of a dried droplet of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is established. Characteristic lines are detected and identified in the Raman spectrum of the CSF that point to the presence of pathologic cells therein and can be used in a timely way to diagnose meningitis, the spectroscopic sample preparation procedure being simple enough. A dry CSF sample retains its characteristic spectral features for no less than three days, which is important for its safe keeping and transportation, and also for the computer processing of its spectra.

  8. Paracetamol plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics in children

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B J; Holford, N H G; Woollard, G A; Chan, P L S

    1998-01-01

    Aims Paracetamol has a central action for both antipyresis and analgesia. Maximum temperature decrease and peak analgesia are reported at 1–2 h after peak plasma paracetamol concentration. We wished to determine the relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics in children. Methods Concentration-time profiles in plasma and CSF after nasogastric paracetamol 40 mg kg−1 were measured in nine children who had indwelling ventricular drains. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters was made using both a standard two-stage population approach (MKMODEL) and a nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM). Results were standardized to a 70 kg person using an allometric power model. Results Both approaches gave similar estimates. NONMEM parameter estimates were clearance 10.2 l h−1 (CV 47%), volume of distribution 67.1 l (CV 58%) and absorption rate constant 0.77 h−1 (CV 49%). Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations lagged behind those of plasma. The equilibration half time was 0.72 h (CV 117%). The CSF/plasma partition coefficient was 1.18 (CV 8%). Conclusions Higher concentrations in the CSF probably reflect the lower free water volume of plasma. The CSF equilibration half time suggests that CSF kinetics approximate more closely to the effect compartment than plasma, but further time is required for paracetamol to exert its effects. Effect site concentrations equilibrate slowly with plasma. Paracetamol should be given 1–2 h before anticipated pain or fever in children. PMID:9764964

  9. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Sonia; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Fladby, Tormod; Andreasen, Niels; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    The role of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been addressed but not yet established. We evaluated the BCB integrity in 179 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) retrospectively collected from AD patients and control cases using both CSF/serum albumin ratio (QAlb) and CSF secretory Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity. These analyses were supplemented with the measurement of total tau, amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), and ubiquitin CSF levels. We found that due to its higher sensitivity, CSF sPLA2 activity could 1) discriminate AD from healthy controls and 2) showed BCB impairment in neurological control cases while QAlb could not. Moreover, the CSF sPLA2 activity measurement showed that around half of the AD patients were characterized by a BCB impairment. The BCB dysfunction observed in AD was independent from Mini-Mental State Examination score as well as CSF levels of total tau, Aβ1-42, and ubiquitin. Finally, the BCB dysfunction was not limited to any of the CSF biomarkers-based previously identified subgroups of AD. These results suggest that the BCB damage occurs independent of and probably precedes both Aβ and tau pathologies in a restricted subgroup of AD patients.

  10. Spectrophotometry of cerebrospinal fluid in subacute and chronic subdural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Kjellin, K. G.; Steiner, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectrophotometric examinations were performed on cerebrospinal and subdural fluids in subacute (five patients) and chronic (20 patients) subdural haematomas, with special reference to the diagnostic aid of CSF spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric xanthochromia of haemorrhagic origin was found in all CSFs examined, while definite visible xanthochromia was observed in only 28% and the CSF was judged as colourless in 52% of those cases. Characteristic bleeding patterns were found spectrophotometrically in all the 20 CSFs examined within 24 hours after lumbar puncture, haematoma patterns being detected in 90-95% of the cases. In many cases the electrophoretically separated protein fractions of CSF and subdural fluids were spectrophotometrically examined. In conclusion, CSF spectrophotometry is a simple, fast, and extremely sensitive method, which in our opinion should be used routinely in the diagnosis of suspected subdural haematomas, if lumbar puncture is not contraindicated. PMID:4140892

  11. Treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak after spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhao; Tian, Rong; Jia, Yu-Tao; Xu, Tian-Tong; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the complexity of spinal surgery, there is a great prevalence of dural tear causing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Many studies focused on suture repair for dural tear to stop CSF leak. Now some new treatment strategies have shown a promising effect that is listed as follows: 1) creating watertight dural closure to stop CSF leak with the help of dural substitute material; and 2) retarding CSF leak by changing pressure difference, including reducing the subarachnoid fluid pressure, increasing the epidural space pressure and both. In fact several methods mentioned above are usually combined to treat CSF leak. However, no update review summarized the relevant studies implemented in recent years. In this review, the authors would compare the effects of different dural closure techniques, and introduce the latest treatment methods and mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct observation of cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Humberto; Tithof, Jeffrey; Thomas, John; Kelley, Douglas; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves a vital role in normal brain function. Its adequate flow and exchange with interstitial fluid through perivascular spaces (PVS) has been shown to be important in the clearance of toxic metabolites like amyloid- β, and its disturbance can cause severe neurological diseases. It has long been suspected that bulk flow may transport CSF, but limitations in imaging techniques have prevented direct observation of such flows in the PVS. In this talk, we describe a novel approach using high speed two photon laser scanning microscopy which has allowed for the first ever direct observation of CSF flow in the PVS of a mouse brain. By performing particle tracking velocimetry, we quantify the CSF bulk flow speeds and PVS geometry. This technique enables future studies of CSF flow disturbances on a new scale and will pave the way for evaluating the role of these fluxes in neurodegenerative disease. R01NS100366 (to M.N.).

  13. Optical analysis of suspended particles in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by puncture from patients diagnosed with the disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staroń, Waldemar; Herbowski, Leszek; Gurgul, Henryk

    2007-04-01

    The goal of the work was to determine the values of cumulative parameters of the cerebrospinal fluid. Values of the parameters characterise statistical cerebrospinal fluid obtained by puncture from the patients diagnosed due to suspicion of normotensive hydrocephalus. The cerebrospinal fluid taken by puncture for the routine examinations carried out at the patients suspected of normotensive hydrocephalus was analysed. In the paper there are presented results of examinations of several dozens of puncture samples of the cerebrospinal fluid coming from various patients. Each sample was examined under the microscope and photographed in 20 randomly chosen places. On the basis of analysis of the pictures showing the area of 100 x 100μm, the selected cumulative parameters such as count, numerical density, field area and field perimeter were determined for each sample. Then the average value of the parameters was determined as well.

  14. Go with the Flow: Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Regulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2018-06-01

    Adult neural stem cells in the wall of brain ventricles make direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Petrik et al. (2018) demonstrate that these neural stem cells sense the flow of cerebrospinal fluid through a transmembrane sodium channel, ENaC, which regulates their proliferation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endoscopic Transmaxillary Transposition of Temporalis Flap for Recurrent Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Closure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Regi; Girishan, Shabari; Chacko, Ari George

    2016-12-01

    Objective  To describe the technique of endoscopic transmaxillary temporalis muscle flap transposition for the repair of a persistent postoperative sphenoidal cerebrospinal fluid leak. Design  The repair of a recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leak for a patient who had undergone endoscopic transsphenoidal excision of an invasive silent corticotroph Hardy C and Knosp Grade IV pituitary adenoma was undertaken. The patient had completed postoperative radiotherapy for the residual tumor and presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak, 1 year later. The initial two attempts to repair the cerebrospinal fluid leak with free grafts failed. Therefore, an endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the temporalis muscle flap was attempted to stop the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Results  The endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the vascularized temporalis muscle flap onto the cerebrospinal fluid leak repair site resulted in successful closure of the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Conclusion  Endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the temporalis flap resulted in closure of recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient with recurrent pituitary adenoma, who had undergone previous surgery and radiotherapy. This technique has advantages over the endoscopic transpterygoid transposition of the same flap and could be used as a complementary technique in selected patients.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid maraviroc concentrations in HIV-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Watson, Victoria; Else, Laura; Gisslèn, Magnus

    2009-11-27

    In order to assess the penetration of maraviroc to the central nervous system, we measured maraviroc concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lower limit of quantitation 1.25 ng/ml) in seven paired CSF and plasma samples. The median plasma maraviroc concentration was 94.9 ng/ml (range 21.4-478.0) and the median CSF concentration was 3.63 ng/ml (range 1.83-12.2). CSF samples exceeded the median EC90 for maraviroc (0.57 ng/ml) by at least three-fold. The CSF levels of maraviroc found in this study likely contribute to viral suppression in the CSF.

  17. A rapid method for preparation of the cerebrospinal fluid proteome.

    PubMed

    Larssen, Eivind; Brede, Cato; Hjelle, Anne Bjørnstad; Øysaed, Kjell Birger; Tjensvoll, Anne Bolette; Omdal, Roald; Ruoff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome is of great interest for investigation of diseases and conditions involving the CNS. However, the presence of high-abundance proteins (HAPs) can interfere with the detection of low-abundance proteins, potentially hindering the discovery of new biomarkers. Therefore, an assessment of the CSF subproteome composition requires depletion strategies. Existing methods are time consuming, often involving multistep protocols. Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and reproducible method for preparing the CSF proteome, which allows the identification of a high number of proteins. This method involves acetonitrile (ACN) precipitation for depleting HAPs, followed by immediate trypsination. As an example, we demonstrate that this method allows discrimination between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy subjects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Claudia; Wurster, Ulrich; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2011-02-01

    Since a postinfectious or autoimmune etiology is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette's syndrome (TS), we investigated oligoclonal bands (OB) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), indicating a humoral immune response in the central nervous system. CSF examinations including isoelectric focusing to analyze the presence of OB were performed in 21 TS patients [17 men/4 women, mean age = 29 ± 12 (SD) years]. Isoelectric focusing showed the presence of positive OB in 6, borderline bands in 2, and serum and CSF bands ("mirrored pattern") in another 2 patients. Clinical data did not correlate with CSF findings. Thus, 38% (8 of 21) of our patients exhibited pathological CSF bands. Since none of them suffered from another disease known to be associated with OB, our results suggest an association with the pathogenesis of TS itself and point to an involvement of immunological mechanisms in TS pathology. Copyright © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamines in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akefeldt, A; Ekman, R; Gillberg, C; Månsson, J E

    1998-12-15

    The behavioral phenotype of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) suggests hypothalamic dysfunction and altered neurotransmitter regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was any difference in the concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in PWS and non-PWS comparison cases. The concentration of monoamine metabolites in CSF was determined in 13 children and adolescents with PWS diagnosed on clinical and genetic criteria. The concentrations were compared with those from 56 comparison cases in healthy and other contrast groups. The concentrations of dopamine and particularly serotonin metabolites were increased in the PWS group. The differences were most prominent for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The increased concentrations were found in all PWS cases independently of age, body mass index, and level of mental retardation. The findings implicate dysfunction of the serotonergic system and possibly also of the dopamine system in PWS individuals, and might help inform future psychopharmacologic studies.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid monocytes in bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, and neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Martinot, M; Greigert, V; Souply, L; Rosolen, B; De Briel, D; Mohseni Zadeh, M; Kaiser, J-D

    2018-04-05

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes analysis is commonly used to diagnose meningitis and to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. Interpreting CSF monocytes can be difficult for physicians, especially in France where lymphocytes and monocytes results are sometimes pooled. We assessed SF monocytes in patients presenting with microbiologically confirmed meningitis (CSF leukocyte count>10/mm 3 for adults or >30/mm 3 for children<2 months), i.e. bacterial meningitis (BM), viral meningitis (VM), and neuroborreliosis (NB). Two-hundred patients (82 BM, 86 VM, and 32 NB) were included. The proportions of monocytes were higher in VM (median 8%; range 0-57%) than in BM (median 5%; range 0-60%, P=0.03) or NB (median 5%; range 0-53%, P=0.46), with a high value overlap between conditions. CSF monocytes should not be used to discriminate BM from VM and NB because of value overlaps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential uptake of salicylate in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P J; Hansen, R; Sasaki, P G; Sasaki, C T

    1986-10-01

    After intraperitoneal administration of salicylate in anesthetized rats and guinea pigs, we found that salicylate levels in perilymph (PL) are closely related to both drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum, with higher levels systematically observed in PL than in CSF. Further analysis suggests that salicylate is not passively transported into PL across CSF but, rather, is transported from blood directly to PL. The time course of salicylate uptake in rats reveals maximum levels at 1 1/2 hours (serum) and two to four hours (CSF and PL). On the other hand, salicylate uptake into serum and CSF of guinea pigs exhibits a longer time course, with maximum levels reached at four hours (serum) and five hours (CSF). These data, not previously available, are basic to our understanding of salicylate-related auditory effects.

  2. [Neopterin in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Biesiada, Grazyna; Czepiel, Jacek; Garlicki, Aleksander; Mach, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multiorgan disease, caused by spirochetes of Borrelia species. Clinical picture is diverse, borreliosis can affect skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart. Neopterin is a marker of cytotoxic lymphocytes T activities, it is produced by monocytes/macrophages stimulated with IFNgamma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of neopterin in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in borreliosis and correlate it with the symptoms, markers of inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serological tests against Borrelia burgdorferi. We have enrolled in the study 39 patients treated for Lyme borreliosis. The level of neopterin in serum was assessed in all patients, among patient with suspicion of neuroborreliosis (n = 33) we assessed the level of neopterin, protein, glucose and chlorium in CSF. The level of neopterin in CSF was lower among patients who were treated due to presence of erithema migrans in their past regarding patients who had never had erithema migrans (p = 0.008). The level of neopterin in CSF was higher (6.6 nmol/l) in patients with the presence of inflammation in CSF versus patients with no changes in CSF (3.8 mmol/l; p = 0.019). There was no correlation between neopterin in serum or CSF and Westernblot test. Patients with neuroborreliosis who had lymphocytic meningitis had higher level of neopterin in CSF. We suggest the role of neopterin in pathogenesis on neuroborreliosis. Neopterin as a marker of cytotoxic lymphocytes T activities can be useful in borreliosis diagnosis but more studies regarding this problem should be done.

  3. Embryonic blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, David; Parvas, Maryam; Hermelo, Ismaïl; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development and adult life, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF has attracted interest as an active signaling medium that regulates brain development, homeostasis and disease. CSF is a complex protein-rich fluid containing growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The composition and substance concentrations of CSF are tightly controlled. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that embryonic CSF (eCSF) has a key function as a fluid pathway for delivering diffusible signals to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. From fetal stages through to adult life, CSF is primarily produced by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus and other blood–brain barrier (BBB) systems in adults and fetuses have been extensively analyzed. However, eCSF production and control of its homeostasis in embryos, from the closure of the anterior neuropore when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus, has not been studied in as much depth and remains open to debate. This review brings together the existing literature, some of which is based on experiments conducted by our research group, concerning the formation and function of a temporary embryonic blood–CSF barrier in the context of the crucial roles played by the molecules in eCSF. PMID:25389383

  4. Homovanillic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of 1388 children with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Molero-Luis, Marta; Serrano, Mercedes; Ormazábal, Aida; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; García-Cazorla, Angels; Pons, Roser; Artuch, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of dopaminergic abnormalities in 1388 children with neurological disorders, and to analyse their clinical, neuroradiological, and electrophysiological characteristics. We studied biogenic amines in 1388 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children with neurological disorders (mean age 3y 10mo, SD 4y 5mo; 712 males, 676 females. Correlations among CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) values and other biochemical, clinical, neuroradiological, and electrophysiological parameters were analysed. Twenty-one patients with primary dopaminergic deficiencies were identified. Of the whole sample, 20% showed altered HVA. We report neurological diseases with abnormal CSF HVA values such as pontocerebellar hypoplasia, perinatal asphyxia, central nervous system infections, mitochondrial disorders, and other genetic diseases. Overlapping HVA levels between primary and secondary dopamine deficiencies were observed. Prevalence of low CSF HVA levels was significantly higher in neonatal patients (χ(2) =84.8, p<0.001). Abnormalities in white matter were associated with low CSF HVA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.5). HVA abnormalities are observed in various neurological diseases, but some are probably an unspecific finding. No clear limits for CSF HVA values pointing towards primary diseases can be stated. We report several neurological diseases showing HVA alterations. No neuroimaging traits were associated with low HVA values, except for white matter abnormalities. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Early embryonic brain development in rats requires the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Alonso, M I; Santiago, C; Moro, J A; De la Mano, A; Carretero, R; Gato, A

    2009-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid has shown itself to be an essential brain component during development. This is particularly evident at the earliest stages of development where a lot of research, performed mainly in chick embryos, supports the evidence that cerebrospinal fluid is involved in different mechanisms controlling brain growth and morphogenesis, by exerting a trophic effect on neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPC) involved in controlling the behaviour of these cells. Despite it being known that cerebrospinal fluid in mammals is directly involved in corticogenesis at fetal stages, the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the activity of NPC at the earliest stages of brain development has not been demonstrated. Here, using "in vitro" organotypic cultures of rat embryo brain neuroepithelium in order to expose NPC to or deprive them of cerebrospinal fluid, we show that the neuroepithelium needs the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid to undergo normal rates of cell survival, replication and neurogenesis, suggesting that NPC are not self-sufficient to induce their normal activity. This data shows that cerebrospinal fluid is an essential component in chick and rat early brain development, suggesting that its influence could be constant in higher vertebrates.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow is driven by the cardiac cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tithof, Jeffrey; Mestre, Humberto; Thomas, John; Nedergaard, Maiken; Kelley, Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Recent discoveries have uncovered a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transport system in the perivascular spaces (PVS) of the mammalian brain which clears excess extracellular fluid and protein waste products. The oscillatory pattern of CSF flow has long been attributed to arterial pulsations due to cardiac contractility but limitations in imaging techniques have impeded quantitative measurement of flow rates within the PVS. In this talk, we describe quantitative measurements from the first ever direct imaging of CSF flow in the PVS of a mouse brain. We perform particle tracking velocimetry to obtain time-resolved velocity measurements. To identify the cardiac and/or respiratory dependence of the flow, while imaging, we simultaneously record the mouse's electrocardiogram and respiration. Our measurements conclusively indicate that CSF pulsatility in the arterial PVS is directly driven by the cardiac cycle and not by the respiratory cycle or cerebral vasomotion. These results offer a substantial step forward in understanding bulk flow of CSF in the mammalian brain and may have important implications related to neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Effects of irregular cerebrospinal fluid production rate in human brain ventricular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzri, Edi Azali; Shamsudin, Amir Hamzah; Osman, Kahar; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Aziz, Azian Abd

    2012-06-01

    Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles and cavities in the brain. It occurs when the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption is blocked or when excessive CSF is secreted. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of the ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain. In this study, flow analysis of CSF was conducted on a three-dimensional model of the third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius, derived from MRI scans. CSF was modeled as Newtonian Fluid and its flow through the region of interest (ROI) was done using EFD. Lab software. Different steady flow rates through the Foramen of Monro, classified by normal and hydrocephalus cases, were modeled to investigate its effects. The results show that, for normal and hydrocephalus cases, the pressure drop of CSF flow across the third ventricle was observed to be linearly proportionally to the production rate increment. In conclusion, flow rates that cause pressure drop of 5 Pa was found to be the threshold for the initial sign of hydrocephalus.

  8. Assessment of the Utility of Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anna S; Giorgadze, Tamara; Tam, Wayne; Chadburn, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We sought to assess the utility and limitations of both flow cytometry (FC) and cytology for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a practical clinical setting. A total of 393 consecutive CSF samples from 171 patients submitted for both cytomorphologic and FC assessments were analyzed. Both FC and cytology findings were negative for malignancy in 315/393 samples (80%), and either positive (POS) or suspicious/atypical (SUSP/AT) in 7% of samples. This resulted in high agreement between FC and cytology (87%). Minor discrepancies were present in 4% of the cases. In 28 samples, an abnormal population was detected by FC but not by cytology. FC and cytology are important complementary methods for analyzing CSF samples. In cases where cytology is SUSP/AT and FC is inconclusive or negative, additional specimens should be submitted for immunostaining, cytogenetics, and/or molecular studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Transmastoid approach to temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

    PubMed

    Oliaei, Sepehr; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate various presentations and treatment options for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage originating in the temporal bone. Clinical data and imaging results for 18 ears (15 patients) presenting with spontaneous CSF leakage originating in the temporal bone were reviewed. Average follow-up period was 13.5 months. The main outcome measure was presence of persistent CSF leak postoperatively. A standard postauricular mastoidectomy was performed. Fifteen patients diagnosed with spontaneous CSF leakage over an 8-year period including 3 treated for bilateral disease were included in the study. The age ranged between 33 and 83 years. Presenting symptoms included serous otitis media (44%), persistent otorrhea after tympanostomy tube placement (28%), and meningitis (28%). Preoperative diagnosis was made using imaging studies and was substantiated by observation of CSF leakage and dural herniation intraoperatively. Treatment was eustachian tube plugging (5%), mastoidectomy with fat obliteration (61%), middle fossa approach with extradural (17%), intradural repair (5%), or combined middle fossa and transmastoid (TM) approach (11%). Successful treatment was obtained in 17 of the 18 cases. The last 9 patients in the series underwent TM approach alone for repair with no treatment failures. Repair of defects in tegmen mastoideum and posterior fossa can be successfully achieved on an outpatient basis without regard to size and multitude of defects via TM approach. This approach obviates the need for a craniotomy or lumbar drain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Elizabeth; Larkin, James R.; Claridge, Tim D. W.; Talbot, Kevin; Sibson, Nicola R.; Turner, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Neurochemical biomarkers are urgently sought in ALS. Metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a highly sensitive method capable of revealing nervous system cellular pathology. The 1H-NMR CSF metabolomic signature of ALS was sought in a longitudinal cohort. Six-monthly serial collection was performed in ALS patients across a range of clinical sub-types (n = 41) for up to two years, and in healthy controls at a single time-point (n = 14). A multivariate statistical approach, partial least squares discriminant analysis, was used to determine differences between the NMR spectra from patients and controls. Significantly predictive models were found using those patients with at least one year's interval between recruitment and the second sample. Glucose, lactate, citric acid and, unexpectedly, ethanol were the discriminating metabolites elevated in ALS. It is concluded that 1H-NMR captured the CSF metabolomic signature associated with derangements in cellular energy utilization connected with ALS, and was most prominent in comparisons using patients with longer disease duration. The specific metabolites identified support the concept of a hypercatabolic state, possibly involving mitochondrial dysfunction specifically. Endogenous ethanol in the CSF may be an unrecognized novel marker of neuronal tissue injury in ALS. PMID:26121274

  11. Raltegravir cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena; Lee, Evelyn; Jayewardene, Anura; Aweeka, Francesca; Price, Richard W

    2009-09-01

    Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor currently used in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients resistant to other drug classes. In order to assess its central nervous system penetration, we measured raltegravir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in subjects receiving antiretroviral treatment regimens containing this drug. Raltegravir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 25 paired CSF and plasma samples from 16 HIV-1-infected individuals. The lower limit of quantitation was 2.0 ng/ml for CSF and 10 ng/ml for plasma. Twenty-four of the 25 CSF samples had detectable raltegravir concentrations with a median raltegravir concentration of 18.4 ng/ml (range, <2.0-126.0). The median plasma raltegravir concentration was 448 ng/ml (range, 37-5180). CSF raltegravir concentrations correlated with CSF:plasma albumin ratios and CSF albumin concentrations. Approximately 50% of the CSF specimens exceeded the IC(95) levels reported to inhibit HIV-1 strains without resistance to integrase inhibitors. In addition to contributing to control of systemic HIV-1 infection, raltegravir achieves local inhibitory concentrations in CSF in most, but not all, patients. Blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers likely restrict drug entry, while enhanced permeability of these barriers enhances drug entry.

  12. A potential endophenotype for Alzheimer's disease: cerebrospinal fluid clusterin.

    PubMed

    Deming, Yuetiva; Xia, Jian; Cai, Yefei; Lord, Jenny; Holmans, Peter; Bertelsen, Sarah; Holtzman, David; Morris, John C; Bales, Kelly; Pickering, Eve H; Kauwe, John; Goate, Alison; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have associated clusterin (CLU) variants with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of CLU on AD pathogenesis is not totally understood. We used cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma CLU levels as endophenotypes for genetic studies to understand the role of CLU in AD. CSF, but not plasma, CLU levels were significantly associated with AD status and CSF tau/amyloid-beta ratio, and highly correlated with CSF apolipoprotein E (APOE) levels. Several loci showed almost genome-wide significant associations including LINC00917 (p = 3.98 × 10(-7)) and interleukin 6 (IL6, p = 9.94 × 10(-6), in the entire data set and in the APOE ε4- individuals p = 7.40 × 10(-8)). Gene ontology analyses suggest that CSF CLU levels may be associated with wound healing and immune response which supports previous functional studies that demonstrated an association between CLU and IL6. CLU may play a role in AD by influencing immune system changes that have been observed in AD or by disrupting healing after neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Raltegravir Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena; Lee, Evelyn; Jayewardene, Anura; Aweeka, Francesca; Price, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor currently used in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients resistant to other drug classes. In order to assess its central nervous system penetration, we measured raltegravir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in subjects receiving antiretroviral treatment regimens containing this drug. Methods Raltegravir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 25 paired CSF and plasma samples from 16 HIV-1-infected individuals. The lower limit of quantitation was 2.0 ng/ml for CSF and 10 ng/ml for plasma. Results Twenty-four of the 25 CSF samples had detectable raltegravir concentrations with a median raltegravir concentration of 18.4 ng/ml (range, <2.0–126.0). The median plasma raltegravir concentration was 448 ng/ml (range, 37–5180). CSF raltegravir concentrations correlated with CSF:plasma albumin ratios and CSF albumin concentrations. Conclusions Approximately 50% of the CSF specimens exceeded the IC95 levels reported to inhibit HIV-1 strains without resistance to integrase inhibitors. In addition to contributing to control of systemic HIV-1 infection, raltegravir achieves local inhibitory concentrations in CSF in most, but not all, patients. Blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers likely restrict drug entry, while enhanced permeability of these barriers enhances drug entry. PMID:19721718

  14. Decreased allopregnanolone levels in cerebrospinal fluid obtained during status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Meletti, Stefano; Lucchi, Chiara; Monti, Giulia; Giovannini, Giada; Bedin, Roberta; Trenti, Tommaso; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Neuroactive steroids are increasingly considered as relevant modulators of neuronal activity. Especially allopregnanolone (AP) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) have been shown to possess, respectively, anticonvulsant or proconvulsant properties. In view of the potential role of these steroids, we aimed at evaluating AP and PS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples obtained from patients with status epilepticus (SE). To this purpose, we enrolled 41 patients affected by SE and 41 subjects investigated for nonepileptic neurologic disorders. Liquid chromatographic procedures coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and routine laboratory investigations were performed. Significantly lower AP levels were found in the CSF of patients affected by SE (-30%; p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test). Notably, AP was not detectable in 28 of 41 patients affected by SE (p < 0.01 vs. controls, Fisher's exact test). In serum, AP levels did not differ in the two considered groups. Conversely, PS was present at similar levels in the investigated groups. Finally, differences in AP levels could not be explained by a variation in CSF albumin content. These findings indicate that AP is defective in the CSF of patients affected by SE. This phenomenon was not dependent on carriers for steroids, such as albumin. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase activity in canine cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative. Statistical analysis showed that CSF-CK alone cannot be used as a diagnostic tool and that total proteins in the CSF and red blood cells (RBCs) do not have a significant relationship with the CSF-CK activity. CSF-CK did not have a diagnostic value for different disease groups or anatomical areas of the nervous system.

  16. Afferent vagal stimulation, vasopressin, and nitroprusside alter cerebrospinal fluid kinin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G R; Thibodeaux, H; Margolius, H S; Webb, J G; Privitera, P J

    1987-07-01

    The effects of afferent vagal stimulation, cerebroventricular vasopressin, and intravenous nitroprusside on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kinin levels, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in anesthetized dogs in which a ventriculocisternal perfusion system (VP) was established. Following bilateral vagotomy, stimulation of the central ends of both vagi for 60 min significantly increased MAP and CSF perfusate levels of kinin and norepinephrine (NE). MAP was increased a maximum of 32 +/- 4 mmHg, and the rates of kinin and NE appearance into the CSF perfusate increased from 4.2 +/- 1.4 to 22.1 +/- 6.9 and from 28 +/- 5 to 256 +/- 39 pg/min, respectively. A significant correlation was found between CSF kinin and NE levels in these experiments. In other experiments the addition of arginine vasopressin to the VP system caused a significant increase in CSF perfusate kinin without affecting MAP or HR. Intravenous infusion of nitroprusside lowered MAP without affecting kinin levels in the CSF. However, on cessation of nitroprusside infusion, CSF kinin increased significantly in association with the return in MAP to predrug level. Collectively the data are consistent with the hypothesis that central nervous system kinins have some role in cardiovascular regulation, and furthermore that this role may involve an interaction between brain kinin and central noradrenergic neuronal pathways.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Bissel, Stephanie J.; Kofler, Julia; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Wiley, Clayton A.

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis, and at necropsy. YKL40 CSF concentrations above 1122 ng/ml were found to be a specific and sensitive biomarker for the presence of encephalitis and were highly correlated with CSF viral load. Macaques that developed encephalitis had evidence of chronic CNS immune activation during early, asymptomatic, and end stages of infection. At the onset of encephalitis, CSF demonstrated a rise of neuroimmune markers associated with macrophage recruitment, activation and interferon response. CSF YKL40 concentration and viral load are valuable biomarkers to define the onset of encephalitis. Chronic CNS immune activation precedes the development of encephalitis while some responses suggest protection from CNS lentiviral disease. PMID:27059917

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative massmore » spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.« less

  19. Use of duraseal in repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

    PubMed

    Chin, Christopher J; Kus, Lukas; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our article is to review the use of the DuraSeal Sealant System (Confluent Surgical Inc., Waltham, MA) in the repair of complex cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in endoscopic skull-base surgery. Retrospective chart review. London Health Sciences Centre. A database of endoscopic skull-base cases between 2007 and 2009 that involved CSF leakage repaired with DuraSeal was created. Demographic data and operative reports were collected and analyzed qualitatively. Recurrence of CSF leak after repair. Five cases were identified that met study criteria. In four of the five cases, the repair was successful. There were no complications related to DuraSeal use. Comparison to a subset of patients using Tisseel Fibrin Sealant (Baxter, Toronto, ON) for repair did not show a significant difference in failure rate (χ2 = 0.029, p = .858). There are a variety of techniques described to repair CSF rhinorrhea, with various studies demonstrating the advantages of using tissue glues in CSF leak repairs. We used DuraSeal in five patients to enhance graft strength and form a watertight seal. The system was effective in the majority of patients. Our study is the first to report on endoscopic endonasal repair of CSF leaks using DuraSeal.

  20. Vitamin B6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Jans, Judith J M; Hofstede, Floris C; van Hasselt, Peter M; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Visser, Gepke; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, the essential role of vitamin B6 in brain development and functioning has been recognized and genetic metabolic disorders resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. However, data on B6 vitamers in children are scarce. B6 vitamer concentrations in simultaneously sampled plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 70 children with intellectual disability were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For ethical reasons, CSF samples could not be obtained from healthy children. The influence of sex, age, epilepsy and treatment with anti-epileptic drugs, were investigated. The B6 vitamer composition of plasma (pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxal (PL)) differed from that of CSF (PL > PLP > pyridoxic acid > pyridoxamine). Strong correlations were found for B6 vitamers in and between plasma and CSF. Treatment with anti-epileptic drugs resulted in decreased concentrations of PL and PLP in CSF. We provide concentrations of all B6 vitamers in plasma and CSF of children with intellectual disability (±epilepsy), which can be used in the investigation of known and novel disorders associated with vitamin B6 metabolism as well as in monitoring of the biochemical effects of treatment with vitamin B6.

  1. Simulating transitional hydrodynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid at extreme scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kartik; Roller, Sabine; Mardal, Kent-Andre

    Chiari malformation type I is a disorder characterized by the herniation of cerebellar tonsils into the spinal canal through the foramen magnum resulting in obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. The flow of pulsating bidirectional CSF is of acutely complex nature due to the anatomy of the conduit containing it - the subarachnoid space. We report lattice Boltzmann method based direct numerical simulations on patient specific cases with spatial resolution of 24 μm amounting meshes of up to 2 billion cells conducted on 50000 cores of the Hazelhen supercomputer in Stuttgart. The goal is to characterize intricate dynamics of the CSF at resolutions that are of the order of Kolmogorov microscales. Results unfold velocity fluctuations up to ~ 10 KHz , turbulent kinetic energy ~ 2 times of the mean flow energy in Chiari patients whereas the flow remains laminar in a control subject. The fluctuations confine near the cranio-vertebral junction and are commensurate with the extremeness of pathology and the extent of herniation. The results advocate that the manifestation of pathological conditions like Chiari malformation may lead to transitional hydrodynamics of the CSF, and a prudent calibration of numerical approach is necessary to avoid overlook of such phenomena.

  2. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen in children

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, Elina; Välitalo, Pyry; Kokki, Merja; Lehtonen, Marko; Hooker, Andrew; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Kokki, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    AIMS This study was designed to characterize paediatric pharmacokinetics and central nervous system exposure of flurbiprofen. METHODS The pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen were studied in 64 healthy children aged 3 months to 13 years, undergoing surgery with spinal anaesthesia. Children were administered preoperatively a single dose of flurbiprofen intravenously as prodrug (n = 27) or by mouth as syrup (n = 37). A single cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample (n = 60) was collected at the induction of anaesthesia, and plasma samples (n = 304) before, during and after the operation (up to 20 h after administration). A population pharmacokinetic model was built using the NONMEM software package. RESULTS Flurbiprofen concentrations in plasma were well described by a three compartment model. The apparent bioavailability of oral flurbiprofen syrup was 81%. The estimated clearance (CL) was 0.96 l h−1 70 kg−1. Age did not affect the clearance after weight had been included as a covariate. The estimated volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 8.1 l 70 kg−1. Flurbiprofen permeated into the CSF, reaching concentrations that were seven-fold higher compared with unbound plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Flurbiprofen pharmacokinetics can be described using only weight as a covariate in children above 6 months, while more research is needed in neonates and in younger infants. PMID:20840447

  3. Increased Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Mao, Xiangling; Case, Julia A. C.; Kang, Guoxin; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly examined as a potential pathogenic event in psychiatric disorders, although its role early in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in medication-free adolescents with MDD through in vivo measurements of neurometabolites using high-spatial resolution multislice/multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls, ages 12–20, were scanned at 3T and concentrations of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate, as well as N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), and total choline (tCho) in the bilateral caudate, putamen, and thalamus were reported. Results Adolescents with MDD exhibited increased ventricular lactate compared to healthy controls [F(1, 41) = 6.98, p = .01]. However, there were no group differences in the other neurometabolites. Dimensional analyses in the depressed group showed no relation between any of the neurometabolites and symptomatology, including anhedonia and fatigue. Conclusions Increased ventricular lactate in depressed adolescents suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may be present early in the course of MDD; however it is still not known whether the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction is a trait vulnerability of individuals predisposed to psychopathology or a state feature of the disorder. Therefore, there is a need for larger multimodal studies to clarify these chemical findings in the context of network function. PMID:26802978

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: An institutional perspective from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Bashir, Muhammad Umair; Akhtar, Shabbir; Bari, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    The management of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has evolved over the last two decades. We present here a review of our 11-year data on CSF rhinorrhea and its management at a tertiary care hospital in a developing country, with particular reference to the diagnosis, surgical management and outcome of the disease. The medical charts of all patients with a diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea over an 11-year period were reviewed. The etiology of CSF rhinorrhea was classified into three categories: spontaneous, iatrogenic and traumatic. All the patients were divided into three categories based on the type of management as conservative, intracranial and transnasal endoscopic groups. A total of 43 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Eleven of the 43 patients were managed conservatively, while 22 underwent intracranial repairs; 10 patients had transnasal endoscopic repairs. The primary success rate for the transnasal approach was 70% compared to 86% for the intracranial repair. Blood loss, special care unit (SCU) stay and total cost were found to be significantly less in the transnasal endoscopic group. Computed tomography (CT) cisternography was found to have the highest sensitivity and specificity. Further, no postoperative complications were found in the transnasal endoscopic group, while five patients from the intracranial group developed various complications. We conclude that the transnasal endoscopic approach has comparable success rates with the intracranial approach and significantly lower morbidity.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Deniz; Ichiyama, Takashi; Yilmaz, Deniz; Anlar, Banu

    2012-04-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases. NFTs contain paired helical filaments formed by hyperphosphorylated tau. The intraneuronal tau metabolism and the rate of formation of paired helical filaments can be regulated by interactions between tau and isoforms of Apolipoprotein E (Apo E). Tau binds in vitro to Apo E3, interferes with the hyperphosphorylation of tau and may reduce the formation of NFTs. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Apo E levels in SSPE (n=37) and age-matched control (n=38) groups. The median level of total Apo E and Apo E4 were lower in the SSPE than the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.002). On the other hand, median Apo E3 level (0.28±0.23 μg/ml) was higher in the SSPE group (p<0.001). Such elevated levels of ApoE3 might play a role in controlling the formation of NFTs in SSPE. Because NFT-associated neurodegeneration is a slow process, comparison of the long-term clinical course of SSPE cases with high and low Apo E3 levels might provide further understanding or the role of these molecules in this disease, and help the planning of neuroprotective treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses to the lowering of magnesium and calcium concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of unanesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Allsop, T F; Pauli, J V

    1975-12-01

    A technique for ventriculolumbar perfusion of the cerebrospinal fluid space has been used to study the neuromuscular effects of low concentrations of magnesium and calcium in the cerebrospinal fluid of conscious sheep. Perfusion with synthetic cerebrospinal fluid solutions containing less than 0-6 mg magnesium/100 ml produced episodes of tetany which were abolished by perfusion with a solution of normal magnesium concentration. This suggests that the low cerebrospinal fluid magnesium concentrations reported in cases of hypomagneseamic tetany may result in changes within the central nervous system that could produce the nervous signs. Perfusates with a calcium concentration below 2-0 mg/100 ml caused hyperpnoea and continuous muscle tremors. Magnesium (0-6 mg/100 ml) and calcium (2-0 mg/100 ml) perfused simultaneously acted synergistically to produce signs characteristic of low levels of each of the ions.

  7. CXCL16 contributes to neutrophil recruitment to cerebrospinal fluid in pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Woehrl, Bianca; Klein, Matthias; Rupprecht, Tobias A; Schmetzer, Helga; Angele, Barbara; Häcker, Hans; Häcker, Georg; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Koedel, Uwe

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression and function of CXCL16 in pneumococcal meningitis. CXCL16 was found to be up‐regulated in RAW264.7 macrophages (but not in neutrophils and endothelial cells) upon pneumococcal stimulation, in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients, and in the brains as well as the cerebrospinal fluid of mice with pneumococcal meningitis. CXCL16 up‐regulation in vivo was dependent on Toll‐like receptor (TLR) 2/TLR4 and MyD88 signaling. Neutralization of CXCL16 in animals before intracisternal pneumococcal infection (using anti‐CXCL16 antibodies) resulted in reduced cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. In vitro, murine neutrophils expressed the CXCL16 receptor CXCR6 and showed dose‐dependant migration toward a CXCL16 gradient. Thus, this study implicates CXCL16 as an additional neutrophil chemoattractant in cerebrospinal fluid in early pneumococcal meningitis.

  8. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  9. SNAP-25 is a promising novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for synapse degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brinkmalm, Ann; Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Honer, William G; Frölich, Lutz; Hausner, Lucrezia; Minthon, Lennart; Hansson, Oskar; Wallin, Anders; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Öhrfelt, Annika

    2014-11-23

    Synaptic degeneration is an early pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease, associated with cognitive impairment and disease progression. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers reflecting synaptic integrity would be highly valuable tools to monitor synaptic degeneration directly in patients. We previously showed that synaptic proteins such as synaptotagmin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) could be detected in pooled samples of cerebrospinal fluid, however these assays were not sensitive enough for individual samples. We report a new strategy to study synaptic pathology by using affinity purification and mass spectrometry to measure the levels of the presynaptic protein SNAP-25 in cerebrospinal fluid. By applying this novel affinity mass spectrometry strategy on three separate cohorts of patients, the value of SNAP-25 as a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for synaptic integrity in Alzheimer's disease was assessed for the first time. We found significantly higher levels of cerebrospinal fluid SNAP-25 fragments in Alzheimer's disease, even in the very early stages, in three separate cohorts. Cerebrospinal fluid SNAP-25 differentiated Alzheimer's disease from controls with area under the curve of 0.901 (P < 0.0001). We developed a sensitive method to analyze SNAP-25 levels in individual CSF samples that to our knowledge was not possible previously. Our results support the notion that synaptic biomarkers may be important tools for early diagnosis, assessment of disease progression, and to monitor drug effects in treatment trials.

  10. Osmolar relation between cerebrospinal fluid and serum in hyperosmolar hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed Central

    Habel, A H; Simpson, H

    1976-01-01

    The relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum osmolality was studied in 16 patients with hyperosmolar hypernatraemic dehydration before treatment. After correcting shock and acidosis, 0-45% saline in 2-5 or 5% dextrose was infused in each patient over a 48- to 72-hour period. During rehydration, serum osmolality, electrolyte concentrations, urea nitrogen, and blood pH were measured sequentially. Five patients developed severe neurological abnormalities within 48 hours of addmission (convulsions 2, convulsions with hemiplegia 2, hemiplegia 1). Of these, 3 had residual defects on follow-up at least one year later. This group was indistinguishable from the 11 without significant neurological abnormality, both on clinical grounds before rehydration, and after analysis of admission and subsequent serum biochemical variables. A significant osmolar gap (greater than 4 mmol/kg H2O) between serum and CSF was found in 13 patients. Severe neurological disturbance only occurred when CSF osmolality exceeded that of serum by 7 or more mmol/kg H2O. Discriminant analysis of the paired osmolar data showed that D = -117+1-74 X(CSF osmolality) -1-41 X (serum osmolality), and that severe neurological abnormality was predicted when D was positive. PMID:11753

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA in persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Di Carlofelice, M; Everitt, A; Muir, D; Winston, A

    2018-05-01

    Despite adequate suppression of plasma HIV RNA, viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is widely reported. Rates of CSF HIV RNA escape vary in the literature. In persons living with HIV (PLWH) undergoing lumbar puncture examination for clinical reasons, we assessed rates of CSF HIV RNA escape. Persons living with HIV attending a designated HIV neurology service undergoing CSF assessment for clinical reasons between January 2015 and April 2017 were included in the study. CSF HIV RNA escape was defined as HIV RNA ≥ 0.5 log 10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL higher than plasma HIV RNA or detectable CSF HIV RNA when plasma HIV RNA was < 20 copies/mL. Clinical factors associated with CSF HIV RNA were assessed using logistic regression modelling. Of 38 individuals, 35 were receiving antiretroviral therapy, 30 were male and their mean age was 51 years. Clinical reasons for CSF assessment included investigation for cognitive decline (n = 25), early syphilis (n = 4) and other central nervous system (CNS) conditions (n = 9). HIV RNA was detectable in plasma and CSF in seven and six individuals, respectively, with two individuals (5.3%) meeting the definition of CSF escape. Detectable CSF HIV RNA was associated with a detectable plasma HIV RNA (P < 0.001) and a history of known antiretroviral drug resistance mutations (P = 0.021). The prevalence of CSF viral escape in PLWH undergoing lumbar puncture examination for clinical reasons is lower than previously reported. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  13. Acute meningitis prognosis using cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 levels.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Jorge Alejandro; Adducci, Maria del Carmen; Coll, Carlos; Godoy Monzón, Daniel; Iserson, Kenneth V

    2012-08-01

    Improved diagnostic tests would aid in diagnosing and treating community-acquired meningitis. To analyze the diagnostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with symptoms of acute meningitis. In a 6-month prospective, observational, cross-sectional emergency department (ED) study, serum and CSF samples were obtained from all patients with a headache and fever in whom the physician suspected meningitis. Patients were excluded if computed tomography findings contraindicated a lumbar puncture, if they had bleeding disorders, or if their serum indicated bleeding. IL-6 levels were measured and compared in patients with (Group A) and without (Group B) bacterial meningitis. Samples were obtained from 53 patients, of whom 40 were ultimately found to have meningitis. These 40 patients averaged 49.6 ± 21.9 years, with number of men 18 (45%), hospitalizations 21 (52%), mortality 3 (.07%), and IL-6 average rating 491 (median: 14.5; range 0000-6000). Findings in the two groups were: Group A (with meningitis): n = 13, average IL-6 level: 1495 (median: 604; 25/75 percentiles: 232.5-2030; 95% confidence interval [CI] 371.7-2618.6; range 64-6000). Group B (with aseptic meningitis): n = 27, average IL-6 level: 7.34 (median: 5; 25/75 percentiles: 0.0/15.1; 95% CI 3.94-10.73; range 0-23.6). Mann-Whitney rank sum test: p < 0.0001. In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, CSF cytokine concentrations are elevated. Measuring CSF inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with acute meningitis could be a valuable ED diagnostic tool. Using this tool could improve the prognosis of patients with bacterial meningitis by allowing more rapid initiation of antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amyloid and tau cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Gisslén, Magnus; Krut, Jan; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Cinque, Paola; Brew, Bruce J; Spudich, Serena; Hagberg, Lars; Rosengren, Lars; Price, Richard W; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2009-12-22

    Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta), amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Abeta1-42), and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau) in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 25 with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV-) subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Abeta1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's biomarker profiles in CNS infections.

    PubMed

    Krut, Jan Jessen; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Cinque, Paola; Hagberg, Lars; Price, Richard W; Studahl, Marie; Gisslén, Magnus

    2013-02-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased beta amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), increased total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau, respectively), which is a useful diagnostic tool and gives insight in the pathogenesis of AD. It is of importance to study how these biomarkers react in other CNS diseases; therefore, we decided to analyse amyloid and tau biomarkers in different CNS infections. We also included analysis of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and -β). CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β, t-tau and p-tau were analysed in bacterial meningitis (n = 12), Lyme neuroborreliosis (n = 13), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (n = 10), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 21), AD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 42). Concurrent with AD, Aβ(1-42) was decreased in all groups except neuroborreliosis compared to controls. HSV-1 encephalitis, bacterial meningitis and HAD showed lower concentrations of sAPPα and -β compared to AD. T-tau was increased in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to all other groups. P-tau was higher in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to bacterial meningitis, HAD and control. Decreased CSF Aβ(1-42), sAPPα and -β in various CNS infections imply an effect of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism which is similar in regard to AD concerning Aβ(1-42), but differs concerning sAPPα and -β. These results clearly indicate different pathologic pathways in AD and infectious CNS disease and may provide help in the differential biomarker diagnostics. Increased p-tau in HSV-1 encephalitis probably reflect acute neuronal damage and necrosis.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central dopamine deficiency predict Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Lopez, Grisel J; Wu, Tianxia; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-05-01

    Consistent with nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), the main neuronal metabolite of dopamine, characterize Parkinson's disease (PD) even in recently diagnosed patients. Whether low CSF levels of DOPAC or DOPA, the precursor of dopamine, identify pre-clinical PD in at-risk healthy individuals has been unknown. Participants in the intramural NINDS PDRisk study entered information about family history of PD, olfactory dysfunction, dream enactment behavior, and orthostatic hypotension at a protocol-specific website. After at least 3 risk factors were confirmed by on-site screening, 26 subjects had CSF sampled for levels of catechols and were followed for at least 3 years. Of 26 PDRisk subjects, 4 were diagnosed with PD (Pre-Clinical PD group); 22 risk-matched (mean 3.2 risk factors) subjects remained disease-free after a median of 3.7 years (No-PD group). The Pre-Clinical PD group had lower initial DOPA and DOPAC levels than did the No-PD group (p = 0.0302, p = 0.0190). All 3 subjects with both low DOPA (<2.63 pmol/mL) and low DOPAC (<1.22 pmol/mL) levels, based on optimum cut-off points using the minimum distance method, developed PD, whereas none of 14 subjects with both normal DOPA and DOPAC levels did so (75% sensitivity at 100% specificity, p = 0.0015 by 2-tailed Fisher's exact test). In people with multiple PD risk factors, those with low CSF DOPA and low CSF DOPAC levels develop clinical disease during follow-up. We suggest that neurochemical biomarkers of central dopamine deficiency identify the disease in a pre-clinical phase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid and behavioral changes after methyltestosterone administration: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Daly, R C; Su, T P; Schmidt, P J; Pickar, D; Murphy, D L; Rubinow, D R

    2001-02-01

    Anabolic androgen steroid abuse is associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms and is a significant public health problem. The biological mechanisms underlying behavioral symptom development are poorly understood. We examined levels of monoamine metabolites, neurohormones, and neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 17 healthy men, at baseline and following 6 days of methyltestosterone (MT) administration (3 days of 40 mg/d, then 3 days of 240 mg/d). Subjects received MT or placebo in a fixed sequence, with neither subjects nor raters aware of the order. Potential relationships were examined between CSF measures, CSF MT levels, and behavioral changes measured on a visual analog scale. Following MT administration, levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were significantly lower (mean +/- SD, 103.8 +/- 47 vs 122.0 +/- 50.7 pmol/mL; P<.01), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were significantly higher (mean +/- SD, 104.7 +/- 31.3 vs 86.9 +/- 23.6 pmol/mL; P<.01). No significant MT-related changes were observed in CSF levels of corticotropin, norepinephrine, cortisol, arginine vasopressin, prolactin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, beta-endorphin, and somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. Changes in CSF 5-HIAA significantly correlated with increases in "activation" symptoms (energy, sexual arousal, and diminished sleep) (r = 0.55; P =.02). No significant correlation was observed between changes in CSF and plasma MT, CSF MHPG, and behavioral symptoms. Short-term anabolic androgenic steroid use affects brain neurochemistry, increasing CSF 5-HIAA and decreasing MHPG. Changes in 5-HIAA levels caused by anabolic androgenic steroids are related to the behavioral changes we observed. In this small sample, we did not observe a significant relationship between behavioral measures and either dose of MT or CSF and plasma levels of MT.

  18. Factors impacting cerebrospinal fluid leak rates in endoscopic sellar surgery.

    PubMed

    Karnezis, Tom T; Baker, Andrew B; Soler, Zachary M; Wise, Sarah K; Rereddy, Shruthi K; Patel, Zara M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; DelGaudio, John M; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G; Woodworth, Bradford A; Riley, Kristen O; Lee, John; Cusimano, Michael D; Govindaraj, Satish; Psaltis, Alkis; Wormald, Peter John; Santoreneos, Steve; Sindwani, Raj; Trosman, Samuel; Stokken, Janalee K; Woodard, Troy D; Recinos, Pablo F; Vandergrift, W Alexander; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2016-11-01

    In patients undergoing transnasal endoscopic sellar surgery, an analysis of risk factors and predictors of intraoperative and postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF) would provide important prognostic information. A retrospective review of patients undergoing endoscopic sellar surgery for pituitary adenomas or craniopharyngiomas between 2002 and 2014 at 7 international centers was performed. Demographic, comorbidity, and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine the associations between intraoperative and postoperative CSF leaks. Correlations between reconstructive and CSF diversion techniques were associated with postoperative CSF leak rates. Odds ratios (OR) were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. Data were collected on 1108 pituitary adenomas and 53 craniopharyngiomas. Overall, 30.1% of patients had an intraoperative leak and 5.9% had a postoperative leak. Preoperative factors associated with increased intraoperative leaks were mild liver disease, craniopharyngioma, and extension into the anterior cranial fossa. In patients with intraoperative CSF leaks, postoperative leaks occurred in 10.3%, with a higher postoperative leak rate in craniopharyngiomas (20.8% vs 5.1% in pituitary adenomas). Once an intraoperative leak occurred, craniopharyngioma (OR = 4.255, p = 0.010) and higher body mass index (BMI) predicted postoperative leak (OR = 1.055, p = 0.010). In patients with an intraoperative leak, the use of septal flaps reduced the occurrence of postoperative leak (OR = 0.431, p = 0.027). Rigid reconstruction and CSF diversion techniques did not impact postoperative leak rates. Intraoperative CSF leaks can occur during endoscopic sellar surgery, especially in larger tumors or craniopharyngiomas. Once an intraoperative leak occurs, risk factors for postoperative leaks include craniopharyngiomas and higher BMI. Use of septal flaps decreases this risk. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Peroxiredoxin VI Oxidation in Cerebrospinal Fluid Correlates with TBI Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Manevich, Y.; Hutchens, S.; Halushka, P.V.; Tew, K.D.; Townsend, D. M.; Jauch, E.C.; Borg, K.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients would benefit from the identification of reliable biomarkers to predict outcomes and treatment strategies. In our study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with severe TBI was evaluated for oxidant stress-mediated damage progression after hospital admission and subsequent ventriculostomy placement. Interestingly, substantial levels of peroxiredoxin VI (Prdx6), a major antioxidant enzyme normally found in astrocytes, were detected in CSF from control and TBI patients, and were not associated with blood contamination. Functionally, Prdx6 and its associated binding partner glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1-1, also detected in CSF) act in tandem to detoxify lipid peroxidation damage to membranes. We found Prdx6 was fully active in CSF of control patients but becomes significantly inactivated (oxidized) under TBI. Furthermore, significant and progressive oxidation of “buried” protein thiol in CSF of TBI patients (as compared to that of non-trauma control) were detected over a 24h period following hospital admission, with increased oxidation correlating with severity of trauma. Conversely, recovery of Prdx6 activity after 24h indicated more favorable patient outcome. Not only is this the first report of an extracellular form of Prdx6 but also the first report of its detection at a substantial level in CSF. Taken together, our data suggest a meaningful correlation between TBI-initiated oxidation of Prdx6, its specific phospholipid hydroperoxide peroxidase activity, and severity of trauma outcome. Consequently, we propose that Prdx6 redox status detection has the potential to be a biomarker for TBI outcome and a future indicator of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24726861

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Particles in Alzheimer Disease and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Keene, C. Dirk; Peskind, Elaine R.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Hu, Shu-Ching; Cudaback, Eiron; Wilson, Angela M.; Li, Ge; Yu, Chang-En; Montine, Kathleen S.; Zhang, Jing; Baird, Geoffrey S.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains diverse lipid particles, including lipoproteins that are distinct from their plasma counterparts and contain apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms, apoJ, and apoAI, and extracellular vesicles, which can be detected by annexin V binding. The aim of this study was to develop a method to quantify CSF particles and evaluate their relationship to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We used a flow cytometric assay to detect annexin V-, apoE-, apoAI-, apoJ- and amyloid (A) β42-positive particles in CSF from 131 research volunteers who were neurologically normal or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, or Parkinson disease. APOE ε4/ε4 participants had CSF apoE-positive particles that were more frequently larger but at an 88% lower level vs. those in APOE ε3/ε3 or APOE ε3/ε4 patients; this finding was reproduced in conditioned medium from mouse primary glial cell cultures with targeted replacement of apoE. CSF apoE-positive and β-amyloid (Aβ42)-positive particle concentrations were persistently reduced one-third to one-half in middle and older age subjects; apoAI-positive particle concentration progressively increased approximately 2-fold with age. Both apoAI-positive and annexin V-positive CSF particle levels were reduced one-third to one-half in CSF of MCI and/or AD dementia patients vs. age-matched controls. Our approach provides new methods to investigate CNS lipid biology in relation to neurodegeneration and perhaps develop new biomarkers for diagnosis or treatment monitoring. PMID:26083568

  1. Characterization of Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Mühle, Christiane; Huttner, Hagen B.; Walter, Silke; Reichel, Martin; Canneva, Fabio; Lewczuk, Piotr; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Background As a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is involved in the regulation of cell fate and signaling via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide. While increased activity of the lysosomal form has been associated with various pathological conditions, there are few studies on secretory ASM limited only to cell models, plasma or serum. Methods An optimized assay based on a fluorescent substrate was applied to measure the ASM activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from mice and from 42 patients who were classified as controls based on normal routine CSF values. Results We have detected ASM activity in human CSF, established a sensitive quantitative assay and characterized the enzyme’s properties. The enzyme resembles plasmatic ASM including protein stability and Zn2+-dependence but the assays differ considerably in the optimal detergent concentration. Significantly increased activities in the CSF of ASM transgenic mice and undetectable levels in ASM knock-out mice prove that the measured ASM activity originates from the ASM-encoding gene SMPD1. CSF localized ASM activities were comparable to corresponding serum ASM levels at their respective optimal reaction conditions, but no correlation was observed. The large variance in ASM activity was independent of sex, age or analyzed routine CSF parameters. Conclusions Human and mouse CSF contain detectable levels of secretory ASM, which are unrelated to serum ASM activities. Further investigations in humans and in animal models will help to elucidate the role of this enzyme in human disease and to assess its value as a potential biomarker for disease type, severity, progress or therapeutic success. PMID:23658784

  2. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in children with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, M; Mamishi, S; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Khotaei, G; Daneshjou, K; Hashemi, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prognosis of bacterial meningitis has been improved by the influence of antibiotics, this disease is still one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Rapid differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, and the need for immediate antibiotic treatment in the former, is crucial in the prognosis of these patients. Ferritin is one of the most sensitive biochemical markers investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in differentiating bacterial and viral meningitis in the paediatric setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, during 2008 and 2009. According to the inclusion criteria, CSF samples from 42 patients with suspected meningitis were obtained and divided into two meningitis groups, bacterial (n = 18) and viral (n = 24). Ferritin and other routine determinants (i.e., leucocytes, protein and glucose) were compared between the two groups. Ferritin concentration in the bacterial meningitis group was 106.39 +/- 86.96 ng/dL, which was considerably higher than in the viral meningitis group (10.17 +/- 14.09, P < 0.001). Mean CSF protein concentration and cell count were significantly higher in the bacterial meningitis group and showed a positive correlation with CSF ferritin. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSF ferritin concentration is an accurate test for the early differentiation of bacterial and aseptic meningitis; however, further investigation on a larger cohort of patients is required to confirm this finding.

  4. [Management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks according to size. Our experience].

    PubMed

    Alobid, Isam; Enseñat, Joaquim; Rioja, Elena; Enriquez, Karla; Viscovich, Liza; de Notaris, Matteo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We present our experience in the reconstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks according to their size and location. Fifty-four patients who underwent advanced skull base surgery (large defects) and 62 patients with CSF leaks of different origin (small and medium-sized defects) were included. Large defects were reconstructed with a nasoseptal pedicled flap positioned on fat and fascia lata and lumbar drainage was used. In small and medium-sized leaks of other origin, intrathecal fluorescein 5% was applied previously to identify the defect. Fascia lata in an underlay position was used for reconstruction, which was then covered with mucoperiosteum from the turbinate. Perioperative antibiotics were administered for 5-7 days. Nasal packing was removed after 24-48 hours. The most frequent aetiology for small and medium-sized defects was spontaneous (48.4%), followed by trauma (24.2%), iatrogenic (5%) and others. The success rate was of 91% after the first surgery and 98% in large skull base defects and small/medium-sized respectively. After rescue surgery, the rate of closure achieved was 100%. The follow-up was 15.6 ± 12.4 months for large defects and 75.3 ± 51.3 months for small/medium-sized defects without recurrence. Endoscopic surgery for closure of any type of skull base defect is the gold standard approach. Defect size does not play a significant role in the success rate. Fascia lata and mucoperiosteum allow a reconstruction of small/medium-sized defects. For larger skull base defects, a combination of fat, fascia lata and nasoseptal pedicled flaps provide a successful reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer Faruk; Ichiyama, Takashi; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease due to persistent measles virus infection. Its immunopathogenesis is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-4 concentrations were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 30 SSPE patients and 19 control subjects by cytometric bead array. CSF and serum IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were measured in 18 SSPE patients by ELISA. Serum IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.001), CSF IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.049) concentrations were lower, and serum IL-2 concentrations, higher (p=0.001) in SSPE patients. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, CSF TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-2 concentrations were not different between SSPE and control groups. Serum IFN-gamma levels were higher in stage I and II than stage III patients (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference between stages in terms of other cytokines. The levels of Th2-type cytokines: IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed in our SSPE cases. This finding, along with relatively elevated IFN-gamma and IL-2 levels, may suggest more active effector T cells compared to regulatory T cells (Treg), especially induced Treg, in early disease. High serum IL-2 concentrations might indicate peripheral Th1 activation. Discrepancies between various reports in the literature should be examined in view of the ages, stage and treatments of the patients studied. The interplay of various cytokines or cellular systems which may vary over time and between patients. Studies of treatment measures favoring the preservation of the early inflammatory response may be of interest in SSPE. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Independent information from cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β and florbetapir imaging in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Niklas; Insel, Philip S; Donohue, Michael; Landau, Susan; Jagust, William J; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    Reduced cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 and increased retention of florbetapir positron emission tomography are biomarkers reflecting cortical amyloid load in Alzheimer's disease. However, these measurements do not always agree and may represent partly different aspects of the underlying Alzheimer's disease pathology. The goal of this study was therefore to test if cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography amyloid-β biomarkers are independently related to other Alzheimer's disease markers, and to examine individuals who are discordantly classified by these two biomarker modalities. Cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography amyloid-β were measured at baseline in 769 persons [161 healthy controls, 68 subjective memory complaints, 419 mild cognitive impairment and 121 Alzheimer's disease dementia, mean age 72 years (standard deviation 7 years), 47% females] and used to predict diagnosis, APOE ε4 carriage status, cerebral blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid total-tau and phosphorylated-tau levels (cross-sectionally); and hippocampal volume, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography results and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale scores (longitudinally). Cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography amyloid-β were highly correlated, but adjusting one of these predictors for the other revealed that they both provided partially independent information when predicting diagnosis, APOE ε4, hippocampal volume, metabolism, cognition, total-tau and phosphorylated-tau (the 95% confidence intervals of the adjusted effects did not include zero). Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β was more strongly related to APOE ε4 whereas positron emission tomography amyloid-β was more strongly related to tau levels (P < 0.05). Discordance (mainly isolated cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β positivity) differed by diagnostic group (P < 0.001) and was seen in 21% of cognitively healthy people but only 6% in dementia patients. The finding that

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin: relation to cognition and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Portelius, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skillbäck, Tobias; Törnqvist, Ulrika; Andreasson, Ulf; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; Shaw, Leslie M; Mattsson, Niklas; Blennow, Kaj

    2015-11-01

    Synaptic dysfunction is linked to cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, measurement of synapse proteins in cerebrospinal fluid may be useful biomarkers to monitor synaptic degeneration. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the postsynaptic protein neurogranin are increased in Alzheimer's disease, including in the predementia stage of the disease. Here, we tested the performance of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin to predict cognitive decline and brain injury in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. An in-house immunoassay was used to analyse neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid samples from a cohort of patients who at recruitment were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease with dementia (n = 95) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 173), as well as in cognitively normal subjects (n = 110). Patients with mild cognitive impairment were grouped into those that remained cognitively stable for at least 2 years (stable mild cognitive impairment) and those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease dementia during follow-up (progressive mild cognitive impairment). Correlations were tested between baseline cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin levels and baseline and longitudinal cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and glucose metabolism within each diagnostic group. Cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin was increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (P < 0.001), progressive mild cognitive impairment (P < 0.001) and stable mild cognitive impairment (P < 0.05) compared with controls, and in Alzheimer's disease dementia (P < 0.01) and progressive mild cognitive impairment (P < 0.05) compared with stable mild cognitive impairment. In the mild cognitive impairment group, high baseline cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin levels predicted cognitive decline as reflected by decreased Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.001) and increased Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (P < 0.001) scores at clinical follow-up. In addition, high baseline

  8. Lens-free microscopy of cerebrospinal fluid for the laboratory diagnosis of meningitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Robin; Morel, Sophie Nhu An; Hervé, Lionel; Bordy, Thomas; Blandin, Pierre; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Drancourt, Michel; Allier, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    The cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid is traditionally performed by an operator (physician, biologist) by means of a conventional light microscope. The operator visually counts the leukocytes (white blood cells) present in a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (10 μl). It is a tedious job and the result is operator-dependent. Here in order to circumvent the limitations of manual counting, we approach the question of numeration of erythrocytes and leukocytes for the cytological diagnosis of meningitis by means of lens-free microscopy. In a first step, a prospective counts of leukocytes was performed by five different operators using conventional optical microscopy. The visual counting yielded an overall 16.7% misclassification of 72 cerebrospinal fluid specimens in meningitis/non-meningitis categories using a 10 leukocyte/μL cut-off. In a second step, the lens-free microscopy algorithm was adapted step-by-step for counting cerebrospinal fluid cells and discriminating leukocytes from erythrocytes. The optimization of the automatic lens-free counting was based on the prospective analysis of 215 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. The optimized algorithm yielded a 100% sensitivity and a 86% specificity compared to confirmed diagnostics. In a third step, a blind lens-free microscopic analysis of 116 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, including six cases of microbiology confirmed infectious meningitis, yielded a 100% sensitivity and a 79% specificity. Adapted lens-free microscopy is thus emerging as an operator-independent technique for the rapid numeration of leukocytes and erythrocytes in cerebrospinal fluid. In particular, this technique is well suited to the rapid diagnosis of meningitis at point-of-care laboratories.

  9. Dual R3R5 tropism characterizes cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 isolates from individuals with high cerebrospinal fluid viral load.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ulf; Antonsson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Bengt; Medstrand, Patrik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Jansson, Marianne; Gisslen, Magnus

    2012-09-10

    To study the use of major and alternative coreceptors by HIV-1 isolates obtained from paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Paired plasma and CSF isolates from HIV-1-infected individuals with varying clinical, virologic, and immunologic parameters were assessed for the ability to infect indicator cells expressing a panel of coreceptors with documented expression in the central nervous system (CNS). HIV-1 isolates obtained from plasma and CSF in 28 individuals with varying viral load, CD4 T-cell counts, and with or without AIDS-defining disease were analyzed for the ability to infect NP2.CD4 cells stably expressing a panel of HIV coreceptors (CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CXCR6, GPR1, APJ, ChemR23, RDC-1 or BLT1). All isolates from both plasma and CSF utilized CCR5 and/or CXCR4. However, the ability to use both CCR3 and CCR5 (R3R5) was more pronounced in CSF isolates and correlated with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell count. Notably, four out of five CSF isolates of subtype C origin exhibited CXCR6 use, which coincided with high CSF viral load despite preserved CD4 T-cell counts. The use of other alternative coreceptors was less pronounced. Dual-tropic R3R5 HIV-1 isolates in CSF coincide with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell counts. Frequent CXCR6 use by CSF-derived subtype C isolates indicates that subtype-specific differences in coreceptor use may exist that will not be acknowledged when assessing plasma virus isolates. The findings may also bare relevance for HIV-1 replication within the CNS, and consequently, for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS.

  10. Cost Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Prevention in Patients Undergoing Cerebellopontine Angle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chern, Alexander; Hunter, Jacob B; Bennett, Marc L

    2017-01-01

    To determine if cranioplasty techniques following translabyrinthine approaches to the cerebellopontine angle are cost-effective. Retrospective case series. One hundred eighty patients with available financial data who underwent translabyrinthine approaches at a single academic referral center between 2005 and 2015. Cranioplasty with a dural substitute, layered fat graft, and a resorbable mesh plate secured with screws Main Outcome Measures: billing data was obtained for each patient's hospital course for translabyrinthine approaches and postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. One hundred nineteen patients underwent translabyrinthine approaches with an abdominal fat graft closure, with a median cost of $25759.89 (range, $15885.65-$136433.07). Sixty-one patients underwent translabyrinthine approaches with a dural substitute, abdominal fat graft, and a resorbable mesh for closure, with a median cost of $29314.97 (range, $17674.28-$111404.55). The median cost of a CSF leak was $50401.25 (range, $0-$384761.71). The additional cost of a CSF leak when shared by all patients who underwent translabyrinthine approaches is $6048.15. The addition of a dural substitute and a resorbable mesh plate after translabyrinthine approaches reduced the CSF leak from 12 to 1.9%, an 84.2% reduction, and a median savings per patient of $2932.23. Applying our cohort's billing data to previously published cranioplasty techniques, costs, and leak rate improvements after translabyrinthine approaches, all techniques were found to be cost-effective. Resorbable mesh cranioplasty is cost-effective at reducing CSF leaks after translabyrinthine approaches. Per our billing data and achieving the same CSF leak rate, cranioplasty costs exceeding $5090.53 are not cost-effective.

  11. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Presenting With a Cerebrospinal Fluid Leukemoid Reaction in an Adolescent With preB-ALL in Remission.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kristina; Song, Sophie X; Kao, Roy L; Van Dyne, Elizabeth; Kempert, Pamela; Deville, Jaime G

    2016-08-01

    A 19-year-old girl with a history of precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission presented with fever, headache, and a skin rash. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination reported pleocytosis with blast-like cells concerning for a central nervous system leukemic relapse. After the patient showed significant improvement on intravenous acyclovir, a repeat lumbar puncture revealed normalization of CSF. The abnormal CSF cells were reviewed and ultimately determined to be activated and atypical lymphocytes. The patient recovered uneventfully. Atypical lymphocytes resembling leukemic blasts are an unusual finding in viral meningitis. Varicella zoster virus reactivation should be considered during initial evaluation for central nervous system relapse of leukemia.

  12. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in canine cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Allen, Matthew J; Moore, Sarah A; Keirsey, Jeremy K; Green, Kari B

    2015-05-01

    Prospective study. To identify proteins with differential expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 15 clinically normal (control) dogs and 15 dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). Canine CSM is a spontaneous, chronic, compressive cervical myelopathy similar to human cervical spondylotic myelopathy. There is a limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions. Differentially expressed CSF proteins may contribute with novel information about the disease pathogenesis in both dogs and humans. Protein separation was performed with 2-dimensional electrophoresis. A Student t test was used to detect significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). Three comparisons were made: (1) control versus CSM-affected dogs, (2) control versus non-corticosteroid-treated CSM-affected dogs, and (3) non-corticosteroid-treated CSM-affected versus corticosteroid-treated CSM-affected dogs. Protein spots exhibiting at least a statistically significant 1.25-fold change between groups were selected for subsequent identification with capillary-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 96 spots had a significant average change of at least 1.25-fold in 1 of the 3 comparisons. Compared with the CSF of control dogs, CSM-affected dogs demonstrated increased CSF expression of 8 proteins including vitamin D-binding protein, gelsolin, creatine kinase B-type, angiotensinogen, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, rich in cysteine), calsyntenin-1, and complement C3, and decreased expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor, prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase, apolipoprotein E, and clusterin. In the CSF of CSM-affected dogs, corticosteroid treatment increased the expression of haptoglobin, transthyretin isoform 2, cystatin C-like, apolipoprotein E, and clusterin, and decreased the expression of angiotensinogen, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, and gelsolin. Many of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with damaged neural tissue

  13. Brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Rashidi, Ehsan; Amooeian, Vahid Ghasem

    2018-04-13

    Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz. It has been revealed that the levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were increased in patients with Scz. Decreased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes have also been reported in Scz patients. Genes with known strong relationships with this disease include BDNF, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4), dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), Reelin (RELN), Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1), glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD 67), and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 1A and B (5-HTR1A and 5-HTR1B), and 5-HT1B were significantly increased in Scz patients, while the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), and 5-HT receptor 2A (5-HTR2A) were decreased. The increased levels of SELENBP1 and Glycogen synthase kinase 3 subunit α (GSK3α) genes in contrast with reduced levels of B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), human leukocyte antigen DRB1 (HLA-DRB1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 (HNRPA3), and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SFRS1) genes have also been reported. This review covers various dysregulation of

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Steroidomics: Are Bioactive Bile Acids Present in Brain?*

    PubMed Central

    Ogundare, Michael; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Lockhart, Andrew; Hall, Leslie J.; Arenas, Ernest; Sjövall, Jan; Brenton, A. Gareth; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we have profiled the free sterol content of cerebrospinal fluid by a combination of charge tagging and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, the most abundant cholesterol metabolites were found to be C27 and C24 intermediates of the bile acid biosynthetic pathways with structures corresponding to 7α-hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid (7.170 ± 2.826 ng/ml, mean ± S.D., six subjects), 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (0.416 ± 0.193 ng/ml), 7α,x-dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid (1.330 ± 0.543 ng/ml), and 7α-hydroxy-3-oxochol-4-en-24-oic acid (0.172 ± 0.085 ng/ml), and the C26 sterol 7α-hydroxy-26-norcholest-4-ene-3,x-dione (0.204 ± 0.083 ng/ml), where x is an oxygen atom either on the CD rings or more likely on the C-17 side chain. The ability of intermediates of the bile acid biosynthetic pathways to activate the liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptor was also evaluated. The acidic cholesterol metabolites 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid and 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid were found to activate LXR in a luciferase assay, but the major metabolite identified in this study, i.e. 7α-hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid, was not an LXR ligand. 7α-Hydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid is formed from 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid in a reaction catalyzed by 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B7), which may thus represent a deactivation pathway of LXR ligands in brain. Significantly, LXR activation has been found to reduce the symptoms of Alzheimer disease (Fan, J., Donkin, J., and Wellington C. (2009) Biofactors 35, 239–248); thus, cholesterol metabolites may play an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer disease. PMID:19996111

  15. Procalcitonin in cerebrospinal fluid in meningitis: a prospective diagnostic study.

    PubMed

    Alons, Imanda M E; Verheul, Rolf J; Kuipers, Irma; Jellema, Korné; Wermer, Marieke J H; Algra, Ale; Ponjee, Gabriëlle

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe but treatable condition. Clinical symptoms may be ambiguous and current diagnostics lack sensitivity and specificity, complicating diagnosis. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a protein that is elevated in serum in bacterial infection. We aimed to assess the value of PCT in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. We included patients with bacterial meningitis, both community acquired and post neurosurgery. We included two comparison groups: patients with viral meningitis and patients who underwent lumbar punctures for noninfectious indications. We calculated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals of procalcitonin in CSF and plasma in patients with and without bacterial meningitis. Average PCT concentrations in CSF were 0.60 ng mL -1 (95% CI: 0.29-0.92) in the bacterial meningitis group ( n  = 26), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.33-1.28) in community-acquired meningitis ( n  = 16) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.10-0.45) in postneurosurgical meningitis ( n  = 10), 0.10 ng mL -1 (95% CI: 0.08-0.12) in the viral meningitis group ( n  = 14) and 0.08 ng mL -1 (95% CI: 0.06-0.09) in the noninfectious group ( n  = 14). Mean difference of PCT-CSF between patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis and with viral meningitis was 0.71 ng mL -1 (95% CI: 0.17-1.25) and 0.73 ng mL -1 (95% CI: 0.19-1.27) for community-acquired bacterial meningitis versus the noninfectious group. The median PCT CSF: plasma ratio was 5.18 in postneurosurgical and 0.18 in community-acquired meningitis (IQR 4.69 vs. 0.28). Procalcitonin in CSF was significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis when compared with patients with viral or no meningitis. PCT in CSF may be a valuable marker in diagnosing bacterial meningitis, and could become especially useful in patients after neurosurgery.

  16. [Clinical evaluation of flomoxef in pediatrics and a study on the penetration into cerebrospinal fluid].

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Furukawa, S

    1987-08-01

    The transfer to cerebrospinal fluid of a new oxacephem antibiotic flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) and its clinical efficacy against bacterial infections were investigated. 1. In 3 cases of purulent meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of FMOX after one shot intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg during the acute stage of infections were 5.12-6.32 micrograms/ml and ratios of FMOX in cerebrospinal fluid in serum were about 5%. During the recovery stage, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were about 3.8 micrograms/ml and cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratios were about 3.5%. 2. In 1 case of purulent meningitis, the treatment with FMOX was clinically effective but this case was classified as "unevaluable" because other drug was used concomitantly. FMOX was rated effective in other 2 cases of purulent meningitis. Of 9 cases of pneumonia, FMOX was rated very effective in 8 cases and it was rated only effective in the other. Of 4 cases of bronchitis, the drug was rated very effective in 3 cases and only effective in the other. FMOX was rated very effective against 2 cases of tonsillitis, also. 3. As side effects, thrombocytosis was observed in 3 of 20 cases examined. All cases, however, were deemed unrelated to the FMOX treatment and the side effect was only transient as are often found in courses of recovery from infections.

  17. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  18. The Emerging Relationship Between Interstitial Fluid-Cerebrospinal Fluid Exchange, Amyloid-β, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Boespflug, Erin L; Iliff, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and soluble Aβ species are believed to play an important role in the clinical development of this disease. Emerging biomarker data demonstrate that Aβ plaque deposition begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, suggesting that understanding the biological determinants of the earliest steps in the development of AD pathology may provide key opportunities for AD treatment and prevention. Although a clinical association between sleep disruption and AD has long been appreciated, emerging clinical studies and insights from the basic neurosciences have shed important new light on how sleep and Aβ homeostasis may be connected in the setting of AD. Aβ, like many interstitial solutes, is cleared in part through the exchange of brain interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid along a brain-wide network of perivascular pathways recently termed the glymphatic system. Glymphatic function is primarily a feature of the sleeping brain, rather than the waking brain, and is slowed in the aging and posttraumatic brain. These changes may underlie the diurnal fluctuations in interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ levels observed in both the rodent and the human. These and other emerging studies suggest that age-related sleep disruption may be one key factor that renders the aging brain vulnerable to Aβ deposition and the development of AD. If this is true, sleep may represent a key modifiable risk factor or therapeutic target in the preclinical phases of AD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunisations and antibiotics in patients with anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, J; Belk, C; Lund, V J; Swift, A; White, P

    2014-07-01

    There are no UK guidelines for the use of antibiotics and/or immunisations in patients with an active anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid leak. This study aimed to define current UK practice in this area and inform appropriate guidelines for ENT surgeons. A web-based survey of all members of the British Rhinological Society was carried out and the literature in this area was reviewed. Of those who responded to the survey, 14 per cent routinely give prophylactic antibiotics to patients with cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and 34.9 per cent recommend immunisation against at least one organism, most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae (86.7 per cent). There is no evidence to support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a cerebrospinal fluid leak. We propose that all such patients are advised to seek immunisation against pneumococcus, meningococcus and haemophilus.

  20. Manganese and selenium concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of seriously ill children.

    PubMed

    Franěk, Tomáš; Kotaška, Karel; Průša, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The homeostasis of essential trace elements such as selenium and manganese may be altered in patients with severe diseases of various etiologies (trauma brain injuries, tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, neurological diseases). Concentration of manganese and selenium were determined in cerebrospinal fluid by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 50 hospitalized children with various clinical ethiologies including oncological, neurological, and brain related diseases. The concentrations of manganese in cerebrospinal fluid of children were 0.97±0.67 μg/L. The concentrations of selenium were 13.3±3.5 μg/L. The concentrations were similar as published in adults. The values did not correlated with the age, gender and severity of the disease. We evaluated values of selenium and manganese in cerebrospinal fluid of seriously diseased children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Neonatal facial palsy: identification of herpes simplex virus 1 in cerebrospinal fluid. Case report].

    PubMed

    Lubián López, Simón; Pérez Guerrero, Juan J; Salazar Oliva, Patricia; Benavente Fernández, Isabel

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal facial palsy is very uncommon and is generally diagnosed at birth. We present the first published case of neonatal facial palsy with identification of herpes simplex virus 1 in cerebrospinal fluid. A 35-day-old male was presented at the Emergency Department with mouth deviation to the left and impossibility of full closure of the right eye. There were no symptoms of infection or relevant medical history. Physical examination was compatible with peripheral facial palsy. Studies performed at admission were normal (blood count, biochemical analysis and coagulation blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid analysis). The patient was admitted on oral prednisolone and intravenous aciclovir. Cranial magnetic resonance was normal. Polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus 1 in cerebrospinal fluid was reported positive after 48 hours of admission. Patient followed good evolution and received prednisolone for 7 days and acyclovir for 21 days. At discharge, neurological examination was normal. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  2. Measurement of Interleukin-6 in Cerebrospinal Fluid for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dano, Ibrahim Dan; Sadou, Hassimi; Issaka, Bassira; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi

    It is assessed whether the measurement of interleukin-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid was obtained from 152 patients aged 0-15 years suspected of having meningitis. These patients were classified into the following groups: Bacterial meningitis (n = 85), aseptic meningitis (n = 35) and non-meningitis/control (n = 32) based on leukocyte count and bacterial identification by culture and molecular biology. Interleukin-6 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study found a significant difference of the mean cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 level (p≤0.01) between patients with bacterial meningitis (3,538.69±2,560.78 pg mL -1) and patients with aseptic meningitis (332.51±470.69 pg mL -1) or those of the control group (205.83±79.39 pg mL -1). There was also a significant difference of the mean cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 level between patients with aseptic meningitis and those of the control group. Interleukin-6 had the highest area under the ROC curve: 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.901-0.979) compared to that of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and total protein. At a cut-off value of 1,065.96 pg mL -1, interleukin-6 had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 100%. Interleukin-6 is a potential biomarker for the differential diagnosis of meningitis.

  3. The role of ICP monitoring in patients with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak following spinal surgery: a case series.

    PubMed

    Craven, Claudia; Toma, Ahmed K; Khan, Akbar A; Watkins, Laurence D

    2016-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak following spinal surgery is a relatively common surgical complication. A disturbance in the underlying CSF dynamics could be the causative factor in a small group of patients with refractory CSF leaks that require multiple surgical repairs and prolonged hospital admission. A retrospective case series of patients with persistent post spinal surgery CSF leak referred to the hydrocephalus service for continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Patients' notes were reviewed for medical history, ICP data, radiological data, and subsequent management and outcome. Five patients (two males/three females, mean age, 35.4 years) were referred for ICP monitoring over a 12-month period. These patients had prolonged CSF leak despite multiple repair attempts 252 ± 454 days (mean ± SD). On ICP monitoring, all five patients had abnormal results, with the mean ICP 8.95 ± 4.41 mmHg. Four had abnormal pulse amplitudes, mean 6.15 mmHg ± 1.22 mmHg. All five patients underwent an intervention. Three patients underwent insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. One patient had venous sinus stent insertion and one patient underwent medical management with acetazolamide. All five of the patients' CSF leak resolved post intervention. The mean time to resolution of CSF leak post intervention was 10.8  ± 12.9 days. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics could be the underlying factor in patients with a persistent and treatment-refractory CSF leak post spinal surgery. Treatments aimed at lowering ICP may be beneficial in this group of patients. Whether abnormal pressure and dynamics represent a pre-existing abnormality or is induced by spinal surgery should be a subject of further study.

  4. Analysis of clinical outcomes in pediatric bacterial meningitis focusing on patients without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Li; Chi, Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chiu, Nan-Chang

    2016-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count and biochemical examinations and cultures form the basis for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, some patients do not have typical findings and are at a higher risk of being missed or having delayed treatment. To better understand the correlation between CSF results and outcomes, we evaluated CSF data focusing on the patients with atypical findings. This study enrolled CSF culture-proven bacterial meningitis patients aged from 1 month to 18 years in a medical center. The patients were divided into "normal" and "abnormal" groups for each laboratory result and in combination. The correlations between the laboratory results and the outcomes were analyzed. A total of 175 children with confirmed bacterial meningitis were enrolled. In CSF examinations, 16.2% of patients had normal white blood cell counts, 29.5% had normal glucose levels, 24.5% had normal protein levels, 10.2% had normal results in two items, and 8.6% had normal results in all three items. In logistic regression analysis, a normal CSF leukocyte count and increased CSF protein level were related to poor outcomes. Patients with meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and hyponatremia were at a higher risk of mortality and the development of sequelae. In children with bacterial meningitis, nontypical CSF findings and, in particular, normal CSF leukocyte count and increased protein level may indicate a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Deniz; Yilmaz, Deniz; Uyar, Neval Y; Senbil, Nesrin; Gurer, Yavuz; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cytoskeletal deformation and neurofibrillary tangles are associated with altered levels of tau and related proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuronal or glial fibrillary tangles have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patients. We therefore investigated CSF samples from 60 newly diagnosed SSPE and 31 neurological control patients for total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and S100-B levels by ELISA. There was no difference between patient and control groups in t-tau and S100-B levels. p-Tau was lower in the SSPE group (p=0.009). Past history of measles infection, measles immunization status, latent period between measles and onset of SSPE, duration of symptoms, frequency of myoclonia, neurological deficit index, stage and progression rate of the disease, CSF glucose levels and cell counts, CSF and serum measles IgG titer, distribution of lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging were not related to t-tau, p-tau and S100-B levels. Mental status and age were negatively correlated with t-tau, and male gender and EEG abnormalities were associated with higher t-tau levels. The levels of tau proteins in our patients suggest there is no, or only scarce and immature, neurofibrillary tangle formation in SSPE. Autopsy studies showing neurofibrillary tangles might have examined older patients with longer disease and more parenchymal involvement. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistence of Pneumolysin in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients With Pneumococcal Meningitis Is Associated With Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma C.; Hussain, Samia; Goonetilleke, Upali R. S.; Gritzfeld, Jenna; Scarborough, Matthew; Kadioglu, Aras

    2012-01-01

    Poor prognosis in Pneumococcal meningitis may be associated with high pneumolysin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In patient samples we showed that pneumolysin levels in CSF remained high after 48 hours in nonsurvivors of meningitis compared with survivors. Selective antipneumolysin treatment may present a novel therapeutic option. PMID:22238165

  7. Letter to the editor: Identification of Sarcocystis capracanis in cerebrospinal fluid from sheep with neurological disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent report (Formisano et al., 2013) identified clinical sacrocystosis in 2 adult sheep. The diagnosis relied primarily on characterization of DNA extracted from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and paraffin-embedded heart tissue. Parasites identified as merozoites were identified in CSF smears stained...

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  9. The mediational effects of FDG hypometabolism on the association between cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C; Gleason, Carey E; Jagust, William J

    2015-01-15

    Positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of tau and amyloid beta42 suggest possible active underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) including neurometabolic dysfunction and neurodegeneration leading to eventual cognitive decline. But the temporal relationship between CSF, imaging markers of neural function, and cognition has not been described. Using a statistical mediation model, we examined relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes (hyperphosphorylated tau (p-Tau(181p)), β-amyloid peptides 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), total tau (t-Tau), and their ratios); change in cognitive function; and change in [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that a) abnormal CSF protein values at baseline, result in cognitive declines by decreasing neuronal glucose metabolism across time, and b) the role of altered glucose metabolism in the assumed causal chain varies by brain region and the nature of CSF protein alteration. Data from 412 individuals participating in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) cohort studies were included in analyses. At baseline, individuals were cognitively normal (N = 82), or impaired: 241 with mild cognitive impairment, and 89 with Alzheimer's disease. A parallel-process latent growth curve model was used to test mediational effects of changes in regional FDG-PET uptake over time in relation to baseline CSF biomarkers and changes in cognition, measured with the 13-item Alzheimer Disease's Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Findings suggested a causal sequence of events; specifically, FDG hypometabolism acted as a mediator between antecedent CSF biomarker alterations and subsequent cognitive impairment. Higher baseline concentrations of t-Tau, and p-Tau(181p) were more predictive of decline in cerebral glucose metabolism than lower baseline concentrations of Aβ(1-42). FDG-PET changes appeared to mediate t-Tau or t-Tau/Aβ(1-42)-associated cognitive change across all brain

  10. Anti-Correlated Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Trajectories in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-01-01

    The earliest stage of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by low levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β (Aβ42). However, covariance in longitudinal dynamic change of Aβ42 and tau in incipient preclinical AD is poorly understood. To examine dynamic interrelationships between Aβ42 and tau in preclinical AD. We followed 47 cognitively intact participants (CI) with available CSF data over four years in ADNI. Based on longitudinal Aβ42 levels in CSF, CI were classified into three groups: 1) Aβ42 stable with normal levels of Aβ42 over time (n = 15); 2) Aβ42 declining with normal Aβ42 levels at baseline but showing decline over time (n = 14); and 3) Aβ42 levels consistently abnormal (n = 18). In the Aβ42 declining group, suggestive of incipient preclinical AD, CSF phosphorylated tau (p-tau) showed a similar longitudinal pattern of increasing abnormality over time (p = 0.0001). Correlation between longitudinal slopes of Aβ42 and p-tau confirmed that both trajectories were anti-correlated (rho = -0.60; p = 0.02). Regression analysis showed that Aβ42 slope (decreasing Aβ42) predicted p-tau slope (increasing p-tau) (R2 = 0.47, p = 0.03). Atrophy in the hippocampus was predicted by the interaction of Aβ42 and p-tau slopes (p <  0.0001) only in this incipient preclinical AD group. In all groups combined, memory decline was predicted by p-tau. The evolution of Aβ42 and p-tau CSF biomarkers in CI subjects follows an anti-correlated trajectory, i.e., as Aβ42 declined, p-tau increased, and thus was suggestive of strong temporal coincidence. Rapid pathogenic cross-talk between Aβ42 and p-tau thus may be evident in very early stages of preclinical AD.

  11. Monoaminc and metabolite levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hibernating and euthermic marmots.

    PubMed

    Reid; Kilduff; Romero; Florant; Dement; Heller

    1992-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid from yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, was analysed for monoamine and monoamine metabolite content during euthermia and deep hibernation. Dopamine (DA) levels were decreased, while DA metabolite levels, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were dramatically increased in hibernating marmots. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were also greatly enhanced during hibernation while norepinephrine (NE) levels were only moderately increased. These findings demonstrate that cerebrospinal monoamine levels are dynamically altered during hibernation, such that DA versus 5-HT and NE levels undergo opposite changes. Therefore, these data indicate that DA, 5-HT and NE neuronal systems are differentially altered during hibernation in mammals.

  12. Albumin heterogeneity in low-abundance fluids. The case of urine and cerebro-spinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2013-12-01

    Serum albumin is a micro-heterogeneous protein composed of at least 40 isoforms. Its heterogeneity is even more pronounced in biological fluids other than serum, the major being urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Modification 'in situ' and/or selectivity of biological barriers, such as in the kidney, determines the final composition of albumin and may help in definition of inflammatory states. This review focuses on various aspects of albumin heterogeneity in low 'abundance fluids' and highlights the potential source of information in diseases. The electrical charge of the protein in urine and CSF is modified but with an opposite change and depending on clinical conditions. In normal urine, the bulk of albumin is more anionic than in serum for the presence of ten times more fatty acids that introduce equivalent anionic charges and modify hydrophobicity of the protein. At the same time, urinary albumin is more glycosylated compared to the serum homolog. Finally, albumin fragments can be detected in urine in patients with proteinuria. For albumin in CSF, we lack information relative to normal conditions since ethical problems do not allow normal CSF to be studied. In multiple sclerosis, the albumin charge in CSF is more cationic than in serum, this change possibly involving structural anomalies or small molecules bindings. Massively fatty albumin could be toxic for tubular cells and be eliminated on this basis. Renal handling of glycosylated albumin can alter the normal equilibrium of filtration/reabsorption and trigger mechanisms leading to glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retinal vessel diameter and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in arterial hypertension: the Beijing Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive retinal microvascular abnormalities include an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio. Because central retinal vein pressure depends on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), we examined whether the retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio and other retinal hypertensive signs are associated with CSFP. Participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (n = 1,574 subjects) underwent measurement of the temporal inferior and superior retinal artery and vein diameter. CSFP was calculated as 0.44 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Larger retinal vein diameters and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratios were significantly associated with higher estimated CSFP (P = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. In contrast, temporal inferior retinal arterial diameter was marginally associated (P = 0.03) with estimated CSFP, and temporal superior artery diameter was not significantly associated (P = 0.10) with estimated CSFP; other microvascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous crossing signs, were also not significantly associated with estimated CSFP. In a reverse manner, higher estimated CSFP as a dependent variable in the multivariable analysis was associated with wider retinal veins and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio. In the same model, estimated CSFP was not significantly correlated with retinal artery diameters or other retinal microvascular abnormalities. Correspondingly, arterial hypertension was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous crossing signs (P = 0.003), thinner temporal retinal arteries (P < 0.001), higher CSFP (P < 0.001), and wider retinal veins (P = 0.001) or, as a corollary, with a higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio in multivariable analysis. Wider retinal vein diameters are associated with higher estimated CSFP and vice versa. In arterial hypertension, an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio depends on elevated CSFP

  14. [The examination of cerebro-spinal fluid in the viroses of the central nervous system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bonomi, U

    1977-01-01

    The general outlines for the isolation of viruses from the cerebro-spinal fluid are described. It is suggested to associate to the virus cultivation of the cerebrospinal fluid even the cultivation from other pathological materials as faringeal swabs and stools and the search for antibodies in the blood serum. Researches of viruses in cerebro-spinal fluid done by the Service of Microbiology of the Hospital of Verona have given in 55 cases examined during the year 1976 2 positive isolates; in both mumps virus has been isolated.

  15. Effect of early and late syphilis on central nervous system: cerebrospinal fluid changes and neurological deficit.

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, R V; Wolters, E C; Tutuarima, J A; Hische, E A; Bos, J D; van Trotsenburg, L; de Koning, G A; van der Helm, H J

    1987-01-01

    Neurological examination and investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed on 24 patients with early and 180 patients with late syphilis. In 21 (12%) patients with late syphilis positive CSF treponemal test results and neurological deficits suggestive of symptomatic neurosyphilis were found. Concomitantly all but three patients with neurosyphilis showed one or more of the following abnormal CSF variables: CSF concentration of albumin X 10(3)/serum concentration (albumin ratio) greater than or equal to 7.9; mononuclear cells greater than 5 microliters: ratio of CSF to serum IgG concentrations/ratio of CSF to serum albumin concentrations (IgG index) greater than or equal to 0.7 or of IgM/albumin (IgM index) greater than or equal to 0.1; or oligoclonal CSF immunoglobulins. In 20 (95%) patients with neurosyphilis evidence of the production of treponemal antibodies within the central nervous system (CNS) was shown. Ten (48%) patients with neurosyphilis had been treated previously for late syphilis. These observations emphasise the need to screen for neurosyphilis in patients with late syphilis. Intrathecal production of treponemal antibodies was detected in six (25%) patients with early and 44 (28%) with late syphilis who did not show any neurological deficit. Intrathecal production of treponemal antibodies indicating that the CNS was affected led us to suspect asymptomatic neurosyphilis in these patients. Seventeen (11%) patients with late syphilis but no neurosyphilis and only one (4%) with early syphilis showed additional abnormal CSF variables. Surprisingly, six out of 22 patients with treated early and 20 out of 68 patients with treated late syphilis showed evidence of treponema antibody production within the CNS. We do not know whether these findings indicate that the CNS was affected because of inadequate treatment or merely reflect persistent synthesis of treponemal antibodies associated with cured infection. In one (4%) patient with early and in

  16. Levels of Nonphosphorylated and Phosphorylated Tau in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan Yuan; He, Shan Shu; Wang, Xiaochuan; Duan, Qiu Hong; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Wang, Jianzhi

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive bienzyme-substrate-recycle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The assay, which recognizes attomolar amounts of tau, is ∼400 and ∼1300 times more sensitive than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in determining the hyperphosphorylated tau and total tau, respectively. With this method, we measured both total tau and tau phosphorylated at Ser-396/Ser-404 in lumbar CSFs from AD and control patients. We found that the total tau was 215 ± 77 pg/ml in cognitively normal control (n = 56), 234 ± 92 pg/ml in non-AD neurological (n = 37), 304 ± 126 pg/ml in vascular dementia (n = 46), and 486 ± 168 pg/ml (n = 52) in AD patients, respectively. However, a remarkably elevated level in phosphorylated tau was only found in AD (187 ± 84 pg/ml), as compared with normal controls (54 ± 33 pg/ml), non-AD (63 ± 34 pg/ml), and vascular dementia (72 ± 33 pg/ml) groups. If we used the ratio of hyperphosphorylated tau to total tau of ≥0.33 as cutoff for AD diagnosis, we could confirm the diagnosis in 96% of the clinically diagnosed patients with a specificity of 95%, 86%, 100%, and 94% against nonneurological, non-AD neurological, vascular dementia, and all of the three control groups combined, respectively. It is suggested that the CSF level of tau phosphorylated at Ser-396/Ser-404 is a promising diagnostic marker of AD. PMID:11943712

  17. Clinical assessment of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in hydrocephalus. Guide to interpretation based on observational study.

    PubMed

    Weerakkody, R A; Czosnyka, M; Schuhmann, M U; Schmidt, E; Keong, N; Santarius, T; Pickard, J D; Czosnyka, Z

    2011-08-01

    The term hydrocephalus encompasses a range of disorders characterised by clinical symptoms, abnormal brain imaging and derangement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. The ability to elucidate which patients would benefit from CSF diversion (a shunt or third ventriculostomy) is often unclear. Similar difficulties are often encountered in shunted patients to predict the scope for improvement by shunt re-adjustment or revision. In this study we aimed to update our knowledge of how key quantitative parameters describing CSF dynamics may be used in diagnosis of shunt-responsive hydrocephalus and in the assessment of shunt function. A number of quantitative parameters [including resistance to CSF outflow (Rcsf), pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure waveform (AMP), RAP index and slow vasogenic waves] were studies in 1423 patients with 2665 CSF infusion tests and 305 overnight intracranial pressure (ICP)-monitoring sessions over a 17 year period. We demonstrate our observations for typical values of Pb, Rcsf, AMP, slow vasogenic waves derived from infusion studies or overnight ICP monitoring in differentiating atrophy from shunt-responsive normal pressure hydrocephalus or acute hydrocephalus. From the same variables tested on shunted patients we demonstrate a standardised approach to help differentiate a properly-functioning shunt from underdrainage or overdrainage. Quantitative variables derived from CSF dynamics allow differentiation between clinically overlapping entities such as shunt-responsive normal pressure hydrocephalus and brain atrophy (not shunt responsive) as well as allowing the detection of shunt malfunction (partial or complete blockage) or overdrainage. This observational study is intended to serve as an update for our understanding of quantitative testing of CSF dynamics. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Increased cerebrospinal fluid complement C5 levels in major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Hattori, Kotaro; Miyakawa, Tomoko; Watanabe, Kentaro; Hidese, Shinsuke; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Nunomura, Akihiko; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-04

    Inflammation has been implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine whether levels of complement C5 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may reflect activation of the complement system in the brain, are altered in patients with major psychiatric disorders. Additionally, we examined possible associations of CSF C5 levels with clinical variables. Subjects comprised 89 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 66 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 96 patients with schizophrenia, and 117 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). Diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria. CSF C5 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CSF C5 levels were significantly increased in the patients with MDD (p < 0.001) and in the patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.001), compared with the healthy controls. The rate of individuals with an "abnormally high C5 level" (i.e., above the 95th percentile value of the control subjects) was significantly increased in all psychiatric groups, relative to the control group (all p < 0.01). Older age, male sex, and greater body mass index tended to associate with higher C5 levels. There was a significantly positive correlation between C5 levels and chlorpromazine-equivalent dose in the patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we found, for the first time, elevated C5 levels in the CSF of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Our results suggest that the activated complement system may contribute to neurological pathogenesis in a portion of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels and APP processing pathway genes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bekris, Lynn M; Tsuang, Debby W; Peskind, Elaine R; Yu, Chang E; Montine, Thomas J; Zhang, Jing; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Leverenz, James B

    2015-06-01

    Of recent interest is the finding that certain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers traditionally linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), specifically amyloid beta protein (Aβ), are abnormal in PD CSF. The aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine whether genetic variation within the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway genes correlates with CSF Aβ42 levels in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkinson's disease (n = 86) and control (n = 161) DNA were genotyped for 19 regulatory region tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within nine genes (APP, ADAM10, BACE1, BACE2, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN, and APH1B) involved in the cleavage of APP. The SNP genotypes were tested for their association with CSF biomarkers and PD risk while adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ɛ4 status. Significant correlation with CSF Aβ42 levels in PD was observed for two SNPs, (APP rs466448 and APH1B rs2068143). Conversely, significant correlation with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls was observed for three SNPs (APP rs214484, rs2040273, and PSEN1 rs362344). In addition, results of this exploratory investigation suggest that an APP SNP and an APH1B SNP are marginally associated with PD CSF Aβ42 levels in APOE ɛ4 noncarriers. Further hypotheses generated include that decreased CSF Aβ42 levels are in part driven by genetic variation in APP processing genes. Additional investigation into the relationship between these findings and clinical characteristics of PD, including cognitive impairment, compared with other neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, are warranted. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Bilateral meningoencephaloceles with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea after facial advancement in the Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panuganti, Bharat A; Leach, Matthew; Antisdel, Jastin

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and encephaloceles are rare complications of craniofacial advancement procedures performed in patients with craniofacial dysostoses (CD) to address the ramifications of their midface hypoplasia including obstructed nasal airway, exorbitism, and impaired mastication. Surgical repair of this CSF rhinorrhea is complicated by occult elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP), potentially necessitating open, transcranial repair. We report the first case in otolaryngology literature of a patient with Crouzon syndrome with late CSF rhinorrhea and encephalocele formation after previous LeFort III facial advancement surgery. Describe the case of a patient with Crouzon syndrome who presented with CSF rhinorrhea and encephaloceles as complications of Le Fort III facial advancement surgery. Review the literature pertaining to the incidence and management of post-operative CSF rhinorrhea and encephaloceles. Analyze issues related to repair of these complications, including occult elevations in ICP, the utility of perioperative CSF shunts, and the importance of considering alternative repair schemes to the traditional endonasal, endoscopic approach. Review of the literature describing CSF rhinorrhea and encephalocele formation following facial advancement in CD, focusing on management strategies. CSF rhinorrhea and encephalocele formation are rare complications of craniofacial advancement procedures. Occult elevations in ICP complicate the prospect of permanent surgical repair, potentially necessitating transcranial repair and the use of CSF shunts. Though no consensus exists regarding the utility of perioperative CSF drains, strong associations exist between elevated ICP and failed surgical repair. Additionally, the anatomic changes in the frontal and ethmoid sinuses after facial advancement present a challenge to endoscopic repair. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the possibility of occult elevations in ICP and sinonasal anatomic

  1. Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Insulin with Cognitive Performance and CSF Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Geijselaers, Stefan L C; Aalten, Pauline; Ramakers, Inez H G B; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koek, Huiberdina L; OldeRikkert, Marcel G M; Papma, Janne M; Reesink, Fransje E; Smits, Lieke L; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Verhey, Frans R J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels are associated with cognitive performance and CSF amyloid-β and Tau. Additionally, we explore whether any such association differs by sex or APOE ɛ4 genotype. From 258 individuals participating in the Parelsnoer Institute Neurodegenerative Diseases, a nationwide multicenter memory clinic population, we selected 138 individuals (mean age 66±9 years, 65.2% male) diagnosed with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 45), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 44), or AD (n = 49), who completed a neuropsychological assessment, including tests of global cognition and memory performance, and who underwent lumbar puncture. We measured CSF levels of insulin, amyloid-β1-42, total (t-)Tau, and phosphorylated (p-)Tau. CSF insulin levels did not differ between the diagnostic groups (p = 0.136). Across the whole study population, CSF insulin was unrelated to cognitive performance and CSF biomarkers of AD, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, and clinic site (all p≥0.131). Importantly, however, we observed effect modification by sex and APOE ɛ4 genotype. Specifically, among women, higher insulin levels in the CSF were associated with worse global cognition (standardized regression coefficient -0.483; p = 0.008) and higher p-Tau levels (0.353; p = 0.040). Among non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 allele, higher CSF insulin was associated with higher t-Tau (0.287; p = 0.008) and p-Tau (0.246; p = 0.029). Our findings provide further evidence for a relationship between brain insulin signaling and AD pathology. It also highlights the need to consider sex and APOE ɛ4 genotype when assessing the role of insulin.

  2. Baseline neuropsychological profile and cognitive response to cerebrospinal fluid shunting for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; McGirt, Matthew J; Woodworth, Graeme; Heidler, Jennifer; Rigamonti, Daniele; Hillis, Argye E; Williams, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate neurocognitive changes and predict neurocognitive outcome after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). Reports of neurocognitive response to shunting have been variable and studies that predict cognitive outcomes after shunting are limited. We reviewed our experience with cognitive outcomes for INPH patients who were selected for shunting based on abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure monitoring and positive response in any of the NPH symptoms following large volume CSF drainage. Forty-two INPH patients underwent neurocognitive testing and Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) prior to shunting. Neurocognitive testing or MMSEwere performed at least 3 months after shunt insertion. Significant improvement in a neurocognitive subtest was defined as improvement by one standard deviation (1 SD) for the patient's age, sex and education level. Significant improvement in overall neurocognitive outcome was defined as a 4-point improvement in MMSE or improvement by 1 SD in 50% of the administered neurocognitive subtests. Nonparametric tests were used to assess changes. Predictors of outcome were assessed via logistic regression analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.3%) showed overall neurocognitive improvement, and significant improvement was seen in tests of verbal memory and psychomotor speed. Predictive analysis showed that patients scoring more than 1 SD below mean at baseline on verbal memory immediate recall were fourfold less likely to show overall cognitive improvement, and sixfold less likely if also associated with visuoconstructional deficit or executive dysfunction. Verbal memory scores at baseline were higher in patients who showed overall cognitive improvement. Shunting INPH patients on the basis of CSF pressure monitoring and drainage response shows a significant rate of cognitive improvement, and baseline neurocognitive test scores may distinguish patients likely to respond to shunt surgery

  3. Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, Søren; Wei, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Background To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Methods Control volume analysis is presented to introduce the reader to the theoretical background of this foundational fluid mechanics technique for application to general control volumes. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and location of measurements and also a way to interpret the resulting data within a fundamental fluid physics analysis. PMID:19772652

  4. Intraoperative seizure and cerebrospinal fluid leak during adult cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Musser, Alexander B; Golub, Justin S; Samy, Ravi N; Phero, James C

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of cerebrospinal fluid gusher and subsequent seizure immediately after cochlear implant electrode insertion. After the cochlear implant electrode was inserted, brisk flow of 10 mL of cerebrospinal fluid was seen. The electrode was promptly inserted and the leak was additionally sealed with fascia. Seconds later, the patient had a tonic-clonic seizure lasting 30 seconds. Two additional episodes occurred during the case. Her postoperative course was uneventful with no subsequent seizures. The device has been successfully activated. Intervention & Technique: Postoperative imaging showed correct intracochlear placement of the electrode as well as an incidental enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Neurology consultation including electroencephalogram was unremarkable. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a seizure temporally associated with cochlear implant electrode insertion. The significance and possible casual relationship between these two events is discussed.

  5. Soluble Megalin is Reduced in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Spuch, Carlos; Antequera, Desireé; Pascual, Consuelo; Abilleira, Soledad; Blanco, María; Moreno-Carretero, María José; Romero-López, Jesús; Ishida, Tetsuya; Molina, Jose Antonio; Villarejo, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Carro, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megalin or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, which has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by clearing brain amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier at the choroid plexus. Here, we found a soluble form of megalin secreted from choroid plexus epithelial cells. Soluble megalin levels were also localized in the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), being reduced in AD patients. We have also shown that soluble megalin binding to Aβ is decreased in the CSF of AD patients, suggesting that decreased sequestration of Aβ in the CSF could be associated with defective clearance of Aβ and an increase of brain Aβ levels. Thus, therapies, which increase megalin expression, at the choroid plexus and/or enhance circulating soluble megalin hold potential to control brain Aβ-related pathologies in AD.

  6. Soluble Megalin is Reduced in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spuch, Carlos; Antequera, Desireé; Pascual, Consuelo; Abilleira, Soledad; Blanco, María; Moreno-Carretero, María José; Romero-López, Jesús; Ishida, Tetsuya; Molina, Jose Antonio; Villarejo, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Carro, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megalin or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, which has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by clearing brain amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) across the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier at the choroid plexus. Here, we found a soluble form of megalin secreted from choroid plexus epithelial cells. Soluble megalin levels were also localized in the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), being reduced in AD patients. We have also shown that soluble megalin binding to Aβ is decreased in the CSF of AD patients, suggesting that decreased sequestration of Aβ in the CSF could be associated with defective clearance of Aβ and an increase of brain Aβ levels. Thus, therapies, which increase megalin expression, at the choroid plexus and/or enhance circulating soluble megalin hold potential to control brain Aβ-related pathologies in AD. PMID:25926771

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  8. Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker of acute meningitis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Pablo; Prieto, Belén; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Verónica; Álvarez, Francisco V

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological culture of cerebrospinal fluid is the gold standard to differentiate between aseptic and bacterial meningitis, but this method has low sensitivity. A fast and reliable new marker would be of interest in clinical practice. Interleukin-6, secreted by T cells in response to meningeal pathogens and quickly delivered into cerebrospinal fluid, was evaluated as a marker of acute meningitis. A total of 150 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed by an electrochemiluminescence method, selected according to patient diagnosis: (a) bacterial meningitis confirmed by positive culture (n = 26); (b) bacterial meningitis with negative culture or not performed (n = 15); (c) viral meningitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or immunoglobulin G determination (n = 23); (d) viral meningitis with polymerase chain reaction negative or not performed (n = 42); and (e) controls (n = 44). Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 concentration showed significant differences between all pathologic groups and the control group (P < 0.001). As a diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis, interleukin-6 showed an area under the curve of 0.937 (95% confidence intervals: 0.895-0.978), significantly higher than those of classical biomarkers. An interleukin-6 cutoff of 1418 pg/mL showed 95.5% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity, whereas a value of 15,060 pg/mL showed 63.6% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity, for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Interleukin-6 measured by electrochemiluminescence method is a promising marker for early differentiation between aseptic and bacterial meningitis. More studies are needed to validate clinical implications for future practice in an emergency laboratory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Comparison of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid with Bacterial Meningitis Score in children

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Frederico Ribeiro; Franco, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To measure the role of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid compared with the Bacterial Meningitis Score in children with meningitis. Methods A retrospective cohort based on analysis of medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed as meningitis, seen at a private and tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Excluded were patients with critical illness, purpura, ventricular shunt or recent neurosurgery, immunosuppression, concomitant bacterial infection requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy, and those who received antibiotics 72 hours before lumbar puncture. Results The study included 503 patients. Sixty-four patients were excluded and 94 were not submitted to all tests for analysis. Of the remaining 345 patients, 7 were in the Bacterial Meningitis Group and 338 in the Aseptic Meningitis Group. There was no statistical difference between the groups. In the Bacterial Meningitis Score analysis, of the 338 patients with possible aseptic meningitis (negative cultures), 121 of them had one or more points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 64.2%, and negative predictive value of 100%. Of the 121 patients with positive Bacterial Meningitis Score, 71% (86 patients) had a positive enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion Enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid was effective to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. When the test was analyzed together with the Bacterial Meningitis Score, specificity was higher when compared to Bacterial Meningitis Score alone. PMID:28767914

  10. Perilymph composition in scala tympani of the cochlea: influence of cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hara, A; Salt, A N; Thalmann, R

    1989-11-01

    A commonly used technique to obtain cochlear perilymph for analysis has been the aspiration of samples through the round window membrane. The present study has investigated the influence of the volume withdrawn on sample composition in the guinea pig. Samples of less than 200 nl in volume taken through the round window showed relatively high glycine content, comparable to the level found in samples taken from scala vestibuli. If larger volumes are withdrawn, lower glycine levels are observed. This is consistent with cerebrospinal fluid (having a low glycine content) being drawn into scala tympani through the cochlear aqueduct and contaminating the sample. The existence of a concentration difference for glycine between scala tympani perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid suggests the physiologic communication across the cochlear aqueduct is relatively small in this species. The observation of considerable exchange between cerebrospinal fluid and perilymph, as reported in some studies, is more likely to be an artifact of the experimental procedures, rather than of physiologic significance. Alternative sampling procedures have been evaluated which allow larger volumes of uncontaminated scala tympani perilymph to be collected.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptides and monoaminergic transmitters in patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, M; Grauer, M; Isenberg, E; Hamann, G; Fischer, C; Hoffmann, K H; Blaes, F; Schimrigk, K

    1997-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia remains largely unknown. "Peripheral" as well as "central" causes have been suggested. To investigate the role of serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and peptidergic systems, we determined the concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and their breakdown product, vanillylmandelic acid, in the cerebrospinal fluid of 16 patients (55.3 +/- 8.3 years) with trigeminal neuralgia. As a marker for the dopaminergic system, we determined cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of dopamine and its metabolite, homovanillic acid. As a marker for the serotonergic system, we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. In addition, levels of the neuropeptides, substance P and somatostatin, were determined. The concentration of norepinephrine (P < 0.01) and its metabolite, vanillylmandelic acid, (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in our patients. The level of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, was also significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Also significantly decreased was 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (P < 0.01). Substance P was significantly elevated (P < 0.05). Somatostatin was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that the sum of complex neurochemical changes plays a role in the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia. The elevated substance P could support the concept of a neurogenic inflammation in the trigeminovascular system, whereas changes in the monoaminergic transmitters and their metabolites seem to reflect a more central dysfunction possibly due to a longer duration of the disease and an accompanying depression.

  12. Safety, tolerability, and cerebrospinal fluid penetration of ursodeoxycholic Acid in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parry, Gareth J; Rodrigues, Cecilia M P; Aranha, Marcia M; Hilbert, Sarah J; Davey, Cynthia; Kelkar, Praful; Low, Walter C; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive degenerative disease, which typically leads to death in 3 to 5 years. Neuronal cell death offers a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Ursodeoxycholic acid is a cytoprotective, endogenous bile acid that has been shown to be neuroprotective in experimental Huntington and Alzheimer diseases, retinal degeneration, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The objective of this research was to study the safety and the tolerability of ursodeoxycholic acid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and document effective and dose-dependent cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Eighteen patients were randomly assigned to receive ursodeoxycholic acid at doses of 15, 30, and 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained for analysis after 4 weeks of treatment. Treatment-emergent clinical and laboratory events were monitored weekly. Our data indicated that ursodeoxycholic acid is well tolerated by all subjects at all doses. We also showed that ursodeoxycholic acid is well absorbed after oral administration and crosses the blood-brain barrier in a dose-dependent manner. These results show excellent safety and tolerability of ursodeoxycholic acid. The drug penetrates the cerebrospinal fluid in a dose-dependent manner. A large, placebo-controlled clinical trial is needed to assess the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid PCR analysis and biochemistry in bodies with severe decomposition.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Vanhaebost, Jessica; Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Bonetti, Luca Reggiani

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae can be identified using the polymerase chain reaction technique in the cerebrospinal fluid of severely decomposed bodies with known, noninfectious causes of death or whether postmortem changes can lead to false positive results and thus erroneous diagnostic information. Biochemical investigations, postmortem bacteriology and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in cerebrospinal fluid were performed in a series of medico-legal autopsies that included noninfectious causes of death with decomposition, bacterial meningitis without decomposition, bacterial meningitis with decomposition, low respiratory tract infections with decomposition and abdominal infections with decomposition. In noninfectious causes of death with decomposition, postmortem investigations failed to reveal results consistent with generalized inflammation or bacterial infections at the time of death. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in cerebrospinal fluid did not identify the studied bacteria in any of these cases. The results of this study highlight the usefulness of molecular approaches in bacteriology as well as the use of alternative biological samples in postmortem biochemistry in order to obtain suitable information even in corpses with severe decompositional changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The isoform A of reticulon-4 (Nogo-A) in cerebrospinal fluid of primary brain tumor patients: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Koper, Olga Martyna; Kamińska, Joanna; Milewska, Anna; Sawicki, Karol; Mariak, Zenon; Kemona, Halina; Matowicka-Karna, Joanna

    2018-05-18

    The influence of isoform A of reticulon-4 (Nogo-A), also known as neurite outgrowth inhibitor, on primary brain tumor development was reported. Therefore the aim was the evaluation of Nogo-A concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of brain tumor patients compared with non-tumoral individuals. All serum results, except for two cases, obtained both in brain tumors and non-tumoral individuals, were below the lower limit of ELISA detection. Cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients compared to non-tumoral individuals. The univariate linear regression analysis found that if white blood cell count increases by 1 × 10 3 /μL, the mean cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentration value decreases 1.12 times. In the model of multiple linear regression analysis predictor variables influencing cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations included: diagnosis, sex, and sodium level. The mean cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentration value was 1.9 times higher for women in comparison to men. In the astrocytic brain tumor group higher sodium level occurs with lower cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations. We found the opposite situation in non-tumoral individuals. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed, that cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations change in relation to white blood cell count. In the created model of multiple linear regression analysis we found, that within predictor variables influencing CSF Nogo-A concentrations were diagnosis, sex, and sodium level. Results may be relevant to the search for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary brain tumor patients. Nogo-A concentrations were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  15. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  16. Levels of soluble delta-like ligand 1 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghong; Li, Jinyi; Jia, Yanjie

    2012-04-15

    In this study, the levels of soluble delta-like ligand 1 in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of 50 patients with tuberculous meningitis, 30 patients with viral meningitis, 20 patients with purulent meningitis and 40 subjects without central nervous system disease were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean levels of soluble delta-like ligand 1 in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with tuberculous meningitis were significantly higher compared with those from patients with viral meningitis or purulent meningitis or from subjects without central nervous system disease. Meanwhile, the level of soluble delta-like ligand 1 gradually decreased as tuberculous meningitis patients recovered. If patients deteriorated after treatment, the level of soluble delta-like ligand 1 in cerebrospinal fluid gradually increased. There was no correlation between the level of soluble delta-like ligand 1 and the protein level/cell number in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings indicate that the levels of soluble delta-like ligand 1 in cerebrospinal fluid and serum are reliable markers for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and for monitoring treatment progress. At the same time, this index is not influenced by protein levels or cell numbers in cerebrospinal fluid.

  17. Numerical simulation of cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in the healing process of hydrocephalus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholampour, S.; Fatouraee, N.; Seddighi, A. S.; Seddighi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional computational models of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and brain tissue are presented for evaluation of their hydrodynamic conditions before and after shunting for seven patients with non-communicating hydrocephalus. One healthy subject is also modeled to compare deviated patients data to normal conditions. The fluid-solid interaction simulation shows the CSF mean pressure and pressure amplitude (the superior index for evaluation of non-communicating hydrocephalus) in patients at a greater point than those in the healthy subject by 5.3 and 2 times, respectively.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal biomarkers across the spectrum of HIV infection: hierarchy of injury and detection.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Julia; Gisslen, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Fuchs, Dietmar; Shacklett, Barbara L; Hagberg, Lars; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Spudich, Serena S; Price, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    The character of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection and its effects on neuronal integrity vary with evolving systemic infection. Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal biomarkers in 143 samples from 8 HIV-infected subject groups representing a spectrum of untreated systemic HIV progression and viral suppression: primary infection; four groups of chronic HIV infection neuroasymptomatic (NA) subjects defined by blood CD4+ T cells of >350, 200-349, 50-199, and <50 cells/µL; HAD; treatment-induced viral suppression; and 'elite' controllers. Samples from 20 HIV-uninfected controls were also examined. The neuronal biomarkers included neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau, p-tau), soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα, sAPPβ) and amyloid beta (Aβ) fragments 1-42, 1-40 and 1-38. Comparison of the biomarker changes showed a hierarchy of sensitivity in detection and suggested evolving mechanisms with progressive injury. NFL was the most sensitive neuronal biomarker. Its CSF concentration exceeded age-adjusted norms in all HAD patients, 75% of NA CD4<50, 40% of NA CD4 50-199, and 42% of primary infection, indicating common neuronal injury with untreated systemic HIV disease progression as well as transiently during early infection. By contrast, only 75% of HAD subjects had abnormal CSF t-tau levels, and there were no significant differences in t-tau levels among the remaining groups. sAPPα and β were also abnormal (decreased) in HAD, showed less marked change than NFL with CD4 decline in the absence of HAD, and were not decreased in PHI. The CSF Aβ peptides and p-tau concentrations did not differ among the groups, distinguishing the HIV CNS injury profile from Alzheimer's disease. These CSF biomarkers can serve as useful tools in selected research and clinical settings for patient classification, pathogenetic analysis

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Neuronal Biomarkers across the Spectrum of HIV Infection: Hierarchy of Injury and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Gisslen, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Fuchs, Dietmar; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Hagberg, Lars; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Spudich, Serena S.; Price, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The character of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection and its effects on neuronal integrity vary with evolving systemic infection. Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal biomarkers in 143 samples from 8 HIV-infected subject groups representing a spectrum of untreated systemic HIV progression and viral suppression: primary infection; four groups of chronic HIV infection neuroasymptomatic (NA) subjects defined by blood CD4+ T cells of >350, 200–349, 50–199, and <50 cells/µL; HAD; treatment-induced viral suppression; and ‘elite’ controllers. Samples from 20 HIV-uninfected controls were also examined. The neuronal biomarkers included neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau, p-tau), soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα, sAPPβ) and amyloid beta (Aβ) fragments 1–42, 1–40 and 1–38. Comparison of the biomarker changes showed a hierarchy of sensitivity in detection and suggested evolving mechanisms with progressive injury. NFL was the most sensitive neuronal biomarker. Its CSF concentration exceeded age-adjusted norms in all HAD patients, 75% of NA CD4<50, 40% of NA CD4 50–199, and 42% of primary infection, indicating common neuronal injury with untreated systemic HIV disease progression as well as transiently during early infection. By contrast, only 75% of HAD subjects had abnormal CSF t-tau levels, and there were no significant differences in t-tau levels among the remaining groups. sAPPα and β were also abnormal (decreased) in HAD, showed less marked change than NFL with CD4 decline in the absence of HAD, and were not decreased in PHI. The CSF Aβ peptides and p-tau concentrations did not differ among the groups, distinguishing the HIV CNS injury profile from Alzheimer's disease. These CSF biomarkers can serve as useful tools in selected research and clinical settings for patient classification, pathogenetic

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration Are Decreased or Normal in Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Jørgen Jennum, Poul; Østergaard Pedersen, Lars; Czarna Bahl, Justyna Maria; Modvig, Signe; Fog, Karina; Holm, Anja; Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are altered in narcolepsy in order to evaluate whether the hypocretin deficiency and abnormal sleep-wake pattern in narcolepsy leads to neurodegeneration. Twenty-one patients with central hypersomnia (10 type 1 narcolepsy, 5 type 2 narcolepsy, and 6 idiopathic hypersomnia cases), aged 33 years on average and with a disease duration of 2-29 years, and 12 healthy controls underwent CSF analyses of the levels of β-amyloid, total tau protein (T-tau), phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau181), α-synuclein, neurofilament light chain (NF-L), and chitinase 3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1). Levels of β-amyloid were lower in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (375.4 ± 143.5 pg/mL) and type 2 narcolepsy (455.9 ± 65.0 pg/mL) compared to controls (697.9 ± 167.3 pg/mL, p < .05). Furthermore, in patients with type 1 narcolepsy, levels of T-tau (79.0 ± 27.5 pg/mL) and P-tau181 (19.1 ± 4.3 pg/mL) were lower than in controls (162.2 ± 49.9 pg/mL and 33.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, p < .05). Levels of α-synuclein, NF-L, and CHI3L1 in CSF from narcolepsy patients were similar to those of healthy individuals. Six CSF biomarkers of neurodegeneration were decreased or normal in narcolepsy indicating that taupathy, synucleinopathy, and immunopathy are not prevalent in narcolepsy patients with a disease duration of 2-29 years. Lower CSF levels of β-amyloid, T-tau protein, and P-tau181 in narcolepsy may indicate that hypocretin deficiency and an abnormal sleep-wake pattern alter the turnover of these proteins in the central nervous system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: structure and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Conrad E; Stopa, Edward G; McMillan, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) displays fundamentally different properties than blood-brain barrier (BBB). With brisk blood flow (10 × brain) and highly permeable capillaries, the human CP provides the CNS with a high turnover rate of fluid (∼400,000 μL/day) containing micronutrients, peptides, and hormones for neuronal networks. Renal-like basement membranes in microvessel walls and underneath the epithelium filter large proteins such as ferritin and immunoglobulins. Type IV collagen (α3, α4, and α5) in the subepithelial basement membrane confers kidney-like permselectivity. As in the glomerulus, so also in CP, the basolateral membrane utrophin A and colocalized dystrophin impart structural stability, transmembrane signaling, and ion/water homeostasis. Extensive infoldings of the plasma-facing basal labyrinth together with lush microvilli at the CSF-facing membrane afford surface area, as great as that at BBB, for epithelial solute and water exchange. CSF formation occurs by basolateral carrier-mediated uptake of Na+, Cl-, and HCO3-, followed by apical release via ion channel conductance and osmotic flow of water through AQP1 channels. Transcellular epithelial active transport and secretion are energized and channeled via a highly dense organelle network of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi; bleb formation occurs at the CSF surface. Claudin-2 in tight junctions helps to modulate the lower electrical resistance and greater permeability in CP than at BBB. Still, ratio analyses of influx coefficients (Kin) for radiolabeled solutes indicate that paracellular diffusion of small nonelectrolytes (e.g., urea and mannitol) through tight junctions is restricted; molecular sieving is proportional to solute size. Protein/peptide movement across BCSFB is greatly limited, occurring by paracellular leaks through incomplete tight junctions and low-capacity transcellular pinocytosis/exocytosis. Steady-state concentration ratios, CSF

  2. A chronic fatigue syndrome – related proteome in human cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Maibach, Hilda; Clauw, Daniel J; Pannell, Lewis K; Hess S, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Persian Gulf War Illness (PGI), and fibromyalgia are overlapping symptom complexes without objective markers or known pathophysiology. Neurological dysfunction is common. We assessed cerebrospinal fluid to find proteins that were differentially expressed in this CFS-spectrum of illnesses compared to control subjects. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 10 CFS, 10 PGI, and 10 control subjects (50 μl/subject) were pooled into one sample per group (cohort 1). Cohort 2 of 12 control and 9 CFS subjects had their fluids (200 μl/subject) assessed individually. After trypsin digestion, peptides were analyzed by capillary chromatography, quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, peptide sequencing, bioinformatic protein identification, and statistical analysis. Results Pooled CFS and PGI samples shared 20 proteins that were not detectable in the pooled control sample (cohort 1 CFS-related proteome). Multilogistic regression analysis (GLM) of cohort 2 detected 10 proteins that were shared by CFS individuals and the cohort 1 CFS-related proteome, but were not detected in control samples. Detection of ≥1 of a select set of 5 CFS-related proteins predicted CFS status with 80% concordance (logistic model). The proteins were α-1-macroglobulin, amyloid precursor-like protein 1, keratin 16, orosomucoid 2 and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Overall, 62 of 115 proteins were newly described. Conclusion This pilot study detected an identical set of central nervous system, innate immune and amyloidogenic proteins in cerebrospinal fluids from two independent cohorts of subjects with overlapping CFS, PGI and fibromyalgia. Although syndrome names and definitions were different, the proteome and presumed pathological mechanism(s) may be shared. PMID:16321154

  3. Raised Proinflammatory Cytokine Production Within Cerebrospinal Fluid Precedes Fever Onset in Patients With Neurosurgery-Associated Bacterial Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo-Hao; Tu, Po-Hsun; Chen, Nan-Yu; Yip, Ping K; Bowes, Amy L; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chan, She-Hung; Kung, Chua-Chi; Wang, Alvin Yi-Chou; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether selective inflammatory cytokine concentrations within cerebrospinal fluid are useful markers for the differential diagnosis of aseptic and bacterial meningitis within neurosurgical patients. Prospective, open-label, observational, cohort study. Neurosurgical ICU, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Thirty-two consecutive neurosurgical patients who had postoperative fever following external ventricular drain insertion for the treatment of brain injury underwent serial cerebrospinal fluid cytokine analysis pre and post fever to determine the value of such markers in ascertaining the differential diagnosis of meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected on the day of fever onset, as well as on day 2 and 4 pre and post fever development. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-β, and procalcitonin were subsequently analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis techniques. Inflammatory marker levels were compared among febrile aseptic, bacterial, and nonmeningitis patients to determine cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory changes over time. Significant increases in cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor -α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels were observed within patients with bacterial meningitis at fever onset, which was not evident in aseptic or nonmeningitis patients. Furthermore, significant increases in cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels were detected as early as 4 days prior to fever onset within patients with bacterial meningitis when compared with both aseptic and nonmeningitis groups. Interestingly, procalcitonin was only significantly increased in patients with bacterial meningitis on the fourth day post fever. The present study suggests that raised cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor -α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 in a

  4. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Patients with Alzheimer disease with multiple microbleeds: relation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cognition.

    PubMed

    Goos, Jeroen D C; Kester, M I; Barkhof, Frederik; Klein, Martin; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2009-11-01

    Microbleeds (MBs) are commonly observed in Alzheimer disease. A minority of patients has multiple MBs. We aimed to investigate associations of multiple MBs in Alzheimer disease with clinical and MRI characteristics and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Patients with Alzheimer disease with multiple (>or=8) MBs on T2*-weighted MRI were matched for age, sex, and field strength with patients with Alzheimer disease without MBs on a 1:2 basis. We included 21 patients with multiple MBs (73+/-7 years, 33% female) and 42 patients without MBs (72+/-7 years, 38% female). Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess dementia severity. Cognitive functions were assessed using neuropsychological tests. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (0 to 4), global cortical atrophy (0 to 3), and white matter hyperintensities (0 to 30) were assessed using visual rating scales. In a subset, apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta 1-42, total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 were determined. Patients with multiple MBs performed worse on Mini-Mental State Examination (multiple MB: 17+/-7; no MB: 22+/-4, P<0.05) despite similar disease duration. Atrophy was not related to presence of MBs, but patients with multiple MBs had more white matter hyperintensities (multiple MB: 8.8+/-4.8; no MB: 3.2+/-3.6, P<0.05). Adjusted for age, sex, white matter hyperintensities, and medial temporal lobe atrophy, the multiple MB group additionally performed worse on Visual Association Test object naming and animal fluency. Patients with multiple MBs had lower cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta 1-42 levels (307+/-61) than patients without MBs (505+/-201, P<0.05). Adjusted for the same covariates, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 were higher in the multiple MB group. Microbleeds are associated with the clinical manifestation and biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer disease, suggesting possible involvement of MBs in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

  6. An update on the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis as a diagnostic tool in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Zardini, Elisabetta; Franciotta, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS. Areas covered: The authors discuss pros and cons of CSF analysis, including critical evaluations of both well-established, and promising diagnostic and prognostic laboratory tools. New acquisitions on the CSF and cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics are also presented. The authors searched the PubMed database for English-language articles reported between January 2010 and June 2016, using the key words 'multiple sclerosis', 'cerebrospinal fluid', 'oligoclonal bands'. Reference lists of relevant articles were scanned for additional studies. Expert commentary: The availability of performing high-quality, routine CSF tests in specialized laboratories, the emerging potential of novel CSF biomarkers, and the trend for early treatments should induce a reappraisal of CSF analysis for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in MS. Further procedural and methodological improvements seem to be necessary in both research and translational diagnostic CSF settings.

  7. PENETRATION OF RADIOACTIVE SODIUM AND CHLORIDE INTO CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND AQUEOUS HUMOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ch'uan

    1948-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on six dogs to determine the rate of penetration of Cl33 and Na24 across the blood-aqueous humor and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers after intravenous injection of the radioactive ions. The radioactivity measurements were made with an immersion type of Geiger-Müller counter. 2. The concentrations of the labelled ions in the anterior chamber and the cisterna magna increase slowly to approach that of plasma. The rate of penetration k is calculated from a simple exponential equation with the half-value interval t 0.5 or the time required for the labelled-ion concentration in the fluid to reach 50 per cent of that of plasma. The average t 0.5 for Cl38 and Na24 in aqueous humor are 34.3 ± 9 and 27.3 ± 9 minutes, respectively, while those for cerebrospinal fluid are 90 ± 6 and 95 ± 6 minutes, respectively. 3. A study of the radioactivity in plasma was made to determine the per cent remaining after a steady state was reached. By means of this determination the sodium and chloride space was calculated to be 33 ± 5 per cent. PMID:18920614

  8. A lateral flow assay (LFA) for the rapid detection of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis using cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnes; Sastre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Correia, Silvia; Monedero, Alejandro; Toledo, Andrea; Hernandez, Maricela; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2016-10-27

    A lateral flow assay (LFA) for the diagnosis and monitoring of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis, has been developed. The assay is based on the use of the monoclonal antibody HP10, and when applied to cerebrospinal fluid, correctly identified 34 cases of active extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis, but was negative with 26 samples from treated and cured neurocysticercosis patients and with 20 samples from unrelated neurological diseases. There was complete agreement between the HP10 Ag-ELISA results and the HP10-LFA. The HP10-LFA thus has utility for diagnosis and treatment of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis, frequently a more dangerous form of the infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Cronobacter sakazakii DNA Detection in Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mimic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piombo, Marianna; Chiarello, Daniela; Corbetto, Marzia; Di Pino, Giovanni; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Riva, Elisabetta; De Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old male noticed progressive weakness of the right lower limb with gait disturbance. Over the following months, motor deficits worsened, spreading to the right upper limb. Electromyography showed active denervation in the upper and lower limb muscles. A diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was made. About 2 years after symptom onset, gradual improvement occurred. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed about 3 years after the beginning of symptoms identified Cronobacter sakazakii. Since no other possible causes were identified, we suggest that an almost completely reversible ALS-like syndrome had been triggered by Cronobacter infection in our immunocompetent patient. PMID:26955334

  10. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  11. IgLON5-Associated Encephalitis With Atypical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cerebrospinal Fluid Changes.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Massimiliano; Amir, Rizvana; De Volder, Ilse; Lammens, Martin; Huyskens, Jef; Willekens, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    IgLON5-associated encephalitis is a syndrome with different clinical presentations consisting of sleep dysfunction, bulbar dysfunction, chorea, and progressive supranuclear palsy-like symptoms whereas dysautonomy and cognitive decline usually appear in later stages of the disease. We report a case of a patient with IgLON5-associated encephalitis presenting with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and atypical inflammatory lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging, oligoclonal bands on cerebrospinal fluid, anti-IgLON5 antibodies exclusively of the IgG1 class, and a fierce inflammatory reaction on brain biopsy, who responded favorably to immunotherapy.

  12. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak from an anomalous thoracic nerve root: case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Campbell, Robert K; Arnaout, Omar; Curran, Yvonne M; Shaibani, Ali; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2016-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 28-year-old woman with a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak from the sleeve of a redundant thoracic nerve root. She presented with postural headaches and orthostatic symptoms indicative of intracranial hypotension. CT myelography revealed that the lesion was located at the T-11 nerve root. After failure of conservative management, including blood patches and thrombin glue injections, the patient was successfully treated with surgical decompression and ligation of the duplicate nerve, resulting in full resolution of her orthostatic symptoms.

  13. Serotonin Metabolites in the Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: In Search of a Biomarker of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rognum, Ingvar J.; Tran, Hoa; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Hyland, Keith; Paterson, David S.; Haynes, Robin L.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Harty, Brian J.; Mena, Othon; Krous, Henry F.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical biomarkers are urgently needed in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to identify living infants at risk because it because it occurs without occurs without clinical warning. Previously, we reported multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in nuclei of the medulla oblongata that help mediate protective responses to homeostatic stressors. Here we test the hypothesis that 5-HT-related measures are abnormal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SIDS infants compared to autopsy controls, as a first step towards their assessment as diagnostic biomarkers of medullary pathology. Levels of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), the degradative products of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 57 SIDS and 29 non-SIDS autopsy cases. Tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr), the substrates of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were also measured. There were no significant differences in 5-HIAA, Trp, HVA, or Tyr levels between the SIDS and non-SIDS groups. These data preclude use of 5-HIAA, HVA, Trp or Tyr measurements as CSF biomarkers of 5-HT medullary pathology in infants at risk. They provide, however, important information about monoaminergic measurements in human CSF at autopsy and their developmental profile in infancy that is applicable to multiple pediatric disorders beyond SIDS. PMID:24423636

  14. Fluconazole levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid according to daily dosage in patients with cryptococcosis and other fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Schiave, Letícia Aparecida; Nascimento, Erika; Vilar, Fernando Crivelenti; de Haes, Tissiana Marques; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto de; Martinez, Roberto

    Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. The only selection criterion was treatment with fluconazole, which was performed with a generic or similar form of the drug. Fluconazole level was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility profile of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from the patients was assessed by broth microdilution. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid fluconazole levels were found to be related to the fluconazole daily dose, and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of this antifungal for the Cryptococcus spp. isolates. A good correlation was observed between serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration. In conclusion, treatment with non-original fluconazole under usual medical practice conditions results in appropriate blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of the drug for inhibiting Cryptococcus spp. susceptible to this antifungal drug. The relatively common failures of neurocryptococcosis treatment appear not to be due to insufficient fluconazole levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially with the use of daily doses of 400-800mg. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Refractory Childhood Epilepsy: Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurotransmitters and Amino Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sariego-Jamardo, Andrea; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Castejón, Esperanza; García-Arenas, Dolores; Molero-Luis, Marta; Ormazábal, Aida; Sanmartí, Francesc Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the ketogenic diet remain unclear, but several predictors of response have been proposed. We aimed is to study the relationship between the etiology of epilepsy, cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet. We studied 60 patients who began classic ketogenic diet treatment for refractory epilepsy. In 24 of 60 individuals, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids in baseline conditions. Mean age at epilepsy onset was 24 months, 83.3% were focal epilepsies, and in 51.7% the etiology of the epilepsy was unknown. Six months after initiating the ketogenic diet, it was effective (greater than a 50% reduction in seizure frequency) in 31.6% of patients. We did not find a link between rate of efficacy for the ketogenic diet and etiologies of epilepsy, nor did we find a link between the rate of efficacy for the ketogenic diet and cerebrospinal fluid pterins and biogenic amines concentrations. However, we found statistically significant differences for lysine and arginine values in the cerebrospinal fluid between ketogenic diet responders and nonresponders, but not for the other amino acids analyzed. The values of some amino acids were significantly different in relationship with the ketogenic diet efficacy; however, the epilepsy etiology and the cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amine and pterin values were not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intranetwork and internetwork connectivity in patients with Alzheimer disease and the association with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Marina; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Teixeira, Camila Vieira de Ligo; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Carletti-Cassani, Ana Flávia Mac Knight; Vicentini, Jéssica Elias; Magalhães, Thamires Naela Cardoso; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease. We analyzed 57 regions from 8 networks. Additionally, we performed correlation tests to investigate possible associations between the networks' functional connectivity and the protein levels obtained from the CSF of patients with aMCI and Alzheimer disease. Our sample included 41 patients with Alzheimer disease, 35 with aMCI and 48 controls. We found that the main connectivity abnormalities in those with Alzheimer disease occurred between the DMN and task-positive networks: these patients presented not only a decreased anticorrelation between some regions, but also an inversion of the correlation signal (positive correlation instead of anticorrelation). Those with aMCI did not present statistically different connectivity from patients with Alzheimer disease or controls. Abnormal levels of CSF proteins were associated with functional disconnectivity between several regions in both the aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease groups, extending well beyond the DMN or temporal areas. The presented data are cross-sectional in nature, and our findings are dependent on the choice of seed regions used. We found that the main functional connectivity abnormalities occur between the DMN and task-positive networks and that the pathological levels of CSF biomarkers correlate with functional connectivity disruption in patients with Alzheimer disease.

  17. Intranetwork and internetwork connectivity in patients with Alzheimer disease and the association with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Marina; de Campos, Brunno Machado; de Ligo Teixeira, Camila Vieira; Casseb, Raphael Fernandes; Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Ana Flávia; Vicentini, Jéssica Elias; Magalhães, Thamires Naela Cardoso; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2017-01-01

    Background In the last decade, many studies have reported abnormal connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Few studies, however, have investigated other networks and their association with pathophysiological proteins obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods We performed 3 T imaging in patients with mild Alzheimer disease, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls, and we collected CSF samples from the patients with aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease. We analyzed 57 regions from 8 networks. Additionally, we performed correlation tests to investigate possible associations between the networks’ functional connectivity and the protein levels obtained from the CSF of patients with aMCI and Alzheimer disease. Results Our sample included 41 patients with Alzheimer disease, 35 with aMCI and 48 controls. We found that the main connectivity abnormalities in those with Alzheimer disease occurred between the DMN and task-positive networks: these patients presented not only a decreased anticorrelation between some regions, but also an inversion of the correlation signal (positive correlation instead of anti-correlation). Those with aMCI did not present statistically different connectivity from patients with Alzheimer disease or controls. Abnormal levels of CSF proteins were associated with functional disconnectivity between several regions in both the aMCI and mild Alzheimer disease groups, extending well beyond the DMN or temporal areas. Limitations The presented data are cross-sectional in nature, and our findings are dependent on the choice of seed regions used. Conclusion We found that the main functional connectivity abnormalities occur between the DMN and task-positive networks and that the pathological levels of CSF biomarkers correlate with functional connectivity disruption in patients with Alzheimer disease. PMID:28375076

  18. Vaginal Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak as a Complication of Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Houten, John K; Smith, Shiela; Schwartz, Amit Y

    2017-08-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is a common neurosurgical procedure to treat hydrocephalus that diverts cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral ventricles to the peritoneal cavity for reabsorption. The distal catheter may potentially migrate through any potential or iatrogenic opening in the peritoneal cavity. Increasingly successfully management of childhood hydrocephalus and adult-onset conditions leading to hydrocephalus, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, is leading many adult female patients harboring VP shunts needing to undergo hysterectomy. Hysterectomy creates a potential defect though which a VP shunt catheter may migrate. It is not known whether the hysterectomy cuff closure technique may affect the likelihood of distal catheter migration though the repair site. We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a VP shunt who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy via an open vaginal cuff technique who subsequently presented with vaginal cerebrospinal fluid leakage secondary to migration of the distal shunt catheter through the hysterectomy cuff. Vaginal migration of the distal VP shunt catheter is a possible complication of hysterectomy. The authors postulate that an open cuff hysterectomy closure technique may increase the risk of catheter migration, an issue that may be better understood with further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Changes in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with tuberculosis of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Michał; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the parameters of the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with tuberculosis of the central nervous system confirmed by culture or molecular methods, in comparison to patients without such confirmation. The analysis of medical documentation of 13 patients with CNS tuberculosis, 10 male and 3 female who were hospitalized at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Kraków in years 2001-2006 was performed. Following parameters of the cerebrospinal fluid were taken into account in both groups of patients: cytologic analysis, protein, glucose and chloride concentration. Statistical analysis was done using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. The only parameter for which statistically significant difference between the two groups of patients was found was the level of glucose in CSF (p<0.05). Lower glucose concentration was observed in the group with etiologically confirmed CNS tuberculosis. Moreover additional localisation of tuberculosis was observed in this group of patients. Introduction of the molecular biology methods in diagnosis allowed to detect the etiologic factor more often.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA in Residual Leukemia Cells in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Kathryn; Kusao, Ian; Troelstrup, David; Agsalda, Melissa; Shiramizu, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This feasibility study was designed to assess the ability to measure mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells that contributed to minimal disease/persistent or residual disease (MD/PRD) from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Increase in mtDNA copies in cancer cells has been suggested to play a role in MD/PRD. CSF as well as blood specimens from 6 children were assayed for MD/PRD and mtDNA copy numbers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of 7 MD/PRD-positive specimens, 6 had increased mtDNA copy numbers; while 11 MD/PRD-negative specimens had no increase in mtDNA copy numbers, p < 0.003. This is the first proof-of-concept study to measure mtDNA copy numbers in MD/PRD-positive CSF specimens from children with ALL. Increase of mtDNA copy numbers in MD/PRD childhood ALL cells and its significance as a mechanism for recurrence requires further investigation. Keywords Minimal residual disease; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Central nervous system; Cerebrospinal fluid; Mitochondria PMID:21331151

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks and encephaloceles of temporal bone origin: nuances to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Jeevan, Dhruve S; Ormond, D Ryan; Kim, Ana H; Meiteles, Lawrence Z; Stidham, Katrina R; Linstrom, Christopher; Murali, Raj

    2015-04-01

    Temporal bone encephalocele has become less common as the incidence of chronic mastoid infection and surgery for this condition has decreased. As a result, the diagnosis is often delayed, and the encephalocele is often an incidental finding. This situation can result in serious neurologic complications with patients presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis. We review the occurrence of, characteristics of, and repair experience with temporal encephaloceles from 2000-2012. We conducted a retrospective review of 32 patients undergoing combined mastoidectomy and middle cranial fossa craniotomy for the treatment of temporal encephalocele. The diagnosis of temporal encephalocele was made in all patients using high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. At the time of diagnosis, 12 patients had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid leak; other common presenting symptoms included hearing loss and ear fullness. Tegmen defect was most commonly due to chronic otitis media (n = 14). Of these patients, 8 had undergone prior mastoidectomy, suggesting an iatrogenic cause. Other etiologies included radiation exposure, congenital defects, and spontaneous defects. Additionally, 2 patients presented with meningitis; 1 patient had serious neurologic deficits resulting from venous infarction. The risk of severe neurologic complications after the herniation of intracranial contents through a tegmen defect necessitates prompt recognition and appropriate management. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aid in definitive diagnosis. A combined mastoid/middle fossa approach allows for sustainable repair with adequate exposure of defects and support of intracranial contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings contribute to the early differentiation between infectious and noninfectious encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Miguel; Ameghino, Lucía; Cammarota, Ángel; Nogués, Martín A; Del Castillo, Marcelo; Farez, Mauricio F

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases), 53 (65%) men and 29 (35%) women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%), VZV (10%), HSV-2 (5%) and EBV (5%). Twenty-three patients (22% of the series) had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001) and fever (p = 0.008) were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively). Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.

  3. Major depressive disorder: insight into candidate cerebrospinal fluid protein biomarkers from proteomics studies.

    PubMed

    Al Shweiki, Mhd Rami; Oeckl, Patrick; Steinacker, Petra; Hengerer, Bastian; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Otto, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of global disability, and an increasing body of literature suggests different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins as biomarkers of MDD. The aim of this review is to summarize the suggested CSF biomarkers and to analyze the MDD proteomics studies of CSF and brain tissues for promising biomarker candidates. Areas covered: The review includes the human studies found by a PubMed search using the following terms: 'depression cerebrospinal fluid biomarker', 'major depression biomarker CSF', 'depression CSF biomarker', 'proteomics depression', 'proteomics biomarkers in depression', 'proteomics CSF biomarker in depression', and 'major depressive disorder CSF'. The literature analysis highlights promising biomarker candidates and demonstrates conflicting results on others. It reveals 42 differentially regulated proteins in MDD that were identified in more than one proteomics study. It discusses the diagnostic potential of the biomarker candidates and their association with the suggested pathologies. Expert commentary: One ultimate goal of finding biomarkers for MDD is to improve the diagnostic accuracy to achieve better treatment outcomes; due to the heterogeneous nature of MDD, using bio-signatures could be a good strategy to differentiate MDD from other neuropsychiatric disorders. Notably, further validation studies of the suggested biomarkers are still needed.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity does not affect survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Galán, L; Matías-Guiu, J; Matias-Guiu, J A; Yáñez, M; Pytel, V; Guerrero-Sola, A; Vela-Souto, A; Arranz-Tagarro, J A; Gómez-Pinedo, U; García, A G

    2017-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from some patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the neuronal viability of primary cell cultures of motor neurons. We aimed to study the potential clinical consequences associated with the cytotoxicity of CSF in a cohort of patients with ALS. We collected CSF from thirty-one patients with ALS. We analysed cytotoxicity by incubating it into the primary cultures of motor cortex neurons. Neural viability was quantified after 24 hours using the colorimetric MTT reduction assay. All patients were followed up from the moment of diagnosis to death, and a complete evaluation during disease progression and survival was performed, including gastrostomy and respiratory assistance. Twenty-one patients (67.7%) presented a cytotoxic CSF. There were no significant differences between patients with and without cytotoxicity regarding mean time from symptom onset to the diagnosis, from the diagnosis to death, from the diagnosis to respiratory assistance with BIPAP, from diagnosis to gastrostomy and from the onset of symptoms to death. In Cox regression analysis, bulbar onset, but not cytotoxicity, gender or age at onset, was associated with a lower risk of survival. Cerebrospinal fluid cytotoxicity was not associated with differential survival rates. This suggests that the presence of cytotoxicity in CSF, measured through neuronal viability in primary cultures of motor cortex neurons, could reflect different mechanisms of the disease, but it does not predict disease outcome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Elevated levels of ferritin in the cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Gao, L; Wang, D; Zang, D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to detect changes in the levels of ferritin heavy chain (FHC), ferritin light chain (FLC), and transferrin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and to analyze the correlations between the levels of these proteins and various clinical parameters. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were obtained from 54 ALS patients and 46 non-inflammatory neurological disease control (non-INDC) patients. CSF and serum FHC, FLC, and transferring levels were measured via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent method using a commercial ELISA kit, and the times from onset (durations), ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-r) scores, and disease progression rates (DPRs) were analyzed by registered neurologists. Statistical analysis was performed via Prism software. Compared with controls, ALS patients exhibited significantly increased FHC and FLC levels in CSF, which were positively correlated with DPR and negatively correlated with duration. Serum transferrin levels were significantly increased in ALS patients but were not correlated with disease progression. FHC and FLC in CSF rapidly increased as the disease worsened. This study demonstrated that the clinical measurement of FHC and FLC in CSF may be beneficial for disease differentiation and evaluating progression in patients with ALS. Compared with levels in serum, the levels of FHC and FLC in CSF might be more reliable for diagnosing and assessing the progression of ALS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lipocalin 2 in cerebrospinal fluid as a marker of acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early differential diagnosis between acute bacterial and viral meningitis is problematic. We aimed to investigate whether the detection of lipocalin 2, a protein of the acute innate immunity response, may be used as a marker for acute bacterial meningitis. Methods Transgenic mice expressing the human transferrin were infected by intraperitoneal route and were imaged. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sampled up to 48hours post- infection to measure lipocalin 2. We also tested a collection of 90 and 44 human CSF with confirmed acute bacterial or acute viral meningitis respectively. Results Lipocalin 2 was detected after 5 h in CSF during experimental infection in mice. Lipocalin 2 levels were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients with confirmed acute bacterial meningitis (mean 125 pg/mL, range 106–145 pg/mL) than in patients with acute viral meningitis (mean 2 pg/mL, range 0–6 pg/mL) with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 96% and a negative predictive value of 71% in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis. Conclusions Increased levels of lipocalin 2 in cerebrospinal fluid may discriminate between acute bacterial and viral meningitis in patients with clinical syndrome of meningitis. PMID:24885531

  7. [Endonasal endoscopic surgery in the treatment of spontaneous or post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (csf) leaks].

    PubMed

    Nallet, E; Decq, P; Bezzo, A; Le Lievre, G; Peynegre, R; Coste, A

    1998-10-01

    The incidence and the risk of meningitidis justify treatment in all cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea with spontaneous etiology or after traumatic injury. Endonasal surgery with endoscopic instruments provides many advantages compared with transcranial or transfacial approach used by neurosurgeons. We report our experience and our surgical technique in the treatment of CSF leaks in 5 patients. Intrathecal injection of fluoresceine was very useful in all cases for detecting the CSF leak. Total or selected ethmoidectomy depended on the localization of the leakage. Wide sphenoidotomy enables detection and repair of CSF leaks from the sphenoid cavity. A free graft of inferior turbinal mucosal was used to repair the breache. This rapid low morbidity surgery offered secure closure of rhinorrhea in 4 cases after one procedure and in 1 case after two procedures with an average follow up of 22 months. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea can be managed in first line therapy with endoscopic intranasal surgical techniques when they are localized in the anterior ethmoid or in the sphenoid cavity.

  8. GWAS of cerebrospinal fluid tau levels identifies risk variants for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Kauwe, John S K; Harari, Oscar; Jin, Sheng Chih; Cai, Yefei; Karch, Celeste M; Benitez, Bruno A; Jeng, Amanda T; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bailey, Matthew; McKean, David; Shulman, Joshua M; De Jager, Philip L; Chibnik, Lori; Bennett, David A; Arnold, Steve E; Harold, Denise; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Williams, Julie; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Haines, Jonathan L; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Farrer, Lindsay A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Peskind, Elaine R; Galasko, Douglas; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Goate, Alison M

    2013-04-24

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau), and Aβ₄₂ are established biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been used as quantitative traits for genetic analyses. We performed the largest genome-wide association study for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau/ptau levels published to date (n = 1,269), identifying three genome-wide significant loci for CSF tau and ptau: rs9877502 (p = 4.89 × 10⁻⁹ for tau) located at 3q28 between GEMC1 and OSTN, rs514716 (p = 1.07 × 10⁻⁸ and p = 3.22 × 10⁻⁹ for tau and ptau, respectively), located at 9p24.2 within GLIS3 and rs6922617 (p = 3.58 × 10⁻⁸ for CSF ptau) at 6p21.1 within the TREM gene cluster, a region recently reported to harbor rare variants that increase AD risk. In independent data sets, rs9877502 showed a strong association with risk for AD, tangle pathology, and global cognitive decline (p = 2.67 × 10⁻⁴, 0.039, 4.86 × 10⁻⁵, respectively) illustrating how this endophenotype-based approach can be used to identify new AD risk loci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-06

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  10. Clearing Extracellular Alpha-Synuclein from Cerebrospinal Fluid: A New Therapeutic Strategy in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Padilla-Zambrano, Huber S; Tomás-Zapico, Cristina; García, Benjamin Fernández

    2018-03-23

    This concept article aims to show the rationale of targeting extracellular α-Synuclein (α-Syn) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a new strategy to remove this protein from the brain in Parkinson's disease (PD). Misfolding and intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein into Lewy bodies are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. Recent research has shown that small amounts of monomeric and oligomeric α-synuclein are released from neuronal cells by exocytosis and that this extracellular alpha-synuclein contributes to neurodegeneration, progressive spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology, and neuroinflammation. In PD, extracellular oligomeric-α-synuclein moves in constant equilibrium between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and the CSF. Thus, we expect that continuous depletion of oligomeric-α-synuclein in the CSF will produce a steady clearance of the protein in the ISF, preventing transmission and deposition in the brain.

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid from epileptic dogs.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Sumita, Maho; Horitani, Yusuke; Tamai, Reo; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Komori, Masayuki; Takenaka, Shigeo

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV escape associated with progressive neurologic dysfunction in patients on antiretroviral therapy with well controlled plasma viral load.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Ferretti, Francesca; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Fuchs, Dietmar; Boschini, Antonio; Gisslén, Magnus; Angoff, Nancy; Price, Richard W; Cinque, Paola; Spudich, Serena

    2012-09-10

    To characterize HIV-infected patients with neurosymptomatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 'escape', defined as detectable CSF HIV RNA in the setting of treatment-suppressed plasma levels or CSF RNA more than 1-log higher than plasma RNA. Retrospective case series. Four urban medical centers in the United States and Europe. Virologically controlled HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with progressive neurologic abnormalities who were determined to have CSF 'escape'. INTERVENTION Optimization of ART based upon drug susceptibility and presumed central nervous system exposure. Levels of CSF HIV RNA and inflammatory markers, clinical signs and symptoms, and MRI findings. Ten patients presented with new neurologic abnormalities, which included sensory, motor, and cognitive manifestations. Median CSF HIV RNA was 3900 copies/ml (range 134-9056), whereas median plasma HIV RNA was 62 copies/ml (range <50 to 380). Median CD4 T-cell count was 482 cells/μl (range 290-660). All patients had been controlled to less than 500 copies/ml for median 27.5 months (range 2-96) and five of 10 had been suppressed to less than 50 copies/ml for median 19.5 months (range 2-96). Patients had documentation of a stable ART regimen for median 21 months (range 9-60). All had CSF pleocytosis or elevated CSF protein; seven of eight had abnormalities on MRI; and six of seven harbored CSF resistance mutations. Following optimization of ART, eight of nine patients improved clinically. The development of neurologic symptoms in patients on ART with low or undetectable plasma HIV levels may be an indication of CSF 'escape'. This study adds to a growing body of literature regarding this rare condition in well controlled HIV infection.

  13. [Blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier damage of rats induced by lead acetate or nano-lead exposure].

    PubMed

    Feng, P P; Zhai, F J; Jiang, S F; Wu, J Z; Xue, L; Zheng, M M; Zhou, L L; Meng, C Y; Cao, M Y; Zhang, Y S

    2016-05-20

    To investigate the damage of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) of rats induced by lead and nano-lead exposure in order to provide the basis for mechanism study of lead neurotoxicity. 39 male rats were randomly divided into control group, lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group. Rats in lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group were given 20 mg/kg lead acetate or nano-lead by oral gavage and rats in control groups were given the same amount saline for 9 weeks.Morris maze was used to test the learning function, serum albumin and CSF albumin were determined by ELISA. Confocal laser scanning microscope was applied to detect ZO-1 and Occludin protein expression in choroid plexus, real time-PCR was used to test the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin mRNA expression. Pathological changes of choroid plexus cells were observed by the electron microscopy. Compared with the control group, the escape latency of rats in lead acetate or nano-lead exposure group were longer and times of across platform were less. The levels of CSF albumin and the CSF albumin index in lead acetate or nano-lead exposed rats were obviously higher, and the fluorescence intensity of ZO-1, Occludin as well as mRNA expressions were lower than those in control group(P<0.05). Compared with lead acetate exposed group, the levels of CSF albumin and the CSF albumin index in nano-lead exposure group were higher. The fluorescence intensity and mRNA expressions of ZO-1, Occludin in nano-lead exposure group were than those in lead acetate group(P<0.05). Electron microscopy revealed that lead acetate or nano-lead exposure could induce shorter microvillus of choroid plexus epithelial cells, mitochondrion destruction and partial disconnection in intracellular junctions between two adjacent epithelial cells. Lead acetate and nano-lead exposed can result in the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier damage, which may involve in the process of lead induced neurotoxicity. Meanwhile, nano

  14. Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Concentration With Alzheimer Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Skillbäck, Tobias; Mattsson, Niklas; Trojanowski, John Q; Portelius, Erik; Shaw, Leslie M; Weiner, Michael W; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which large-caliber axonal degeneration contributes to Alzheimer disease (AD) progression is unknown. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NFL) concentration is a general marker of damage to large-caliber myelinated axons. To test whether CSF NFL concentration is associated with cognitive decline and imaging evidence of neurodegeneration and white matter change in AD. A commercially available immunoassay was used to analyze CSF NFL concentration in a cohort of patients with AD (n = 95) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 192) and in cognitively normal individuals (n = 110) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The study dates were January 2005 to December 2007. The NFL analysis was performed in November 2014. Correlation was investigated among baseline CSF NFL concentration and longitudinal cognitive impairment, white matter change, and regional brain atrophy within each diagnostic group. Cerebrospinal fluid NFL concentration (median [interquartile range]) was higher in the AD dementia group (1479 [1134-1842] pg/mL), stable MCI group (no progression to AD during follow-up; 1182 [923-1687] pg/mL), and progressive MCI group (MCI with progression to AD dementia during follow-up; 1336 [1061-1693] pg/mL) compared with control participants (1047 [809-1265] pg/mL) (P < .001 for all) and in the AD dementia group compared with the stable MCI group (P = .01). In the MCI group, a higher CSF NFL concentration was associated with faster brain atrophy over time as measured by changes in whole-brain volume (β = -4177, P = .003), ventricular volume (β = 1835, P < .001), and hippocampus volume (β = -54.22, P < .001); faster disease progression as reflected by decreased Mini-Mental State Examination scores (β = -1.077, P < .001) and increased Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale scores (β = 2.30, P < .001); and faster white matter intensity change (

  15. [Experimental study on long-term prevention effect of chitosan electrospun membrane on cerebrospinal fluid leakage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingfeng; Hou, Chunlin; Dou, Yuandong; Lin, Ye; Lei, Deqiao

    2014-08-01

    To study the long-term prevention effect of self-developed chitosan electrospun membrane on cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Twenty-five healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were selected to prepare the bilateral dural defect (0.8 cem x 0.8 cm in size) via midline incision of head. Defect of the right was repaired with chitosan electrospun membrane as the experimental group; defect of the left was not repaired as the control group. At 2-16 weeks after operation, one rabbit was sacrificed for the general observation of inflammatory response surrounding bone window and absorption of chitosan electrospun membrane; at 3 and 6 weeks after operation, 5 rabbits were sacrificed for sampling to observe histological change and collagen expression by_HE and Masson staining, and to measure the expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by immunohistochemical staining. No inflammatory reaction of swelling, exudation, and sppuration appeared in the skin and subcutaneous tissue after operation in 2 groups. There was no adhesion around the chitosan electrospun membrane, and new fiber membrane formed under the chitosan electrospun membrane in the experimental group; no cerebrospinal fluid leakage happened; the chitosan electrospun membrane was gradually degraded with time, and was completely absorbed at 16 weeks. There was uneven scar around the dural detect in control group. Histological observation showed less inflammatory cell infiltration in the experimental group, showing significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells compared with control group at 3, 6 weeks (P < 0.05); capillary, granulation tissue and collagen fiber massively proliferated; collagen fiber arranged in line, and there was a clear borderline between chitosan electrospurn membrane and adjacent collagen fiber. The immunohistochemical staining showed that there were high expressions of bFGF and EGFR in the experimental group, and low expressions of b

  16. Endoscopic transpterygoidal repair of a large cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient with extensive osteoradionecrosis of the skull base: case report and technical note.

    PubMed

    Brand, Y; Lim, E; Waran, V; Prepageran, N

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic endonasal techniques have recently become the method of choice in dealing with cerebrospinal fluid leak involving the anterior cranial fossa. However, most surgeons prefer an intracranial approach when leaks involve the middle cranial fossa. This case report illustrates the possibilities of using endoscopic techniques for cerebrospinal fluid leaks involving the middle fossa. A 37-year-old male patient presented with multiple areas of cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak due to osteoradionecrosis following radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma 4 years earlier. Clinical examination showed involvement of all cranial nerves except the IInd and XIth nerves on the left side. A prior attempt to repair the cerebrospinal fluid leak with craniotomy was not successful. This case demonstrates the successful endoscopic repair of a large cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament tracks fMRI correlates of attention at the first attack of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, C; Direnzo, V; Taurisano, P; Romano, R; Ruggieri, M; Zoccolella, S; Mastrapasqua, M; Popolizio, T; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Trojano, M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying markers of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is extremely challenging since it means supplying potential biomarkers for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between fMRI correlates of attention performance and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL) levels in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS. Twenty-one untreated, cognitively preserved CIS patients underwent BOLD-fMRI while performing the Variable Attentional Control (VAC) task, a cognitive paradigm requiring increasing levels of attentional control processing. CSF NFL was assessed by ELISA technique. SPM8 random-effects models were used for statistical analyses of fMRI data (p<0.05 corrected). Repeated-measures ANOVA on imaging data showed an interaction between attentional control load and NFL levels in the right putamen. At the high level of attentional control demand CIS patients with "low NFL levels" showed greater activity in the putamen compared with subjects with "high NFL levels" (p=0.001). These results are independent of cognitive impairment index. Our findings suggest a relationship between CSF NFL levels and load-dependent failure of putaminal recruitment pattern during sustained attention in CIS and suggest a role of CSF NFL as a marker of subclinical abnormality of cognitive pathway recruitment in CIS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers and Reserve Variables as Predictors of Future "Non-Cognitive" Outcomes of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ingber, Adam P; Hassenstab, Jason; Fagan, Anne M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Grant, Elizabeth A; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    The influence of reserve variables and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers on cognitive test performance has been fairly well-characterized. However, less is known about the influence of these factors on "non-cognitive" outcomes, including functional abilities and mood. We examined whether cognitive and brain reserve variables mediate how AD biomarker levels in cognitively normal persons predict future changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior. Non-cognitive outcomes were examined in 328 individuals 50 years and older enrolled in ongoing studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC). All participants were cognitively normal at baseline (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0), completed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and structural neuroimaging studies within one year of baseline, and were followed for an average of 4.6 annual visits. Linear mixed effects models explored how cognitive reserve and brain reserve variables mediate the relationships between AD biomarker levels and changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior in cognitively normal participants. Education levels did not have a significant effect on predicting non-cognitive decline. However, participants with smaller brain volumes exhibited the worst outcomes on measures of mood, functional abilities, and behavioral disturbance. This effect was most pronounced in individuals who also had abnormal CSF biomarkers. The findings suggest that brain reserve plays a stronger, or earlier, role than cognitive reserve in protecting against non-cognitive impairment in AD.

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers and Reserve Variables as Predictors of Future “Non-Cognitive” Outcomes of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ingber, Adam P.; Hassenstab, Jason; Fagan, Anne M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Roe, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of reserve variables and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers on cognitive test performance has been fairly well-characterized. However, less is known about the influence of these factors on “non-cognitive” outcomes, including functional abilities and mood. Objective We examined whether cognitive and brain reserve variables mediate how AD biomarker levels in cognitively normal persons predict future changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior. Methods Non-cognitive outcomes were examined in 328 individuals 50 years and older enrolled in ongoing studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC). All participants were cognitively normal at baseline (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0), completed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and structural neuroimaging studies within one year of baseline, and were followed for an average of 4.6 annual visits. Linear mixed effects models explored how cognitive reserve and brain reserve variables mediate the relationships between AD biomarker levels and changes in function, mood, and neuropsychiatric behavior in cognitively normal participants. Results Education levels did not have a significant effect on predicting non-cognitive decline. However, participants with smaller brain volumes exhibited the worst outcomes on measures of mood, functional abilities, and behavioral disturbance. This effect was most pronounced in individuals who also had abnormal CSF biomarkers. Conclusions The findings suggest that brain reserve plays a stronger, or earlier, role than cognitive reserve in protecting against non-cognitive impairment in AD. PMID:27104893

  20. Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as stroke-like symptoms with atypical MRI findings and lacking cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuboguchi, Shintaro; Wakasugi, Takahiro; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Umeda, Maiko; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2017-07-29

    A 73-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of right hemiparesis and was diagnosed as having cerebral infarction on the basis of diffusion-weighted brain MRI, which demonstrated lesions in the left parietal cortex. On the 3rd day, the patient developed right upper limb myoclonus, aphasia, and disturbance of consciousness with high fever. On the 6th day, she was transferred to our hospital with suspected viral encephalitis, and treatment with acyclovir was started. By the 6th day, the lesions detected by MRI had expanded to the gyrus cinguli, insula and thalamus, but not to the temporal lobe. At that time, the CSF cell count was 8/μl, and this later increased to 17/μl by the 13th day. Although herpes simplex virus DNA was detected in the CSF on the 6th day, there was no evidence of CSF pleocytosis or temporal lobe abnormalities demonstrable by brain MRI throughout the whole follow-up period. This was very atypical case of herpes simplex encephalitis characterized by a stroke-like episode, atypical MRI findings, and absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. It is important to be mindful that herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can have an atypical presentation, and that sufficient acyclovir treatment should be initiated until HSE can be ruled out.

  1. Meningitis With a Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Gram Stain in Adults: Risk Classification for an Adverse Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Nabil T.; Hossain, Md Monir; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a risk score for an adverse clinical outcome in adults with meningitis and a negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 567 adults from Houston, Texas, with meningitis evaluated between January 1, 2005, and January 1, 2010. The patients were divided into derivation (N=292) and validation (N=275) cohorts. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 4 or less. Results Of the 567 patients, 62 (11%) had an adverse clinical outcome. A predictive model was created using 3 baseline variables that were independently associated with an adverse clinical outcome (P<.05): age greater than 60 years, abnormal findings on neurologic examination (altered mental status, focal neurologic deficits, or seizures), and CSF glucose level of less than 2.4975 mmol/L (to convert CSF glucose to mmol/L, multiply by 0.05551). The model classified patients into 2 categories of risk for an adverse clinical outcome—derivation sample: low risk, 0.6% and high risk, 32.8%; P<.001; and validation sample: low risk, 0.5% and high risk, 21.1%; P<.001. Conclusion Adults with meningitis and a negative CSF Gram stain can be accurately stratified for the risk of an adverse clinical outcome using clinical variables available at presentation. PMID:23218086

  2. Increased insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of advanced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Yüksel, Deniz; Gökkurt, Didem; Oguz, Hava; Anlar, Banu

    2016-07-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal disease. Brain histopathology in certain SSPE patients shows, neurofibrillary tangles composed of abnormally phosphorylated, microtubule-associated protein tau (PHF-tau). Because the, phosphorylation of tau is inhibited by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), we investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin and IGF-1 levels in SSPE patients. In this study CSF IGF-1 and insulin levels of 45 SSPE and 25 age-matched control patients were investigated. CSF IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in SSPE patients at stage 4, compared to other stages (p 0.05). CSF insulin and IGF-1 levels were both positively correlated with serum measles IgG. The correlation between CSF insulin and IGF-1 levels and serum measles virus IgG titer may be the result of, insulin activating IGF-1 receptors, and consequently, IGF-1 stimulating, plasma cells and enhancing IgG production. Increased IGF-1 may also, inhibit the phosphorylation of tau. Further studies examining the, correlation between IGF-1, insulin, tau, and PHF-tau levels in the same, patients may clarify any possible pathogenetic relation between these, pathways. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sphingolipid Metabolism Correlates with Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta Amyloid Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fonteh, Alfred N.; Ormseth, Cora; Chiang, Jiarong; Cipolla, Matthew; Arakaki, Xianghong; Harrington, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a) total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b) levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c) three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but not impaired

  4. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein is frequently ordered but has little value: a test utilization study.

    PubMed

    Greene, Dina N; Schmidt, Robert L; Wilson, Andrew R; Freedman, Mark S; Grenache, David G

    2012-08-01

    Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is facilitated by analyzing biochemical properties of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) index are well-established markers for evaluating patients suspected of having MS. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is also ordered frequently, but its usefulness remains questionable. OCB, IgG index, and MBP were measured in 16,690 consecutive CSF samples. Samples were divided into 2 groups based on MS status known (n = 71) or unknown (n = 16,118). Medical charts of the MS status known group were reviewed to determine their MS status. OCBs have a stronger association to IgG index results than does MBP. Importantly, MBP does not add a statistically significant increase in diagnostic sensitivity or specificity when used in combination with OCB and/or IgG index. The data indicate that MBP is an unnecessary and overused test.

  6. Metal concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roos, Per M; Vesterberg, Olof; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder; Nordberg, Monica

    2013-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The cause of this degeneration is unknown, and different causal hypotheses include genetic, viral, traumatic and environmental mechanisms. In this study, we have analyzed metal concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma in a well-defined cohort (n = 17) of ALS patients diagnosed with quantitative electromyography. Metal analyses were performed with high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Statistically significant higher concentrations of manganese, aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, vanadium and uranium were found in ALS CSF compared to control CSF. We also report higher concentrations of these metals in ALS CSF than in ALS blood plasma, which indicate mechanisms of accumulation, e.g. inward directed transport. A pattern of multiple toxic metals is seen in ALS CSF. The results support the hypothesis that metals with neurotoxic effects are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS.

  7. Knowledge-base for interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid data patterns. Essentials in neurology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Reiber, Hansotto

    2016-06-01

    The physiological and biophysical knowledge base for interpretations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data and reference ranges are essential for the clinical pathologist and neurochemist. With the popular description of the CSF flow dependent barrier function, the dynamics and concentration gradients of blood-derived, brain-derived and leptomeningeal proteins in CSF or the specificity-independent functions of B-lymphocytes in brain also the neurologist, psychiatrist, neurosurgeon as well as the neuropharmacologist may find essentials for diagnosis, research or development of therapies. This review may help to replace the outdated ideas like "leakage" models of the barriers, linear immunoglobulin Index Interpretations or CSF electrophoresis. Calculations, Interpretations and analytical pitfalls are described for albumin quotients, quantitation of immunoglobulin synthesis in Reibergrams, oligoclonal IgG, IgM analysis, the polyspecific ( MRZ- ) antibody reaction, the statistical treatment of CSF data and general quality assessment in the CSF laboratory. The diagnostic relevance is documented in an accompaning review.

  8. The history of autologous fat graft use for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea after transsphenoidal approaches.

    PubMed

    Ziu, Mateo; Jimenez, David F

    2013-11-01

    Presented herein is a review of the history of fat graft use in preventing iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after transsphenoidal surgery. Since the first transsphenoidal surgeries were described in the early 1900s, the techniques of sellar packing to prevent CSF leak have evolved. Kanavel, Halstead, and Cushing used bismuth- or iodine-soaked gauze. Under Dandy's influence, fascia lata was the first autologous material to be used for the repair and prevention of CSF rhinorrhea. The use of autologous fat graft for this purpose has only been reported in recent decades. Montgomery was the first to use abdominal fat to obliterate the middle ear cavity in 1964, and Collins reported the first transsphenoidal application of fat graft in 1973. Other reports by Kirchner, Tindall, and Wilson followed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Resistance to outflow of cerebrospinal fluid after central infusions of angiotensin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    Infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the cerebroventricles of conscious rats can raise CSF pressure (CSFp). This response can be modified by some neuropeptides. One of these, angiotensin, facilitates the rise in CSFp. We measured CSFp in conscious rats with a computerized system and evaluated resistance to CSF outflow during infusion of artificial CSF, with or without angiotensin, from the decay kinetics of superimposed bolus injections. Angiotensin (10 ng/min) raised CSFp (P less than 0.05) compared with solvent, but the resistance to CSF outflow of the two groups was similar (P greater than 0.05). Because CSFp was increased by angiotensin without an increase in the outflow resistance, a change in some volume compartment is likely. Angiotensin may raise CSFp by increasing CSF synthesis; this possibility is supported, since the choroid plexuses contain an intrinsic isorenin-angiotensin system. Alternatively, angiotensin may dilate pial arteries, leading to an increased intracranial blood volume.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough in two HIV-infected subjects on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gisslén, Magnus; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Svennerholm, Bo; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2012-12-01

    Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic. However, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) monotherapy in the prevention of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the cases of 2 patients on darunavir/r maintenance monotherapy with cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough together with increased immunoactivation and biomarker signs of neuronal injury. These 2 cases raise concerns about the effectiveness of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in HIV CNS infection. Thus, we recommend caution with protease inhibitor monotherapy until CNS results have been obtained from clinical studies.

  11. The cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profile in an HIV-infected subject with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mäkitalo, Signar; Mellgren, Åsa; Borgh, Ellen; Kilander, Lena; Skillbäck, Tobias; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge to differentiate between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and other types of neurocognitive disease in the ageing HIV-infected population. Here we describe a 63 year old HIV-infected woman who had a history, neuropsychological test result, and PET examination consistent with characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile was analogous to the profile typically found in AD in HIV-negative patients with increased t-tau and p-tau, a decreased level of Aβ42 and normal levels of CSF neurofilament light protein and sAPPα and sAPPβ, distinctly different from findings in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Assessment of CSF biomarkers may be a valuable tool for clinicians to distinguish between HAD and AD.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid abacavir concentrations in HIV-positive patients following once-daily administration.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, A; Pinnetti, C; De Nicolò, A; Scarvaglieri, E; Gisslen, M; Tempestilli, M; D'Avolio, A; Fedele, V; Di Perri, G; Antinori, A; Bonora, S

    2018-06-01

    Abacavir is a widely used nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure has been previously assessed in twice-daily recipients. We studied abacavir CSF concentrations in 61 and nine HIV-positive patients taking abacavir once daily and twice daily, respectively. Patients on once-daily abacavir had higher plasma and CSF concentrations (96 vs. 22 ng ml -1 , P = 0.038 and 123 vs. 49 ng ml -1 , P = 0.038) but similar CSF-to-plasma ratios (0.8 vs. 0.5, P = 0.500). CSF abacavir concentrations were adequate in patients receiving once-daily treatment. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Biomarkers for Severity of Spinal Cord Injury in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lubieniecka, Joanna M.; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Stoynov, Nikolay; Liu, Jie; Mottus, Randy; Pfeifer, Tom; Kwon, Brian K.; Coorssen, Jens R.; Foster, Leonard J.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges in management of spinal cord injury (SCI) is that the assessment of injury severity is often imprecise. Identification of reliable, easily quantifiable biomarkers that delineate the severity of the initial injury and that have prognostic value for the degree of functional recovery would significantly aid the clinician in the choice of potential treatments. To find such biomarkers we performed quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from rats 24 h after either a moderate or severe SCI. We identified a panel of 42 putative biomarkers of SCI, 10 of which represent potential biomarkers of SCI severity. Three of the candidate biomarkers, Ywhaz, Itih4, and Gpx3 were also validated by Western blot in a biological replicate of the injury. The putative biomarkers identified in this study may potentially be a valuable tool in the assessment of the extent of spinal cord damage. PMID:21559420

  14. Transient monoplegia and paraesthesia after an epidural blood patch for a spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alvin Ho-Kwan; Li, Lai-Fung; So, Vincent Ching; Leung, May Ka-Mei; Lui, Wai-Man

    2015-09-01

    We describe the very rare complication of new onset complete paralysis and numbness of one limb after an epidural blood patch in a 36-year-old woman. Intracranial hypotension resulting from a spinal cerebrospinal fluid fistula may be treated by epidural injection of autologous blood that is, a blood patch. This is usually a safe and effective procedure. The woman's muscle strength of hip flexion, extension, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion decreased from 5/5 to 0/5 following the procedure. After symptom onset, an MRI of her spine showed no compressive or ischaemic lesions amenable to urgent intervention. The cause of neurological deficit was at that time unknown and steroids were administered. Her symptoms persisted for about 2 days and gradually improved. In this paper, the management plan and the course of this rare and alarming complication is reported. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents of cat vary with susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.; Matson, Wayne R.; Gamache, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the fourth ventricles of the brains of cats during and after the development of motion sickness was studied to determine what neurotransmitters may be involved in the development of the sickness. The analytical procedure, which uses HPLC coupled with n-electrode coulometric electrochemical detection to measure many compounds with picogram sensitivity, is described. Baseline levels of DOPAC, MHPGSO4, uric acid, DA, 5-HIAA, and HVA were lower on motion and control days in cats which became motion sick when compared with cats which did not. None of the total of 36 identified compounds identified in the samples varied as a function of either exposure to motion or provocation of emesis. It is concluded that susceptibility to motion sickness is a manifestation of individual differences related to fundamental neurochemical composition.

  16. HIV, prospective memory, and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of quinolinic acid and phosphorylated Tau.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Albert M; Croteau, David; Ellis, Ronald J; Rosario, Debra; Potter, Michael; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J; Woods, Steven Paul; Letendre, Scott L

    2018-06-15

    There is mounting evidence that prospective memory (PM) is impaired during HIV infection despite treatment. In this prospective study, 66 adults (43 HIV+ and 23 HIV negative) underwent PM assessment and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. HIV+ participants had significantly lower PM but significantly higher CSF concentrations of CXCL10 and quinolinic acid (QUIN). Higher CSF phosphorylated Tau (pTau) was associated with worse PM. In a secondary analysis excluding outliers, higher QUIN correlated with higher pTau. CSF QUIN is thus elevated during HIV infection despite antiretroviral therapy and could indirectly contribute to impaired PM by influencing the formation of pTau. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Penetration of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate into the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with inflamed meninges.

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, J S; Bruun, J N; Gaustad, P; Tasker, T C

    1986-01-01

    A single intravenous dose of 2.0 g of amoxicillin and 0.2 g of potassium clavulanate was given to patients with bacterial meningitis, and the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were evaluated. Twenty-one patients aged 14 to 76 years were studied. Both amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were detectable in the CSF as early as 1 h and reached peak concentrations by approximately 2 h. The highest mean CSF concentrations were 2.25 micrograms/ml for amoxicillin and 0.25 micrograms/ml for potassium clavulanate and were found in patients with moderately or severely inflamed meninges. The CSF penetration relative to plasma for amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate was 5.8 and 8.4%, respectively. These levels suggest that the amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate combination may be effective for the treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by beta-lactamase-producing pathogens. PMID:3777911

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough in two HIV-infected subjects on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic. However, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) monotherapy in the prevention of HIV replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the cases of 2 patients on darunavir/r maintenance monotherapy with cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough together with increased immunoactivation and biomarker signs of neuronal injury. These 2 cases raise concerns about the effectiveness of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in HIV CNS infection. Thus, we recommend caution with protease inhibitor monotherapy until CNS results have been obtained from clinical studies. PMID:22776013

  19. Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea from Defect of Middle Cranial Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Young Bum; Han, Chi-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is defined as CSF otorrhea where there are no identifiable causes including previous trauma, surgery, infection, neoplasm or congenital anomaly. The condition is rare. The origin of CSF leak is commonly a defect in the tegmen of the middle cranial fossa. The pathophysiology of spontaneous CSF otorrhea is unclear. Two theories of the etiology of bony defects of the temporal bone are the congenital bony defect theory and arachnoid granulation theory. The authors experienced a case of a 49-year-old female patient admitted with the complaint of persistent right ear fullness. Computed tomography revealed a large defect of the middle fossa and suspicious CSF otorrhea through the defect of tegmen tympani. Repair was successful with multiple bone chips using the transmastoid approach. The postoperative course was good and there has been no recurrence of the CSF leakage. PMID:24653924

  20. False-positive cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcus antigen in Libman-Sacks endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Isseh, Iyad N; Bourgi, Kassem; Nakhle, Asaad; Ali, Mahmoud; Zervos, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    Cryptococcus meningoencephalitis is a serious opportunistic infection associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, particularly patients with advanced AIDS disease. The diagnosis is established through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcus antigen detection and cultures. Cryptococcus antigen testing is usually the initial test of choice due its high sensitivity and specificity along with the quick availability of the results. We hereby report a case of a false-positive CSF cryptococcus antigen assay in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with acute confusion. While initial CSF evaluation revealed a positive cryptococcus antigen assay, the patient's symptoms were inconsistent with cryptococcus meningoencephalitis. A repeat CSF evaluation, done 3 days later, revealed a negative CSF cryptococcus antigen assay. Given the patient's active lupus disease and the elevated antinuclear antibody titers, we believe that the initial positive result was a false positive caused by interference from autoantibodies.

  1. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid as a reflector of central cholinergic and amino acid neurotransmitter activity in cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Giacobini, E; Ferraro, T N; Hare, T A

    1990-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acid neurotransmitters, related compounds, and their precursors, choline levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the CSF of patients with cerebellar ataxia during a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial of physostigmine salicylate. The CSF gamma-aminobutyric acid, methionine, and choline levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower in patients with cerebellar ataxia compared with controls. Physostigmine selectively reduced the level of CSF isoleucine and elevated the levels of phosphoethanolamine. No change occurred in CSF acetylcholinesterase activity and in the levels of plasma amino compounds in patients with cerebellar ataxia when compared with controls. Median ataxia scores did not statistically differ between placebo and physostigmine nor did functional improvement occur in any of the patients.

  3. Acetylcholine and choline in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, M J; Markham, C H; Jenden, D J

    1976-01-01

    Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) levels were measured in patients with Huntington's chorea (N=11), Parkinson's disease (N=8), and subjects at risk for Huntington's chorea (N=4), and all three groups were found not to differ significantly from normal controls (N=10). The values found for lumbar CSF ACh and Ch levels in the normal subjects were comparable with previously reported values. The use of physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, in collecting the CSF samples did not appear to make a difference with regard to ACh and Ch concentrations. Evidence suggesting a ventricular-lumbar gradient, with lumbar CSF Ch concentration being less than ventricular CSF Ch concentration, was found. Finally, ACh levels in CSF did not correlate with corresponding Ch levels. PMID:132512

  4. Detection and genotyping of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid in patients in Victoria, Australia, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgina; Chibo, Doris; Druce, Julian; Catton, Michael; Birch, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Genotyping by VP1 fragment polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing to detect enterovirus (EV) genotypes was performed directly on 729 EV PCR positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between 2007 and 2012 from Victorian hospital inpatients. The overall genotype identification rate from CSF-positive material was 43%. The four most common genotypes identified were Echovirus 6 (24%), Echovirus 30 (17%), Echovirus 25 (10%), and Coxsackievirus A9 (10%), together comprising 61% of all EVs typed. The seasonal distribution of all EVs identified followed the recognized pattern of mainly summer epidemics. Three of the four predominant genotypes were present in each of the 6 years in which the study was conducted, with 20 other EV genotypes also detected, often in only a single year. Genotyping of EVs directly in CSF is faster, simpler and more sensitive than traditional virus neutralization assays performed on EV positive samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [External lumbar drainage with volumetric continuing infusion pump in patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak. A case series].

    PubMed

    Manso Melgosa, Ana Belén; García Gutiérrez, Helena; Fernández Porras, Mónica; Castrillo Manero, Ana Berta; Pérez Marijuán, Belén

    To describe the incidence and complications arising in a number of cases of patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak treated by external lumbar drainage with infusion pump (IP) volumetric continuous from 2001 to 2014. Quantify cerebrospinal fluid leak closed by lumbar drainage with IP. Retrospective descriptive case series study. patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, Chiari surgery and laminectomy, that developed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak treated with continuous external lumbar drainage by IP. age, sex, type of intervention, variables related to the practice of the pump and complications. Average and medians were calculated for quantitative variables, frequencies and percentages for qualitative. Sample: 11 subjects. Incidence in running IP: disconnection, occlusion and acoustic alarm activation. Most frequently complication is headache; a case of pneumocephalus. The small number of subjects and the heterogeneity of these do not allow for comparison or establishing associations between variables. The resolution of the cerebrospinal fluid leak with continuous IP is lower in this study than others, and may be influenced by the small number of subjects. It should be noted the frequent activation of the pump alarm for no apparent cause. Protocol would be developed for preparing the IP team to reduce the acoustic alarm activation, and would make a prospective multicenter study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies.

    PubMed

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-08-28

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application.The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies.CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization.Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies.This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications.

  7. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P.; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A.; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application. The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies. CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies. This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications. PMID:26246487

  8. Vitamin D was not associated with survival or cerebrospinal fluid cathelicidin levels in children with bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Savonius, Okko; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Viljakainen, Heli; Andersson, Sture; Fernandez, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Helve, Otto

    2018-05-11

    Vitamin D deficiency impairs the immunological system and has been associated with worse outcomes of infectious diseases, but its role in bacterial meningitis remains unknown. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations related to disease outcomes and to cerebrospinal fluid cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis. All consecutively enrolled patients in a clinical trial on childhood bacterial meningitis in Latin America in 1996-2003 were considered and 142 children, with a median age of seven months who had a confirmed bacterial aetiology and frozen serum available for further analyses, were included in the present study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser, while cerebrospinal fluid cathelicidin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 96 (range 19-251) nmol/L. No relationship was found with patient survival, but children with any neurological sequelae had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than children without sequelae. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was unrelated to cathelicidin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. Although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with bacterial meningitis was not associated with survival or cerebrospinal fluid cathelicidin concentrations, its relationship with more detailed disease outcomes warrants further study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. A new approach for simple radioisotope cisternography examination in cerebrospinal fluid leakage detection.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hiromitsu; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Achmad, Arifudin; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Fujimaki, Hiroya; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new quantitative interpretation technique of radioisotope cisternography (RIC) for the diagnosis of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia (SCH). RIC studies performed for suspected SCH were evaluated. (111)In-DTPA RIC images were taken at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 24-h after radioisotope injection following the current protocol. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected on 3-h images to include brain, spine, bladder or the whole body. The accumulative radioactivity counts were calculated for quantitative analysis. Final diagnoses of SCH were established based on the diagnostic criteria recently proposed by Schievink and colleagues. Thirty-five patients were focused on. Twenty-one (60.0%) patients were diagnosed as having SCH according to the Schievink criteria. On the 3-h images, direct cerebrospinal fluid leakage sign was detected in nine of 21 SCH patients (42.9%), as well as three patients with suspected iatrogenic leakage. Compared to non-SCH patients, SCH patients showed higher bladder accumulation at 3-h images (P = 0.0002), and higher brain clearance between the 6- and 24-h images (P < 0.0001). In particular, the 24-h brain clearance was more conclusive for the diagnosis than 24-h whole cistern clearance. The combination of direct sign and 24-h brain accumulation resulted in 100% of accuracy in the 32 patients in whom iatrogenic leakage was not observed. 1- and 6-h images did not provide any additional information in any patients. A new simple ROI setting method, in which only the 3-h whole body and 24-h brain images were necessary, was sufficient to diagnose SCH.

  10. CXCL9 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Koper, Olga M; Kamińska, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Zajkowska, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our current study was to evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum CXCL9 concentrations and diagnostic usefulness of this molecule in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). The study included TBE patients in the acute phase (TBE I) and after 2 weeks of follow-up (TBE II). The control group consisted of patients investigated for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infection, but with normal CSF findings. Concentrations of CXCL9 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cerebrospinal fluid and serum concentrations of CXCL9 in patients with TBE were significantly higher than in controls ( p < 0.001). This alteration was also observed in the case of the CXCL9 index (I CXCL9 ; CSF CXCL9 concentration divided by serum CXCL9 concentration) ( p < 0.001); moreover, I CXCL9 significantly decreased after 2 weeks ( p < 0.001). This is the first study to evaluate the CSF and serum levels of CXCL9 in subjects with TBE. CXCL9 is a ligand for CXCR3, which was found on all Th1 memory lymphocytes present in the peripheral blood; therefore the elevated concentrations of CXCL9 in TBE patients as compared to the controls might indicate that this chemokine perhaps takes part in the trafficking of Th 1 cells into the CNS. The results presented here support the hypothesis that CXCL9 may play a role in TBE. However, further studies are required to determine whether this protein might be used as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammation in TBE.

  11. Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures.

    PubMed

    Galasko, Douglas R; Peskind, Elaine; Clark, Christopher M; Quinn, Joseph F; Ringman, John M; Jicha, Gregory A; Cotman, Carl; Cottrell, Barbara; Montine, Thomas J; Thomas, Ronald G; Aisen, Paul

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether antioxidant supplements presumed to target specific cellular compartments affected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Academic medical centers. Subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Random assignment to treatment for 16 weeks with 800 IU/d of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) plus 500 mg/d of vitamin C plus 900 mg/d of α-lipoic acid (E/C/ALA); 400 mg of coenzyme Q 3 times/d; or placebo. Changes from baseline to 16 weeks in CSF biomarkers related to Alzheimer disease and oxidative stress, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), and function (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale). Seventy-eight subjects were randomized; 66 provided serial CSF specimens adequate for biochemical analyses. Study drugs were well tolerated, but accelerated decline in Mini-Mental State Examination scores occurred in the E/C/ALA group, a potential safety concern. Changes in CSF Aβ42, tau, and P-tau(181) levels did not differ between the 3 groups. Cerebrospinal fluid F2-isoprostane levels, an oxidative stress biomarker, decreased on average by 19% from baseline to week 16 in the E/C/ALA group but were unchanged in the other groups. Antioxidants did not influence CSF biomarkers related to amyloid or tau pathology. Lowering of CSF F2-isoprostane levels in the E/C/ALA group suggests reduction of oxidative stress in the brain. However, this treatment raised the caution of faster cognitive decline, which would need careful assessment if longer-term clinical trials are conducted. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00117403.

  12. Evaluation of Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks Disease by Computerized Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Mustafa S; Kara, Sadık; Albayram, Mehmet S; Okkesim, Şükrü

    2016-05-17

    Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks (SSCFL) is a disease based on tears on the dura mater. Due to widespread symptoms and low frequency of the disease, diagnosis is problematic. Diagnostic lumbar puncture is commonly used for diagnosing SSCFL, though it is invasive and may cause pain, inflammation or new leakages. T2-weighted MR imaging is also used for diagnosis; however, the literature on T2-weighted MRI states that findings for diagnosis of SSCFL could be erroneous when differentiating the diseased and control. One another technique for diagnosis is CT-myelography, but this has been suggested to be less successful than T2-weighted MRI and it needs an initial lumbar puncture. This study aimed to develop an objective, computerized numerical analysis method using noninvasive routine Magnetic Resonance Images that can be used in the evaluation and diagnosis of SSCFL disease. Brain boundaries were automatically detected using methods of mathematical morphology, and a distance transform was employed. According to normalized distances, average densities of certain sites were proportioned and a numerical criterion related to cerebrospinal fluid distribution was calculated. The developed method was able to differentiate between 14 patients and 14 control subjects significantly with p = 0.0088 and d = 0.958. Also, the pre and post-treatment MRI of four patients was obtained and analyzed. The results were differentiated statistically (p = 0.0320, d = 0.853). An original, noninvasive and objective diagnostic test based on computerized image processing has been developed for evaluation of SSCFL. To our knowledge, this is the first computerized image processing method for evaluation of the disease. Discrimination between patients and controls shows the validity of the method. Also, post-treatment changes observed in four patients support this verdict.

  13. Lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial (LUMAS).

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Bhargava, Deepti; Feltbower, Richard G; Hall, Gregory; Goddard, Anthony J P; Quinn, Audrey C; Ross, Stuart A

    2012-03-01

    A single-center prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to determine if lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage reduces the prevalence of delayed ischemic neurological deficit and improves clinical outcome. Patients with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grade 1 to 3 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and modified Fisher Grades 2, 3, 4, and 3+4 were randomized to either the study group of standard therapy plus insertion of a lumbar drain or the control group of standard therapy alone. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of delayed ischemic neurological deficit. Two hundred ten patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (166 female, 44 male; median age, 54 years; interquartile range, 45-62 years) were recruited into the control (n=105) and study (n=105) groups of the trial. World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade was: 1 (n=139), 2 (n=60), and 3 (n=11); Fisher grade was: 2 (n=87), 3 (n=85), and 4 (n=38). The prevalence of delayed ischemic neurological deficit was 35.2% and 21.0% in the control and study groups, respectively (P=0.021). The prevalence of a modified Rankin Scale score of 4, 5, or 6 at Day 10 and 6 months, respectively, was 62.5% and 18.6% in the control group and 44.8% and 19.8% in the study group (P=0.009 and 0.83, respectively). Lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been shown to reduce the prevalence of delayed ischemic neurological deficit and improve early clinical outcome but failed to improve outcome at 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00842049.

  14. Skull and cerebrospinal fluid effects on microwave radiation propagation in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Zarei, M.; Akhlaghipour, N.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of microwave absorption distribution in the human brain is necessary for the detection of brain tumors using thermo-acoustic imaging and for removing them using hyperthermia treatment. In contrast to ionizing radiation, hyperthermia treatment can be applied to remove tumors inside the brain without the concern of including secondary malignancies, which typically form from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum. The aim of this study is to determine the microwave absorption distribution in an adult human brain and to study the effects of skull and cerebrospinal fluid on the propagation of microwave radiation inside the brain. To this end, we simulate the microwave absorption distribution in a realistic adult brain model (Colin 27) using the mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC) method. This is because in spite of there being other numerical methods, the MMC does not require a large memory, even for complicated geometries, and its algorithm is simple and easy to implement with low computational cost. The brain model is constructed using high-resolution (1 mm isotropic voxel) and low noise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and its volume contains 181×217×181 voxels, covering the brain completely. Using the MMC method, the radiative transport equation is solved and the absorbed microwave energy distribution in different brain regions is obtained without any fracture or anomaly. The simulation results show that the skull and cerebrospinal fluid guide the microwave radiation and suppress its penetration through deep brain compartments as a shielding factor. These results reveal that the MMC can be used to predict the amount of required energy to increase the temperature inside the tumour during hyperthermia treatment. Our results also show why a deep tumour inside an adult human brain cannot be efficiently treated using hyperthermia treatment. Finally, the accuracy of the presented numerical method is verified using the signal flow graph technique.

  15. Absorption kinetics of flurbiprofen axetil microspheres in cerebrospinal fluid: A pilot study
.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Gu, Jian; Feng, Yi; An, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the absorption dynamics of flurbiprofen axetil in cerebrospinal fluid. We analyzed the concentrations of flurbiprofen in peripheral venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to explore the absorption dynamics of flurbiprofen axetil loaded in lipid microspheres in CSF. 72 adult patients who planned to undergo selective operations under spinal anesthesia or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were intravenously injected with flurbiprofen axetil (1 mg/kg) and randomly divided into nine groups according to the sampling time after administration: 5 (T5), 10 (T10), 15 (T15), 20 (T20), 25 (T25), 30 (T30), 35 (T35), 40 (T40), and 45 minutes (T45). The CSF and venous blood samples collected from patients were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the concentrations of flurbiprofen. With the exception of 3 CSF samples in T5 and 4 CSF samples in T10, flurbiprofen was detected in all CSF and blood specimens. Significant differences between the CSF concentrations and CSF/plasma drug concentration ratios were observed among the nine time points (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference in plasma concentration was found (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that lipid microspheres loaded with flurbiprofen can penetrate through the blood-brain barrier into CSF after intravenous injection. The fact that the flurbiprofen concentration rose continuously for 45 minutes after injection indicates that flurbiprofen-loaded lipid microspheres may exert analgesic action via the central nervous system.
.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage in intracranial hypotension syndrome: usefulness of indirect findings in radionuclide cisternography for detection and treatment monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Tomoaki; Aoki, Takatoshi; Tomoda, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Takeshita, Iwao; Ohno, Masato; Korogi, Yukunori

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate indirect findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage on radionuclide cisternography and their changes after treatment. This study was approved by the hospital's institutional review board and informed consent was obtained before each examination. A total of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) syndrome underwent radionuclide cisternography, and 27 patients who had direct findings of CSF leakage on radionuclide cisternography were selected for this evaluation. They were 16 males and 11 females, aged between 26 and 58 years. Sequential images of radionuclide cisternography were acquired at 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after injection. We assessed the presence or absence of 4 indirect findings; early visualization of bladder activity, no visualization of activity over the brain convexities, rapid disappearance of spinal activity, and abnormal visualization of the root sleeves. Changes of the direct and indirect findings after treatment were also evaluated in 14 patients who underwent epidural blood patch treatment. Early visualization of bladder activity was found in all 27 patients. Seven of 27 (25.9%) patients showed no activity over the brain convexities. Rapid disappearance of spinal activity and abnormal root sleeve visualization were present in 2 (7.4%) and 5 (18.5%) patients, respectively. After epidural blood patch, both direct CSF leakage findings and indirect findings of early visualization of bladder activity had disappeared or improved in 12 of 14 patients (85.7%). The other indirect findings also disappeared after treatment in all cases. Indirect findings of radionuclide cisternography, especially early visualization of bladder activity, may be useful in the diagnosis and posttreatment follow-up of CSF leakage.

  17. The concentration of erlotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    DENG, YANMING; FENG, WEINENG; WU, JING; CHEN, ZECHENG; TANG, YICONG; ZHANG, HUA; LIANG, JIANMIAO; XIAN, HAIBING; ZHANG, SHUNDA

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that erlotinib is effective in treating patients with brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the number of studies determining the erlotinib concentration in these patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of erlotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Six patients were treated with the standard recommended daily dose of erlotinib (150 mg) for 4 weeks. All the patients had previously received chemotherapy, but no brain radiotherapy. At the end of the treatment period, blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and the erlotinib concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average erlotinib concentration in the blood plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid was 717.7±459.7 and 23.7±13.4 ng/ml, respectively. The blood-brain barrier permeation rate of erlotinib was found to be 4.4±3.2%. In patients with partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD), the average concentrations of erlotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid were 35.5±19.0, 19.1±8.7 and 16.4±5.9 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the efficacy rate of erlotinib for metastatic brain lesions was 33.3%, increasing to 50% in patients with EGFR mutations. However, erlotinib appeared to be ineffective in cases with wild-type EGFR. In conclusion, a relatively high concentration of erlotinib was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. Thus, erlotinib may be considered as a treatment option for this patient population. PMID:24649318

  18. [The diversity analysis of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea between young children and adults].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Mei, L Y; He, C F; Feng, Y

    2016-11-01

    Objective: To assess the diversity of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)otorrhear in clinical manifestation,CT,leakage sites and surgical operation between young children and adults. Method: We conducted a retrospective study of 6 consecutive patients who were all underwent the surgery through the transmastoid approach,including 4 adults patients and 2 children.In the 4 adults patients,two patients' bony defects lay on the tegmen mastoideum,one lay on the tegmen tympani,and another one lay on the sinus meningioma angle.None of the 4 adults patients had abnormal inner ear structures.Materials used in repair included free muscle graft,temporalis fascia,and fibrin glue of the 4 adults patients.The 2 children patients were diagnosed with congenital abnormalities of the lateral inner ear,who had bony defects of the foot plate or fenestra vestibule.Materials used in repair included free muscle graft,temporalis fascia,and musclein sequence. Result: No CSF leaks recurred after the operation except one adults patient,who's left ear recurred two times and experienced three operations. Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of spontaneous CSF otorrhea between young children and adults are different,the HRCT scan on temporal bone before the operation is very important.Especially foradults patients,making sure of theleakagesites and numbers isvaluable and significance for thesurgical procedure selection.. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  19. Coconut Model for Learning First Steps of Craniotomy Techniques and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Drummond-Braga, Bernardo; Peleja, Sebastião Berquó; Macedo, Guaracy; Drummond, Carlos Roberto S A; Costa, Pollyana H V; Garcia-Zapata, Marco T; Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi

    2016-12-01

    Neurosurgery simulation has gained attention recently due to changes in the medical system. First-year neurosurgical residents in low-income countries usually perform their first craniotomy on a real subject. Development of high-fidelity, cheap, and largely available simulators is a challenge in residency training. An original model for the first steps of craniotomy with cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance practice using a coconut is described. The coconut is a drupe from Cocos nucifera L. (coconut tree). The green coconut has 4 layers, and some similarity can be seen between these layers and the human skull. The materials used in the simulation are the same as those used in the operating room. The coconut is placed on the head holder support with the face up. The burr holes are made until endocarp is reached. The mesocarp is dissected, and the conductor is passed from one hole to the other with the Gigli saw. The hook handle for the wire saw is positioned, and the mesocarp and endocarp are cut. After sawing the 4 margins, mesocarp is detached from endocarp. Four burr holes are made from endocarp to endosperm. Careful dissection of the endosperm is done, avoiding liquid albumen leak. The Gigli saw is passed through the trephine holes. Hooks are placed, and the endocarp is cut. After cutting the 4 margins, it is dissected from the endosperm and removed. The main goal of the procedure is to remove the endocarp without fluid leakage. The coconut model for learning the first steps of craniotomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak avoidance has some limitations. It is more realistic while trying to remove the endocarp without damage to the endosperm. It is also cheap and can be widely used in low-income countries. However, the coconut does not have anatomic landmarks. The mesocarp makes the model less realistic because it has fibers that make the procedure more difficult and different from a real craniotomy. The model has a potential pedagogic neurosurgical application for

  20. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew J.; Iliff, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation and turnover provides a sink for the elimination of solutes from the brain interstitium, serving an important homeostatic role for the function of the central nervous system. Disruption of normal CSF circulation and turnover is believed to contribute to the development of many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, ischemic and traumatic brain injury, and neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recent insights into CSF biology suggesting that CSF and interstitial fluid exchange along a brain-wide network of perivascular spaces termed the ‘glymphatic’ system suggest that CSF circulation may interact intimately with glial and vascular function to regulate basic aspects of brain function. Dysfunction within this glial vascular network, which is a feature of the aging and injured brain, is a potentially critical link between brain injury, neuroinflammation and the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Ongoing research within this field may provide a powerful new framework for understanding the common links between neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease, in addition to providing potentially novel therapeutic targets for these conditions. PMID:26499397

  1. Quantification of the cerebrospinal fluid from a new whole body MRI sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebret, Alain; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno; Hodel, Jérôme; Rahmouni, Alain; Decq, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Our work aims to develop a biomechanical model of hydrocephalus both intended to perform clinical research and to assist the neurosurgeon in diagnosis decisions. Recently, we have defined a new MR imaging sequence based on SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution). On these images, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears as a homogeneous hypersignal. Therefore such images are suitable for segmentation and for volume assessment of the CSF. In this paper we present a fully automatic 3D segmentation of such SPACE MRI sequences. We choose a topological approach considering that CSF can be modeled as a simply connected object (i.e. a filled sphere). First an initial object which must be strictly included in the CSF and homotopic to a filled sphere, is determined by using a moment-preserving thresholding. Then a priority function based on an Euclidean distance map is computed in order to control the thickening process that adds "simple points" to the initial thresholded object. A point is called simple if its addition or its suppression does not result in change of topology neither for the object, nor for the background. The method is validated by measuring fluid volume of brain phantoms and by comparing our volume assessments on clinical data to those derived from a segmentation controlled by expert physicians. Then we show that a distinction between pathological cases and healthy adult people can be achieved by a linear discriminant analysis on volumes of the ventricular and intracranial subarachnoid spaces.

  2. Early awareness of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia after craniotomy for microsurgical aneurysmal clipping.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Matsunaga, Yuki; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Mild cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a well-known clinical entity, but critical CSF hypovolemia that can cause transtentorial herniation is an unusual and rare clinical entity that occurs after craniotomy. We investigated CSF hypovolemia after microsurgical aneurysmal clipping for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study included 144 consecutive patients with SAH. Lumbar drainage (LD) was inserted after general anesthesia or postoperatively as a standard perioperative protocol. CSF hypovolemia diagnosis was based on three criteria. Eleven patients (7.6%) were diagnosed with CSF hypovolemia according to diagnostic criteria in a postoperative range of 0-8 days. In all patients, signs or symptoms of CSF hypovolemia improved within 24 hours by clamping LD and using the Trendelenburg position. As a cause of acute clinical deterioration after aneurysmal clipping, CSF hypovolemia is likely under-recognized, and may actually be misdiagnosed as vasospasm or brain swelling. We should always take the etiology of CSF hypovolemia into consideration, and especially pay attention in patients with pneumocephalus and subdural fluid collection alongside brain sag on computed tomography. These patients are at higher risk developing of pressure gradients between their cranial and spinal compartments, and therefore, brain sagging after LD, than after ventricular drainage. We should be vigilant to strictly manage LD so as not to produce high pressure gradients.

  3. Amyloid-β oligomer detection by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Kim A; Jongbloed, Wesley; Biemans, Elisanne A L M; Veerhuis, Rob; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2013-02-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are important pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ aggregates into fibrils; however, the intermediate oligomers are believed to be the most neurotoxic species and, therefore, are of great interest as potential biomarkers. Here, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for Aβ oligomers by using the same capture and (labeled) detection antibody. The ELISA predominantly recognizes relatively small oligomers (10-25 kDa) and not monomers. In brain tissue of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, we found that Aβ oligomer levels increase with age. However, for measurements in human samples, pretreatment to remove human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) was required. In HAMA-depleted human hippocampal extracts, the Aβ oligomer concentration was significantly increased in AD compared with nondemented controls. Aβ oligomer levels could also be quantified in pretreated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples; however, no difference was detected between AD and control groups. Our data suggest that levels of small oligomers might not be suitable as biomarkers for AD. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of avoiding HAMA interference in assays to quantify Aβ oligomers in human body fluids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Anna; Jarek, Michael; Visscher, Christian; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph; Willenborg, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism). In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments. PMID:28212285

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Koczula, Anna; Jarek, Michael; Visscher, Christian; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph; Willenborg, Jörg

    2017-02-15

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism). In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  6. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Simon, Matthew J; Iliff, Jeffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation and turnover provides a sink for the elimination of solutes from the brain interstitium, serving an important homeostatic role for the function of the central nervous system. Disruption of normal CSF circulation and turnover is believed to contribute to the development of many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, ischemic and traumatic brain injury, and neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recent insights into CSF biology suggesting that CSF and interstitial fluid exchange along a brain-wide network of perivascular spaces termed the 'glymphatic' system suggest that CSF circulation may interact intimately with glial and vascular function to regulate basic aspects of brain function. Dysfunction within this glial vascular network, which is a feature of the aging and injured brain, is a potentially critical link between brain injury, neuroinflammation and the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Ongoing research within this field may provide a powerful new framework for understanding the common links between neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease, in addition to providing potentially novel therapeutic targets for these conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuro Inflammation edited by Helga E. de Vries and Markus Schwaninger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in glaucoma and other ophthalmic diseases: A review

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, David; Allingham, R. Rand

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the world. Well-known risk factors include age, race, a positive family history and elevated intraocular pressures. A newly proposed risk factor is decreased cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). This concept is based on the notion that a pressure differential exists across the lamina cribrosa, which separates the intraocular space from the subarachnoid fluid space. In this construct, an increased translaminar pressure difference will occur with a relative increase in elevated intraocular pressure or a reduction in CSFP. This net change in pressure is proposed to act on the tissues within the optic nerve head, potentially contributing to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Similarly, patients with ocular hypertension who have elevated CSFPs, would enjoy a relatively protective effect from glaucomatous damage. This review will focus on the current literature pertaining to the role of CSFP in glaucoma. Additionally, the authors examine the relationship between glaucoma and other known CSFP-related ophthalmic disorders. PMID:24227969

  8. Comparison of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid with Bacterial Meningitis Score in children.

    PubMed

    Pires, Frederico Ribeiro; Franco, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2017-01-01

    To measure the role of enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid compared with the Bacterial Meningitis Score in children with meningitis. A retrospective cohort based on analysis of medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed as meningitis, seen at a private and tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Excluded were patients with critical illness, purpura, ventricular shunt or recent neurosurgery, immunosuppression, concomitant bacterial infection requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy, and those who received antibiotics 72 hours before lumbar puncture. The study included 503 patients. Sixty-four patients were excluded and 94 were not submitted to all tests for analysis. Of the remaining 345 patients, 7 were in the Bacterial Meningitis Group and 338 in the Aseptic Meningitis Group. There was no statistical difference between the groups. In the Bacterial Meningitis Score analysis, of the 338 patients with possible aseptic meningitis (negative cultures), 121 of them had one or more points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score, with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 64.2%, and negative predictive value of 100%. Of the 121 patients with positive Bacterial Meningitis Score, 71% (86 patients) had a positive enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid was effective to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. When the test was analyzed together with the Bacterial Meningitis Score, specificity was higher when compared to Bacterial Meningitis Score alone. Avaliar o papel da pesquisa de enterovírus no líquido cefalorraquidiano em comparação com o Escore de Meningite Bacteriana em crianças com meningite. Coorte retrospectiva, realizada pela análise de prontuários, incluindo pacientes pediátricos, com diagnóstico de meningite e atendidos em um hospital privado e terciário, localizado em São Paulo, entre 2011 e 2014. Foram excluídos os pacientes com doença crítica, púrpura, deriva

  9. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; SATO, Osamu; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; HAYASHI, Naokazu; TAKIZAWA, Ken; ATSUMI, Hideki; SORIMACHI, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  10. Choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid route for monocyte-derived macrophages after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruimin; Tornero, Daniel; Hirota, Masao; Monni, Emanuela; Laterza, Cecilia; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2017-07-28

    Choroid plexus (CP) supports the entry of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to the central nervous system in animal models of traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Whether the CP is involved in the recruitment of MDMs to the injured brain after ischemic stroke is unknown. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to focal cortical ischemia by permanent occlusion of the distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery. Choroid plexus tissues were collected and analyzed for Vcam1, Madcam1, Cx 3 cl1, Ccl2, Nt5e, and Ifnγ expression at different timepoints after stroke using qPCR. Changes of MDMs in CP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at 1 day and 3 days after stroke were analyzed using flow cytometry. Infiltration of MDMs into CP and CSF were validated using β-actin-GFP chimeric mice and Fgd5-CreERT2 x Lox-stop-lox-Tomato mice. CD115+ monocytes were isolated using a magnetic cell separation system from bone marrow of Cx 3 cr1-GFP or wild-type C57BL/6 donor mice. The freshly isolated monocytes or M2-like MDMs primed in vitro with IL4 and IL13 were stereotaxically injected into the lateral ventricle of stroke-affected mice to trace for their migration into ischemic hemisphere or to assess their effect on post-stroke recovery using open field, corridor, and active avoidance behavioral tests. We found that CP responded to cortical stroke by upregulation of gene expression for several possible mediators of MDM trafficking and, concomitantly, MDMs increased in CP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We then confirmed that MDMs infiltrated from blood into CP and CSF after the insult using β-actin-GFP chimeric mice and Fgd5-CreERT2 x Lox-stop-lox-Tomato mice. When MDMs were directly administered into CSF following stroke, they homed to the ischemic hemisphere. If they had been primed in vitro prior to their administration to become M2-like macrophages, they promoted post-stroke recovery of motor and cognitive function without influencing infarct

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid pressures resulting from experimental traumatic spinal cord injuries in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire F; Lee, Jae H T; Burstyn, Uri; Okon, Elena B; Kwon, Brian K; Cripton, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Despite considerable effort over the last four decades, research has failed to translate into consistently effective treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI). This is partly attributed to differences between the injury response of humans and rodent models. Some of this difference could be because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the human spine is relatively large, while that of the rodents is extremely thin. We sought to characterize the fluid impulse induced in the CSF by experimental SCIs of moderate and high human-like severity, and to compare this with previous studies in which fluid impulse has been associated with neural tissue injury. We used a new in vivo pig model (n = 6 per injury group, mean age 124.5 days, 20.9 kg) incorporating four miniature pressure transducers that were implanted in pairs in the subarachnoid space, cranial, and caudal to the injury at 30 mm and 100 mm. Tissue sparing was assessed with Eriochrome Cyanine and Neutral Red staining. The median peak pressures near the injury were 522.5 and 868.8 mmHg (range 96.7-1430.0) and far from the injury were 7.6 and 36.3 mmHg (range 3.8-83.7), for the moderate and high injury severities, respectively. Pressure impulse (mmHg.ms), apparent wave speed, and apparent attenuation factor were also evaluated. The data indicates that the fluid pressure wave may be sufficient to affect the severity and extent of primary tissue damage close to the injury site. However, the CSF pressure was close to normal physiologic values at 100 mm from the injury. The high injury severity animals had less tissue sparing than the moderate injury severity animals; this difference was statistically significant only within 1.6 mm of the epicenter. These results indicate that future research seeking to elucidate the mechanical origins of primary tissue damage in SCI should consider the effects of CSF. This pig model provides advantages for basic and preclinical SCI research due to its

  12. Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Signs of Neuronal Injury Before and After Immediate Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Valcour, Victor; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chalermchai, Thep; Fletcher, James L K; Lerdlum, Sukalya; Chomchey, Nitiya; Slike, Bonnie; Sailasuta, Napapon; Gisslén, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spudich, Serena

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown whether neuronal injury begins during acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and whether immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prevents neuronal injury. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL), a measure of axonal injury, was assessed before and after cART initiation in individuals starting treatment during acute or chronic HIV infection. Nonparametric statistics examined relationships between NFL and disease progression, neuroinflammation, and cognitive performance. Before treatment, subjects with acute infection had lower CSF NFL levels, with elevations for their age in 1 of 32 subjects with acute infection (3.1%) and 10 of 32 with chronic infection (31%) (P = .006). This persisted after cART initiation, with 1 of 25 acute (4%) and 4 of 9 chronic subjects (44%) showing elevated NFL levels (P = .01). In acute infection, pre-cART NFL levels were inversely correlated with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic findings of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in frontal gray matter (r = -0.40; P = .03), frontal white matter (r = -0.46; P = .01), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.47; P = .01); correlations persisted after treatment in the frontal white matter (r = -0.51; P = .02) and parietal gray matter (r = -0.46; P = .04). CSF NFL levels are not elevated in untreated acute HIV infection or after 6 months of immediately initiated cART but are abnormal in chronic HIV infection before and after treatment. In acute HIV infection, CSF NFL levels are inversely associated with neuroimaging markers of neuronal health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Signs of Neuronal Injury Before and After Immediate Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Michael J.; Valcour, Victor; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chalermchai, Thep; Fletcher, James L. K.; Lerdlum, Sukalya; Chomchey, Nitiya; Slike, Bonnie; Sailasuta, Napapon; Gisslén, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spudich, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether neuronal injury begins during acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and whether immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prevents neuronal injury. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL), a measure of axonal injury, was assessed before and after cART initiation in individuals starting treatment during acute or chronic HIV infection. Nonparametric statistics examined relationships between NFL and disease progression, neuroinflammation, and cognitive performance. Results. Before treatment, subjects with acute infection had lower CSF NFL levels, with elevations for their age in 1 of 32 subjects with acute infection (3.1%) and 10 of 32 with chronic infection (31%) (P = .006). This persisted after cART initiation, with 1 of 25 acute (4%) and 4 of 9 chronic subjects (44%) showing elevated NFL levels (P = .01). In acute infection, pre-cART NFL levels were inversely correlated with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic findings of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in frontal gray matter (r = −0.40; P = .03), frontal white matter (r = −0.46; P = .01), and parietal gray matter (r = −0.47; P = .01); correlations persisted after treatment in the frontal white matter (r = −0.51; P = .02) and parietal gray matter (r = −0.46; P = .04). Conclusions. CSF NFL levels are not elevated in untreated acute HIV infection or after 6 months of immediately initiated cART but are abnormal in chronic HIV infection before and after treatment. In acute HIV infection, CSF NFL levels are inversely associated with neuroimaging markers of neuronal health. PMID:25995196

  14. LC-MS/MS-based quantification of kynurenine metabolites, tryptophan, monoamines and neopterin in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain.

    PubMed

    Fuertig, René; Ceci, Angelo; Camus, Sandrine M; Bezard, Erwan; Luippold, Andreas H; Hengerer, Bastian

    2016-09-01

    The kynurenine (KYN) pathway is implicated in diseases such as cancer, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Measurement of KYN metabolite levels will help elucidating the involvement of the KYN pathway in the disease pathology and inform drug development. Samples of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue were spiked with deuterated internal standards, processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS; analytes were chromatographically separated by gradient elution on a C18 reversed phase analytical column without derivatization. We established an LC-MS/MS method to measure 11 molecules, namely tryptophan, KYN, 3-OH-KYN, 3-OH-anthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, serotonin, dopamine and neopterin within 5.5 min, with sufficient sensitivity to quantify these molecules in small sample volumes of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.

  15. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage by specific measurement of transferrin glycoforms.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seok-Joon; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Sonstein, William J; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage would benefit spine surgeons making critical postoperative decisions on patient care. We have assessed novel approaches to selectively determine CSF β2-transferrin (β2TF), an asialo-transferrin (aTF) biomarker, without interference from serum sialo-transferrin (sTF) in test samples. First, we performed mild periodate oxidation to selectively generate aldehyde groups in sTF for capture with magnetic hydrazide microparticles, and selective removal with a magnetic separator. Using this protocol sTF was selectively removed from mixtures of CSF and serum containing CSF aTF (β2TF) and serum sTF, respectively. Second, a two-step enzymatic method was developed with neuraminidase and galactose oxidase for generating aldehyde groups in sTF present in CSF and serum mixtures for magnetic hydrazide microparticle capture. After selectively removing sTF from mixtures of CSF and serum, ELISA could detect significant TF signal only in CSF, while the TF signal in serum was negligible. The new approach for selective removal of only sTF in test samples will be promising for the required intervention by a spine surgeon. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Simulated spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak repair: an educational model with didactic and technical components.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, George M; Anderson, Paul A; Chitale, Rohan; Campbell, Peter G; Lobel, Darlene A; Harrop, James

    2013-10-01

    In the era of surgical resident work hour restrictions, the traditional apprenticeship model may provide fewer hours for neurosurgical residents to hone technical skills. Spinal dura mater closure or repair is 1 skill that is infrequently encountered, and persistent cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a potential morbidity. To establish an educational curriculum to train residents in spinal dura mater closure with a novel durotomy repair model. The Congress of Neurological Surgeons has developed a simulation-based model for durotomy closure with the ongoing efforts of their simulation educational committee. The core curriculum consists of didactic training materials and a technical simulation model of dural repair for the lumbar spine. Didactic pretest scores ranged from 4/11 (36%) to 10/11 (91%). Posttest scores ranged from 8/11 (73%) to 11/11 (100%). Overall, didactic improvements were demonstrated by all participants, with a mean improvement between pre- and posttest scores of 1.17 (18.5%; P = .02). The technical component consisted of 11 durotomy closures by 6 participants, where 4 participants performed multiple durotomies. Mean time to closure of the durotomy ranged from 490 to 546 seconds in the first and second closures, respectively (P = .66), whereby the median leak rate improved from 14 to 7 (P = .34). There were also demonstrative technical improvements by all. Simulated spinal dura mater repair appears to be a potentially valuable tool in the education of neurosurgery residents. The combination of a didactic and technical assessment appears to be synergistic in terms of educational development.

  17. Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Sara K.; Samuelsson, Martin; Saetre, Peter; Lindström, Leif; Jönsson, Erik G.; Nordin, Conny; Engberg, Göran; Erhardt, Sophie; Landén, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). This astrocyte-derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive function. We measured the levels of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers to investigate the putative involvement of KYNA in bipolar disorder. Methods We obtained CSF by lumbar puncture from 23 healthy men and 31 euthymic men with bipolar disorder. We analyzed the samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Patients with bipolar disorder had increased levels of KYNA in their CSF compared with healthy volunteers (1.71 nM, standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.13 v. 1.13 nM, SEM 0.09; p = 0.002. The levels of KYNA were positively correlated with age among bipolar patients but not healthy volunteers. Limitations The influence of ongoing drug treatment among patients cannot be ruled out. We conducted our study during the euthymic phase of the disease. Conclusion Brain KYNA levels are increased in euthymic men with bipolar disorder. In addition, KYNA levels increased with age in these patients. These findings indicate shared mechanisms between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Elevated levels of brain KYNA may provide further insight to the pathophysiology and progression of bipolar disorder. PMID:20420770

  18. Diagnosis of Meningococcal Meningitis by Broad-Range Bacterial PCR with Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kotilainen, Pirkko; Jalava, Jari; Meurman, Olli; Lehtonen, Olli-Pekka; Rintala, Esa; Seppälä, Olli-Pekka; Eerola, Erkki; Nikkari, Simo

    1998-01-01

    We used broad-range bacterial PCR combined with DNA sequencing to examine prospectively cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected meningitis. Fifty-six CSF samples from 46 patients were studied during the year 1995. Genes coding for bacterial 16S and/or 23S rRNA genes could be amplified from the CSF samples from five patients with a clinical picture consistent with acute bacterial meningitis. For these patients, the sequenced PCR product shared 98.3 to 100% homology with the Neisseria meningitidis sequence. For one patient, the diagnosis was initially made by PCR alone. Of the remaining 51 CSF samples, for 50 (98.0%) samples the negative PCR findings were in accordance with the negative findings by bacterial culture and Gram staining, as well as with the eventual clinical diagnosis for the patient. However, the PCR test failed to detect the bacterial rRNA gene in one CSF sample, the culture of which yielded Listeria monocytogenes. These results invite new research efforts to be focused on the application of PCR with broad-range bacterial primers to improve the etiologic diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. In a clinical setting, Gram staining and bacterial culture still remain the cornerstones of diagnosis. PMID:9665992

  19. Quantitative SERS Detection of Dopamine in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Dual-Recognition-Induced Hot Spot Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yuning; Zhang, Ren; Liu, Jiangang; Wei, Jia; Qian, Hufei; Qian, Kun; Chen, Ruoping; Liu, Baohong

    2018-05-09

    Reliable profiling of the extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration in the central nervous system is essential for a deep understanding of its biological and pathological functions. However, quantitative determination of this neurotransmitter remains a challenge because of the extremely low concentration of DA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients. Herein, on the basis of the specific recognition of boronate toward diol and N-hydroxysuccinimide ester toward the amine group, a simple and highly sensitive strategy was presented for DA detection by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as a signal readout. This was realized by first immobilizing 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di( N-hydroxysuccinimide ester) on gold thin film surfaces to capture DA, followed by introducing 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MPBA)-functionalized silver nanoparticles to generate numerous plasmonic "hot spots" with the nanoparticle-on-mirror geometry. Such a dual-recognition mechanism not only avoids complicated bioelement-based manipulations but also efficiently decreases the background signal. With the direct use of the recognition probe 3-MPBA as a Raman reporter, the "signal-on" SERS method was employed to quantify the concentration of DA from 1 pM to 1 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 pM. Moreover, our dual-recognition-directed SERS assay exhibited a high resistance to cerebral interference and was successfully applied to monitoring of DA in CSF samples of patients.

  20. Steady-streaming effects on the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jenna; Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio; Lasheras, Juan

    2017-11-01

    With each heart beat the oscillatory blood supply to the rigid cranial vault produces a time-periodic variation of the intracranial pressure that drives the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) periodically in and out of the compliant spinal canal. We have recently conducted an analysis of this flow-structure interaction problem taking advantage of the small compliance of the dura membrane bounding externally the CSF and of the disparity of length scales associated with the geometry of the subarachnoid space. We have shown in an idealized geometry that the steady-streaming motion associated with this periodic flow, resulting from the nonlinear cumulative effects of convective acceleration, causes a bulk recirculation of CSF inside the spinal canal, which has been observed in many radiological studies. We extend here our study to investigate the possible contribution arising from the flow around the nerve roots protruding from the spinal cord, an effect that was neglected in our previous work. For this purpose, we consider the oscillatory motion around a cylindrical post confined between two parallel plates. For large values of the relevant Strouhal number we find at leading order a harmonic Stokes flow, whereas steady-streaming effects enter in the first-order corrections, which are computed for realistic values of the Womersley number and of the cylinder height-to-radius ratio.

  1. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Severely Impairs Brain Parenchymal Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in Nonhuman Primate.

    PubMed

    Goulay, Romain; Flament, Julien; Gauberti, Maxime; Naveau, Michael; Pasquet, Nolwenn; Gakuba, Clement; Emery, Evelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Vivien, Denis; Aron-Badin, Romina; Gaberel, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis , using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF. Then, animals were subjected to a minimally invasive SAH before an MRI evaluation of the impact of SAH on the brain parenchymal CSF circulation. We first demonstrate that the CSF actively penetrates the brain parenchyma. Two hours after injection, almost the entire brain is labeled by DOTA-Gd. We also show that our model of SAH in nonhuman primate displays the characteristics of SAH in humans and leads to a dramatic impairment of the brain parenchymal circulation of the CSF. The CSF actively penetrates within the brain parenchyma in the gyrencephalic brain, as described for the glymphatic system in rodent. This parenchymal CSF circulation is severely impaired by SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Chromogranin A levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Verde, Federico; Steinacker, Petra; Oeckl, Patrick; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Rosenbohm, Angela; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus

    2018-07-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a protein found in large dense-core vesicles of neuroendocrine cells and neurons and regulating secretion. A relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was suggested as its overexpression accelerates disease onset in model systems and it interacts with mutant forms of SOD1. Recently, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CgA levels have been reported in ALS patients relative to controls. With the aim of confirming this finding, we measured CgA and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH), an established ALS biomarker, in the CSF of 32 ALS patients and 32 disease controls. ALS patients had clearly increased pNFH levels (p < 0.0001), while CgA levels were only modestly lower relative to controls (p = 0.0265), with wide value overlap and consequently poor discriminative performance. CgA did not correlate with any disease parameters among ALS patients. Our findings suggest that CgA is not a promising clinical biomarker for ALS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Cerebrospinal fluid findings in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Tomii, Shohei; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2018-01-01

    As chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) progresses, EBV-infected tumor cells invade the central nervous system (CNS). To establish a diagnostic procedure for CNS invasion, we retrospectively analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from eight patients. Two patients presented with consciousness disturbance and were diagnosed with CNS invasion based on scan and autopsy results, respectively. The remaining six patients were diagnosed without CNS invasion by clinical findings and scans. In the two patients with CNS invasion, the number of mononuclear cells and the protein concentration were increased, whereas the CSF to serum glucose ratio and the adenosine deaminase concentration were raised. In one of the two patients, however, bacterial meningitis could not be excluded. Cytological examination of CSF demonstrated class 1-3. Notably, the CSF EBV-DNA load was positive in all patients, independent of CNS invasion diagnosis, and the CSF load correlated with that of the peripheral blood. Taken together, this indicates that CSF may lack the specific markers of CNS invasion in CAEBV patients. The CSF EBV-DNA load and the cytological analysis did not reflect CNS invasion; therefore, new biomarkers need to be established.

  4. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in MS than in OND group; no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable.

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid B Cells Correlate with Early Brain Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuenz, Bettina; Lutterotti, Andreas; Ehling, Rainer; Gneiss, Claudia; Haemmerle, Monika; Rainer, Carolyn; Deisenhammer, Florian; Schocke, Michael; Berger, Thomas; Reindl, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence from immunological, pathological and therapeutic studies that B cells are key components in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methodology/Principal Findings In this prospective study we have for the first time investigated the differences in the inflammatory response between relapsing and progressive MS by comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell profiles from patients at the onset of the disease (clinically isolated syndrome, CIS), relapsing-remitting (RR) and chronic progressive (CP) MS by flow cytometry. As controls we have used patients with other neurological diseases. We have found a statistically significant accumulation of CSF mature B cells (CD19+CD138−) and plasma blasts (CD19+CD138+) in CIS and RRMS. Both B cell populations were, however, not significantly increased in CPMS. Further, this accumulation of B cells correlated with acute brain inflammation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and with inflammatory CSF parameters such as the number of CSF leukocytes, intrathecal immunoglobulin M and G synthesis and intrathecal production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and the B cell chemokine CxCL-13. Conclusions Our data support an important role of CSF B cells in acute brain inflammation in CIS and RRMS. PMID:18596942

  6. Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Analysis of Cell-Free Circulating Mitochondrial DNA by Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Podlesniy, Petar; Trullas, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains molecules directly linked with brain function because it permeates brain tissue. The analysis of protein biomarkers in CSF is currently recommended for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, but the clinical sensitivity and specificity are still being investigated. A major drawback is that most of the currently used biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases are proteins that are found at very low concentrations in CSF and need to be measured by immunoassays that provide relative values, which sometimes are difficult to reproduce between laboratories. In contrast, the recent availability of digital PCR platforms allows the absolute quantification of nucleic acids at single-molecule resolution, but their presence in CSF has not been characterized. CSF contains cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and changes in the concentration of this nucleic acid are linked to neurodegeneration. Here we describe a method to measure the concentration of cell-free circulating mtDNA directly in unpurified CSF using droplet digital PCR with either hydrolysis probes or fluorescent DNA-binding dye methods. This protocol allows the detection and absolute quantification of mtDNA content in the CSF with high analytical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.

  7. Pre-analytical and analytical factors influencing Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker variability.

    PubMed

    Fourier, Anthony; Portelius, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Quadrio, Isabelle; Perret-Liaudet, Armand

    2015-09-20

    A panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including total Tau (t-Tau), phosphorylated Tau protein at residue 181 (p-Tau) and β-amyloid peptides (Aβ42 and Aβ40), is frequently used as an aid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis for young patients with cognitive impairment, for predicting prodromal AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, for AD discrimination in atypical clinical phenotypes and for inclusion/exclusion and stratification of patients in clinical trials. Due to variability in absolute levels between laboratories, there is no consensus on medical cut-off value for the CSF AD signature. Thus, for full implementation of this core AD biomarker panel in clinical routine, this issue has to be solved. Variability can be explained both by pre-analytical and analytical factors. For example, the plastic tubes used for CSF collection and storage, the lack of reference material and the variability of the analytical protocols were identified as important sources of variability. The aim of this review is to highlight these pre-analytical and analytical factors and describe efforts done to counteract them in order to establish cut-off values for core CSF AD biomarkers. This review will give the current state of recommendations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. HIV Migration Between Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid or Semen Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Chaillon, Antoine; Gianella, Sara; Wertheim, Joel O.; Richman, Douglas D.; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Smith, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported associations between neuropathogenesis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compartmentalization in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and between sexual transmission and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) compartmentalization in semen. It remains unclear, however, how compartmentalization dynamics change over time. To address this, we used statistical methods and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches to reconstruct temporal dynamics of HIV migration between blood and CSF and between blood and the male genital tract. We investigated 11 HIV-infected individuals with paired semen and blood samples and 4 individuals with paired CSF and blood samples. Aligned partial HIV env sequences were analyzed by (1) phylogenetic reconstruction, using a Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach; (2) evaluation of viral compartmentalization, using tree-based and distance-based methods; and (3) analysis of migration events, using a discrete Bayesian asymmetric phylogeographic approach of diffusion with Markov jump counts estimation. Finally, we evaluated potential correlates of viral gene flow across anatomical compartments. We observed bidirectional replenishment of viral compartments and asynchronous peaks of viral migration from and to blood over time, suggesting that disruption of viral compartment is transient and directionally selected. These findings imply that viral subpopulations in anatomical sites are an active part of the whole viral population and that compartmental reservoirs could have implications in future eradication studies. PMID:24302756

  9. Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Promotes Neuronal Viability and Activity of Hippocampal Neuronal Circuits In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Culley, Georgia; Lyckenvik, Tim; Mobarrez, Kristoffer; Bjorefeldt, Andreas; Wasling, Pontus; Seth, Henrik; Asztely, Frederik; Harrer, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Aigner, Ludwig; Hanse, Eric; Illes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    For decades it has been hypothesized that molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffuse into the brain parenchyma and influence the function of neurons. However, the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits are largely unexplored and unknown. A major reason for this is the absence of appropriate neuronal in vitro model systems, and it is uncertain if neurons cultured in pure CSF survive and preserve electrophysiological functionality in vitro. In this article, we present an approach to address how human CSF (hCSF) influences neuronal circuits in vitro. We validate our approach by comparing the morphology, viability, and electrophysiological function of single neurons and at the network level in rat organotypic slice and primary neuronal cultures cultivated either in hCSF or in defined standard culture media. Our results demonstrate that rodent hippocampal slices and primary neurons cultured in hCSF maintain neuronal morphology and preserve synaptic transmission. Importantly, we show that hCSF increases neuronal viability and the number of electrophysiologically active neurons in comparison to the culture media. In summary, our data indicate that hCSF represents a physiological environment for neurons in vitro and a superior culture condition compared to the defined standard media. Moreover, this experimental approach paves the way to assess the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits as well as suggesting a novel strategy for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. PMID:26973467

  10. Picornaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis in Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Anjos, Elizabete; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Roivainen, Merja; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Human enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis. Viral-bacterial interaction may affect the clinical course and outcome of bacterial meningitis. In Africa, viruses might be responsible for 14-25% of all meningitis cases. However, only few studies from Africa have reported detection of viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or mixed viral-bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of picornaviruses in the CSF of children suffering from meningitis in Luanda, Angola. The study included 142 consecutive children enrolled in a prospective study of bacterial meningitis in Luanda between 2005 and 2006, from whom a CSF sample was available. CSF samples were obtained at hospital admission, stored in a deep-freeze, and transported to Finland for testing by real-time PCR for picornaviruses. Enteroviruses were detected in 4 (3%) of 142 children with presumed bacterial meningitis. A 5-month-old girl with rhinovirus and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis recovered uneventfully. An 8-year-old girl with human enterovirus and pneumococcal meningitis developed no sequelae. A 2-month-old girl with human enterovirus and malaria recovered quickly. A 7-month-old girl with human enterovirus was treated for presumed tuberculous meningitis and survived with severe sequelae. Mixed infections of the CNS with picornaviruses and bacteria are rare. Detection of an enterovirus does not affect the clinical picture and outcome of bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of monoamine metabolites and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Yumiko; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Takashi; Akiyama, Mari; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Kubota, Masaya; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2017-02-01

    We describe a new method for simultaneous measurement of monoamine metabolites (3-O-methyldopa [3-OMD], 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol [MHPG], 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA], and homovanillic acid [HVA]) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and its use on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from pediatric patients. Monoamine metabolites and 5-MTHF were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. CSF samples were prospectively collected from children according to a standardized collection protocol in which the first 1-ml fraction was used for analysis. Monoamine metabolites and 5-MTHF were separated within 10min. They showed linearity from the limit of detection to 1024nmol/l. The limit of quantification of each metabolite was sufficiently low for the CSF sample assay. In 42 CSF samples after excluding cases with possibly altered neurotransmitter profiles, the concentrations of 3-OMD, MHPG, 5-HIAA, HVA, and 5-MTHF showed significant age dependence and their ranges were comparable with the reference values in the literature. The metabolite profiles of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, Segawa disease, and folate receptor α defect by this method were compatible with those in the literature. This method is a simple means of measuring CSF monoamine metabolites and 5-MTHF, and is especially useful for laboratories not equipped with electrochemical detectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Darunavir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and blood in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Izadkhashti, Arash; Price, Richard W; Mallon, Patrick W; De Meulder, Marc; Timmerman, Philip; Gisslén, Magnus

    2009-04-01

    Darunavir is the most recently licensed protease inhibitor currently used in treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals. Our objective was to determine darunavir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in subjects receiving antiretroviral treatment regimens containing ritonavir-boosted darunavir. Darunavir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 14 paired CSF and plasma samples from eight HIV-1-infected individuals. The lower limit of quantification was 5.0 ng/ml. All of the 14 CSF samples had detectable darunavir concentrations with a median darunavir concentration of 34.2 ng/ml (range 15.9-212.0 ng/ml). The median (range) plasma darunavir concentration was 3930 (1800-12900) ng/ml. All CSF samples had detectable darunavir concentrations. Most of them exceeded or were in the same range as levels needed to inhibit replication of wild type virus, making it probable that darunavir, at least to some extent, contributes to the suppression of HIV replication in the central nervous system.

  13. Asymptomatic Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV-1 Viral Blips and Viral Escape During Antiretroviral Therapy: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Edén, Arvid; Nilsson, Staffan; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Svennerholm, Bo; Gisslén, Magnus

    2016-12-15

    We examined longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (median, 5 samples/patients; interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 samples/patient) in 75 neurologically asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-seven patients (36%) had ≥1 CSF HIV RNA load of >20 copies/mL (23% had ≥1 load of >50 copies/mL), with a median HIV RNA load of 50 copies/mL (IQR, 32-77 copies/mL). In plasma, 42 subjects (52%) and 22 subjects (29%) had an HIV RNA load of >20 and >50 copies/mL, respectively. Two subjects had an increasing virus load in consecutive CSF samples, representing possible CSF escape. Of 418 samples, 9% had a CSF HIV RNA load of >20 copies/mL (5% had a load of >50 copies/mL) and 19% had a plasma HIV RNA load of >20 copies/mL (8% had a load of >50 copies/mL). A CSF-associated virus load of >20 copies/mL was associated with higher CSF level of neopterin. In conclusion, CSF escape was rare, and increased CSF HIV RNA loads usually represented CSF virus load blips. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Difference in drug resistance patterns between minor HIV-1 populations in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Bergroth, T; Ekici, H; Gisslén, M; Hagberg, L; Sönnerborg, A

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine to what extent unique drug resistance patterns appear in minor and major HIV-1 quasispecies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as compared with blood. Forty-four plasma and CSF samples from 13 multi-treatment-experienced patients, seven of whom provided longitudinal samples, were included in the study. The subjects had failed antiretroviral therapy including lamivudine. The reverse transcriptase (RT) gene was examined by selective real-time polymerase chain reaction (SPCR), which can detect M184I/V mutants down to 0.2% of the viral population. SPCR revealed differences at amino acid position 184 in the plasma/CSF populations in 12 paired samples from eight patients. One plasma sample was positive by SPCR where direct sequencing showed wild-type M184. The other 11 paired samples showed quantitative differences in the mixed populations of the mutant or wild-type M184 quasispecies. Differences in other resistance-associated mutations between plasma and CSF viruses were also found by direct sequencing. In multi-treatment-experienced patients with therapy failure, differences in drug resistance patterns were found frequently between plasma and CSF in both minor and major viral populations. To what extent this was a true biological phenomenon remains to be established, and the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined.

  15. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL were cross-sectionally included in the analysis. Antiretroviral therapy regimens included efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir combined with tenofovir, abacavir, or zidovudine and emtricitabine or lamivudine. HIV-1 RNA was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Neopterin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seven (10%) of the 69 subjects had detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA, in median 121 copies/mL (interquartile range, 54-213 copies/mL). Subjects with detectable CSF virus had significantly higher CSF neopterin and longer duration of treatment. Previous treatment interruptions were more common in subjects with CSF escape. Central nervous system penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice.

  16. The UKNEQAS scheme for cerebrospinal fluid haem pigments: a paradigm for service improvement.

    PubMed

    Beetham, Robert; Egner, William; Patel, Dina

    2011-11-01

    We describe the programme of an established External Quality Assurance (EQA) provider and a Specialist Advisory Group (SAG) to develop a successful EQA scheme for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) haem pigments as an example of a professionally led, unfunded initiative with the real potential to benefit patients. Within three years, we had assured sample stability, stoichiometry, and published best practice guidelines, enabling both analytical results and interpretation to be assessed and reported with an educative summary of the desired responses. Misclassification scoring of analysis and interpretation was introduced. Following audit, guidelines were modified and republished. The outcomes were as follows: Participant numbers increased from 63 at inception to 150 10 years later; The percentage of participants using visual inspection, a poor practice indicator, decreased from 27% to less than 1%; In all, 94-100% of participants consistently detected minor increases in bilirubin over the last four years of the scheme; More than 93% of participants were able to interpret analytical results linked to straightforward clinical scenarios; Misclassification scoring demonstrated that more complex scenarios repeatedly posed problems and is the next challenge to address. Scheme success is attributed to the experience of the operator and the formation of a voluntary expert advisory group, with both concerned to advance science and patient safety and thus contribute unpaid time and effort in order to succeed. In times of fiscal constraint, such resource may not be so readily available, yet is a vital part of continuous quality improvement for the benefit of patients.

  17. HIV-1 Viral Escape in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subjects on Suppressive Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W.; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Background. Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Methods. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL were cross-sectionally included in the analysis. Antiretroviral therapy regimens included efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir combined with tenofovir, abacavir, or zidovudine and emtricitabine or lamivudine. HIV-1 RNA was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Neopterin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Seven (10%) of the 69 subjects had detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA, in median 121 copies/mL (interquartile range, 54–213 copies/mL). Subjects with detectable CSF virus had significantly higher CSF neopterin and longer duration of treatment. Previous treatment interruptions were more common in subjects with CSF escape. Central nervous system penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Conclusions. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice. PMID:21050119

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Expression Profile in Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Zanotta, Nunzia; Sartori, Arianna; Bratina, Alessio; Manganotti, Paolo; Trevisan, Giusto; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in patients with particular neurologic disorders is a powerful tool to evaluate specific central nervous system inflammatory markers for diagnostic needs, because CSF represents the specific immune micro-environment to the central nervous system. CSF samples from 49 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and non-inflammatory neurologic disorders (NIND) as controls were submitted to protein expression profiles of 47 inflammatory biomarkers by multiplex Luminex bead assay to investigate possible differences in the inflammatory process for MS and CIDP. Our results showed differences in CSF cytokine levels in MS and CIDP; in particular, IL12 (p40) was significantly highly expressed in MS in comparison with CIDP and NIND, while SDF-1α and SCGF-β were significantly highly expressed in CIDP cohort when compared to MS and NIND. IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 had higher expression levels in NIND if compared with the other groups. Our study showed that, despite some common pathogenic mechanisms, central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating diseases, such as MS and CIDP, differ in some specific inflammatory soluble proteins in CSF, underlining differences in the immune response involved in those autoimmune diseases.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Fulminant Case of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Füvesi, Judit; Hanrieder, Jörg; Bencsik, Krisztina; Rajda, Cecilia; Kovács, S. Krisztián; Kaizer, László; Beniczky, Sándor; Vécsei, László; Bergquist, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease, but in rare fulminant cases rapid progression may lead to death shortly after diagnosis. Currently there is no diagnostic test to predict disease course. The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers/proteins related to rapid progression. We present the case history of a 15-year-old male MS patient. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was taken at diagnosis and at the time of rapid progression leading to the patient’s death. Using isobaric tag labeling and nanoflow liquid chromatography in conjunction with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry we quantitatively analyzed the protein content of two CSF samples from the patient with fulminant MS as well as one relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patient and one control headache patient, whose CSF analysis was normal. Seventy-eight proteins were identified and seven proteins were found to be more abundant in both fulminant MS samples but not in the RR MS sample compared to the control. These proteins are involved in the immune response, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, in this pilot study we were able to show differences in the CSF proteome of a rapidly progressing MS patient compared to a more typical clinical form of MS and a control subject. PMID:22837721

  20. Leptin levels are negatively correlated with 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, James; Azim, Syed; Rebecchi, Mario J; Galbavy, William; Feng, Tian; Reinsel, Ruth; Rizwan, Sabeen; Fowler, Christopher J; Benveniste, Helene; Kaczocha, Martin

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence in humans that peripheral endocannabinoid signaling is disrupted in obesity. However, little is known about the corresponding central signaling. Here, we have investigated the relationship between gender, leptin, body mass index (BMI) and levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of primarily overweight to obese patients with osteoarthritis. Patients (20 females, 15 males, age range 44-78 years, BMI range 24-42) undergoing total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis were recruited for the study. Endocannabinoids were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG levels in the serum and CSF did not correlate with either age or BMI. However, 2-AG levels in the CSF, but not serum, correlated negatively with CSF leptin levels (Spearman's ρ -0.48, P=0.0076, n=30). No such correlations were observed for AEA and leptin. In the patient sample investigated, there is a negative association between 2-AG and leptin levels in the CSF. This is consistent with pre-clinical studies in animals, demonstrating that leptin controls the levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids that regulate feeding behavior.

  1. Anxiety in major depression and cerebrospinal fluid free gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M; Ellis, Steven P; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2014-10-01

    Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Liquid-Based Cytology of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Case of Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwoon; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules. Occasional asymmetrical, narrow-based budding but no true hyphae or pseudohyphae were observed. Gomori methenamine silver staining was positive. Cryptococcosis was confirmed in blood and CSF through the cryptococcal antigen test and culture. Liquid-based cytology allows for a clean background and additional slides for ancillary testing, facilitating the detection of microorganisms in CSF specimens, particularly when the number of organisms is small.

  3. Effect of protein binding on unbound atazanavir and darunavir cerebrospinal fluid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Delille, Cecile A; Pruett, Sarah T; Marconi, Vincent C; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Armstrong, Wendy S; Arrendale, Richard F; Sheth, Anandi N; Easley, Kirk A; Acosta, Edward P; Vunnava, Aswani; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2014-09-01

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit different protein binding affinities and achieve variable plasma and tissue concentrations. Degree of plasma protein binding may impact central nervous system penetration. This cross-sectional study assessed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) unbound PI concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and neopterin levels in subjects receiving either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV), 95% plasma protein bound, or atazanavir (ATV), 86% bound. Unbound PI trough concentrations were measured using rapid equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin were measured by Ampliprep/COBAS® Taqman® 2.0 assay (Roche) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ALPCO), respectively. CSF/plasma unbound drug concentration ratio was higher for ATV, 0.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.12] than DRV, 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.06). Unbound CSF concentrations were lower than protein adjusted wild-type inhibitory concentration-50 (IC50 ) in all ATV and 1 DRV-treated subjects (P < 0.001). CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 2/15 ATV and 4/15 DRV subjects (P = 0.65). CSF neopterin levels were low and similar between arms. ATV relative to DRV had higher CSF/plasma unbound drug ratio. Low CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin suggest that both regimens resulted in CSF virologic suppression and controlled inflammation. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Liquid-Based Cytology of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Case of Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwoon; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4–11 μm and thick capsules. Occasional asymmetrical, narrow-based budding but no true hyphae or pseudohyphae were observed. Gomori methenamine silver staining was positive. Cryptococcosis was confirmed in blood and CSF through the cryptococcal antigen test and culture. Liquid-based cytology allows for a clean background and additional slides for ancillary testing, facilitating the detection of microorganisms in CSF specimens, particularly when the number of organisms is small. PMID:29069886

  5. Effect of Protein Binding on Unbound Atazanavir and Darunavir Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Delille, Cecile A.; Pruett, Sarah T.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Armstrong, Wendy S.; Arrendale, Richard F.; Sheth, Anandi N.; Easley, Kirk A.; Acosta, Edward P.; Vunnava, Aswani; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit different protein binding affinities and achieve variable plasma and tissue concentrations. Degree of plasma protein binding may impact central nervous system penetration. This cross-sectional study assessed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) unbound PI concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and neopterin levels in subjects receiving either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV), 95% plasma protein bound, or atazanavir (ATV), 86% bound. Unbound PI trough concentrations were measured using rapid equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin were measured by Ampliprep/COBAS® Taqman® 2.0 assay (Roche) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ALPCO), respectively. CSF/plasma unbound drug concentration ratio was higher for ATV, 0.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.12] than DRV, 0.04 (95%CI 0.03–0.06). Unbound CSF concentrations were lower than protein adjusted wild-type inhibitory concentration-50 (IC50) in all ATV and 1 DRV-treated subjects (P < 0.001). CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 2/15 ATV and 4/15 DRV subjects (P = 0.65). CSF neopterin levels were low and similar between arms. ATV relative to DRV had higher CSF/plasma unbound drug ratio. Low CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin suggest that both regimens resulted in CSF virologic suppression and controlled inflammation. PMID:24691856

  6. Behavioral correlates of cerebrospinal fluid amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter alterations in dementia.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Van Hemelrijck, An; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as amino acid neurotransmitter systems play a role in the etiopathogenesis of BPSD. In this study we attempted to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurochemical correlates of BPSD to provide further insight into its underlying neurochemical pathophysiological mechanisms. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 202), probable AD with cerebrovascular disease (n = 37), probable frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 32), and probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 26) underwent behavioral assessment and lumbar puncture. CSF levels of six amino acids and several biogenic amines and metabolites were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In the AD patients, CSF homovanillic acid/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HVA/5HIAA) ratios correlated positively with anxieties/phobias, whereas CSF levels of taurine correlated negatively with depression and behavioral disturbances in general. In FTD patients, CSF levels of glutamate correlated negatively with verbally agitated behavior. In DLB patients, CSF levels of HVA correlated negatively with hallucinations. Several neurotransmitter systems can be linked to one specific behavioral syndrome depending on the dementia subtype. In addition to biogenic amines and metabolites, amino acids seem to play a major role in the neurochemical etiology of BPSD as well. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Platelet Serotonin Levels in Alzheimer's Disease with Clinical and Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers.

    PubMed

    Tajeddinn, Walid; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Seed Ahmed, Mohammed; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Shahnaz, Tasmin; Milovanovic, Micha; Behbahani, Homira; Höglund, Kina; Winblad, Bengt; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Jelic, Vesna; Järemo, Petter; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-05-04

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to measure 5-HT level in platelets in AD and explore its association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), AD biomarkers (amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau)), and clinical symptoms. 15 patients with AD and 20 patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) were included. 5-HT metabolites were measured, in a specific fraction, using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Significantly lower 5-HT concentrations were observed in AD patients compared to SCI patients both after normalization against total protein (p = 0.008) or platelet count (p = 0.019). SCI patients with lower 5-HT level have higher AD CSF biomarkers, total tau (p = 0.026) and tau/Aβ42 ratio (p = 0.001), compared to those with high 5-HT levels. AD patients have reduced platelet 5-HT levels. In SCI, lower 5-HT content was associated with a higher AD-CSF biomarker burden.

  8. Phosphoneurofilament heavy chain and N-glycomics from the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Tillack, Linda; de Carvalho, Mamede; Pinto, Susana; Conradt, Harald S; Costa, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of the motor neuron for which no clinically validated biomarkers have been identified. We have quantified by ELISA the biomarker phosphoneurofilament heavy chain (pNFH) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients (n=29) and age-matched control patients with other diseases (n=19) by ELISA. Furthermore, we compared protein N-glycosylation of the CSF in ALS patients and controls, by applying a glycomics approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. pNFH levels were significantly higher in ALS patients in comparison with controls (P<0.0001) in particular in fast progressors. The N-glycans found in the CSF were predominantly complex diantennary with sialic acid in α2,3- and α2,6-linkage, and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine-containing structures as well as peripherally fucosylated structures were found. As compared with controls the ALS group had a significant increase of a peak composed of the monosialylated diantennary glycans A2G2S(6)1 and FA2G2S(3)1 (P=0.0348). Our results underscore the value of pNFH as a biomarker in ALS. In addition, we identified a variation of the N-glycosylation pattern in ALS, suggesting that this change should be explored in future studies as potential biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) as a clinical diagnostic test. 5-MTHF is the main biologically active form of folic acid and is involved in regulation of homocysteine and DNA synthesis. Measurement of 5-MTHF in CSF provides diagnostic information regarding diseases affecting folate metabolism within the central nervous system, in particular inborn errors of folate metabolism. Determination of 5-MTHF in CSF (50 μL) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). 5-MTHF in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (5-MTHF-(13)C5) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve (25-400 nM) and has an analytical measurement range of 3-1000 nM.

  10. Update on the core and developing cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Babić, Mirjana; Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Mück-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Stanić, Gabrijela; Hof, Patrick R.; Šimić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, whose prevalence will dramatically rise by 2050. Despite numerous clinical trials investigating this disease, there is still no effective treatment. Many trials showed negative or inconclusive results, possibly because they recruited only patients with severe disease, who had not undergone disease-modifying therapies in preclinical stages of AD before severe degeneration occurred. Detection of AD in asymptomatic at risk individuals (and a few presymptomatic individuals who carry an autosomal dominant monogenic AD mutation) remains impractical in many of clinical situations and is possible only with reliable biomarkers. In addition to early diagnosis of AD, biomarkers should serve for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. To date, the most promising biomarkers are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers. Core CSF biomarkers (amyloid β1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau) showed a high diagnostic accuracy but were still unreliable for preclinical detection of AD. Hence, there is an urgent need for detection and validation of novel CSF biomarkers that would enable early diagnosis of AD in asymptomatic individuals. This article reviews recent research advances on biomarkers for AD, focusing mainly on the CSF biomarkers. In addition to core CSF biomarkers, the potential usefulness of novel CSF biomarkers is discussed. PMID:25165049

  11. Measurement of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of children.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Mari; Hayashi, Yumiko; Shibata, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Toda, Soichiro; Imai, Katsumi; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro; Okanishi, Tohru; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    We quantified pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children and to investigate the effect of age, sex, epilepsy, and anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy on these vitamers. CSF samples prospectively collected from 116 pediatric patients were analyzed. PLP, PL, and PA were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, using pre-column derivatization by semicarbazide. Effects of age, sex, epilepsy, and AEDs on these vitamers and the PLP/PL ratio were evaluated using multiple linear regression models. The PLP, PL, and PA concentrations were correlated negatively with age and the PLP/PL ratio was correlated positively with age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the presence of epilepsy was associated with lower PLP concentrations and PLP/PL ratios but sex and AED therapy had no influence on these values. The observed ranges of these vitamers in epileptic and non-epileptic patients were demonstrated. We showed the age dependence of PLP and PL in CSF from pediatric patients. Epileptic patients had lower PLP concentrations and PLP/PL ratios than non-epileptic patients, but it is unknown whether this is the cause, or a result, of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating Cancer of the Central Nervous System Through Next-Generation Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Pentsova, Elena I.; Shah, Ronak H.; Tang, Jiabin; Boire, Adrienne; You, Daoqi; Briggs, Samuel; Omuro, Antonio; Lin, Xuling; Fleisher, Martin; Grommes, Christian; Panageas, Katherine S.; Meng, Fanli; Selcuklu, S. Duygu; Ogilvie, Shahiba; Distefano, Natalie; Shagabayeva, Larisa; Rosenblum, Marc; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Viale, Agnes; Berger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer spread to the central nervous system (CNS) often is diagnosed late and is unresponsive to therapy. Mechanisms of tumor dissemination and evolution within the CNS are largely unknown because of limited access to tumor tissue. Materials and Methods We sequenced 341 cancer-associated genes in cell-free DNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained through routine lumbar puncture in 53 patients with suspected or known CNS involvement by cancer. Results We detected high-confidence somatic alterations in 63% (20 of 32) of patients with CNS metastases of solid tumors, 50% (six of 12) of patients with primary brain tumors, and 0% (zero of nine) of patients without CNS involvement by cancer. Several patients with tumor progression in the CNS during therapy with inhibitors of oncogenic kinases harbored mutations in the kinase target or kinase bypass pathways. In patients with glioma, the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, examination of cell-free DNA uncovered patterns of tumor evolution, including temozolomide-associated mutations. Conclusion The study shows that CSF harbors clinically relevant genomic alterations in patients with CNS cancers and should be considered for liquid biopsies to monitor tumor evolution in the CNS. PMID:27161972

  13. Passage of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokovic, B.V.; Segal, M.B.; Davson, H.

    1988-05-01

    Unidirectional flux of /sup 125/I-labeled DSIP at the blood-tissue interface of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier was studied in the perfused in situ choroid plexuses of the lateral ventricles of the sheep. Arterio-venous loss of /sup 125/I-radioactivity suggested a low-to-moderate permeability of the choroid epithelium to the intact peptide from the blood side. A saturable mechanism with Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with high affinity and very low capacity (approximate values: Kt = 5.0 +/- 0.4 nM; Vmax = 272 +/- 10 fmol.min-1) was demonstrated at the blood-tissue interface of the choroid plexus. The clearance of DSIP from the ventricles during ventriculo-cisternalmore » perfusion in the rabbit indicated no significant flux of the intact peptide out of the CSF. The results suggest that DSIP crosses the blood-CSF barrier, while the system lacks the specific mechanisms for removal from the CSF found with most, if not all, amino acids and several peptides.« less

  14. Combined intracranial pressure monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid infusion study to guide management of slit ventricle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hart, Michael Gavin; Czosnyka, Marek; Czosnyka, Zofia Helena; Fernandes, Helen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Slit ventricle syndrome remains a complex entity presenting a considerable challenge to treat successfully. This study aims to demonstrate the application of dual intracranial pressure (ICP) and infusion studies together with the novel shunt occlusion test in both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. An 8-year-old child had aqueduct stenosis treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (medium-pressure valve). The presentation was of headaches with papilloedema. Imaging with both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed slit ventricles. Initially a shunt exploration revealed distal obstruction that was treated together with insertion of a paediatric strata II regular valve; however, the child continued to deteriorate. Overnight ICP monitoring revealed dramatically raised ICP with poor compensatory reserve. Intra-operative infusion study revealed a shunt that was patent distally but with proximal obstruction. A subtemporal decompression ipsilateral to the shunt was performed together with adjustment of the paediatric strata II regular valve to 2.5 in order to prevent overdrainage. This led to normalisation of ICP, resolution of papilloedema and symptomatic improvement. We demonstrate how combined ICP monitoring and shunt infusion studies can be used to help guide management. Unilateral subtemporal decompressions and preventing shunt overdrainage can result in normalisation of ICP and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.

  15. Novel dural closure technique using polyglactin acid sheet prevents cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku; Itoh, Yasunobu; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Higashiyama, Naoki; Shimada, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Extradural or subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a common complication after spinal surgery and is associated with the risks of poor wound healing, meningitis, and pseudomeningocele. Numerous methods to prevent postoperative CSF leakage are available, but pressure-tight dural closure remains difficult, especially with synthetic surgical membranes. The efficacy of a novel dural closure technique was assessed by detecting extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging. The novel dural closure technique using absorbable polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue and the conventional procedure using only fibrin glue were evaluated retrospectively by identifying extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging scans in the acute (2-7 d) and chronic (3-6 mo) postoperative stages after spinal intradural surgery in 53 patients. The incidence of extradural and subcutaneous CSF leakage was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the acute (20%) and chronic (0%) stages using polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue in 15 patients compared with that in the acute (81%) and chronic (24%) stages using only fibrin glue in 38 patients. One patient in the fibrin glue-only group required repair surgery for cutaneous CSF leakage. The combination of polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue can achieve water-tight closure after spinal intradural surgery and can minimize the risk of intractable postoperative CSF leakage. This simple, economical technique is recommended for dural closure after spinal intradural surgery.

  16. Resistance to drainage of cerebrospinal fluid: clinical measurement and significance1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert N.

    1973-01-01

    By infusing saline intrathecally at a constant rate until a new steady-state cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is attained, one can estimate clinically the apparent resistance (Ra) to drainage of CSF in mm saline/ml./minute. This intrathecal saline infusion test (ITSIT) was performed 36 times on 29 patients with diverse intracranial problems, and the results were analysed and, in most cases, compared with the pneumoencephalogram and the isotope cisternogram. The ITSIT is a safe, simple test to estimate Ra, but factors which are difficult to control (occult leaks from the subarachnoid space; independent fluctuations of CSF pressure) limit its reliability and clinical usefulness. If closely correlated with the clinical syndrome, the pneumoencephalogram, and the isotope cisternogram, an ITSIT may identify decisively the patient who needs a shunt. In addition the ITSIT offers another method by which to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of the various states of intracranial hypertension. Results from the test performed on four patients with intracranial hypertension of unknown cause (pseudotumor cerebri) suggest that the underlying mechanism in this condition is probably an impediment to normal CSF drainage. PMID:4541080

  17. Copper and ceruloplasmin dyshomeostasis in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis subjects.

    PubMed

    De Riccardis, L; Buccolieri, A; Muci, M; Pitotti, E; De Robertis, F; Trianni, G; Manno, D; Maffia, M

    2018-05-01

    Although many studies have been carried out in order to understand the implication of copper (Cu) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the exact role that this metal plays in the disease is not still clear. Because of the lack of information in this subject, the present study compared the serum and cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of copper in MS patients in respect to a control group, matched for age and sex, finding a significant increase of metal concentrations, in both biological fluids of MS subjects. To confirm the possible impairment of Cu metabolism, we analyzed ceruloplasmin (Cp) level and activity, seeing as this protein is an established peripheral marker in diseases associated with Cu imbalance. By comparing these two parameters between control and MS subjects, we found an increase of Cp levels, associated with a decrease in Cp activity, in the second group. By analysing these data, free copper levels were calculated, significantly increased in serum of MS subjects; the increase in free copper could be one of the predisposing factors responsible for the Cu altered levels in CSF of MS patients. At the same time, this alteration could be attributable to the inability to incorporate Cu by Cp, probably due to the high oxidative environment found in serum of MS patients. Overall, all these copper alterations may play a role in MS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodegradable Polymer Releasing Antibiotic Developed for Drainage Catheter of Cerebrospinal Fluid: In Vitro Results

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song Yup; Cho, Ki Hong; Cho, Han Jin; An, Jeong Ho; Ra, Young Sin

    2005-01-01

    The authors developed a biodegradable polymer that releases an antibiotic (nalidixic acid) slowly and continuously, for prevention of catheter-induced infection during drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. We investigated the in vitro antibiotic releasing characteristics and bacterial killing effects of the new polymer against E. coli. The novel fluoroquinolone polymer was prepared using diisopropylcarbodiimide, poly (e-caprolactone) diol, and nalidixic acid. FT-IR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis proved that the novel antibacterial polymer was prepared successfully without any side products. Negative MS showed that the released drug has a similar molecular weight (M.W.=232, 350) to pure drug (M.W.=232). In high pressure liquid chromatography, the released drug and drug-oligomer showed similar retention times (about 4.5-5 min) in comparison to pure drug (4.5 min). The released nalidixic acid and nalidixic acid derivatives have antibacterial characteristics against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi, of more than 3 months duration. This study suggests the possibility of applying this new polymer to manufacture drainage catheters that resist catheter-induced infection, by delivering antibiotics for a longer period of more than 1 month. PMID:15832004

  19. Automated intracranial pressure-controlled cerebrospinal fluid external drainage with LiquoGuard.

    PubMed

    Linsler, Stefan; Schmidtke, Mareike; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Kiefer, Michael; Oertel, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    LiquoGuard is a new device for intracranial pressure (ICP)-controlled drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This present study evaluates the accuracy of ICP measurement via the LiquoGuard device in comparison with Spiegelberg. Thus, we compared data ascertained from simultaneous measurement of ICP using tip-transducer and tip-sensor devices. A total of 1,764 monitoring hours in 15 patients (range, 52-219 h) were analysed. All patients received an intraventricular Spiegelberg III probe with the drainage catheter connected to the LiquoGuard system. ICP reading of both devices was performed on an hourly basis. Statistical analysis was done by applying Pearson correlation and Wilcoxon-matched pair test (p < 0.05). Mean ICP values were 11 ± 5 mmHg (Spiegelberg) and 10 ± 7 mmHg (LiquoGuard); the values measured with both devices correlated well (p = 0.001; Pearson correlation =0.349; n = 1,764). In two of the 15 patients with slit ventricles, episodes of significant differences in measured values could be observed. Both patients suffering from slit ventricles failed to produce reliable measurement with the external transducer of the LiquoGuard. LiquoGuard is a valuable new device for ICP-controlled CSF drainage. However, LiquoGuard tends to provide misleading results in slit ventricles. Thus, before these drawbacks are further analysed, the authors recommend additional ICP measurement with internal tip-sensor devices to avoid dangerous erroneous interpretation of ICP data.

  20. Disturbed Glucose Metabolism in Rat Neurons Exposed to Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Deepali; María-Lafuente, Eva; Ureña-Peralta, Juan R.; Sorribes, Lucas; Hernández, Alberto; Casanova, Bonaventura; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Burgal-Marti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Axonal damage is widely accepted as a major cause of permanent functional disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In relapsing-remitting MS, there is a possibility of remyelination by myelin producing cells and restoration of neurological function. The purpose of this study was to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning axonal injury through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible. We employed primary cultures of rat unmyelinated cerebellar granule neurons and treated them with CSF obtained from MS and Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. We performed microarray gene expression profiling to study changes in gene expression in treated neurons as compared to controls. Additionally, we determined the influence of gene-gene interaction upon the whole metabolic network in our experimental conditions using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) program. Our findings revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in MS-derived CSF-treated neurons and upregulated expression of genes in NMO-derived CSF-treated neurons. We conclude that factors in the CSF of these patients caused a perturbation in metabolic gene(s) expression and suggest that MS appears to be linked with metabolic deformity. PMID:29267205

  1. Predicting progression to dementia in persons with mild cognitive impairment using cerebrospinal fluid markers.

    PubMed

    Handels, Ron L H; Vos, Stephanie J B; Kramberger, Milica G; Jelic, Vesna; Blennow, Kaj; van Buchem, Mark; van der Flier, Wiesje; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Hampel, Harald; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Oleksik, Ania; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teunissen, Charlotte; Tsolaki, Magda; Wallin, Asa K; Winblad, Bengt; Verhey, Frans R J; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to determine the added value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to clinical and imaging tests to predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to any type of dementia. The risk of progression to dementia was estimated using two logistic regression models based on 250 MCI participants: the first included standard clinical measures (demographic, clinical, and imaging test information) without CSF biomarkers, and the second included standard clinical measures with CSF biomarkers. Adding CSF improved predictive accuracy with 0.11 (scale from 0-1). Of all participants, 136 (54%) had a change in risk score of 0.10 or higher (which was considered clinically relevant), of whom in 101, it was in agreement with their dementia status at follow-up. An individual person's risk of progression from MCI to dementia can be improved by relying on CSF biomarkers in addition to recommended clinical and imaging tests for usual care. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Lestaevel, P.; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; Dhieux, B.; Martin, J. C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  3. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Lestaevel, P; Grison, S; Favé, G; Elie, C; Dhieux, B; Martin, J C; Tack, K; Souidi, M

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) for male rats and 40 mg·L(-1) for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L(-1) NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L(-1) NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function.

  4. Energy harvesting from cerebrospinal fluid pressure fluctuations for self-powered neural implants.

    PubMed

    Beker, Levent; Benet, Arnau; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Eovino, Ben; Pisano, Albert P; Lin, Liwei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel method to generate electrical energy by converting available mechanical energy from pressure fluctuations of the cerebrospinal fluid within lateral ventricles of the brain is presented. The generated electrical power can be supplied to the neural implants and either eliminate their battery need or extend the battery lifespan. A diaphragm type harvester comprised of piezoelectric material is utilized to convert the pressure fluctuations to electrical energy. The pressure fluctuations cause the diaphragm to bend, and the strained piezoelectric materials generate electricity. In the framework of this study, an energy harvesting structure having a diameter of 2.5 mm was designed and fabricated using microfabrication techniques. A 1:1 model of lateral ventricles was 3D-printed from raw MRI images to characterize the harvester. Experimental results show that a maximum power of 0.62 nW can be generated from the harvester under similar physical conditions in lateral ventricles which corresponds to energy density of 12.6 nW/cm 2 . Considering the available area within the lateral ventricles and the size of harvesters that can be built using microfabrication techniques it is possible to amplify to power up to 26 nW. As such, the idea of generating electrical energy by making use of pressure fluctuations within brain is demonstrated in this work via the 3D-printed model system.

  5. Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid using a multiplex PCR and the Luminex detection technology.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid clinical and laboratory diagnoses are the foundation for a successful management of serious infections with Neisseria meningitidis. A species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with fluidic microarrays using microbeads (the Luminex xMAP™ Technology) can detect pathogens most frequently found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients. The Luminex suspension array system uniquely combines flow cytometry, microspheres, laser technology, digital signal processing, and traditional chemistry. In this method, the reaction is carried out in one vessel, in which distinctly color-coded bead sets, each conjugated with a different specific nucleic acid reactant, are hybridized with the PCR products, and a reporter molecule is used to quantify the interaction. The flow-based Luminex array reader identifies each reaction (bead set) after excitation by a red classification laser. Reporter signals from each reaction are simultaneously quantified by fluorescence generated by a green reporter laser. This nonculture, multiplex assay may prove to be an important tool for optimal laboratory diagnosis, not only of meningococcal meningitis, but also of meningitis caused by other bacterial or viral pathogens.

  6. Impact of Magnetic Field on Pressures of Programmable Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Altun, Idiris; Yuksel, Kasim Zafer; Mert, Tufan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether programmable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are influenced by exposure to the magnetic field and to compare the effects of magnetic field in 4 different brands of programmable CSF shunts. This experimental study was performed in the laboratory using a novel design of magnetic field. Four types of programmable CSF shunts (Miethke®, Medtronic®, Sophysa® and Codman®Hakim®) were exposed to the magnetic field generated by an apparatus consisting of Helmholtz coil for 5 minutes. In every CSF shunt, initial pressures were adjusted to 110 mm H2O and pressures after exposure to magnetic field were noted. These measurements were implemented at frequencies of 5 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 40 Hz, 60 Hz and 80 Hz. In each type, three shunts were utilized and evaluations were made twice for every shunt. At 5, 30, 40 and 60 Hz, Groups 1, 2 and 3 had significantly higher average pressures than Group 4. At 20 and 80 Hz, Groups 1 and 2 had notably different pressure values than Groups 3 and 4. Group 3 displayed the highest pressure, while Group 4 demonstrated the lowest pressure. Exposure to magnetic fields may affect the pressures of programmable CSF shunts. However, further controlled, clinical trials are warranted to elucidate the in-vivo effects of magnetic field exposure.

  7. Changes in Purines Concentration in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Pregnant Women Experiencing Pain During Active Labor.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André P; Böhmer, Ana E; Hansel, Gisele; Soares, Félix A; Oses, Jean P; Giordani, Alex T; Posso, Irimar P; Auler, José Otávio C; Mendes, Florentino F; Félix, Elaine A; Portela, Luís V; Souza, Diogo O

    2015-11-01

    Labor pain has been reported as a severe pain and can be considered as a model of acute visceral pain. It is well known that extracellular purines have an important role in pain signaling in the central nervous system. This study analyzes the relationship between extracellular purines and pain perception during active labor. A prospective observational study was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the purines and their metabolites were compared between women at term pregnancy with labor pain (n = 49) and without labor pain (Caesarian section; n = 47). Control groups (healthy men and women without chronic or acute pain-n = 40 and 32, respectively) were also investigated. The CSF levels of adenosine were significantly lower in the labor pain group (P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with pain intensity measured by a visual analogue scale (r = -0.48, P = 0.0005). Interestingly, CSF levels of uric acid were significantly higher in healthy men as compared to women. Additionally, pregnant women showed increased CSF levels of ADP, GDP, adenosine and guanosine and reduced CSF levels of AMP, GTP, and uric acid as compared to non-pregnant women (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that purines, in special the nucleoside adenosine, are associated with pregnancy and labor pain.

  8. Automatic cerebrospinal fluid segmentation in non-contrast CT images using a 3D convolutional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ajay; van de Leemput, Sil C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram; Manniesing, Rashindra

    2017-03-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures is fundamental in the development of computer aided diagnosis systems for cerebral pathologies. Manual annotations are laborious, time consuming and subject to human error and observer variability. Accurate quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be employed as a morphometric measure for diagnosis and patient outcome prediction. However, segmenting CSF in non-contrast CT images is complicated by low soft tissue contrast and image noise. In this paper we propose a state-of-the-art method using a multi-scale three-dimensional (3D) fully convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically segment all CSF within the cranial cavity. The method is trained on a small dataset comprised of four manually annotated cerebral CT images. Quantitative evaluation of a separate test dataset of four images shows a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.87 +/- 0.01 and mean absolute volume difference of 4.77 +/- 2.70 %. The average prediction time was 68 seconds. Our method allows for fast and fully automated 3D segmentation of cerebral CSF in non-contrast CT, and shows promising results despite a limited amount of training data.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate level as a diagnostic biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. Findings We identified 451 children of whom 40 (9%) had bacterial meningitis. Children with bacterial meningitis had a higher median CSF lactate level [9.6 mmol/l, interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-38.5 mmol/l bacterial meningitis vs. 2.0 mmol/l, IQR 1.2-2.8 mmol/l aseptic meningitis]. A CSF lactate cutoff point of 3.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83-99%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90-96%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 97.7-99.9%) for bacterial meningitis. Conclusions In combination with a validated meningitis clinical prediction rule, the CSF lactate level can be used to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children with CSF pleocytosis. PMID:24576334

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate level as a diagnostic biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2014-02-27

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. We identified 451 children of whom 40 (9%) had bacterial meningitis. Children with bacterial meningitis had a higher median CSF lactate level [9.6 mmol/l, interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-38.5 mmol/l bacterial meningitis vs. 2.0 mmol/l, IQR 1.2-2.8 mmol/l aseptic meningitis]. A CSF lactate cutoff point of 3.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83-99%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90-96%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 97.7-99.9%) for bacterial meningitis. In combination with a validated meningitis clinical prediction rule, the CSF lactate level can be used to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children with CSF pleocytosis.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid neuron specific enolase, interleukin-1β and erythropoietin concentrations in children after seizures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling-Min; Chen, Rui-Jie; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Gong, Jian

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and erythropoietin (EPO) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with idiopathic epilepsy were measured to illuminate the relationships between these markers with idiopathic epilepsy. Eighty-five children from 6 months to 12.5 years of age with single, previously undiagnosed, and untreated idiopathic epilepsy were participated in this study. The concentrations of CSF NSE, 1L-1β, and EPO were measured by specific ELISA methods. The mean concentrations of CSF NSE, IL-1β, and EPO in the epileptic groups showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) compared with those in the control groups. Besides, the mutual correlations of NSE, 1L-1β, and EPO were also analyzed. Results showed that there were positive correlations between the levels of IL-1β, NSE, and EPO. The changes of NSE, 1L-1β, and EPO level in CSF may be beneficial for the pathophysiology study of epileptic seizures and the identification and diagnosis of a seizure clinically.

  12. Demonstration that a new flow sensor can operate in the clinical range for cerebrospinal fluid flow

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Rahul; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Apigo, David; Kanwal, Alokik; Liu, Sheng; Russell, Thomas; Madsen, Joseph R.; Thomas, Gordon A.; Farrow, Reginald C.

    2015-01-01

    A flow sensor has been fabricated and tested that is capable of measuring the slow flow characteristic of the cerebrospinal fluid in the range from less than 4 mL/h to above 100 mL/h. This sensor is suitable for long-term implantation because it uses a wireless external spectrometer to measure passive subcutaneous components. The sensors are pressure-sensitive capacitors, in the range of 5 pF with an air gap at atmospheric pressure. Each capacitor is in series with an inductor to provide a resonant frequency that varies with flow rate. At constant flow, the system is steady with drift <0.3 mL/h over a month. At variable flow rate, V̇, the resonant frequency, f0, which is in the 200–400 MHz range, follows a second order polynomial with respect to V̇. For this sensor system the uncertainty in measuring f0 is 30 kHz which corresponds to a sensitivity in measuring flow of ΔV̇= 0.6 mL/hr. Pressures up to 20 cm H2O relative to ambient pressure were also measured. An implantable twin capacitor system is proposed that can measure flow, which is fully compensated for all hydrostatic pressures. For twin capacitors, other sources of systematic variation within clinical range, such as temperature and ambient pressure, are smaller than our sensitivity and we delineate a calibration method that should maintain clinically useful accuracy over long times. PMID:26543321

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lucy Y.; Murphy, Richard R.; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P.; Petrie, Eric C.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21–100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. PMID:23639207

  14. Antioxidant capacity and protein oxidation in cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, G; Piazza, S; Carlesi, C; Del Corona, A; Franzini, M; Pompella, A; Malvaldi, G; Mancuso, M; Paolicchi, A; Murri, L

    2007-05-01

    The causes of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown. A bulk of evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction can be implicated in ALS pathogenesis. METHODS =: We assessed, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of 49 ALS patients and 8 controls, the amount of oxidized proteins (AOPP, advanced oxidation protein products), the total antioxidant capacity (FRA, the ferric reducing ability), and, in CSF, two oxidation products, the 4-hydroxynonenal and the sum of nitrites plus nitrates. The FRA was decreased (p = 0.003) in CSF, and AOPP were increased in both CSF (p = 0.0039) and plasma (p = 0.001) of ALS patients. The content of AOPP was differently represented in CSF of ALS clinical subsets, resulting in increase in the common and pseudopolyneuropathic forms (p < 0.001) and nearly undetectable in the bulbar form, as in controls. The sum of nitrites plus nitrates and 4-hydroxynonenal were unchanged in ALS patients compared with controls. Our results, while confirming the occurrence of oxidative stress in ALS, indicate how its effects can be stratified and therefore implicated differently in the pathogenesis of different clinical forms of ALS.

  15. Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens by PCR-Mass Spectrometry in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Jing-Zi, Piao; Zheng-Xin, He; Wei-Jun, Chen; Yong-Qiang, Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis remains a life-threatening infectious disease with considerable morbidity and mortality. DNA-based detection methods are an urgent requisite for meningitis-causing bacterial pathogens for the prevention of outbreaks and control of infections. We proposed a novel PCR-mass spectrometry (PCR-Mass) assay for the simultaneous detection of four meningitis-causing agents, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the present study. A total of 138 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (including 56 CSF culture positive, 44 CSF culture negative, and 38 CSF control) were enrolled and analyzed by PCR/Mass. Results were compared to real-time PCR detection. These four targeting pathogens could be discriminated without cross-reaction by the accurate detection of the corresponding extension products with different masses. The limits of detection were 102 copies/reaction for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis and 103 for M. tuberculosis. The evaluation of the culture-positive CSF specimens from the meningitis patients provided an overall agreement rate of 85.7% with PCR-Mass and real-time PCR. The PCR-Mass was also able to detect the targeting pathogens from culture-negative CSF specimens from meningitis patients receiving early antibiotic treatment. PCR-Mass could be used for the molecular detection of bacterial meningitis and tuberculosis, especially when early antibiotic treatment has been administered to the suspected patients.

  16. A fast and reproducible method for albumin isolation and depletion from serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Holewinski, Ronald J; Jin, Zhicheng; Powell, Matthew J; Maust, Matthew D; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of serum and plasma proteomes is a common approach for biomarker discovery, and the removal of high-abundant proteins, such as albumin and immunoglobins, is usually the first step in the analysis. However, albumin binds peptides and proteins, which raises concerns as to how the removal of albumin could impact the outcome of the biomarker study while ignoring the possibility that this could be a biomarker subproteome itself. The first goal of this study was to test a new commercially available affinity capture reagent from Protea Biosciences and to compare the efficiency and reproducibility to four other commercially available albumin depletion methods. The second goal of this study was to determine if there is a highly efficient albumin depletion/isolation system that minimizes sample handling and would be suitable for large numbers of samples. Two of the methods tested (Sigma and ProteaPrep) showed an albumin depletion efficiency of 97% or greater for both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Isolated serum and CSF albuminomes from ProteaPrep spin columns were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS, identifying 128 serum (45 not previously reported) and 94 CSF albuminome proteins (17 unique to the CSF albuminome). Serum albuminome was also isolated using Vivapure anti-HSA columns for comparison, identifying 105 proteins, 81 of which overlapped with the ProteaPrep method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Prototype of an opto-capacitive probe for non-invasive sensing cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu; Vihriälä, Erkki; Pedone, Matteo; Korhonen, Vesa; Surazynski, Lukasz; Wróbel, Maciej; Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Hakala, Jaakko; Sorvoja, Hannu; Lauri, Janne; Fabritius, Tapio; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    In brain studies, the function of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) awakes growing interest, particularly related to studies of the glymphatic system in the brain, which is connected with the complex system of lymphatic vessels responsible for cleaning the tissues. The CSF is a clear, colourless liquid including water (H2O) approximately with a concentration of 99 %. In addition, it contains electrolytes, amino acids, glucose, and other small molecules found in plasma. The CSF acts as a cushion behind the skull, providing basic mechanical as well as immunological protection to the brain. Disturbances of the CSF circulation have been linked to several brain related medical disorders, such as dementia. Our goal is to develop an in vivo method for the non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and CSF circulation by exploiting optical and capacitive sensing techniques simultaneously. We introduce a prototype of a wearable probe that is aimed to be used for long-term brain monitoring purposes, especially focusing on studies of the glymphatic system. In this method, changes in cerebral blood flow, particularly oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, are measured simultaneously and analysed with the response gathered by the capacitive sensor in order to distinct the dynamics of the CSF circulation behind the skull. Presented prototype probe is tested by measuring liquid flows inside phantoms mimicking the CSF circulation.

  18. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531

  19. Association between cerebrospinal fluid and plasma neurodegeneration biomarkers with brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana B; Westman, Eric; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-10-01

    The aggregation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into plaques is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is followed by different aspects of neurodegeneration that can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or plasma using neurofilament light (NFL), neurogranin (Ng), total Tau (T-Tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-Tau) levels. The relationship between these biomarkers and regional brain atrophy across the different stages of AD remains largely unexplored. In this study, we assessed whether NFL, Ng, T-Tau, and P-Tau levels in CSF and NFL in plasma are associated with cortical thinning and subcortical volume loss in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD subjects with and without Aβ pathology. Our main findings showed that CSF NFL levels were associated with brain atrophy in all groups, but plasma NFL only correlated with atrophy in symptomatic cases. In contrast, Ng was associated with regional brain atrophy only in individuals with Aβ pathology. Altogether, our main findings suggest that Ng is strongly associated with Aβ pathology, whereas NFL is more unspecific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Antonio L.; Martinez-Bazan, Carlos; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2016-11-01

    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is secreted in the choroid plexus in the lateral sinuses of the brain and fills the subarachnoid space bathing the external surfaces of the brain and the spinal canal. Absence of CSF circulation has been shown to impede its physiological function that includes, among others, supplying nutrients to neuronal and glial cells and removing the waste products of cellular metabolism. Radionuclide scanning images published by Di Chiro in 1964 showed upward migration of particle tracers from the lumbar region of the spinal canal, thereby suggesting the presence of an active bulk circulation responsible for bringing fresh CSF into the spinal canal and returning a portion of it to the cranial vault. However, the existence of this slow moving bulk circulation in the spinal canal has been a subject of dispute for the last 50 years. To date, there has been no physical explanation for the mechanism responsible for the establishment of such a bulk motion. We present a perturbation analysis of the flow in an idealized model of the spinal canal and show how steady streaming could be responsible for the establishment of such a circulation. The results of this analysis are compared to flow measurements conducted on in-vitro models of the spinal canal of adult humans.

  1. Cilia induced cerebrospinal fluid flow in the third ventricle of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Westendorf, Christian; Faubel, Regina; Eichele, Gregor; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) conveys many physiologically important signaling factors through the ventricles of the mammalian brain. The walls of the ventricles are covered with motile cilia that were thought to generate a laminar flow purely following the curvature of walls. However, we recently discovered that cilia of the ventral third ventricle (v3V) generate a complex flow network along the wall, leading to subdivision of the v3V. The contribution of such cilia induced flow to the overall three dimensional volume flow remains to be investigated by using numerical simulation, arguably the best approach for such investigations. The lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the CFS flow in a reconstructed geometry of the v3V. Simulation of CSF flow neglecting cilia in this geometry confirmed that the previous idea about pure confined flow does not reflect the reality observed in experiment. The experimentally recorded ciliary flow network along the wall was refined with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and then adapted as boundary condition in simulation. We study the contribution of the ciliary network to overall CSF flow and identify site-specific delivery of CSF constituents with respect to the temporal changes.

  2. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Maria I.; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A.; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M. F.; Desmond, Mary E.; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies. PMID:29311854

  3. Preclinical cerebrospinal fluid and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in Swedish familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Thordardottir, Steinunn; Ståhlbom, Anne Kinhult; Ferreira, Daniel; Almkvist, Ove; Westman, Eric; Zetterberg, Henrik; Eriksdotter, Maria; Blennow, Kaj; Graff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It is currently believed that therapeutic interventions will be most effective when introduced at the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This underlines the importance of biomarkers to detect AD pathology in vivo before clinical disease onset. To examine the evolution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker and brain structure changes in the preclinical phase of familial AD. The study included members from four Swedish families at risk for carrying an APPswe, APParc, PSEN1 H163Y, or PSEN1 I143T mutation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 13 mutation carriers (MC) and 20 non-carriers (NC) and analyzed using vertex-based analyses of cortical thickness and volume. CSF was collected from 10 MC and 12 NC from familial AD families and analyzed for Aβ42, total tau (T-tau) and phospho-tau (P-tau). The MC had significantly lower levels of CSF Aβ42 and higher levels T-tau and P-tau than the NC. There was a trend for a decrease in Aβ42 15-20 years before expected onset of clinical symptoms, while increasing T-tau and P-tau was not found until close to the expected clinical onset. The MC had decreased volume on MRI in the left precuneus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. Aberrant biomarker levels in CSF as well as regional brain atrophy are present in preclinical familial AD, several years before the expected onset of clinical symptoms.

  4. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Maria I; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M F; Desmond, Mary E; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in alcoholics: support for a neuroinflammatory model of chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie; Solomon, Matthew G; Yuan, Peixiong; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C; Hall, Samuel D; George, David T; Heilig, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Liver inflammation in alcoholism has been hypothesized to influence the development of a neuroinflammatory process in the brain characterized by neurodegeneration and altered cognitive function. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) elevations have been noted in the alcoholic brain at autopsy and may have a role in this process. We studied cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of MCP-1 as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in 13 healthy volunteers and 28 alcoholics during weeks 1 and 4 following detoxification. Serum liver enzymes were obtained as markers of alcohol-related liver inflammation. Compared to healthy volunteers, MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in alcoholics both on day 4 and day 25 (p < 0.0001). Using multiple regression analysis, we found that MCP-1 concentrations were positively associated with the liver enzymes gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT; p = 0.03) and aspartate aminotransferase/glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST/GOT; p = 0.004). These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neuroinflammation as indexed by CSF MCP-1 is associated with alcohol-induced liver inflammation, as defined by peripheral concentrations of GGT and AST/GOT. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Frontoethmoidal Schwannoma with Exertional Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Go; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus. A gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance image revealed a well-defined heterogeneously enhanced tumor situated in the midline anterior cranial fossa and anterior ethmoid sinus. After the resection, the defect of the right anterior skull base was reconstructed with a fascia graft and adipose tissue taken from the abdomen, as well as a pedicle periosteum flap. A histologic examination revealed the tumor as schwannoma. Her rhinorrhea completely resolved. She regained her sense of smell and taste 1 month after the operation. According to previous reports, olfactory groove, and paraolfactory groove/periolfactory groove schwannomas can be divided into 4 types: subfrontal, nasoethmoidal, frontoethmoidal, and ethmofrontal. Among them, a frontoethmoidal schwannoma can manifest exertional CSF rhinorrhea as an initial symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated immunoglobulin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid from lupus-prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Sakic, Boris; Malinowski, Paul M.; Ballok, David A.; Oleschuk, Curtis J.; Macri, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The systemic autoimmune disease lupus erythematosus (SLE) is frequently accompanied by neuropsychiatric manifestations and brain lesions of unknown etiology. The MRL-lpr mice show behavioral dysfunction concurrent with progression of a lupus-like disease, thus providing a valuable model in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmunity-induced CNS damage. Profound neurodegeneration in the limbic system of MRL-lpr mice is associated with cytotoxicity of their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to mature and immature neurons. We have recently shown that IgG-rich CSF fraction largely accounts for this effect. The present study examines IgG levels in serum and CSF, as well as the permeability of the blood–brain barrier in mice that differ in immune status, age, and brain morphology. In comparison to young MRL-lpr mice and age-matched congenic controls, a significant elevation of IgG and albumin levels were detected in the CSF of aged autoimmune MRL-lpr mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS confirmed elevation in IgG heavy and Ig light chain isoforms in the CSF. Increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier correlated with neurodegeneration (as revealed by Fluoro Jade B staining) in periventricular areas. Although the source and specificity of neuropathogenic antibodies remain to be determined, these results support the hypothesis that a breached blood–brain barrier and IgG molecules are involved in the etiology of CNS damage during SLE-like disease. PMID:15972238

  8. A case of acyclovir neurotoxicity presenting with atypical cerebrospinal fluid findings.

    PubMed

    Thind, Guramrinder Singh; Roach, Richard

    2017-05-22

    An 82-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease presented with progressively worsening confusion and somnolence for the past 4-5 days. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster by his primary care physician 5 days ago and was started on a course of valacyclovir 1 g three times a day (dose not adjusted for renal impairment).A lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed 37 white blood cells (WBCs)/hpf (100% monocytes), protein 64 mg/dL and glucose 52 mg/dL. He was started on ceftriaxone, ampicillin and acyclovir. MRI of the brain was done and was unremarkable. Acyclovir-induced encephalopathy was high on differential, but his CSF findings were concerning for viral encephalitis. Nonetheless, all antimicrobials were discontinued and he was scheduled for a 5-hour dialysis session. The very next day, he showed immense improvement and eventually recovered completely. CSF PCR tests for both herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus came back negative. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Pathophysiology of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure associated to brain arteriovenous malformations: The hydraulic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rossitti, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) produce circulatory and functional disturbances in adjacent as well as in remote areas of the brain, but their physiological effect on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is not well known. The hypothesis of an intrinsic disease mechanism leading to increased CSF pressure in all patients with brain AVM is outlined, based on a theory of hemodynamic control of intracranial pressure that asserts that CSF pressure is a fraction of the systemic arterial pressure as predicted by a two-resistor series circuit hydraulic model. The resistors are the arteriolar resistance (that is regulated by vasomotor tonus), and the venous resistance (which is mechanically passive as a Starling resistor). This theory is discussed and compared with the knowledge accumulated by now on intravasal pressures and CSF pressure measured in patients with brain AVM. The theory provides a basis for understanding the occurrence of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in patients with nonhemorrhagic brain AVMs, for the occurrence of local mass effect and brain edema bordering unruptured AVMs, and for the development of hydrocephalus in patients with unruptured AVMs. The theory also contributes to a better appreciation of the pathophysiology of dural arteriovenous fistulas, of vein of Galen aneurismal malformation, and of autoregulation-related disorders in AVM patients. The hydraulic hypothesis provides a comprehensive frame to understand brain AVM hemodynamics and its effect on the CSF dynamics.

  10. Pathophysiology of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure associated to brain arteriovenous malformations: The hydraulic hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rossitti, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) produce circulatory and functional disturbances in adjacent as well as in remote areas of the brain, but their physiological effect on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure is not well known. Methods: The hypothesis of an intrinsic disease mechanism leading to increased CSF pressure in all patients with brain AVM is outlined, based on a theory of hemodynamic control of intracranial pressure that asserts that CSF pressure is a fraction of the systemic arterial pressure as predicted by a two-resistor series circuit hydraulic model. The resistors are the arteriolar resistance (that is regulated by vasomotor tonus), and the venous resistance (which is mechanically passive as a Starling resistor). This theory is discussed and compared with the knowledge accumulated by now on intravasal pressures and CSF pressure measured in patients with brain AVM. Results: The theory provides a basis for understanding the occurrence of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in patients with nonhemorrhagic brain AVMs, for the occurrence of local mass effect and brain edema bordering unruptured AVMs, and for the development of hydrocephalus in patients with unruptured AVMs. The theory also contributes to a better appreciation of the pathophysiology of dural arteriovenous fistulas, of vein of Galen aneurismal malformation, and of autoregulation-related disorders in AVM patients. Conclusions: The hydraulic hypothesis provides a comprehensive frame to understand brain AVM hemodynamics and its effect on the CSF dynamics. PMID:23607064

  11. Fibrinogen is not elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are a well known finding in acute infectious diseases, acute stroke and myocardial infarction. However its role in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of acute and chronic central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases is unclear. Findings We analyzed CSF and plasma fibrinogen levels together with routine parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), acute inflammatory diseases of the CNS (bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis, BM and VM) and PNS (Guillain-Barré syndrome; GBS), as well as in non-inflammatory neurological controls (OND) in a total of 103 patients. Additionally, MS patients underwent cerebral MRI scans at time of lumbar puncture. CSF and plasma fibrinogen levels were significantly lower in patients with MS and OND patients as compared to patients with BM, VM and GBS. There was a close correlation between fibrinogen levels and albumin quotient (rho = 0.769, p < 0.001) which strongly suggests passive transfer of fibrinogen through the blood-CSF-barrier during acute inflammation. Hence, in MS, the prototype of chronic neuroinflammation, CSF fibrinogen levels were not elevated and could not be correlated to clinical and neuroradiological outcome parameters. Conclusions Although previous work has shown clear evidence of the involvement of fibrinogen in MS pathogenesis, this is not accompanied by increased fibrinogen in the CSF compartment. PMID:22029888

  12. Vanishing calcification associated with a spontaneous ventral spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Ross, Lindsey; Prasad, Ravi S; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Some patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension have a ventral spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and these CSF leaks may be associated with calcified disk herniations. Identifying these calcifications is helpful in directing treatment. We report here the unusual case of a patient with a ventral CSF leak in whom the associated calcification absorbed over a five-month period. A 42-year-old woman developed orthostatic headaches and bilateral abducens nerve palsies. Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain showed typical findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Magnetic resonance imaging of her spine showed an extensive cervicothoracic CSF leak. Computed tomographic myelography showed calcification at the Th1-2 disk space. Three epidural blood patches were performed, but her symptoms persisted. Digital subtraction myelography performed five months later showed an upper thoracic ventral CSF, but the calcification was no longer present. A dural tear, found at surgery at the Th1-2 level, was repaired and the patient made an uneventful recovery. The resorption of calcifications at the level of a ventral spinal CSF leak could explain the absence of any calcifications in at least some patients with such leaks and demonstrates the usefulness of reviewing previous imaging in patients with ventral CSF leaks if the exact site of the leak remains unknown. © International Headache Society 2016.

  13. The Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak After Anterior Cervical Decompression Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jiliang; Panchal, Ripul R; Tian, Ye; Wang, Shujie; Zhao, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare but potentially troublesome and occasionally catastrophic complication after anterior cervical decompression surgery. There is limited literature describing this complication, and the management of CSF leak varies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the treatment of cases with CSF leak and develop a management algorithm. A series of 14 patients with CSF leak from January 2011 to May 2016 were included in this study. Their characteristics, management of CSF leak, and outcomes were documented. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Mean age at surgery was 57.1±9.9 years (range, 37-76 years). All instances of CSF leak, except 1 noted postoperatively, were indirectly repaired intraoperatively. A closed straight wound drain was placed for all patients. A lumbar subarachnoid drain was placed immediately after surgery in 4 patients and postoperatively in 7 patients. In 1 patient, lumbar drain placement was unsuccessful. In 2 additional patients, the surgeon decided not to place a lumbar drain. One patient developed meningitis and recovered after antibiotic therapy with meropenem and vancomycin. Another patient had a deep wound infection and required a revision surgery. Wound drains and lumbar drains should be immediately considered when CSF leak is identified. Antibiotics also should be considered to prevent intradural infection. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(2):e283-e288.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Can the Risks of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak After Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery Be Predicted?

    PubMed

    Russel, Adrien; Hoffmann, Charles P; Nguyen, Duc T; Beurton, Renaud; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Identifying predictive factors of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after translabyrinthine approach (TLA) for vestibular schwannoma. Retrospective study. Tertiary care center. All patients (n = 275) operated for a vestibular schwannoma by TLA between 2004 and 2013 were included. Vestibular schwannoma surgery by TLA. The rate of postoperative CSF leak considering the age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor staging, and duration of surgical procedure. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors and compute a biometric predictive model of CSF leak. Thirty-three patients (12.0%) developed a CSF leak after surgery. In a multivariable model, an increased risk of CSF leak was found for younger patients (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), longer duration of surgery (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.12-3.05), and the male sex (0 = male; 1 = female; OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.54), while also adjusting for BMI. The probability of developing a CSF leak after vestibular schwannoma surgery was calculated using a statistical prediction model, with a percentage of false negative of 7.0% and an overall correct prediction of 88.4%. The predictors of CSF leak after TLA for vestibular schwannoma are young age, male sex, longer duration of surgery, which adjusting for BMI. In this regard, the surgical team should adapt its management during pre- and postoperative period to decrease the likelihood of a leak.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis exhibits only the L-enantiomer of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Shayne; Reinecke, Carolus J; Kulik, Willem; van Cruchten, Arno; Solomons, Regan; van Furth, A Marceline Tutu

    2016-06-07

    The defining feature of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from infants and children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM), derived from an earlier untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics study, was highly elevated lactic acid. Undetermined was the contribution from host response (L-lactic acid) or of microbial origin (D-lactic acid), which was set out to be determined in this study. In this follow-up study, we used targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to determine the ratio of the L and D enantiomers of lactic acid in these CSF samples. Here we report for the first time that the lactic acid observed in the CSF of confirmed TBM cases was in the L-form and solely a response from the host to the infection, with no contribution from any bacteria. The significance of elevated lactic acid in TBM appears to be that it is a crucial energy substrate, used preferentially over glucose by microglia, and exhibits neuroprotective capabilities. These results provide experimental evidence to support our conceptual astrocyte-microglia lactate shuttle model formulated from our previous NMR-based metabolomics study - highlighting the fact that lactic acid plays an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as TBM. Furthermore, this study reinforces our belief that the determination of enantiomers of metabolites corresponding to infectious diseases is of critical importance in substantiating the clinical significance of disease markers.

  16. Natural killer cell subsets in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, E; Picón, C; Costa-Frossard, L; Alenda, R; Sainz de la Maza, S; Roldán, E; Espiño, M; Villar, L M; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C

    2015-01-01

    Changes in blood natural killer (NK) cells, important players of the immune innate system, have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied percentages and total cell counts of different effector and regulatory NK cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and other neurological diseases to gain clearer knowledge of the role of these cells in neuroinflammation. NK cell subsets were assessed by flow cytometry in CSF of 85 consecutive MS patients (33 with active disease and 52 with stable MS), 16 with other inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (IND) and 17 with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND). MS patients showed a decrease in percentages of different CSF NK subpopulations compared to the NIND group. However, absolute cell counts showed a significant increase of all NK subsets in MS and IND patients, revealing that the decrease in percentages does not reflect a real reduction of these immune cells. Remarkably, MS patients showed a significant increase of regulatory/effector (CD56bright/CD56dim) NK ratio compared to IND and NIND groups. In addition, MS activity associated with an expansion of NK T cells. These data show that NK cell subsets do not increase uniformly in all inflammatory neurological disease and suggest strongly that regulatory CD56bright and NK T cells may arise in CSF of MS patients as an attempt to counteract the CNS immune activation characteristic of the disease. PMID:25565222

  17. Human herpesvirus-6 and -7 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of facial palsy patients.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, Mervi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Suvela, Minna; Piiparinen, Heli; Vaheri, Antti; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Finding human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 and dual HHV-6A and -6B DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two facial palsy (FP) patients is intriguing but does not allow etiologic conclusions as such. HHV-6 or -7 DNA was revealed in 10% of the CSF samples tested from 70 immunocompetent adolescents and adults; a highly unusual result. How these findings are associated with the diseases they accompany remains to be defined. To determine whether herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), HHV-6A, -6B, and -7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA could be found in CSF of FP patients or controls. In all, 33 peripheral FP patients (26 idiopathic, 5 with herpesvirus infection, 1 puerperal, 1 Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome) (34 CSF samples) and 36 controls (16 nonidiopathic FP, 7 hearing loss, 6 vertigo, 5 headache, 2 other) previously tested for HSV-1, VZV, and HHV-6 DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were tested with highly sensitive multiplex-PCR and an oligonucleotide microarray method. One FP patient had HHV-7 DNA and another had HHV-6A and -6B DNA simultaneously. In the control group, one HHV-7, one HHV-6A, and three HHV-6B DNA-positive specimens were found.

  18. Death Is Associated with Complement C3 Depletion in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Goonetilleke, U. R.; Scarborough, M.; Ward, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Kadioglu, A.; Gordon, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal meningitis can lead to death or serious neurological sequelae as a result of the host inflammatory response. We investigated the association between host response protein expression and outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 80 patients with pneumococcal meningitis (40 nonsurvivors and 40 survivors) and 10 normal controls. Candidate proteins were analyzed for an association with survival. Complement C3 levels were 5-fold lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors (P < 0.05). This C3 reduction was not associated with lower levels in serum, indicating a compartmentalized CSF response. Transferrin levels were significantly higher in CSF (but not serum) from nonsurvivors than in CSF from survivors, suggestive of blood-brain barrier damage. Classical apoptosis proteins caspase 3 and apoptosis-inducing factor were not present in CSF. Expression of creatine kinase BB in clinically infected CSF suggested neuronal necrosis, but there was no clear association between level of expression and clinical outcome. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability and complement C3 depletion may have a role in determining outcome from bacterial meningitis. Therapeutic use of citicoline or caspase inhibitors is unlikely to have beneficial effects in patients with meningitis. PMID:22415003

  19. Interaction between personality traits and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology modulates cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Tautvydaitė, Domilė; Kukreja, Deepti; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Henry, Hugues; von Gunten, Armin; Popp, Julius

    2017-02-02

    During adulthood, personality characteristics may contribute to the individual capacity to compensate the impact of developing cerebral Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology on cognitive impairment in later life. In this study we aimed to investigate whether and how premorbid personality traits interact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD pathology to predict cognitive performance in subjects with mild cognitive impairment or mild AD dementia and in participants with normal cognition. One hundred and ten subjects, of whom 66 were patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild AD dementia and 44 were healthy controls, had a comprehensive medical and neuropsychological examination as well as lumbar puncture to measure CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (amyloid beta 1-42 , phosphorylated tau and total-tau). Participants' proxies completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Form R to retrospectively assess subjects' premorbid personality. In hierarchical multivariate regression analyses, including age, gender, education, APOEε4 status and cognitive level, premorbid neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness modulated the effect of CSF biomarkers on cognitive performance. Low premorbid openness independently predicted lower levels of cognitive functioning after controlling for biomarker concentrations. Our findings suggest that specific premorbid personality traits are associated with cerebral AD pathology and modulate its impact on cognitive performance. Considering personality characteristics may help to appraise a person's cognitive reserve and the risk of cognitive decline in later life.

  20. Skull Base Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Control with a Fibrin-Based Composite Tissue Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Jack P.; Sierra, David H.; Castro-Moure, Frederico; Jiang, Feng

    1996-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks can be responsible for significant patient morbidity and mortality. While the majority of leaks induced after head trauma will seal without intervention, spontaneous or surgically-induced leaks often require operative repair. Many modifications on standard surgical technique are available for repair of CSF fistulae, but none assures adequate closure. We have studied the efficacy of a novel fibrin-based composite tissue adhesive (CTA) for closure of experimentally-induced CSF leaks in rats. Fistulae were created in two groups of animals. Two weeks after creation of the leaks, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed for persistence of leak. A 58% leakage rate was noted in the control group (n = 12), and no leaks were noted in the experimental group closed after application of CTA to the surgical defect followed by skin closure (n = 11). Comparing the control group to the experimental group, results were statistically significant (p = 0.015). These data suggest that CTA may be effective as an adjunct for the closure of CSF fistulae. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170969

  1. Clinical and cognitive implications of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Chryssoula; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Kilidireas, Constantinos

    2015-11-01

    The presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (CSF-OCB) in Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is supportive of diagnosis, though the relation with patients' clinical and specifically cognitive features has never been established or thoroughly examined. Thus, we investigated the clinical and for the first time the cognitive profile of MS patients in relation to CSF-OCB. We studied 108 patients with and without OCB and recorded demographic characteristics and detailed clinical data. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery covering different cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, memory, perception/constructions, reasoning, executive functions) was administered to MS patients and 142 demographically related healthy controls (HC). We did not find any significant differences between patients with and without OCB on demographic and clinical parameters (p > 0.05), including subtype and brain neuroimaging findings. Results revealed significantly higher cognitive scores in HC compared to both OCB subgroups, with more widespread cognitive changes in patients with OCB. Analysis between OCB subgroups showed significantly worse performance in patients with OCB on visual memory (Rey's complex figure test-recall; p = 0.006). Concluding, the presence of CSF-OCB in our MS patients tends to be related to more widespread cognitive changes, specifically worse visual memory. Future longitudinal studies in different populations are warranted to better clarify the clinical and cognitive characteristics related to CSF-OCB which could serve as early biomarker in disease monitoring.

  2. A novel method for passing cerebrospinal fluid shunt tubing: a proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Goodrich, Dylan; Tubbs, Isaiah; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-12-01

    Few innovations in the method of tunneling shunt tubing for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt diversion have been made since this treatment of hydrocephalus was first developed. Therefore, this feasibility study was performed with the hope of identifying an improved technique that could potentially carry fewer complications. On 10 cadaver sides and when placed in the supine position, small skin incisions were made at the clavicle and ipsilateral subcostal region, and magnets were used to pass standard shunt tubing between the two incisions. Nickel-plated magnets were less effective in pulling the shunt tubing below the skin compared with ceramic magnets. Of these, magnets with pull strengths of 150-200 lbs were the most effective in dragging the subcutaneous tubing between the two incisions. No obvious damage to the skin from the overlying magnet was seen in any specimen. Few options exist for tunneling distal shunt tubing for CSF shunt procedures. Future patient studies are needed to determine if the technique described herein is superior to current methods, particularly when examining patient groups that are at a greater risk for injury during tunneling shunt catheters.

  3. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on cerebrospinal fluid and blood nitrite concentrations in newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Conahey, George R.; Power, Gordon G.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Terry, Michael H.; Kirby, Laura S.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has many extrapulmonary effects. As the half-life of NO in blood is orders of magnitude less than the circulation time from lungs to the brain, the mediator of systemic effects of iNO is unknown. We hypothesized that concentrations of nitrite, a circulating byproduct of NO with demonstrated NO bioactivity, would increase in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during iNO therapy. iNO (80ppm) was given to six newborn lambs and results compared to six control lambs. Blood and CSF nitrite concentrations increased two-fold in response to iNO. cGMP increased in blood but not CSF suggesting brain guanylate cyclase activity was not increased. When sodium nitrite was infused intravenously blood and CSF nitrite levels increased within 10 min and reached similar levels of 14.6±1.5 µM after 40 min. The reactivity of nitrite in hemoglobin-free brain homogenates was investigated, with the findings that nitrite did not disappear nor did measurable amounts of s-nitroso, n-nitroso, or iron-nitrosyl-species appear. We conclude that although nitrite diffuses freely between blood and CSF, due to its lack of reactivity in the brain, nitrite’s putative role as the mediator of the systemic effects of iNO is limited to intravascular reactions. PMID:18535482

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following trans-sphenoidal pituitary macroadenoma surgery: experience from 592 patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Zong-Li; He, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2008-06-01

    To determine the incidence, risk factors, diagnostic procedures, and management of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks following trans-sphenoidal pituitary macroadenoma surgery. Retrospective analysis of 592 patients. Intra- and post-operative CSF leaks occurred in 14.2 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Surgical revision, tumor consistency, and tumor margins were independently associated with intra-operative leaks, while the tumor size, consistency, and margins were risk factors of post-operative leaks. The intra-operative leak rate of ACTH adenomas was greater than all other types combined; the incidence of post-operative CSF leaks was highest for FSH adenomas. There were no significant differences among various techniques and we achieved an initial repair success rates of 83.3 and 92.9% for intra- and post-operative CSF leaks, respectively. Of the 26 patients with post-operative CSF leaks, five were complicated by meningitis and four by post-infectious hydrocephalus which required ventriculoperitoneal shunts. CSF leaks have a propensity to occur in cases with fibrous tumors or tumors with indistinct margin and may have some relationship with the tumor type. Endoscopic and microscopic repairs were shown to be effective techniques in managing these types of leaks. Post-infectious hydrocephalus may influence the outcome of the repair and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were necessary in some cases.

  5. Middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Altuna, Xabier; Navarro, Juan José; García, Leire; Ugarte, Ane; Thomas, Izaskun

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks to the middle ear due to tegmen tympani defects can result in hearing loss or hypoacusis and predispose to meningitis as well as other neurological complications. Surgical repair of the defect can be performed through a middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach or a transmastoid approach. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients in our Department due to a spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear treated using a MCF approach during a 6-year period (2009-2014). Thirteen patients with spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear were treated with this approach. The primary and first symptom in all of them was conductive hearing loss. In all cases, the defect or defects were closed in a multilayer manner using muscle, temporalis fascia and cortical bone. Minimum follow-up in this series was 14 months, with successful closure in all but one patient (who required reintervention). We found no intra- or postoperative complications due to the craniotomy, and the audiometry improved and normalised in all cases except for the failed case. The MCF approach with a multilayer closure of the defect is an effective technique for repairing spontaneous CSF leaks to the middle ear and for restoring hearing in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult miniature donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, A A; Samadieh, H

    2013-09-01

    To establish reference intervals for serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in clinically healthy adult miniature donkeys. Experiments were conducted on 10 female and 10 male clinically normal adult miniature donkeys, randomly selected from five herds. Lumbosacral CSF collection was performed with the sedated donkey in the standing position. Cell analysis was performed immediately after the samples were collected. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein immediately after CSF sample collection. Sodium, potassium, glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations were measured in CSF and serum samples. A paired t-test was used to compare mean values between female and male donkeys. The CSF was uniformly clear, colourless and free from flocculent material, with a specific gravity of 1.002. The range of total nucleated cell counts was 2-4 cells/μL. The differential white cell count comprised only small lymphocytes. No erythrocytes or polymorphonuclear cells were observed on cytological examination. Reference values were obtained for biochemical analysis of serum and CSF. Gender had no effect on any variables measured in serum or CSF (p>0.05). CSF analysis can provide important information in addition to that gained by clinical examination. CSF analysis has not previously been performed in miniature donkeys; this is the first report on the subject. In the present study, reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations of serum and CSF were determined for male and female miniature donkeys.

  7. Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters for Selective Detection of Dopamine in Cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Saravanan; Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Jongsung; Yun, Kyusik

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades, protein conjugated fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) owe much attention in the field of medical and nanobiotechnology due to their excellent photo stability characteristics. In this paper, we reported stable, nontoxic and red fluorescent emission BSA-Au NCs for selective detection of L-dopamine (DA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The evolution was probed by various instrumental techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The synthesised BSA-Au NCs were showing 4–6 nm with high fluorescent ~8% Quantum yield (QY). The fluorescence intensity of BSA-Au NCs was quenched upon the addition of various concentrations of DA via an electron transfer mechanism. The decrease in BSA-Au NCs fluorescence intensity made it possible to determine DA in PBS buffer and the spiked DA in CSF in the linear range from 0 to 10 nM with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.622 and 0.830 nM respectively. Best of our knowledge, as-prepared BSA-Au NCs will gain possible strategy and good platform for biosensor, drug discovery, and rapid disease diagnosis such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer diseases. PMID:28067307

  8. Harnessing Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Clinical Trials for Treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: Potential and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dana; Kim, Young Sam; Shin, Dong Wun; Park, Chang Shin; Kang, Ju Hee

    2016-10-01

    No disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have been established, particularly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unclear why candidate drugs that successfully demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models fail to show disease-modifying effects in clinical trials. To overcome this hurdle, patients with homogeneous pathologies should be detected as early as possible. The early detection of AD patients using sufficiently tested biomarkers could demonstrate the potential usefulness of combining biomarkers with clinical measures as a diagnostic tool. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for NDs are being incorporated in clinical trials designed with the aim of detecting patients earlier, evaluating target engagement, collecting homogeneous patients, facilitating prevention trials, and testing the potential of surrogate markers relative to clinical measures. In this review we summarize the latest information on CSF biomarkers in NDs, particularly AD and PD, and their use in clinical trials. The large number of issues related to CSF biomarker measurements and applications has resulted in relatively few clinical trials on CSF biomarkers being conducted. However, the available CSF biomarker data obtained in clinical trials support the advantages of incorporating CSF biomarkers in clinical trials, even though the data have mostly been obtained in AD trials. We describe the current issues with and ongoing efforts for the use of CSF biomarkers in clinical trials and the plans to harness CSF biomarkers for the development of DMT and clinical routines. This effort requires nationwide, global, and multidisciplinary efforts in academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to facilitate a new era.

  9. The effectiveness of the liquid-based preparation method in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Argon, Asuman; Uyaroğlu, Mehmet Ali; Nart, Deniz; Veral, Ali; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül

    2013-01-01

    Since malignant cells were first detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), numerous methods have been used for CSF examination. The cytocentrifugation and liquid-based cytology (LBC) methods are two of these. We aimed to investigate whether the results from the LBC method were different from the results of the cytological diagnosis of the CSF materials that were prepared using the cytocentrifugation method. A retrospective analysis was conducted using the pathological records of 3,491 (cytocentrifugation on 1,306 and LBC on 2,185) cytological specimens of CSF which were diagnosed over a 4-year period between January 2007 and December 2011. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the results of the LBC and cytocentrifugation methods. While there was a noticeable decrease in nondiagnostic diagnosis and a slight decrease in suspicious diagnosis, there was an increase in malignant and benign diagnosis with the LBC method in comparison to the centrifugation method. Statistically, the decrease in nondiagnostic diagnosis was considered significant (p < 0.0001). The LBC method seems like a better option than the cytocentrifugation method, because of many preparatory, screening and diagnostic advantages, especially in pathology departments where materials come from far away and large volumes are examined. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  11. Tau Phosphorylation Pathway Genes and Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bekris, Lynn M.; Millard, Steve; Lutz, Franziska; Li, Gail; Galasko, Doug R.; Farlow, Martin R.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Leverenz, James B.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Yu, Chang-En; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence in the brain of amyloid plaques, consisting predominately of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles, consisting primarily of tau. Hyper-phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) contributes to neuronal damage, and both p-tau and total-tau (t-tau) levels are elevated in AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to cognitively normal controls. Our hypothesis was that increased ratios of CSF phosphorylated-tau levels relative to total-tau levels correlate with regulatory region genetic variation of kinase or phosphatase genes biologically associated with the phosphorylation status of tau. Eighteen SNPs located within 5′ and 3′ regions of 5 kinase and 4 phosphatase genes, as well as two SNPs within regulatory regions of the MAPT gene were chosen for this analysis. The study sample consisted of 101 AD patients and 169 cognitively normal controls. Rs7768046 in the FYN kinase gene and rs913275 in the PPP2R4 phosphatase gene were both associated with CSF p-tau and t-tau levels in AD. These SNPs were also differentially associated with either CSF t-tau (rs7768046) or CSF p-tau (rs913275) relative to t-tau levels in AD compared to controls. These results suggest that rs7768046 and rs913275 both influence CSF tau levels in an AD-associated manner. PMID:22927204

  12. Association of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 with A2M gene in cognitively normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Steven P.; Lutz, Franziska; Li, Ge; Galasko, Douglas R.; Farlow, Martin R.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Leverenz, James B.; Tsuang, Debby; Yu, Chang-En; Peskind, Elaine R.; Bekris, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels correlate with increased brain Aβ deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which suggests a disruption in the degradation and clearance of Aβ from the brain. In addition, APOE ε4 carriers have lower CSF Aβ42 levels than non-carriers. The hypothesis of this investigation was that CSF Aβ42 levels correlate with regulatory region variation in genes that are biologically associated with degradation or clearance of Aβ from the brain. CSF Aβ42 levels were tested for associations with Aβ degradation and clearance genes and APOE ε4. Twenty-four SNPs located within the 5′ and 3′ regions of 12 genes were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 99 AD patients and 168 cognitively normal control subjects. CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with APOE ε4 status in controls but not in AD patients; A2M regulatory region SNPs were also associated with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls, but not in AD patients, even after adjusting for APOE ε4. These results suggest that genetic variation within the A2M gene influences CSF Aβ42 levels. PMID:24011543

  13. Multiple SNPs Within and Surrounding the Apolipoprotein E Gene Influence Cerebrospinal Fluid Apolipoprotein E Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bekris, Lynn M.; Millard, Steven P.; Galloway, Nichole M.; Vuletic, Simona; Albers, John J.; Li, Ge; Galasko, Douglas R.; DeCarli, Charles; Farlow, Martin R.; Clark, Chris M.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Tsuang, Debby; Peskind, Elaine R.; Yu, Chang-En

    2010-01-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is associated with increased risk and earlier age at onset in late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Other factors, such as expression level of apolipoprotein E protein (apoE), have been postulated to modify the APOE related risk of developing AD. Multiple loci in and outside of APOE are associated with a high risk of AD. The aim of this exploratory hypothesis generating investigation was to determine if some of these loci predict cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) apoE levels in healthy non-demented subjects. CSF apoE levels were measured from healthy non-demented subjects 21–87 years of age (n = 134). Backward regression models were used to evaluate the influence of 21 SNPs, within and surrounding APOE, on CSF apoE levels while taking into account age, gender, APOE ε4 and correlation between SNPs (linkage disequilibrium). APOE ε4 genotype does not predict CSF apoE levels. Three SNPs within the TOMM40 gene, one APOE promoter SNP and two SNPs within distal APOE enhancer elements (ME1 and BCR) predict CSF apoE levels. Further investigation of the genetic influence of these loci on apoE expression levels in the central nervous system is likely to provide new insight into apoE regulation as well as AD pathogenesis. PMID:18430993

  14. Super-Resolution Microscopy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers as a Tool for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William I; Antonios, Gregory; Rabano, Alberto; Bayer, Thomas A; Schneider, Anja; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau proteins. The consensus in the AD field is that Aβ and tau should serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AD. However, their aggregates have been difficult to investigate by conventional fluorescence microscopy, since their size is below the diffraction limit (∼200 nm). To solve this, we turned to a super-resolution imaging technique, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, which has a high enough precision to allow the discrimination of low- and high-molecular weight aggregates prepared in vitro. We used STED to analyze the structural organization of Aβ and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 36 AD patients, 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 21 controls. We measured the numbers of aggregates in the CSF samples, and the aggregate sizes and intensities. These parameters enabled us to distinguish AD patients from controls with a specificity of ∼87% and a sensitivity of ∼79% . In addition, the aggregate parameters determined with STED microscopy correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD patients. Finally, these parameters may be useful as predictive tools for MCI cases. The STED parameters of two MCI patients who developed AD during the course of the study, as well as of MCI patients whose Aβ ELISA values fall within the accepted range for AD, placed them close to the AD averages. We suggest that super-resolution imaging is a promising tool for AD diagnostics.

  15. Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid T-SPOT.TB for Tuberculousis Meningitis in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue Lian; Xie, Na; Wang, Song Wang; Wu, Qian Hong; Ma, Yan; Shu, Wei; Chen, Hong Mei; Zhang, Li Qun; Wu, Xiao Guang; Ma, Li Ping; Che, Nan Ying; Gao, Meng Qiu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T-SPOT.TB test for the diagnosis of TB meningitis (TBM). A retrospective analysis of 96 patients with manifested meningitis was conducted; T-SPOT.TB test was performed for diagnosing TBM to determine the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also drawn to assess the diagnostic accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CSF T-SPOT.TB test were 97.8%, 78.0%, 80.3%, and 97.5%, respectively, for 52 patients (54.2%) of the 96 enrolled patients. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.910, and the sensitivities of CSF T-SPOT.TB for patients with stages I, II, and III of TBM were 96.7%, 97.2%, and 98.9%, respectively. CSF T-SPOT.TB test is a rapid and accurate diagnostic method with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing TBM. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-06

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate: a differential biomarker for bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Mudasir; Wani, Wasim Ahmad; Malik, Muzaffar Ahmad; Mir, Mohd Rafiq; Ashraf, Younis; Kawoosa, Khalid; Ali, Syed Wajid

    To assess the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children, and to define an optimal CSF lactate concentration that can be called significant for the differentiation. Children with clinical findings compatible with meningitis were studied. CSF lactate and other conventional CSF parameters were recorded. At a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate had a sensitivity of 0.90, specificity of 1.0, positive predictive value of 1.0, and negative predictive value of 0.963, with an accuracy of 0.972. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 23.6 and 0.1, respectively. When comparing between bacterial and viral meningitis, the area under the curve for CSF lactate was 0.979. The authors concluded that CSF lactate has high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. While at a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate has high diagnostic accuracy for bacterial meningitis, mean levels in viral meningitis remain essentially below 2mmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of herpes viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid of adults with suspected viral meningitis in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, L A; Kelly, M; Cohen, D; Neuhann, F; Galbraith, S; Mallewa, M; Hopkins, M; Hart, I J; Guiver, M; Lalloo, D G; Heyderman, R S; Solomon, T

    2013-02-01

    We looked for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in Malawian adults with clinically suspected meningitis. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from consecutive adults admitted with clinically suspected meningitis to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi, for a period of 3 months. Those with proven bacterial or fungal meningitis were excluded. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the CSF for HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV DNA. A total of 183 patients presented with clinically suspected meningitis. Of these, 59 (32 %) had proven meningitis (bacterial, tuberculous or cryptococcal), 39 (21 %) had normal CSF and 14 (8 %) had aseptic meningitis. For the latter group, a herpes virus was detected in 9 (64 %): 7 (50 %) had EBV and 2 (14 %) had CMV, all were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. HSV-2 and VZV were not detected. Amongst those with a normal CSF, 8 (21 %) had a detectable herpes virus, of which 7 (88 %) were HIV-positive. The spectrum of causes of herpes viral meningitis in this African population is different to that in Western industrialised settings, with EBV being frequently detected in the CSF. The significance of this needs further investigation.

  19. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  20. ANXIETY IN MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FREE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448

  1. Clinical utility of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Kaj; Dubois, Bruno; Fagan, Anne M.; Lewczuk, Piotr; de Leon, Mony J.; Hampel, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Several potential disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have failed to show any effect on disease progression in clinical trials, conceivably because the AD subjects are already too advanced to derive clinical benefit from treatment and because diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone introduces a high misdiagnosis rate. Thus, well-validated biomarkers for early detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the amyloid-β (Aβ1-42) peptide, in combination with high total tau and phosphorylated tau, are sensitive and specific biomarkers highly predictive of progression to AD dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment. However, interlaboratory variations in the results seen with currently available immunoassays are of concern. Recent worldwide standardization efforts and quality control programs include standard operating procedures for both preanalytical (e.g., lumbar puncture and sample handling) and analytical (e.g., preparation of calibration curve) procedures. Efforts are also ongoing to develop highly reproducible assays on fully automated instruments. These global standardization and harmonization measures will provide the basis for the generalized international application of CSF bio-markers for both clinical trials and routine clinical diagnosis of AD. PMID:24795085

  2. Clinical Prognosis in Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis: The Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jintong; Kan, Juan; Qiu, Gang; Zhao, Dongying; Ren, Fang; Luo, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Neonates are at high risk of meningitis and of resulting neurologic complications. Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. From January 2008 to June 2014, we enrolled 232 term neonates with bacterial meningitis admitted to 3 neonatology departments in Shanghai, China. The clinical status on the day of discharge from these hospitals or at a postnatal age of 2.5 to 3 months was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Patients were classified into two outcome groups: good (167 cases, 72.0%, GOS = 5) or poor (65 cases, 28.0%, GOS = 1-4). Neonates with good outcome had less frequent apnea, drowsiness, poor feeding, bulging fontanelle, irritability and more severe jaundice compared to neonates with poor outcome. The good outcome group also had less pneumonia than the poor outcome group. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, C-reaction protein, procalcitonin, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and CSF protein. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that poor feeding, pneumonia and CSF protein were the predictors of poor outcome. CSF protein content was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The best cut-offs for predicting poor outcome were 1,880 mg/L in CSF protein concentration (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 86.2%). After 2 weeks of treatment, CSF protein remained higher in the poor outcome group. High CSF protein concentration may prognosticate poor outcome in neonates with bacterial meningitis.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Kilpatrick, Laurie; Shah, Samir S; Abbasi, Soraya; Harris, Mary C

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial meningitis poses diagnostic challenges in infants. Antibiotic pretreatment and low bacterial density diminish cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture yield, while laboratory parameters do not reliably identify bacterial meningitis. Pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in bacterial meningitis and may be useful diagnostic adjuncts when CSF cultures are negative. In a prospective cohort study of infants, we used cytometric bead arrays to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 in CSF. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and Principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine cytokine combinations that identified bacterial meningitis. Six hundred and eighty four infants < 6 mo were included; 11 had culture-proven bacterial meningitis. IL-6 and IL-10 were the individual cytokines possessing greatest accuracy in diagnosis of culture proven bacterial meningitis (ROC analyses; area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 0.91; 0.9103 respectively), and performed as well as, or better than combinations identified using ROC and PCA. CSF cytokines were highly correlated with each other and with CSF white blood cell count (WBC) counts in infants with meningitis. A subset of antibiotic pretreated culture-negative subjects demonstrated cytokine patterns similar to culture positive subjects. CSF cytokine levels may aid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, and facilitate decision-making regarding treatment for culture negative meningitis.

  4. The predictive value of cerebrospinal fluid tap-test in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, B P; Carelli, E F; Honorato, D C; Facure, J J

    1997-06-01

    Eighteen patients (mean age of 66.5 years) with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery. Prior to operation a cerebrospinal fluid tap-test (CSF-TT) was performed with measurements of gait pattern and psychometric functions (memory, visuo-motor speed and visuo-constructive skills) before and after the removal of 50 ml CSF by lumbar puncture (LP). Fifteen patients improved and 3 were unchanged after surgery. Short duration of disease, gait disturbance preceding mental deterioration, wide temporal horns and small sulci on CT-scan were associated with good outcome after shunting. There was a good correlation between the results of CSF-TT and shunt surgery (chi 2 = 4.11, phi = 0.48, p < 0.05), with gait test showing highest correlation (r = 0.99, p = 0.01). In conclusion, this version of CSF-TT proved to be an effective test to predict improvement after shunting in patients with NPH.

  5. The Dynamic Gait Index in Evaluating Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus for Cerebrospinal Fluid Diversion.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Srinivas; Tempel, Zachary J; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Newman, W Christopher; Shin, Samuel S; Chen, Ching-Jen; Gardner, Paul A; McDade, Eric M; Ducruet, Andrew F

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosing normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) remains challenging. Most clinical tests currently used to evaluate suspected NPH patients for shunt surgery are invasive, require inpatient admission, and are not without complications. An objective, noninvasive, and low-cost alternative would be ideal. A retrospective review was performed of prospectively collected dynamic gait index (DGI) scores, obtained at baseline and on every day of a 3- to 5-day lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage trial on patients with suspected NPH at our institution. Between 2003 and 2014, 170 patients were suspected to have primary NPH (166, 97.6%) or secondary NPH (4, 2.4%). Using responsiveness to lumbar CSF drainage and subsequent shunting as the reference standard, we found that a baseline DGI ≥ 7 was found to have significant ability in selecting patients for permanent CSF diverting shunt surgery: sensitivity of 84.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 75.6%-90.2%), specificity of 80.6% (95% CI 70.0%-88.0%), and diagnostic odds ratio of 22.1 (95% CI 9.9-49.3). A baseline DGI ≥ 7 appears to provide an objective, low-cost, noninvasive measure to select patients with suspected NPH for a positive response to CSF diversion with high sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid markers before and after shunting in patients with secondary and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Tullberg, Mats; Blennow, Kaj; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Fredman, Pam; Tisell, Magnus; Wikkelsö, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore biochemical changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) induced by shunt surgery and the relationship between these changes and clinical improvement. Methods We measured clinical symptoms and analysed lumbar CSF for protein content, neurodegeneration and neurotransmission markers in patients with secondary (SNPH, n = 17) and idiopathic NPH (INPH, n = 18) before and 3 months after shunt surgery. Patients were divided into groups according to whether or not there was improvement in clinical symptoms after surgery. Results Preoperatively, the only pathological findings were elevated neurofilament protein (NFL), significantly more so in the SNPH patients than in the INPH patients, and elevated albumin content. Higher levels of NFL correlated with worse gait, balance, wakefulness and neuropsychological performance. Preoperatively, no differences were seen in any of the CSF biomarkers between patients that improved after surgery and those that did not improve. Postoperatively, a greater improvement in gait and balance performance correlated with a more pronounced reduction in NFL. Levels of albumin, albumin ratio, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide and ganglioside GD3 increased significantly after shunting in both groups. In addition, Gamma amino butyric acid increased significantly in SNPH and tau in INPH. Conclusion We conclude that a number of biochemical changes occur after shunt surgery, but there are no marked differences between the SNPH and INPH patients. The results indicate that NFL may be a marker that can predict a surgically reversible state in NPH. PMID:18439296

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy Y; Murphy, Richard R; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P; Petrie, Eric C; Galasko, Douglas R; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21-100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. CXCL13 as a Cerebrospinal Fluid Marker for Neurosyphilis in HIV-infected Patients with Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Christina M.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Maxwell, Clare L.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic neurosyphilis is more difficult to diagnose in HIV-infected patients because HIV itself can cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. The proportion of CSF lymphocytes that are B cells is elevated in neurosyphilis, suggesting that the CSF concentration of the B cell chemoattractant, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13) concentration may also be elevated. Methods CSF and blood were collected from 199 HIV-infected patients with syphilis and neurosyphilis. Serum and CSF CXCL13 concentrations were determined. Results Patients with neurosyphilis had higher CSF and serum CXCL13 concentrations compared to patients with syphilis but not neurosyphilis. The odds of having symptomatic neurosyphilis were increased by 2.23 fold for every log increase in CSF CXCL13 concentration and were independent of CSF WBC and plasma HIV RNA concentrations, peripheral blood CD4+ T cell count and use of antiretroviral medications. A cut-off of 10 pg/mL CSF CXCL13 had high sensitivity and a cut-off of 250 pg/mL or evidence of intrathecal synthesis of CXCL13 had high specificity for diagnosis of both symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis. CSF concentrations of CXCL13 declined after treatment for neurosyphilis. Conclusions CSF CXCL13 concentration may be particularly useful for diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients because it is independent of CSF pleocytosis and markers of HIV disease. PMID:20393380

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kilgore, Paul Evan; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Soon Ae; Anh, Dang Duc; Seki, Mitsuko

    2011-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of meningitis in developing countries. To establish and evaluate a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Hib, we designed a LAMP primer set targeting the Hib-specific capsulation locus. LAMP detected 10 copies of purified DNA in a 60-min reaction. This indicated that the detection limit of LAMP was >100-fold lower than the detection limits of both a PCR for the detection of bexA and a nested PCR for Hib (Hib PCR). No H. influenzae, other than Hib or control bacteria, was detected. Linear determination ranged from 10 to 1,000,000 microorganisms per reaction mixture using real-time turbidimetry. We evaluated the Hib LAMP assay using a set of 52 randomly selected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from children with suspected meningitis. For comparison, the CSF specimens were tested using a conventional Hib PCR assay. Hib was detected in 30 samples using LAMP and in 22 samples using the Hib PCR assay. The Hib PCR showed a clinical sensitivity of 73.3% and a clinical specificity of 100% relative to the Hib LAMP assay. These results suggest that further development and evaluation of the Hib LAMP will enhance the global diagnostic capability for Hib detection.

  10. Noninvasive Thermal Evaluation of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Patency and Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Using a Flow Enhancing Device.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mustafa Q; Zurakowski, David; Proctor, Mark R; Stone, Scellig S D; Warf, Benjamin C; Smith, Edward R; Goumnerova, Liliana C; Swoboda, Marek; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph R

    2018-06-16

    While a noninvasive flow determination would be desirable in the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction, existing studies have not yet defined a role for thermal flow detection. To evaluate a revised test protocol using a micropumper designed to transiently enhance flow during thermal testing to determine whether thermal detection of flow is associated with progression to shunt revision surgery. Eighty-two unique tests were performed in 71 shunts. The primary outcome, need for revision within 7 d of testing, was compared with results of micropumper-augmented thermal flow detection. Statistical analysis was based on blind interpretation of test results and raw temperature data recorded during testing. The test was sensitive (73%) and specific (68%) in predicting need for revision, with 5.6-fold higher probability of revision when flow was not detected. Negative predictive value in our sample was 94.2%. The probability of not requiring revision increased with increasing total temperature drop. Analysis of various possible thresholds showed that the optimal temperature cutoff may be lower than suggested by the manufacturer (0.125°C vs 0.2°C). This is the first study to report a strong association between thermal flow evaluation and a clinical impression that a shunt is not malfunctioning. The current recommended threshold may increase the false positive rate unnecessarily, and as clinicians gain experience with the method, they may find value in examining the temperature curves themselves. Multicenter studies are suggested to further define a role for this diagnostic test.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolomics After Natural Product Treatment in an Experimental Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tao; Xian, Jia Wen; Leung, Wing Nang; Li, Liang; Chan, Chun Wai

    2016-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an important biofluid for diagnosis of and research on neurological diseases. However, in-depth metabolomic profiling of CSF remains an analytical challenge due to the small volume of samples, particularly in small animal models. In this work, we report the application of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) workflow for CSF metabolomics in Gastrodia elata and Uncaria rhynchophylla water extract (GUW)-treated experimental cerebral ischemia model of rat. The GUW is a commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for hypertension and brain disease. This study investigated the amine- and phenol-containing biomarkers in the CSF metabolome. After GUW treatment for 7 days, the neurological deficit score was significantly improved with infarct volume reduction, while the integrity of brain histological structure was preserved. Over 1957 metabolites were quantified in CSF by dansylation LC-MS. The analysis of this comprehensive list of metabolites suggests that metabolites associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and excitotoxicity change during GUW-induced alleviation of ischemic injury. This work is significant in that (1) it shows CIL LC-MS can be used for in-depth profiling of the CSF metabolome in experimental ischemic stroke and (2) identifies several potential molecular targets (that might mediate the central nervous system) and associate with pharmacodynamic effects of some frequently used TCMs.

  12. rmpM genosensor for detection of human brain bacterial meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sandip Kumar; Sharma, Minakshi; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-09-01

    Human brain bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease caused mainly by Neisseria meningitidis, lead to damage of the outer membrane covering (meninges) of brain or even death. The usual methods of diagnosis are either time-consuming or have some limitations. The specific rmpM (reduction-modifiable protein M) virulent gene based genosensor is more sensitive, specific, and can detect N. meningitidis directly from the patient cerebrospinal fluid in 30 min including 1-min response time. 5'-Thiol-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was immobilized onto screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE) and hybridized with denatured (95 °C) single-stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) for 10 min at 25 °C. The electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance using redox indicators. The sensitivity of the genosensor was 9.5087 (μA/cm(2))/ng with DPV and limit of detection was 3 ng/6 μL ssG-DNA. The immobilization of the ssDNA probe and hybridization with ssG-DNA from N. meningitidis was characterized by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The rmpM genosensor was stable for 6 months at 4 °C with 10 % loss in initial DPV current. The advantage of rmpM genosensor is to detect bacterial meningitis simultaneously in multiple patients using SPGE array during an outbreak of the disease.

  13. Simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Liao, Linchuan; Zuo, Zhong; Yan, Youyi; Yang, Lin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Hou, Junhong

    2007-04-11

    Nikethamide and lidocaine are often requested to be quantified simultaneously in forensic toxicological analysis. A simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for their simultaneous determination in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The method involves simple protein precipitation sample treatment followed by quantification of analytes using HPLC at 263 nm. Analytes were separated on a 5 microm Zorbax Dikema C18 column (150 mm x 4.60 mm, i.d.) with a mobile phase of 22:78 (v/v) mixture of methanol and a diethylamine-acetic acid buffer, pH 4.0. The mean recoveries were between 69.8 and 94.4% for nikethamide and between 78.9 and 97.2% for lidocaine. Limits of detection (LODs) for nikethamide and lidocaine were 0.008 and 0.16 microg/ml in plasma and 0.007 and 0.14 microg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. The mean intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) for both analytes were less than 9.2 and 10.8%, respectively. The developed method was applied to blood sample analyses in eight forensic cases, where blood concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 0.68 to 34.4 microg/ml and nikethamide ranged from 1.25 to 106.8 microg/ml. In six cases cerebrospinal fluid analysis was requested. The values ranged from 20.3 to 185.6 microg/ml of lidocaine and 8.0 to 72.4 microg/ml of nikethamide. The method is simple and sensitive enough to be used in toxicological analysis for simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  14. Evaluation of a Cryptococcal antigen Lateral Flow Assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid for rapid diagnosis of cryptococcosis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Diego H; Zuluaga, Alejandra; Tabares, Ángela M; Chiller, Tom; González, Ángel; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2017-12-21

    A Lateral Flow Assay to detect cryptococcal antigen (CrAg® LFA) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid for the rapid diagnosis of cryptococcosis was evaluated. A retrospective validation was performed. Sensitivity and specificity of the CrAg® LFA was 100%. High concordance (kappa index=1.0) between Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS®) and CrAg® LFA was observed. CrAg® LFA showed higher analytical sensitivity for detecting low concentrations of cryptococcal antigen.

  15. Etiogenic factors present in the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients induce predominantly pro-inflammatory responses in microglia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pooja-Shree; Vijayalakshmi, K; Nalini, A; Sathyaprabha, T N; Kramer, B W; Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Raju, T R

    2017-12-16

    Microglial cell-associated neuroinflammation is considered as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the specific role of microglia in the disease pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. We studied the activation profiles of the microglial cultures exposed to the cerebrospinal fluid from these patients which recapitulates the neurodegeneration seen in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This was done by investigating the morphological and functional changes including the expression levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and trophic factors. We also studied the effect of chitotriosidase, the inflammatory protein found upregulated in the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, on these cultures. We report that the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients could induce an early and potent response in the form of microglial activation, skewed primarily towards a pro-inflammatory profile. It was seen in the form of upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and factors including IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2. Concomitantly, a downregulation of beneficial trophic factors and anti-inflammatory markers including VEGF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and IFN-γ was seen. In addition, chitotriosidase-1 appeared to act specifically via the microglial cells. Our findings demonstrate that the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients holds enough cues to induce microglial inflammatory processes as an early event, which may contribute to the neurodegeneration seen in the sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These findings highlight the dynamic role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of the disease, thus suggesting the need for a multidimensional and temporally guarded therapeutic approach targeting the inflammatory

  16. [Effect of tiapride on the side effects of cerebrospinal fluid depletions in spinal puncture, pneumoencephalography and air myelography].

    PubMed

    Zenglein, J P; Baldauf, E; Wasser, P h

    1978-04-01

    The authors report their experience of the treatment post-cerebrospinal fluid loss syndrom, following subtraction by lumbar puncture, pneumoencephalography and air myelography. The study of 70 patients, divided in two equal groups, one receiving classic therapy, one receiving tiapride, a new molecule of original conception, lead to emphasize the interest of this drug. Tolerance in general is good, despite the administration of high doses and effects on the syndrom are positive and remarkable in preventive and curative treatment.

  17. An unusual case of recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome with normal cerebrospinal fluid protein levels: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gunatilake, Sonali Sihindi Chapa; Gamlath, Rohitha; Wimalaratna, Harith

    2016-09-05

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acquired polyradiculo-neuropathy, often preceded by an antecedent event. It is a monophasic disease but a recurrence rate of 1-6 % is documented in a subset group of patients. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome show cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytologic dissociation. Normal cerebrospinal fluid protein levels during both initial and recurrent episodes of Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare occurrence and has not been described earlier in the literature. Twenty-five-year-old Sri Lankan female with past history of complete recovery following an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome 12 years back presented with acute, ascending symmetrical flaccid quadriparasis extending to bulbar muscles, bilateral VII cranial nerves and respiratory compromise needing mechanical ventilation. Nerve conduction study revealed AIDP variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis done after 2 weeks were normal during both episodes without albuminocytologic dissociation. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin resulting in a remarkable recovery. Both episodes had a complete clinical recovery in three and four months' time respectively, rather a faster recovery than usually expected. Recurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome can occur in a subset of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome even after many years of asymptomatic period. Normal cerebrospinal fluid profile does not exclude Guillain-Barré syndrome and may occur in subsequent recurrences of Guillain-Barré syndrome arising the need for further studies to identify the pathophysiology and the possibility of a different subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  18. Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluid Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway Modeled by Optimal Mass Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-01-01

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4 min over ∼3 hrs in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins. PMID:28323163

  19. Cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid transport via the glymphatic pathway modeled by optimal mass transport.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-05-15

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4min over ∼3h in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    PubMed

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Perilymph Kinetics of FITC-Dextran Reveals Homeostasis Dominated by the Cochlear Aqueduct and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N; Gill, R M; Hartsock, J J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how drugs are distributed in perilymph following local applications is important as local drug therapies are increasingly used to treat disorders of the inner ear. The potential contribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) entry to perilymph homeostasis has been controversial for over half a century, largely due to artifactual contamination of collected perilymph samples with CSF. Measures of perilymph flow and of drug distribution following round window niche applications have both suggested a slow, apically directed flow occurs along scala tympani (ST) in the normal, sealed cochlea. In the present study, we have used fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran as a marker to study perilymph kinetics in guinea pigs. Dextran is lost from perilymph more slowly than other substances so far quantified. Dextran solutions were injected from pipettes sealed into the lateral semicircular canal (SCC), the cochlear apex, or the basal turn of ST. After varying delays, sequential perilymph samples were taken from the cochlear apex or lateral SCC, allowing dextran distribution along the perilymphatic spaces to be quantified. Variability was low and findings were consistent with the injection procedure driving volume flow towards the cochlear aqueduct, and with volume flow during perilymph sampling driven by CSF entry at the aqueduct. The decline of dextran with time in the period between injection and sampling was consistent with both a slow volume influx of CSF (~30 nL/min) entering the basal turn of ST at the cochlear aqueduct and a CSF-perilymph exchange driven by pressure-driven fluid oscillation across the cochlear aqueduct. Sample data also allowed contributions of other processes, such as communications with adjacent compartments, to be quantified. The study demonstrates that drug kinetics in the basal turn of ST is complex and is influenced by a considerable number of interacting processes.

  2. Prion-Seeding Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Van de Motter, Alexandra; Carver, Scott; Henderson, Davin; Davenport, Kristen; Seelig, Davis M.; Mathiason, Candace; Hoover, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are a uniformly fatal family of neurodegenerative diseases in mammals that includes chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids. The early and ante-mortem identification of TSE-infected individuals using conventional western blotting or immunohistochemistry (IHC) has proven difficult, as the levels of infectious prions in readily obtainable samples, including blood and bodily fluids, are typically beyond the limits of detection. The development of amplification-based seeding assays has been instrumental in the detection of low levels of infectious prions in clinical samples. In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CWD-exposed (n=44) and naïve (n=4) deer (n=48 total) for CWD prions (PrPd) using two amplification assays: serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification with polytetrafluoroethylene beads (sPMCAb) and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) employing a truncated Syrian hamster recombinant protein substrate. Samples were evaluated blindly in parallel with appropriate positive and negative controls. Results from amplification assays were compared to one another and to obex immunohistochemistry, and were correlated to available clinical histories including CWD inoculum source (e.g. saliva, blood), genotype, survival period, and duration of clinical signs. We found that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC were capable of amplifying CWD prions from cervid CSF, and results correlated well with one another. Prion seeding activity in either assay was observed in approximately 50% of deer with PrPd detected by IHC in the obex region of the brain. Important predictors of amplification included duration of clinical signs and time of first tonsil biopsy positive results, and ultimately the levels of PrPd identified in the obex by IHC. Based on our findings, we expect that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC may prove to be useful detection assays for the detection of prions in CSF. PMID

  3. Outcomes of endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea without lumbar drains.

    PubMed

    Adams, Austin S; Russell, Paul T; Duncavage, James A; Chandra, Rakesh K; Turner, Justin H

    2016-11-01

    Lumbar drains (LD) are commonly used during endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, either to facilitate graft healing or to monitor CSF fluid dynamics. However, the indications and necessity of LD placement remains controversial. The current study sought to evaluate endoscopic CSF leak repair outcomes in the setting of limited LD use. Patients who underwent endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea between 2004 and 2014 were identified by a review of medical records. Demographic and clinical data were extracted and compared between patients who had surgery with and patients who had surgery without a perioperative LD. A univariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of recurrence. A total of 107 patients (116 surgical procedures) were identified, with a mean follow-up of 15.8 months. Eighty-eight of 107 patients (82.2%) had surgery without an LD. The mean hospital stay was 4.48 days in the LD group versus 1.03 days in the non-LD group (p < 0.00001). There was no difference in recurrence rate between the LD and non-LD groups. Predictors of recurrence included repair technique (p = 0.04) and size of defect (p = 0.005). Body mass index, leak site (ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal), and etiology (spontaneous, iatrogenic, traumatic) were not predictive of leak recurrence. Use of LDs in endoscopic CSF leak repair was not associated with reduced recurrence rates, regardless of leak etiology, and resulted in a significant increase in hospital length of stay. Although the use of perioperative LDs to monitor CSF dynamics may have some therapeutic and diagnostic advantages, it may not be associated with clinically significant improvements in patient outcomes or recurrence rates.

  4. Angiotensinogen concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid in different experimental conditions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Basso, N; Grinspon, D; Mangiarua, E; Cannata, M A

    1983-01-01

    Angiotensinogen is the most important component of the renin-angiotensin system present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the rat. Its physiological significance as well as its origin have not been clearly elucidated. In this experiment we have examined plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma and CSF angiotensinogen concentration under the following experimental conditions in male rats of the Wistar strain: 1) adrenalectomy (Adx) 4 days prior to sample collection; controls were sham Adx animals; 2) nephrectomy (Nx) 48 hours before blood and CSF collection; controls were sham Nx rats; 3) DOC-salt treatment (Cortexon depot, 50 mg/kg.s.c. twice a week) plus saline to drink was given during 4 weeks; controls were intact rats; 4) DOC-salt plus captopril: captopril (100 mg/kg/day) in the drinking fluid was added to the treatment of experimental and control animals of Group 3; 5) two-kidney, two clip hypertension: silver clips placed in both renal arteries 8 weeks before samples collection; control: sham-operated rats; 6) water deprivation: rats deprived of water for 5 days; controls: intact rats; 7) peripheral sympathectomy: 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) injected s.c. from birth until 16 weeks of age, adrenodemedullectomy and adrenal denervation performed at 8 weeks; controls were vehicle-injected animals. Determination of angiotensinogen concentration in plasma and CSF was accomplished by incubation of the samples with excess hog renin. The angiotensin I released as well as PRA were evaluated using an specific radioimmunoassay technique. PRA was significantly increased by Adx, captopril treatment, and water deprivation, and was almost suppressed by Nx, DOC-salt, and DOC-salt plus captopril treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Agnati, Luigi F.; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico-physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set-ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio-pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis. PMID:28204813

  6. Comparison between cerebrospinal fluid and serum lactate concentrations in neurologic dogs with and without structural intracranial disease.

    PubMed

    Benedicenti, Leontine; Gianotti, Giacomo; Galban, Evelyn M

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid lactate and serum concentrations in dogs with clinical signs of central nervous system disease and to establish if cerebrospinal fluid lactate (CSF) concentrations are higher in dogs with structural intracranial disease (Group Pos-MRI) compared to dogs that have clinical signs of intracranial disease but no structural brain disease (Group Neg-MRI) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Using a prospective study canine blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected in 24 dogs with neurological signs after undergoing brain MRI. Dogs were divided in 2 groups. No significant difference between serum lactate (1.57 ± 0.9 mmol/L) and CSF lactate concentration (1.34 ± 0.3 mmol/L) was detected. There was a direct correlation between CSF and serum lactate concentration ( R = 0.731; P = 0.01). No significant difference was found in CSF lactate concentration between the 2 groups of dogs ( P = 0.13).

  7. Comparison of Cerebrospinal Fluid Opening Pressure in Children With Demyelinating Disease to Children With Primary Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Followell, Bethanie; Aylward, Shawn C

    2017-03-01

    The authors aimed to compare the opening pressures of children with demyelinating disease to children with primary intracranial hypertension. Medical records were reviewed for a primary diagnosis of demyelinating disease, or primary intracranial hypertension. Diagnosis of demyelinating disease was made according to either the 2007 or 2012 International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group criteria. Primary intracranial hypertension diagnosis was confirmed by presence of elevated opening pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid composition and neuroimaging. The authors compared 14 children with demyelinating disease to children with primary intracranial hypertension in 1:1 and 1:2 fashions. There was a statistically significant higher BMI in the primary intracranial hypertension group compared to the demyelinating group ( P = .0203). The mean cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was higher in the demyelinating disease group compared to primary intracranial hypertension ( P = .0002). Among both comparisons, the cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, glucose, protein and red blood cell counts in children with demyelinating disease were comparable to age- and sex-matched controls with primary intracranial hypertension.

  8. Deregulation of microRNA-181c in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with clinically isolated syndrome is associated with early conversion to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Martino, Filippo; Pul, Refik; Skripuletz, Thomas; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Schauerte, Celina; Yildiz, Özlem; Trebst, Corinna; Tasto, Lars; Thum, Sabrina; Pfanne, Angelika; Roesler, Romy; Lauda, Florian; Hecker, Michael; Zettl, Uwe K; Tumani, Hayrettin; Thum, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2016-08-01

    MiRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 have been reported to be deregulated in multiple sclerosis. To investigate the association between miRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 and conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); and to compare microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum with regard to dysfunction of the blood-CSF barrier. CSF and serum miRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 were retrospectively determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in CIS patients with (CIS-RRMS) and without (CIS-CIS) conversion to RRMS within 1 year. Thirty of 58 CIS patients developed RRMS. Cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-922, serum miRNA-922 and cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c were significantly higher in CIS-RRMS compared to CIS-CIS (P=0.027, P=0.048, P=0.029, respectively). High levels of cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c were independently associated with conversion from CIS to RRMS in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.41-6.34, P=0.005). A combination of high cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c, younger age and more than nine lesions on magnetic resonance imaging showed the highest specificity (96%) and positive predictive value (94%) for conversion from CIS to RRMS. MiRNA-181c was higher in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid (P <0.001), while miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 were no different in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin quotients did not correlate with microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (all P>0.711). Cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c might serve as a biomarker for early conversion to RRMS. Moreover, our data suggest an intrathecal origin of microRNAs detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. © The Author(s), 2015.

  9. History of cigarette smoking in cognitively-normal elders is associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mattsson, Niklas; Weiner, Michael W; Korecka, Magdalena; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in adults is associated with abnormalities in brain neurobiology. Smoking-induced central nervous system oxidative stress (OxS) is a potential mechanism associated with these abnormalities. The goal of this study was to compare cognitively-normal elders on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of F2-isoprostane biomarkers of OxS. Elders with a lifetime history of smoking (smokers; n=50; 75±5 years of age; 34±28 pack-years; approximately 12% were actively smoking at the time of study) were compared to never-smokers (n=61; 76±6 years of age) on CSF iPF2α-III and 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI F2-isoprostanes levels. F2-isoprostanes levels were quantitated with HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between F2-isoprostanes levels, hippocampal volumes, and cigarette exposure measures were also evaluated. Smokers showed higher iPF2α-III level than never-smokers. An age×smoking status interaction was observed for 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI, where smokers demonstrate a significantly greater concentration with increasing age than never-smokers. In smokers only, higher 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI concentration was associated with smaller hippocampal volume, and greater iPF2α-III level was related to greater pack years. This is the first study to demonstrate that a history of cigarette smoking in cognitively-normal elders was associated with significantly elevated CSF F2-isoprostane levels and greater age-related increases in F2-isoprostanes, and that higher F2-isoprostane levels in smokers were related to smaller hippocampal volume. These findings provide additional novel evidence that a history of chronic smoking during adulthood is associated with adverse effects on the human brain that are potentially enduring even with extended smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical management of Chiari I malformation based on different cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns at the cranial-vertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Zhao, HaiJun; Zhao, XinGang; Liang, Cong; Wang, YinQian; Gai, QiFei

    2017-10-01

    Chiari I malformation has been shown to present different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow patterns at the cranial-vertebral junction (CVJ). Posterior fossa decompression is the first-line treatment for symptomatic Chiari I malformation. However, there is still controversy on the indication and selection of decompression procedures. This research aims to investigate the clinical indications, outcomes, and complications of the decompression procedures as alternative treatments for Chiari I malformation, based on the different CSF flow patterns at the cranial-vertebral junction. In this study, 126 Chiari I malformation patients treated with the two decompression procedures were analyzed. According to the preoperative findings obtained by using cine phase-contrast MRI (cine PC-MRI), the abnormal CSF flow dynamics at the CVJ in Chiari I malformation was classified into three patterns. After a preoperative evaluation and an intraoperative ultrasound after craniectomy, the two procedures were alternatively selected to treat the Chiari I malformation. The indication and selection of the two surgical procedures, as well as their outcomes and complications, are reported in detail in this work. Forty-eight patients underwent subdural decompression (SDD), and 78 received subarachnoid manipulation (SAM). Ninety patients were diagnosed as having Chiari I malformation with a syrinx. Two weeks after the operation, the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores increased from the preoperative value of 10.67 ± 1.61 to 12.74 ± 2.01 (P < 0.01). The mean duration of follow-up was 24.8 months; the mJOA scores increased from the postoperative value of 12.74 ± 2.01 to 12.79 ± 1.91 at the end of follow-up (P = 0.48). More complications occurred in the patients who underwent SAM than in those who received SDD (SAM 11 of 78 (9.5%) vs SDD 2 of 48 (3.5%)). The abnormal CSF flow dynamics at the CVJ in Chiari I malformation can be classified into three patterns. A SAM

  11. Concentration of Donepezil in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of AD Patients: Evaluation of Dosage Sufficiency in Standard Treatment Strategy.

    PubMed

    Valis, Martin; Masopust, Jiri; Vysata, Oldrich; Hort, Jakub; Dolezal, Rafael; Tomek, Jiri; Misik, Jan; Kuca, Kamil; Karasova, Jana Zdarova

    2017-01-01

    Although some studies have described the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil in the peripheral compartment, studies focused on drug transport across the blood-brain barrier are still very rare. To our knowledge, the fluctuation in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of donepezil after administration of the drug has not been described in the literature so far. We recruited 16 patients regularly taking a standard therapeutic dose of donepezil (10 mg per day). All patients (Caucasian race) were treated for at least three months with a stable dose of 10 mg per day prior to sample collection. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the time of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid sampling: 12 h (n = 9; 4 M/5F aged 78.68 ± 7.35 years) and 24 h (n = 7; 3 M/4F aged 77.14 ± 5.87 years) after donepezil administration. The cerebrospinal fluid sample was collected by standard lumbar puncture technique using a single-use traumatic needle. The samples were analysed on an Agilent 1260 Series liquid chromatograph comprising a degasser, a quaternary pump, a light-tight autosampler unit set, a thermostated column compartment, and a UV/VIS detector. Agilent ChemStation software, the statistical software Prism4, version 5.0 (GraphPad Software, USA), and IBM ® SPSS ® Statistics were used for the analysis of the results. The difference in plasma concentration of donepezil after 12 h (mean ± SEM; 39.99 ± 5.90 ng/ml) and after 24 h (29.38 ± 1.71 ng/ml) was nonsignificant. In contrast, the donepezil concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly higher in the 24-h interval (7.54 ± 0.55 ng/ml) compared with the 12-h interval (5.19 ± 0.83 ng/ml, which is ~70 % based on mean cerebrospinal fluid values). Based on these data, it is plausible to predict that donepezil might produce a stronger AChE inhibition in the brain at 24 h compared with 12 h following the administration. This information may help physicians

  12. Multiplicity of cerebrospinal fluid functions: New challenges in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, Conrad E; Duncan, John A; Klinge, Petra M; Brinker, Thomas; Stopa, Edward G; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2008-01-01

    This review integrates eight aspects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics: formation rate, pressure, flow, volume, turnover rate, composition, recycling and reabsorption. Novel ways to modulate CSF formation emanate from recent analyses of choroid plexus transcription factors (E2F5), ion transporters (NaHCO3 cotransport), transport enzymes (isoforms of carbonic anhydrase), aquaporin 1 regulation, and plasticity of receptors for fluid-regulating neuropeptides. A greater appreciation of CSF pressure (CSFP) is being generated by fresh insights on peptidergic regulatory servomechanisms, the role of dysfunctional ependyma and circumventricular organs in causing congenital hydrocephalus, and the clinical use of algorithms to delineate CSFP waveforms for diagnostic and prognostic utility. Increasing attention focuses on CSF flow: how it impacts cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, neural stem cell progression in the subventricular zone, and catabolite/peptide clearance from the CNS. The pathophysiological significance of changes in CSF volume is assessed from the respective viewpoints of hemodynamics (choroid plexus blood flow and pulsatility), hydrodynamics (choroidal hypo- and hypersecretion) and neuroendocrine factors (i.e., coordinated regulation by atrial natriuretic peptide, arginine vasopressin and basic fibroblast growth factor). In aging, normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease, the expanding CSF space reduces the CSF turnover rate, thus compromising the CSF sink action to clear harmful metabolites (e.g., amyloid) from the CNS. Dwindling CSF dynamics greatly harms the interstitial environment of neurons. Accordingly the altered CSF composition in neurodegenerative diseases and senescence, because of adverse effects on neural processes and cognition, needs more effective clinical management. CSF recycling between subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles promotes interstitial fluid (ISF) convection with both trophic and excretory

  13. Lack of KIs virus DNA in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in Italy.

    PubMed

    Macera, Lisa; Focosi, Daniele; Manzin, Aldo; Ceccherini Nelli, Luca; Pistello, Mauro; Maggi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    Dear Sirs, Satoh et al. recently screened 516 Japanese blood donors with PCR using primers constructed from the consensus domain of the helicase of positive-stranded RNA viruses. They reported a novel enveloped virus with a circular double-stranded DNA genome (tentatively named KIs virus, KIs-V) (Satoh et al., 2011) occurring in 36 out of the 100 hepatitis E (HEV) antibody-positive donors with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>60 IU/L). More recently, Biagini et al. failed to find KIs-V in plasma from 576 French blood donors with unknown HEV serostatus and unknown ALT values (Biagini et al., 2012). Based on an HEV seroprevalence of 3-52% in France, the authors suggested an uncommon frequency of KIs-V infection in healthy persons in France. To date, no information has been available on the prevalence of KIs-V DNA in Italy. In the present paper, we analyzed KIs-V in 242 plasma samples of blood donors, transplant recipients, and patients with chronic viral infections, and in 52 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with different neurological disorders. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments. Viral DNA extraction was carried out on 200 μl of plasma or 200 μl of CSF by using QIAamp DNA blood kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Extracted nucleic acids were amplified for KIs-V DNA with the nested PCR protocol developed by Satoh et al. (2011) and used for screening Japanese blood donors. The first and second PCR rounds were designed on 458 and 304 nt-length fragments, respectively. To validate the amplification process, positive controls obtained from plasma dilutions of a synthetic template corresponding to the target sequence were run in each PCR. PCR sensitivity was less than 5 copies of target sequence. Fourteen liver and 16 kidney and/or pancreas transplant

  14. First evidence of the conversion of paracetamol to AM404 in human cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chhaya V; Long, Jamie H; Shah, Seema; Rahman, Junia; Perrett, David; Ayoub, Samir S; Mehta, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol is arguably the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug worldwide, however its mechanism of action is still not fully established. It has been shown to exert effects through multiple pathways, some actions suggested to be mediated via N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404). AM404, formed through conjugation of paracetamol-derived p-aminophenol with arachidonic acid in the brain, is an activator of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, and inhibits the reuptake of the endocannabinoid, anandamide, into postsynaptic neurons, as well as inhibiting synthesis of PGE2 by COX-2. However, the presence of AM404 in the central nervous system following administration of paracetamol has not yet been demonstrated in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were collected from 26 adult male patients between 10 and 211 minutes following intravenous administration of 1 g of paracetamol. Paracetamol was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. AM404 was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AM404 was detected in 17 of the 26 evaluable CSF samples at 5–40 nmol⋅L−1. Paracetamol was measurable in CSF within 10 minutes, with a maximum measured concentration of 60 μmol⋅L−1 at 206 minutes. This study is the first to report on the presence of AM404 in human CSF following paracetamol administration. This may represent an important finding in our understanding of paracetamol’s mechanism of action, although measured concentrations were far below the previously documented IC50 for this metabolite. PMID:29238213

  15. The Optic Canal: A Bottleneck for Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in Normal-Tension Glaucoma?

    PubMed

    Pircher, Achmed; Montali, Margherita; Berberat, Jatta; Remonda, Luca; Killer, Hanspeter E

    2017-01-01

    To report on the optic canal cross-sectional area (OCA) in Caucasian patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) compared with Caucasian control subjects without known optic nerve (ON) diseases. Retrospective analysis of computed tomographic images of the cranium and orbits in 56 NTG patients (30 females and 26 males; 99 of 112 eyes; mean age 67.7 ± 11.1 years). Fifty-six age- and gender-matched subjects (mean age: 68.0 ± 11.2 years) without known ON diseases served as controls. The OCA at the orbital opening was measured in square millimeters by using the tool "freehand." Statistical analysis was performed by using the independent two-tailed t -test. The mean orbital opening OCA in NTGs measured 14.5 ± 3.5 mm 2 (right OCA: 14.4 ± 3.6 mm 2 , left OCA: 14.5 ± 3.4 mm 2 ) and in controls measured 18.3 ± 2.6 mm 2 (right OCA: 18.5 ± 2.7 mm 2 , left OCA: 18.1 ± 2.5 mm 2 ). The difference between NTG and controls was statistically significant ( p  < 0.000 for the right OCA, p  < 0.000 for the left OCA). This study demonstrates narrower OCAs in Caucasian NTG patients compared with Caucasian control subjects without known ON diseases. Narrower OCAs might contribute to a discontinuity of the cerebrospinal fluid flow between the intracranial and orbital subarachnoid space in NTG patients. This might have an influence onto the pathophysiology in NTG.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of high-dose daptomycin in suspected Staphylococcus aureus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Riser, M Shawn; Bland, Christopher M; Rudisill, Celeste N; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2010-11-01

    To report a case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia with suspected MSSA meningitis treated with high-dose daptomycin assessed with concurrent serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. A 54-year-old male presented to the emergency department with generalized weakness and presumed health-care-associated pneumonia shown on chest radiograph. Treatment was empirically initiated with vancomycin, levofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Blood cultures revealed S. aureus susceptible to oxacillin. Empiric antibiotic treatment was narrowed to nafcillin on day 4. On day 8, the patient developed acute renal failure (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dL, increased from 1.2 mg/dL the previous day and 0.8 mg/dL on admission). The patient's Glasgow Coma Score was 3, with normal findings shown on computed tomography scan of the head 72 hours following an episode of cardiac arrest on day 10. The patient experienced relapsing MSSA bacteremia on day 9, increasing the suspicion for a central nervous system (CNS) infection. Nafcillin was discontinued and daptomycin 9 mg/kg daily was initiated for suspected meningitis and was continued until the patient's death on day 16. Daptomycin serum and CSF trough concentrations were 11.21 μg/mL and 0.52 μg/mL, respectively, prior to the third dose. Lumbar puncture results were inconclusive and no further blood cultures were positive for MSSA. Creatine kinase levels were normal prior to daptomycin therapy and were not reassessed. Daptomycin was initiated in our patient secondary to possible nafcillin-induced acute interstitial nephritis and relapsing bacteremia. At a dose of 9 mg/kg, resultant penetration of 5% was higher than in previous reports, more consistent with inflamed meninges. High-dose daptomycin may be an alternative option for MSSA bacteremia with or without a CNS source in patients who have failed or cannot tolerate standard therapy. Further clinical evaluation in patients with confirmed meningitis is

  17. Season of Sampling and Season of Birth Influence Serotonin Metabolite Levels in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Luykx, Jurjen J.; Bakker, Steven C.; Lentjes, Eef; Boks, Marco P. M.; van Geloven, Nan; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; de Lepper, Anne M.; Westenberg, Herman; Klopper, Kai E.; Hoorn, Hendrik J.; Gelissen, Harry P. M. M.; Jordan, Julian; Tolenaar, Noortje M.; van Dongen, Eric P. A.; Michel, Bregt; Abramovic, Lucija; Horvath, Steve; Kappen, Teus; Bruins, Peter; Keijzers, Peter; Borgdorff, Paul; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine (MA) turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG) were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75). The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050), with predicted maximum (PCmax) and minimum (PCmin) concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PCmax = 172 and PCmin = 126). The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. Conclusion In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall. PMID:22312427

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Přikrylová Vranová, H; Klosová, J; Sládková, V; Doláková, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS. This stage is followed by the neurodegenerative process. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. Although MS is according to McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria primarily a clinical diagnosis, paraclinical investigation methods are an important part in the diagnosis of MS. In common practice, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord, examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and examination of visual evoked potentials are used. There are an increasing number of studies dealing with biomarkers in CSF and their role in the diagnosis and treatment of MS. We hypothesized that the levels of some markers could be changed in MS in comparison with controls. We studied five inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, interleukin-10 (IL-10), beta-2-microglobulin, orosomucoid]. CSF and serum levels of inflammatory markers were assessed in 38 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 28 subjects as a control group (CG). Levels of beta-2-microglobulin and interleukin-8 in CSF were found to be significantly higher in MS patients in comparison to CG (p < 0.001 resp. p = 0.007). No differences in other CSF markers (IL-6, IL-10 and orosomucoid) and serum levels of all markers between both groups were found. The levels of two studied inflammatory markers were found to be increased at the time of first clinical symptoms of MS. Research on the role of inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in MS should continue.

  19. D-Amino Acid Aberrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Luykx, Jurjen J; Bakker, Steven C; van Boxmeer, Loes; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Smeenk, Hanne E; Visser, Wouter F; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Strengman, Eric; Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E; de Groene, Lizzy; van Dongen, Eric PA; Borgdorff, Paul; Bruins, Peter; de Koning, Tom J; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A

    2013-01-01

    The glutamatergic neurotransmission system and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) have been implicated in smoking and alcohol consumption behavior. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that nicotine and ethanol influence NMDAR functionality, which may have a role in tendencies to consume these substances. Nonetheless, little is known about concentrations of NMDAR coagonists in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of individuals who smoke or consume alcohol. Glycine and L- and D-stereoisomers of alanine, serine, and proline were therefore measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 403 healthy subjects. Nicotine and alcohol consumption were quantified using questionnaires. Possible differences in NMDAR coagonist concentrations in plasma and CSF were investigated using ANCOVA with age, body mass index, and storage duration as covariates. The significance threshold was Bonferroni corrected (α=0.00625). Compared with non-smokers, smokers displayed lower levels of D-proline in plasma (p=0.0027, Cohen's d=−0.41) and D-proline in CSF (p=0.0026, Cohen's d=−0.43). D-Serine in CSF was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.0052, Cohen's d=0.41). After subdividing participants based on smoking quantity, dose-dependent decreases were demonstrated in smokers for D-proline in plasma (F=5.65, p=0.0039) and D-proline in CSF (F=5.20, p=0.0060). No differences in NMDAR coagonist levels between alcohol consumption groups were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report to implicate D-amino acids in smoking behavior of humans. Whether such concentration differences lie at the root of or result from smoking habits may be addressed in prospective studies. PMID:23615666

  20. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ ratios in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Adamczuk, Katarzyna; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Vanderstichele, Hugo M J; Lilja, Johan; Nelissen, Natalie; Van Laere, Koen; Dupont, Patrick; Hilven, Kelly; Poesen, Koen; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2015-12-18

    In this study of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) we assessed the added diagnostic value of using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ ratios rather than Aβ42 in isolation for detecting individuals who are positive on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET). Thirty-eight community-recruited cognitively intact older adults (mean age 73, range 65-80 years) underwent (18)F-flutemetamol PET and CSF measurement of Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-38, and total tau (ttau). (18)F-flutemetamol retention was quantified using standardized uptake value ratios in a composite cortical region (SUVRcomp) with reference to cerebellar grey matter. Based on a prior autopsy validation study, the SUVRcomp cut-off was 1.57. Sensitivities, specificities and cut-offs were defined based on receiver operating characteristic analysis with CSF analytes as variables of interest and (18)F-flutemetamol positivity as the classifier. We also determined sensitivities and CSF cut-off values at fixed specificities of 90 % and 95 %. Seven out of 38 subjects (18 %) were positive on amyloid PET. Aβ42/ttau, Aβ42/Aβ40, Aβ42/Aβ38, and Aβ42 had the highest accuracy to identify amyloid-positive subjects (area under the curve (AUC) ≥ 0.908). Aβ40 and Aβ38 had significantly lower discriminative power (AUC = 0.571). When specificity was fixed at 90 % and 95 %, Aβ42/ttau had the highest sensitivity among the different CSF markers (85.71 % and 71.43 %, respectively). Sensitivity of Aβ42 alone was significantly lower under these conditions (57.14 % and 42.86 %, respectively). For the CSF-based definition of preclinical AD, if a high specificity is required, our data support the use of Aβ42/ttau rather than using Aβ42 in isolation.

  1. Associations of Fatty Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluid with Peripheral Glucose Concentrations and Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Guijarro, Ana; Pratley, Richard E.; Mason, Clinton C.; Piomelli, Daniele; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA) species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT) followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE) and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP) as well as respiratory quotient (RQ) in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid) concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16∶1, C18∶1) and very-long-chain saturated (C24∶0, C26∶0) FAs. Conclusions: Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis. PMID:22911803

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Sah, Renu; Ekhator, Nosakhare N; Jefferson-Wilson, Lena; Horn, Paul S; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2014-02-01

    Accruing evidence indicates that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide neurotransmitter, is a resilience-to-stress factor in humans. We previously reported reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY concentrations in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects as compared with healthy, non-combat-exposed volunteers. Here we report CSF NPY in combat-exposed veterans with and without PTSD. We quantified NPY concentrations in morning CSF from 11 male subjects with PTSD from combat in Iraq and/or Afghanistan and from 14 combat-exposed subjects without PTSD. NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) was measured by EIA. The relationship between CSF NPY and clinical symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), was assessed, as was the relationship between combat exposure scale (CES) scores and CSF NPY. As compared with the combat-exposed comparison subjects without PTSD, individuals with PTSD had significantly lower concentrations of CSF NPY [mean CSF NPY was 258. 6 ± 21.64 pg/mL in the combat trauma-no PTSD group but only 180.5 ± 12.62 pg/mL in PTSD patients (p=0.008)]. After adjusting for CES and BDI scores the two groups were still significantly different with respect to NPY. Importantly, CSF NPY was negatively correlated with composite CAPS score and intrusive (re-experiencing) subscale scores, but did not significantly correlate with CES or BDI scores. Our current findings further suggest that NPY may regulate the manifestation of PTSD symptomatology, and extend previous observations of low CSF NPY concentrations in the disorder. Central nervous system NPY may be a clinically important pharmacotherapeutic target, and/or diagnostic measure, for PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Isoforms for Early and Differential Dementia Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P; Streffer, Johannes R; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. To determine the added diagnostic value of Aβ isoforms, Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40), as compared to the AD CSF biomarkers Aβ(1-42), T-tau, and P-tau(181P). CSF from patients with dementia due to AD (n = 50), non-AD dementias (n = 50), mild cognitive impairment due to AD (n = 50) and non-demented controls (n = 50) was analyzed with a prototype multiplex assay using MSD detection technology. The non-AD group consisted of frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 17), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 17), and vascular dementia (n = 16). Aβ(1-37) and Aβ(1-38) increased accuracy to differentiate AD from FTD or DLB. Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40) levels correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and disease duration in dementia due to AD. The Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) ratio improved diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42) in most differential diagnostic situations. Aβ(1-42) levels were lower in APOE ε4 carriers compared to non-carriers. Aβ isoforms help to differentiate AD from FTD and DLB. Aβ isoforms increase diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42). In contrast to Aβ1-42, Aβ isoforms seem to be correlated with disease severity in AD. Adding the Aβ isoforms to the current biomarker panel could enhance diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma oxytocin concentrations are positively correlated and negatively predict anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Carson, D S; Berquist, S W; Trujillo, T H; Garner, J P; Hannah, S L; Hyde, S A; Sumiyoshi, R D; Jackson, L P; Moss, J K; Strehlow, M C; Cheshier, S H; Partap, S; Hardan, A Y; Parker, K J

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) exerts anxiolytic and prosocial effects in the central nervous system of rodents. A number of recent studies have attempted to translate these findings by investigating the relationships between peripheral (e.g., blood, urinary and salivary) OXT concentrations and behavioral functioning in humans. Although peripheral samples are easy to obtain in humans, whether peripheral OXT measures are functionally related to central OXT activity remains unclear. To investigate a possible relationship, we quantified OXT concentrations in concomitantly collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from child and adult patients undergoing clinically indicated lumbar punctures or other CSF-related procedures. Anxiety scores were obtained in a subset of child participants whose parents completed psychometric assessments. Findings from this study indicate that plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively predict CSF OXT concentrations (r=0.56, P=0.0064, N=27). Moreover, both plasma (r=-0.92, P=0.0262, N=10) and CSF (r=-0.91, P=0.0335, N=10) OXT concentrations significantly and negatively predicted trait anxiety scores, consistent with the preclinical literature. Importantly, plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively (r=0.96, P=0.0115, N=10) predicted CSF OXT concentrations in the subset of child participants who provided behavioral data. This study provides the first empirical support for the use of blood measures of OXT as a surrogate for central OXT activity, validated in the context of behavioral functioning. These preliminary findings also suggest that impaired OXT signaling may be a biomarker of anxiety in humans, and a potential target for therapeutic development in individuals with anxiety disorders.

  5. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune mediators in children with autistic disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Carlos A; Farmer, Cristan A; Thurm, Audrey; Shebl, Fatma M; Ilieva, Jorjetta; Kalra, Simran; Swedo, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The causes of autism likely involve genetic and environmental factors that influence neurobiological changes and the neurological and behavioral features of the disorder. Immune factors and inflammation are hypothesized pathogenic influences, but have not been examined longitudinally. In a cohort of 104 participants with autism, we performed an assessment of immune mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid ( n  = 67) to determine potential influences of such mediators in autism. As compared with 54 typically developing controls, we found no evidence of differences in the blood profile of immune mediators supportive of active systemic inflammation mechanisms in participants with autism. Some modulators of immune function (e.g., EGF and soluble CD40 ligand) were increased in the autism group; however, no evidence of group differences in traditional markers of active inflammation (e.g., IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β) were observed in the serum. Further, within-subject stability (measured by estimated intraclass correlations) of most analytes was low, indicating that a single measurement is not a reliable prospective indicator of concentration for most analytes. Additionally, in participants with autism, there was little correspondence between the blood and CSF profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, suggesting that peripheral markers may not optimally reflect the immune status of the central nervous system. Although the relatively high fraction of intrathecal production of selected chemokines involved in monocyte/microglia function may suggest a possible relationship with the homeostatic role of microglia, control data are needed for further interpretation of its relevance in autism. These longitudinal observations fail to provide support for the hypothesized role of disturbances in the expression of circulating cytokines and chemokines as an indicator of systemic inflammation in autism. Clinical

  6. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  7. Identification of Small Peptides in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid upon Amyloid-β Degradation.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Naoki; Yanagida, Kanta; Kodama, Takashi; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Takami, Mako; Oyama, Hiroshi; Kudo, Takashi; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeda, Masatoshi; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation in brains of Alzheimer disease patients is a crucial focus for the clarification of disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying Aβ degradation in the human brain remain unclear. This study aimed to quantify the levels of small C-terminal Aβ fragments generated upon Aβ degradation in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A fraction containing small peptides was isolated and purified from human CSF by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Degradation products of Aβ C termini were identified and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The C-terminal fragments of Aβ in the conditioned medium of cultured cells transfected with the Swedish variant of βAPP (sw βAPP) were analyzed. These fragments in brains of PS1 I213T knock-in transgenic mice, overexpressing sw βAPP, were also analyzed. The peptide fragments GGVV and GVV, produced by the cleavage of Aβ40, were identified in human CSF as well as in the brains of the transgenic mice and in the conditioned medium of the cultured cells. Relative to Aβ40 levels, GGVV and GVV levels were 7.6 ± 0.81 and 1.5 ± 0.18%, respectively, in human CSF. Levels of the GGVV fragment did not increase by the introduction of genes encoding neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme to the cultured cells. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of Aβ40 in human brains is degraded via a neprilysin- or insulin-degrading enzyme-independent pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The late and dual origin of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Petracca, Yanina L; Sartoretti, Maria Micaela; Di Bella, Daniela J; Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Carcagno, Abel L; Schinder, Alejandro F; Lanuza, Guillermo M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that control the production of specialized neuronal types. However, how the timing of differentiation contributes to neuronal diversity in the developing spinal cord is still a pending question. In this study, we show that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs), an anatomically discrete cell type of the ependymal area, originate from surprisingly late neurogenic events in the ventral spinal cord. CSF-cNs are identified by the expression of the transcription factors Gata2 and Gata3, and the ionic channels Pkd2l1 and Pkd1l2. Contrasting with Gata2/3(+) V2b interneurons, differentiation of CSF-cNs is independent of Foxn4 and takes place during advanced developmental stages previously assumed to be exclusively gliogenic. CSF-cNs are produced from two distinct dorsoventral regions of the mouse spinal cord. Most CSF-cNs derive from progenitors circumscribed to the late-p2 and the oligodendrogenic (pOL) domains, whereas a second subset of CSF-cNs arises from cells bordering the floor plate. The development of these two subgroups of CSF-cNs is differentially controlled by Pax6, they adopt separate locations around the postnatal central canal and they display electrophysiological differences. Our results highlight that spatiotemporal mechanisms are instrumental in creating neural cell diversity in the ventral spinal cord to produce distinct classes of interneurons, motoneurons, CSF-cNs, glial cells and ependymal cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. The late and dual origin of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Petracca, Yanina L.; Sartoretti, Maria Micaela; Di Bella, Daniela J.; Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Carcagno, Abel L.; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Lanuza, Guillermo M.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that control the production of specialized neuronal types. However, how the timing of differentiation contributes to neuronal diversity in the developing spinal cord is still a pending question. In this study, we show that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs), an anatomically discrete cell type of the ependymal area, originate from surprisingly late neurogenic events in the ventral spinal cord. CSF-cNs are identified by the expression of the transcription factors Gata2 and Gata3, and the ionic channels Pkd2l1 and Pkd1l2. Contrasting with Gata2/3+ V2b interneurons, differentiation of CSF-cNs is independent of Foxn4 and takes place during advanced developmental stages previously assumed to be exclusively gliogenic. CSF-cNs are produced from two distinct dorsoventral regions of the mouse spinal cord. Most CSF-cNs derive from progenitors circumscribed to the late-p2 and the oligodendrogenic (pOL) domains, whereas a second subset of CSF-cNs arises from cells bordering the floor plate. The development of these two subgroups of CSF-cNs is differentially controlled by Pax6, they adopt separate locations around the postnatal central canal and they display electrophysiological differences. Our results highlight that spatiotemporal mechanisms are instrumental in creating neural cell diversity in the ventral spinal cord to produce distinct classes of interneurons, motoneurons, CSF-cNs, glial cells and ependymal cells. PMID:26839365

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin: an informative biomarker of central nervous system immune activation in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Lars; Cinque, Paola; Gisslen, Magnus; Brew, Bruce J; Spudich, Serena; Bestetti, Arabella; Price, Richard W; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-06-03

    HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS) in the context of acute infection, persists thereafter in the absence of treatment, and leads to chronic intrathecal immunoactivation that can be measured by the macrophage activation marker, neopterin, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this review we describe our experience with CSF neopterin measurements in 382 untreated HIV-infected patients across the spectrum of immunosuppression and HIV-related neurological diseases, in 73 untreated AIDS patients with opportunistic CNS infections, and in 233 treated patients.In untreated patients, CSF neopterin concentrations are almost always elevated and increase progressively as immunosuppression worsens and blood CD4 cell counts fall. However, patients with HIV dementia exhibit particularly high CSF neopterin concentrations, above those of patients without neurological disease, though patients with CNS opportunistic infections, including CMV encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis, also exhibit high levels of CSF neopterin. Combination antiretroviral therapy, with its potent effect on CNS HIV infection and CSF HIV RNA, mitigates both intrathecal immunoactivation and lowers CSF neopterin. However, despite suppression of plasma and CSF HIV RNA to below the detection limits of clinical assays (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL), CSF neopterin often remains mildly elevated, indicating persistent low-level intrathecal immune activation and raising the important questions of whether this elevation is driven by continued CNS infection and whether it causes continued indolent CNS injury.Although nonspecific, CSF neopterin can serve as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIV dementia in the setting of confounding conditions, in monitoring the CNS inflammatory effects of antiretroviral treatment, and give valuable information to the cause of ongoing brain injury.

  11. Approach to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker discovery and evaluation in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Price, Richard W; Peterson, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Angel, Thomas E; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hagberg, Lars; Spudich, Serena; Smith, Richard D; Jacobs, Jon M; Brown, Joseph N; Gisslen, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal facet of systemic HIV infection that varies in character and neurological consequences. While clinical staging and neuropsychological test performance have been helpful in evaluating patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers present a valuable and objective approach to more accurate diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects and understanding of evolving pathobiology. We review some lessons from our recent experience with CSF biomarker studies. We have used two approaches to biomarker analysis: targeted, hypothesis-driven and non-targeted exploratory discovery methods. We illustrate the first with data from a cross-sectional study of defined subject groups across the spectrum of systemic and CNS disease progression and the second with a longitudinal study of the CSF proteome in subjects initiating antiretroviral treatment. Both approaches can be useful and, indeed, complementary. The first is helpful in assessing known or hypothesized biomarkers while the second can identify novel biomarkers and point to broad interactions in pathogenesis. Common to both is the need for well-defined samples and subjects that span a spectrum of biological activity and biomarker concentrations. Previously-defined guide biomarkers of CNS infection, inflammation and neural injury are useful in categorizing samples for analysis and providing critical biological context for biomarker discovery studies. CSF biomarkers represent an underutilized but valuable approach to understanding the interactions of HIV and the CNS and to more objective diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Both hypothesis-based and discovery methods can be useful in advancing the definition and use of these biomarkers.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Progranulin, but Not Serum Progranulin, Is Reduced in GRN-Negative Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Hobert, Markus A; Jansen, Iris E; Metzger, Florian G; Heutink, Peter; Gasser, Thomas; Maetzler, Walter; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Synofzik, Matthis

    2017-01-01

    Reduced progranulin levels are a hallmark of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) caused by loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN). However, alterations of central nervous progranulin expression also occur in neurodegenerative disorders unrelated to GRN mutations, such as Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesised that central nervous progranulin levels are also reduced in GRN-negative FTD. Progranulin levels were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in 75 subjects (37 FTD patients and 38 controls). All FTD patients were assessed by whole-exome sequencing for GRN mutations, yielding a target cohort of 34 patients without pathogenic mutations in GRN (GRN-negative cohort) and 3 GRN mutation carriers (2 LoF variants and 1 novel missense variant). Not only the GRN mutation carriers but also the GRN-negative patients showed decreased CSF levels of progranulin (serum levels in GRN-negative patients were normal). The decreased CSF progranulin levels were unrelated to patients' increased CSF levels of total tau, possibly indicating different destructive neuronal processes within FTD neurodegeneration. The patient with the novel GRN missense variant (c.1117C>T, p.P373S) showed substantially decreased CSF levels of progranulin, comparable to the 2 patients with GRN LoF mutations, suggesting a pathogenic effect of this missense variant. Our results indicate that central nervous progranulin reduction is not restricted to the relatively rare cases of FTD caused by GRN LoF mutations, but also contributes to the more common GRN-negative forms of FTD. Central nervous progranulin reduction might reflect a partially distinct pathogenic mechanism underlying FTD neurodegeneration and is not directly linked to tau alterations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid tau, neurofilament, and progranulin in definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Joery; Bjerke, Maria; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Goeman, Johan; De Vil, Bart; Sieben, Anne; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2018-03-20

    We explored the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in allowing differentiation between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as between FTLD pathological subtypes. CSF levels of routine AD biomarkers (phosphorylated tau (p-tau 181 ), total tau (t-tau), and amyloid-beta (Aβ) 1-42 ) and neurofilament proteins, as well as progranulin levels in both CSF and serum were quantified in definite FTLD (n = 46), clinical AD (n = 45), and cognitively healthy controls (n = 20). FTLD subgroups were defined by genetic carrier status and/or postmortem neuropathological confirmation (FTLD-TDP: n = 34, including FTLD-C9orf72: n = 19 and FTLD-GRN: n = 9; FTLD-tau: n = 10). GRN mutation carriers had significantly lower progranulin levels compared to other FTLD patients, AD, and controls. Both t-tau and p-tau 181 were normal in FTLD patients, even in FTLD-tau. Aβ 1-42 levels were very variable in FTLD. Neurofilament light chain (Nf-L) was significantly higher in FTLD compared with AD and controls. The reference logistic regression model based on the established AD biomarkers could be improved by the inclusion of CSF Nf-L, which was also important for the differentiation between FTLD and controls. Within the FTLD cohort, no significant differences were found between FTLD-TDP and FTLD-tau, but GRN mutation carriers had higher t-tau and Nf-L levels than C9orf72 mutation carriers and FTLD-tau patients. There is an added value for Nf-L in the differential diagnosis of FTLD. Progranulin levels in CSF depend on mutation status, and GRN mutation carriers seem to be affected by more severe neurodegeneration.

  14. Quantification and regulation of the adipokines resistin and progranulin in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Martin; Hochberg, Alexandra; Schmid, Andreas; Schlegel, Jutta; Karrasch, Thomas; Kaps, Manfred; Schäffler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines bearing the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are promising candidates for the endocrine regulation of central nervous processes and of a postulated fat-brain axis. Resistin and progranulin concentrations in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients undergoing neurological evaluation and spinal puncture were investigated. Samples of n = 270 consecutive patients with various neurological diseases were collected without prior selection. Adipokine serum and CSF concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum and CSF routine parameters by standard procedures. Anthropometric data, medication and patient history were available. Serum levels of resistin and progranulin were positively correlated among each other, with respective CSF levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and markers of systemic inflammation. CSF resistin concentrations were generally low. Progranulin CSF concentrations and CSF/serum progranulin ratio were significantly higher in patients with infectious diseases, with disturbed BBB function and with elevated CSF cell count and presence of oligoclonal bands. Both adipokines are able to cross the BBB depending on a differing patency that increases with increasing grade of barrier dysfunction. Whereas resistin represents a systemic marker of inflammation, CSF progranulin levels strongly depend on the underlying disease and dysfunction of blood-CSF barrier. Resistin and progranulin represent novel and putative regulators of the fat-brain axis by their ability to cross the BBB under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The presented data provide insight into the characteristics of BBB function regarding progranulin and resistin and the basis for future establishment of normal values for CSF concentrations and CSF/serum ratios. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Enfuvirtide Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Pharmacokinetics and Potential Use in Defining CSF HIV-1 Origin

    PubMed Central

    Price, Richard W; Parham, Robin; Lu, Jing; Wring, Stephen A.; Baker, Brian; Sailstad, Jeff; Hoh, Rebecca; Liegler, Teri; Spudich, Serena; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Deeks, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    Background Enfuvirtide is a potent inhibitor of systemic HIV-1 replication, but its penetration into the human central nervous system (CNS) has not been analyzed. Here, we define cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enfuvirtide pharmacokinetics and present a case illustrating the use of enfuvirtide as a probe to trace the origins of CSF HIV-1 quasispecies. Methods Enfuvirtide CSF PK was assessed in 18 CSF and plasma sample pairs from 4 HIV-1-infected subjects. Enfuvirtide levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using known standards and controls that including spiked CSF samples from untreated, HIV-negative subjects. A segment of the gp41-coding region encompassing the heptad repeat (HR)-1 and HR-2 domains was amplified from selected CSF and plasma samples, and independent clones sequenced to assess resistance-associated mutations. Results CSF and plasma samples obtained between 2 and 20 hrs after enfuvirtide injection showed plasma concentrations similar to previous reports (mean 3.687 +/−1.828 µg/ml SD) with prolonged decay. By contrast, enfuvirtide in all CSF samples was below the assay detection limit of 0.025 µg/ml. In one subject, who developed a transient increase in CSF HIV-1 RNA, 7 of 7 CSF and plasma clones had identical enfuvirtide resistance-associated V38A mutation, suggesting that the CSF quasispecies derived from that of blood. Conclusions Enfuvirtide CSF penetration into CSF is negligible, and thus in clinical settings where direct CNS drug exposure is critical, this drug will likely not directly contribute to the local therapeutic effect. Enfuvirtide can be used as a tool to dissect the origin of the CNS virus. PMID:18572749

  16. Enfuvirtide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics and potential use in defining CSF HIV-1 origin.

    PubMed

    Price, Richard W; Parham, Robin; Kroll, Jing Lu; Wring, Stephen A; Baker, Brian; Sailstad, Jeff; Hoh, Rebecca; Liegler, Teri; Spudich, Serena; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Deeks, Steven G

    2008-01-01

    Enfuvirtide is a potent inhibitor of systemic HIV-1 replication, but its penetration into the human central nervous system (CNS) has not been analysed. Here, we define cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enfuvirtide pharmacokinetics and present a case illustrating the use of enfuvirtide as a probe to trace the origins of CSF HIV-1 quasispecies. Enfuvirtide CSF pharmacokinetics were assessed in 18 CSF and plasma sample pairs from four HIV-1-infected individuals. Enfuvirtide levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using known standards and controls that included spiked CSF samples from untreated, HIV-negative individuals. A segment of the gp41 coding region encompassing the heptad repeat HR-1 and HR-2 domains was amplified from selected CSF and plasma samples and independent clones sequenced to assess resistance-associated mutations. CSF and plasma samples obtained between 2 and 20 h after enfuvirtide injection showed plasma concentrations similar to previous reports (mean 3.687 SD +/- 1.828 mg/ml) with prolonged decay. By contrast, enfuvirtide in all CSF samples was below the assay detection limit of 0.025 mg/ml. In one individual, who developed a transient increase in CSF HIV-1 RNA, seven of seven CSF and plasma clones had identical enfuvirtide resistance-associated V38A mutations, suggesting that the CSF quasispecies derived from that of blood. Enfuvirtide penetration into CSF is negligible; thus, in clinical settings, where direct CNS drug exposure is crucial, this drug Is not likely to directly contribute to the local therapeutic effect. Enfuvirtide can be used as a tool to dissect the origin of the CNS virus.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid proNGF: A Putative Biomarker for Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Counts, Scott E.; He, Bin; Prout, John G.; Michalski, Bernadeta; Farotti, Lucia; Fahnestock, Margaret; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of biomarkers for the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is essential for disease modification strategies. To date, AD biomarker studies have focused on brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and tau proteins. While reliable to an extent, this panel could be improved by the inclusion of novel biomarkers that optimize sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we determined whether CSF levels of the nerve growth factor (NGF) precursor protein, proNGF, increased during the progression of AD, mirroring its up regulation in postmortem brain samples of people who died with a clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. Immunoblot analysis was performed on ventricular CSF harvested from participants in the Rush Religious Orders Study with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), amnestic MCI (aMCI, a putative prodromal AD stage), or mild/moderate AD. ProNGF levels were increased 55% in aMCI and 70% in AD compared to NCI. Increasing CSF proNGF levels correlated with impairment on cognitive test scores. In a complementary study, we found that proNGF was significantly increased by 30% in lumbar CSF samples derived from patients with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0.5 or 1 compared to those with a CDR = 0. Notably, proNGF/Aβ1-42 levels were 50% higher in CDR 0.5 and CDR 1 compared to CDR 0 controls. By contrast, ELISA measurements of CSF brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) did not distinguish aMCI from NCI. Taken together, these results suggest that proNGF protein levels may augment the diagnostic accuracy of currently used CSF biomarker panels. PMID:26825093

  18. Biochemical, histological and functional correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB by intra-cerebrospinal fluid gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Albert; Haurigot, Virginia; Garcia, Miguel; Marcó, Sara; Motas, Sandra; Villacampa, Pilar; Maggioni, Luca; León, Xavier; Molas, Maria; Sánchez, Víctor; Muñoz, Sergio; Leborgne, Christian; Moll, Xavier; Pumarola, Martí; Mingozzi, Federico; Ruberte, Jesús; Añor, Sònia; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive tool for the treatment of monogenic disorders, in particular for lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) caused by deficiencies in secretable lysosomal enzymes in which neither full restoration of normal enzymatic activity nor transduction of all affected cells are necessary. However, some LSD such as Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPSIIIB) are challenging because the disease's main target organ is the brain and enzymes do not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier even if present at very high concentration in circulation. To overcome these limitations, we delivered AAV9 vectors encoding for α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) to the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of MPSIIIB mice with the disease already detectable at biochemical, histological and functional level. Restoration of enzymatic activity in Central Nervous System (CNS) resulted in normalization of glycosaminoglycan content and lysosomal physiology, resolved neuroinflammation and restored the pattern of gene expression in brain similar to that of healthy animals. Additionally, transduction of the liver due to passage of vectors to the circulation led to whole-body disease correction. Treated animals also showed reversal of behavioural deficits and extended lifespan. Importantly, when the levels of enzymatic activity were monitored in the CSF of dogs following administration of canine NAGLU-coding vectors to animals that were either naïve or had pre-existing immunity against AAV9, similar levels of activity were achieved, suggesting that CNS efficacy would not be compromised in patients seropositive for AAV9. Our studies provide a strong rationale for the clinical development of this novel therapeutic approach as the treatment for MPSIIIB. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Elevation of Proenkephalin 143-183 in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kinya; Maruwaka, Mikio; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Araki, Yoshio; Okamoto, Sho; Sumitomo, Masaki; Kawamura, Akino; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kenzo; Izumi, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2018-01-01

    In moyamoya disease (MMD), the causes of differences in clinical features between children and adults and of the dramatic temporal changes in moyamoya vessels are poorly understood. We previously discovered elevated levels of m/z 4588 and m/z 4473 peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with MMD. This study examined the amino acid sequences of these peptides and quantified in specimens. The m/z 4588 and m/z 4473 peptides in CSF from patients with MMD were purified and concentrated by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultrafiltration. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify the amino acid sequences of these peptides. We quantified these peptides in samples using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and concentrations in CSF were compared between MMD (n = 40, 19 male; median age, 37 years) and non-MMD intracranial disease (n = 40, 19 male; median age, 39 years) as controls. These peptides were identified as proenkephalin 143-183 (PENK 143-183). The concentration of PENK 143-183 was significantly greater in patients with MMD (median, 8,270 pmol/L) than control patients (median, 3,760 pmol/L; P < 0.001) and decreased in an age-dependent manner in MMD (r = -0.57; P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in children (age <18 years) was 0.885 (95% confidence interval 0.741-1). The correlation between proenkephalin concentration and temporal changes in moyamoya vessels was suggested. Proenkephalin 143-183 in CSF may offer a helpful diagnostic biomarker in pediatric MMD. The effect of enkephalin peptides through opioid growth factor receptor or delta opioid receptor might be associated with the pathophysiology of MMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics reveals altered waste clearance and accelerated aging in HIV patients with neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Edana; Misra, Vikas; Dutta, Anupriya; Morgello, Susan; Gabuzda, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Some features of HAND resemble those of age-associated cognitive decline in the absence of HIV, suggesting that overlapping mechanisms may contribute to neurocognitive impairment. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 100 individuals (46 HIV-positive patients and 54 HIV-negative controls). Methods: Untargeted CSF metabolite profiling was performed using liquid/gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Cytokine profiling was performed by Bioplex. Bioinformatic analyses were performed in Metaboanalyst and R. Results: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART mapped to pathways associated with neurotransmitter production, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic waste. Many CSF metabolites altered in HIV overlapped with those altered with advanced age in HIV-negative controls, suggesting a pattern indicative of accelerated aging. Machine learning models identified neurotransmitters (glutamate, N-acetylaspartate), markers of glial activation (myo-inositol), and ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 1,2-propanediol) as top-ranked classifiers of HAND. These CSF metabolites correlated with worse neurocognitive test scores, plasma inflammatory biomarkers [interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2Ra], and intrathecal IFN responses (IFN-γ and kynurenine : tryptophan ratio), suggesting inter-relationships between systemic and intrathecal inflammation and metabolic alterations in CSF. Conclusions: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART suggest that persistent inflammation, glial responses, glutamate neurotoxicity, and altered brain waste disposal systems contribute to mechanisms involved in HAND that may be augmented with aging. PMID:24752083

  1. Identification of candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in parkinsonism using quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Magdalinou, N K; Noyce, A J; Pinto, R; Lindstrom, E; Holmén-Larsson, J; Holtta, M; Blennow, K; Morris, H R; Skillbäck, T; Warner, T T; Lees, A J; Pike, I; Ward, M; Zetterberg, H; Gobom, J

    2017-04-01

    Neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes have significant clinical and pathological overlap, making early diagnosis difficult. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may aid the differentiation of these disorders, but other than α-synuclein and neurofilament light chain protein, which have limited diagnostic power, specific protein biomarkers remain elusive. To study disease mechanisms and identify possible CSF diagnostic biomarkers through discovery proteomics, which discriminate parkinsonian syndromes from healthy controls. CSF was collected consecutively from 134 participants; Parkinson's disease (n = 26), atypical parkinsonian syndromes (n = 78, including progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 36), multiple system atrophy (n = 28), corticobasal syndrome (n = 14)), and elderly healthy controls (n = 30). Participants were divided into a discovery and a validation set for analysis. The samples were subjected to tryptic digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for identification and relative quantification by isobaric labelling. Candidate protein biomarkers were identified based on the relative abundances of the identified tryptic peptides. Their predictive performance was evaluated by analysis of the validation set. 79 tryptic peptides, derived from 26 proteins were found to differ significantly between atypical parkinsonism patients and controls. They included acute phase/inflammatory markers and neuronal/synaptic markers, which were respectively increased or decreased in atypical parkinsonism, while their levels in PD subjects were intermediate between controls and atypical parkinsonism. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, proteins were identified that were able to differentiate atypical parkinsonian syndrome patients from healthy controls. Our study indicates that markers that may reflect neuronal function and/or plasticity, such as the amyloid precursor protein, and inflammatory markers may hold future promise as

  2. Comparison of Antibodies with Amylase Activity from Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doronin, Vasilii B; Parkhomenko, Taisiya A; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Cesnik, Edward; Buneva, Valentina N; Granieri, Enrico; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that IgGs from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients are active in hydrolysis of DNA and myelin basic protein. According to literature data, anti-DNA and anti-MBP abzymes may promote important neuropathologic mechanisms in this chronic inflammatory disorder and in MS pathogenesis development. At the same time, the involvement of antibodies with amylase activity in the pathogenesis of any autoimmune disease has not yet been identified. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were obtained by a sequential affinity chromatography of the CSF proteins on protein G-Sepharose and FPLC gel filtration. We are able to present the first unpredictable evidence showing that IgGs from CSF possess amylase activity and efficiently hydrolyze maltoheptaose; their average specific Ab activity is ~30-fold higher than that of antibodies from sera of the same MS patients. Specific average RA (SAA) for IgGs from healthy volunteers was approximately ~1000 lower than that for MS patients. In addition, it was shown that a relative SAA of total proteins of CSF (including Abs) ~15-fold lower than that for purified IgGs, while the relative SAA of the total sera protein is higher than that of sera IgGs by a factor of 1033. This result speaks in favor of the fact that amylolytic activity of CSF proteins is mainly caused by the activity of amylase abzymes. One cannot exclude, that amylase abzymes of CSF can play a, as yet unknown, role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some possible reasons of these findings are discussed.

  3. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  4. Does Caffeine Consumption Modify Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Travassos, Maria; Santana, Isabel; Baldeiras, Inês; Tsolaki, Magda; Gkatzima, Olymbia; Sermin, Genc; Yener, Görsev G; Simonsen, Anja; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Mara, Bourbouli; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Agostinho, Paula; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mendes, Vera M; Manadas, Bruno; de Mendon, Alexandreça

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD) by modulating amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolic pathways. The present work aimed to study a possible association of caffeine consumption with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, particularly Aβ. The study included 88 patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment. The consumption of caffeine and theobromine was evaluated using a validated food questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine and main active metabolites was performed with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of A(1-42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau in the CSF were determined using sandwich ELISA methods and other Aβ species, Aβ(X-38), Aβ(X-40), and Aβ(X-42), with the MSD Aβ Triplex assay. The concentration of caffeine was 0.79±1.15 μg/mL in the CSF and 1.20±1.88 μg/mL in the plasma. No correlation was found between caffeine consumption and Aβ42 in the CSF. However, a significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of theobromine, both in the CSF and in the plasma, with Aβ42 in the CSF. Theobromine in the CSF was positively correlated with the levels of other xanthines in the CSF, but not in the plasma, suggesting that it may be formed by central metabolic pathways. In conclusion, caffeine consumption does not modify the levels of CSF biomarkers, and does not require to be controlled for when measuring CSF biomarkers in a clinical setting. Since theobromine is associated with a favorable Aβ profile in the CSF, the possibility that it might have a protective role in AD should be further investigated.

  5. Lumbar subarachnoid drainage in cerebrospinal fluid leaks after lateral skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kyle P; Isaacson, Brandon; Purcell, Patricia; Kutz, Joe Walter; Roland, Peter S

    2011-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of lumbar drainage in managing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after lateral skull base surgery. Retrospective case review. Academic tertiary referral center. Patients who had a lumbar subarachnoid drain placed after a lateral skull base procedure between July 1999 and February 2010 were included. Patients were identified by searching medical records for lateral skull base approach Current Procedural Terminology codes. The following variables were recorded for each subject: diagnosis, type of lateral skull base operation, duration of lumbar drainage, need for revision surgery, and presence of meningitis. Successful cessation of postoperative CSF leakage. Five hundred eight charts were reviewed, and 63 patients were identified who received a lumbar drain after a lateral skull base operation. The most common diagnosis was acoustic neuroma in 61.9%. The most common skull base approaches were the translabyrinthine, middle fossa, and transpetrosal approaches. Approximately 60.3% of patients had CSF rhinorrhea, 23.8% had an incisional leak, and 14.3% had otorrhea. The mean duration of lumbar drainage was 4.6 days. Forty eight (76.2%) study subjects had resolution of their CSF leak with lumbar drainage. Fifteen patients (23.8%) required revision surgery to stop the CSF leak. Lumbar drainage was successful in 90% of leaks after the translabyrinthine approach but in only 50% of those undergoing a suboccipital approach, which was a statistically significant difference. Postoperative CSF leaks after lateral skull base surgery can be managed with a lumbar subarachnoid drain in a majority of cases but is more successful after the translabyrinthine than the suboccipital approach. Recurrent CSF leaks after lumbar drainage is likely to require a revision operation.

  6. [Cerebral vasospasm and lipid peroxidation--lipid peroxides in the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Asano, T; Takakura, K; Sano, K; Nakamura, T; Suzuki, N; Imabayashi, S; Ishikawa, Y

    1982-12-01

    The relationship between lipid peroxides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was evaluated by analyzing CSF with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs) and hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) were synthesized by the treatment of arachidonic acid with hydrogen peroxide and cupric chloride. The retention time of these HPETEs and HETEs were determined on HPLC. The position of oxydation occurred was determined after methylation, reduction and trimethyl silylation using GC-MS. Thus the elucidation of positional isomers of HPETEs and HETEs was made possible by the retention time on HPLC. The supernant of CSF after SAH was adjusted to pH 3.0 and then absorbed to octadecyl silyl silica column. The eluted fraction with 15% ethanol-water from octadecyl silyl silica column was analyzed by HPLC detecting at 238 nm. No peak was observed on HPLC at the region of HPETEs and HETEs in the CSF obtained from healthy person. In SAH patients, several peaks were recognized in accordance with the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. One of the peaks was identified as 5-HETE by HPLC and GC-MS. In 10 SAH patients, semi-quantitative analysis of 5-HETE in the CSF was performed by measuring the height of the peak identified as 5-HETE on HPLC. The close correlation was recognized between the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm and the appearance of 5-HETE in the CSF. The results of the present study suggest that lipid peroxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic vasospasm after SAH.

  7. Fibrinolytic activity in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with different neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, C; Monreal, L; Cerón, J; Pastor, J; Viu, J; Añor, S