Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal chromosome numbers

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  5. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  7. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  8. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  9. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  10. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  11. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  12. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  14. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  18. [Consequences of abnormalities of chromosome structure in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Popescu, C P

    1990-01-01

    Abnormalities in chromosome structure generally have no phenotypic expression but are very often associated with reproductive disorders. In cattle, sheep and goats, the robertsonian translocation seems to be the most frequent abnormality of chromosome structure. In the pig, reciprocal translocations are very common. The accumulation of data on the frequency of such abnormalities and their effects on reproductive performance prompted an evaluation of their economic consequences in cattle and pigs. In cattle, because of the negative effect of 1/29 translocation, an eradication program, based on the removal of carrier bulls from artificial insemination centers was established. In pig, the main effect of the reciprocal translocations was a reduction in the number of offspring, up to 50%, thus representing a considerable economic loss. PMID:2206288

  19. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities…

  20. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  1. Significance of abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 in chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Swarts, S J; Neff, J R; Johansson, S L; Nelson, M; Bridge, J A

    1998-04-01

    Tumor specific chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in several histologic subtypes of benign and malignant bone tumors. These anomalies have proven to be useful diagnostically. Characterization of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities also has provided direction for molecular investigations of pathogenetically important genes. Cytogenetic reports of chondroblastoma, a rare benign bone tumor, are few. Cytogenetic analysis of a benign and a malignant chondroblastoma in this study revealed the following abnormal chromosomal complements: 47,XY,+5,t(5;5)(p10;q10) and 45, XY,del(2)(p23),del(3)(q23q27),dup(8)(q12q21.), del(11) (q14q23), -13, add (17) (q25) x 2, respectively. Although a specific chromosomal abnormality has not yet emerged for chondroblastoma, abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 have been reported previously in this neoplasm, suggesting preferential involvement of these two chromosomes. PMID:9584382

  2. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  3. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  4. Psychiatric syndromes in individuals with chromosome 18 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Juan; Ramirez, Mercedes; Medina, Rolando; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Crandall, AnaLisa; Hale, Daniel; Cody, Jannine; Escamilla, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Chromosome 18 abnormalities are associated with a range of physical abnormalities such as short stature and hearing impairments. Psychiatric manifestations have also been observed. This study focuses on the presentations of psychiatric syndromes as they relate to specific chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 18. Twenty-five subjects (13 with an 18q deletion, 9 with 18p tetrasomy, and 3 with an 18p deletion), were interviewed by psychiatrists (blind to specific chromosomal abnormality) using the DIGS (subjects 18 and older) or KSADS-PL (subjects under 18). A consensus best estimation diagnostic process was employed to determine psychiatric syndromes. Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Agilent Technologies) was utilized to define specific regions of chromosome 18 that were deleted or duplicated. These data were further analyzed to determine critical regions of the chromosome as they relate to phenotypic manifestations in these subjects. 58.3% of the chromosome 18q- deletion subjects had depressive symptoms, 58.3% had anxiety symptoms, 25% had manic symptoms, and 25% had psychotic symptoms. 66.6% of the chromosome 18p- deletion subjects had anxiety symptoms, and none had depressive, manic, or psychotic symptoms. Fifty percent of the chromosome 18p tetrasomy subjects had anxiety symptoms, 12.5% had psychotic symptoms, and 12.5% had a mood disorder. All three chromosomal disorders were associated with high anxiety rates. Psychotic, manic and depressive disorders were seen mostly in 18q- subjects and this may be helpful in narrowing regions for candidate genes for these psychiatric conditions. PMID:19927307

  5. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Goede, Joery; Hack, W W M; Pierik, F H

    2012-04-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  6. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Ashworth, A.K.; Watchmaker, G.; Carrano, A.V.

    1985-06-19

    A new technology developed by Rudak, et al. for examining the chromosomal constitution of human sperm through fusion with eggs from the Syrian hamster was used to obtain baseline data on the types and frequencies of aberrations in sperm of normal men. The frequency of structural aberrations in 2724 sperm chromosome karyotypes from the 13 healthy non-exposed donors ranged from 2 to 15.8%, demonstrating significant interindividual variability. The most frequently occurring aberrations were chromosome breaks, followed by acentric fragments, chromatid exchanges, chromatid breaks, dicentrics and translocations, chromosome deletions and duplications, inversions, and chromatid deletions. Two donors previously reported had one cell each with multiple chromatid exchanges and breaks. In addition, the oldest donor, AA, had 5 cells out of 124 examined with multiple breaks and rearrangements too extensive to completely identify. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  8. Directly transmitted unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and euchromatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Barber, J

    2005-01-01

    In total, 200 families were reviewed with directly transmitted, cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosome abnormalities (UBCAs) or euchromatic variants (EVs). Both the 130 UBCA and 70 EV families were divided into three groups depending on the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype in parents and offspring. No detectable phenotypic effect was evident in 23/130 (18%) UBCA families ascertained mostly through prenatal diagnosis (group 1). In 30/130 (23%) families, the affected proband had the same UBCA as other phenotypically normal family members (group 2). In the remaining 77/130 (59%) families, UBCAs had consistently mild consequences (group 3). In the 70 families with established EVs of 8p23.1, 9p12, 9q12, 15q11.2, and 16p11.2, no phenotypic effect was apparent in 38/70 (54%). The same EV was found in affected probands and phenotypically normal family members in 30/70 families (43%) (group 2), and an EV co-segregated with mild phenotypic anomalies in only 2/70 (3%) families (group 3). Recent evidence indicates that EVs involve copy number variation of common paralogous gene and pseudogene sequences that are polymorphic in the normal population and only become visible at the cytogenetic level when copy number is high. The average size of the deletions and duplications in all three groups of UBCAs was close to 10 Mb, and these UBCAs and EVs form the "Chromosome Anomaly Collection" at http://www.ngrl.org.uk/Wessex/collection. The continuum of severity associated with UBCAs and the variability of the genome at the sub-cytogenetic level make further close collaboration between medical and laboratory staff essential to distinguish clinically silent variation from pathogenic rearrangement. PMID:16061560

  9. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  10. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I.

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  11. Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

  12. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these

  14. Cognitive and Academic Skills in Children with Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Bruce G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Follows 46 unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities using intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Notes that, although most children were not mentally retarded, most received special education help. Finds support for the inference that learning disorders were genetically mediated in this group. (RS)

  15. Paternal Age and Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Human Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Donate, Anna; Estop, Anna M; Giraldo, Jesús; Templado, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between numerical chromosome abnormalities in sperm and age in healthy men. We performed FISH in the spermatozoa of 10 donors from the general population: 5 men younger than 40 years of age and 5 fertile men older than 60 years of age. For each chromosome, 1,000 sperm nuclei were analyzed, with a total of 15,000 sperm nuclei for each donor. We used a single sperm sample per donor, thus minimizing intra-donor variability and optimizing consistent analysis. FISH with a TelVysion assay, which provides data on aneuploidy of 19 chromosomes, was used in order to gain a more genome-wide perspective of the level of aneuploidy. Aneuploidy and diploidy rates observed in the younger and older groups were compared. There were no significant differences in the incidence of autosomal disomy, sex chromosome disomy, total chromosome disomy, diploidy, nor total numerical abnormalities between younger and older men. This work confirms that aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes is more common than that of autosomes and that this does not change with age. Our results suggest that some probe combinations have a tendency to indicate higher levels of diploidy, thus potentially affecting FISH results and highlighting the limitations of FISH. PMID:27322585

  16. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  17. Molecular structure of the number 21 chromosome and Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 19 papers. Some of the titles are: The Biology of Down Syndrome, Human Chromosome Analysis, Expression of Genes on Human Chromosome 21, Comparative Gene Mapping of Human Chromosome 21 and Mouse Chromosome 16, and Relating Molecular Specificity to Normal and Abnormal Brain Development.

  18. Abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Fan; OuYang, Qi; Dai, Can; Lu, Chang-Fu; Lin, Ge; Gong, Fei; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are common in human embryos. Previous studies have suggested links between centrosome number and chromosome abnormalities, but information regarding abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos is limited. We analyzed abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Following normal fertilization, supernumerary centrosomes were present at rates of 7.3% in two-pronucleus (2PN)-stage zygotes and 6.5% in first-cleavage zygotes. Supernumerary centrosomes were also detected in 24.4% of blastomeres from 60% of embryos derived from 2PN zygotes. Conversely, in mono- (1PN) and tri-pronucleus (3PN) zygotes, the frequency of abnormal centrosome number increased substantially at first cleavage. Rates in blastomeres of Day-3 embryos, however, were about the same between embryos derived from 1PN and 2PN zygotes, whereas abnormalities in centrosome number were higher in those from 3PN zygotes. By comparison, the rate of abnormal centrosome numbers in hESCs was 1.5-11.2%. Thus, abnormalities in centrosome number existed in human zygotes and cleaved embryos-especially those resulting from aberrant fertilization-but the frequency of such abnormalities was lower in hESCs derived from these embryos. These findings identify a source of the chromosomal instability in human embryos and hESCs, and highlight new safety issues for human assisted reproductive technology. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 392-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multiple congenital abnormalities in a newborn with two supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Faas, B H W; Van Der Deure, J; Wunderink, M I; Merkx, G; Brunner, H G

    2006-01-01

    Pure partial duplication or triplication of the proximal part of chromosome 14 has been reported in only 4 patients. Other individuals with a duplication or triplication of this region have additional chromosome imbalances. We present a new case with a supernumerary marker chromosome in all blood cells and in 35% of the cells an additional smaller marker chromosome. Both markers appeared to be derived from chromosome 14 (del(14)(q21.2) in all cells and del(14)(q11.2) in 35% of the cells). This results in a partial duplication of the proximal region of chromosome 14, combined with a mosaic partial triplication of a smaller segment of the same region. In this paper, we compare the clinical features of this case to those of cases from the literature. Although most of the patients from literature were unbalanced translocation carriers, their clinical features were comparable, except from renal abnormalities.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasonographic visualization of fetal chromosome abnormalities: a preliminary experience report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Komwilaisak, Ratana; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan

    2004-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis of fetal malformations in utero can provide both heath care providers and parents a number of management options. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is a new technique of diagnosis which has several potential advantages to allow for evaluation of specific anomalies by permitting high-quality views of body surface. We report 4 cases of fetal chromosomal abnormalities including 2 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 13 and 1 case of 48, XXY/+18. All cases were proved to have abnormal chromosomes by amniocentesis or percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. After 3D reconstruction, we can identify specific facial abnormalities which can not be visualized by conventional two-dimensional ultrasound such as low set ear Mongolian's slant eyes, facial dysmorphism of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18. We also clearly visualized abnormalities of digits such as overlapping fingers, club hands and sandal gap. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the fetal body surface improves the antenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities characterized by a particular dysmorphism. Our report suggests that three-dimensional ultrasonography has the potential to provide novel informations on the fetal anatomy and be useful in visualization and identification of chromosomal abnormalities in utero.

  1. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling. PMID:18513889

  2. ETOPOSIDE INDUCES CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN SPERMATOCYTES AND SPERMATOGONIAL STEM CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Pearson, F S; Bishop, J B; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-07-15

    Etoposide (ET) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of leukemia, lymphomas and many solid tumors, such as testicular and ovarian cancers, that affect patients in their reproductive years. The purpose of the study was to use sperm FISH analyses to characterize the long-term effects of ET on male germ cells. We used a mouse model to characterize the induction of chromosomal aberrations (partial duplications and deletions) and whole chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm of mice treated with a clinical dose of ET. Semen samples were collected at 25 and 49 days after dosing to investigate the effects of ET on meiotic pachytene cells and spermatogonial stem-cells, respectively. ET treatment resulted in major increases in the frequencies of sperm carrying chromosomal aberrations in both meiotic pachytene (27- to 578-fold) and spermatogonial stem-cells (8- to 16-fold), but aneuploid sperm were induced only after treatment of meiotic cells (27-fold) with no persistent effects in stem cells. These results demonstrate that male meiotic germ cells are considerably more sensitive to ET than spermatogonial stem-cell and that increased frequencies of sperm with structural aberrations persist after spermatogonial stem-cell treatment. These findings predict that patients who undergo chemotherapy with ET may have transient elevations in the frequencies of aneuploid sperm, but more importantly, may have persistent elevations in the frequencies of sperm with chromosomal aberrations, placing them at higher risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes long after the end of their chemotherapy.

  3. Diagnosis of four chromosome abnormalities of unknown origin by chromosome microdissection and subsequent reverse and forward painting

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, K.E.F.A. de; Egashira, M.; Kato, R.

    1996-06-14

    A molecular cytogenetic method consisting of chromosome microdissection and subsequent reverse/forward chromosome painting is a powerful tool to identify chromosome abnormalities of unknown origin. We present 4 cases of chromosome structural abnormalities whose origins were ascertained by this method. In one MCA/MR patient with an add(5q)chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using probes generated from a microdissected additional segment of the add(5q) chromosome and then from a distal region of normal chromosome 5, confirmed that the patient had a tandem duplication for a 5q35-qter segment. Similarly, we ascertained that an additional segment of an add(3p) chromosome in another MCA/MR patient had been derived from a 7q32-qter segment. In a woman with a history of successive spontaneous abortions and with a minute marker chromosome, painting using microdissected probes from the whole marker chromosome revealed that it was i(15)(p10) or psu dic(15;15)(q11;q11). Likewise, a marker observed in a fetus was a ring chromosome derived from the paracentromeric region of chromosome 19. We emphasize the value of the microdissection-based chromosome painting method in the identification of unknown chromosomes, especially for marker chromosomes. The method may contribute to a collection of data among patients with similar or identical chromosome abnormalities, which may lead to a better clinical syndrome delineation. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Different chromosome Y abnormalities in a case with short stature

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özbek, M. Nuri; Alp, M. Nail; Budak, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    We report a case with different chromosome Y abnormalities. Case was an 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with short stature, referred to laboratory of human medical genetics laboratory for genetic evaluation. Chromosomal analysis of the case was carried out on peripheral blood lymphocyte culture. Classic cytogenetic analysis (G and C banding) was confirmed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) technique. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis showed a mosaic 46,X,i(Yq)/45,X/47,X,i(Yq)x2/47,XYY karyotype. Case, which was found interesting due to its rarity, is discussed with its clinical features and cytogenetic results, in the light of relevant source information. This case underlines the importance of karyotyping patients with unexplained short stature. This clinical report also will be helpful in defining the phenotypic range associated with these karyotypes.

  5. Different chromosome Y abnormalities in a case with short stature.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özbek, M Nuri; Alp, M Nail; Budak, Turgay

    2012-12-01

    We report a case with different chromosome Y abnormalities. Case was an 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with short stature, referred to laboratory of human medical genetics laboratory for genetic evaluation. Chromosomal analysis of the case was carried out on peripheral blood lymphocyte culture. Classic cytogenetic analysis (G and C banding) was confirmed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) technique. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis showed a mosaic 46,X,i(Yq)/45,X/47,X,i(Yq)x2/47,XYY karyotype. Case, which was found interesting due to its rarity, is discussed with its clinical features and cytogenetic results, in the light of relevant source information. This case underlines the importance of karyotyping patients with unexplained short stature. This clinical report also will be helpful in defining the phenotypic range associated with these karyotypes. PMID:27625830

  6. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Mariano; Thomas, Sumi; Kamath, Mohan S.; Ramalingam, Ramya; Kongari, Ann Marie; Yuvarani, S; Srivastava, Vivi M.; George, Korula

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml) attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5%) men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9%) men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133) of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133). Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87). Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:27803587

  7. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in human arrested preimplantation embryos: A multiple-probe FISH study

    SciTech Connect

    Munne, S.; Grifo, J.; Cohen, J. ); Weier, H.U.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Numerical chromosome abnormalities were studied in single blastomeres from arrested or otherwise morphologically abnormal human preimplantation embryos. A 6-h FISH procedure with fluorochrome-labeled DNA probes was developed to determine numerical abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 18. The three chromosomes were stained and detected simultaneously in 571 blastomeres from 131 embryos. Successful analysis including biopsy, fixation, and FISH analysis was achieved in 86.5% of all blastomeres. The procedure described here offers a reliable alternative to sexing of embryos by PCR and allows simultaneous ploidy assessment. For the three chromosomes tested, numerical aberrations were found in 56.5% of the embroys. Most abnormal embryos were polyploid or mosaics, and 6.1% were aneuploid for gonosomes or chromosome 18. Extrapolation of these results to all human chromosomes suggests that the majority of abnormally developing and arrested human embryos carry numerical chromosome abnormalities. 44 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S.

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  10. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    SciTech Connect

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G.; Johnson, V.P.

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Specific extra chromosomes occur in a modal number dependent pattern in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Heerema, Nyla A; Raimondi, Susana C; Anderson, James R; Biegel, Jaclyn; Camitta, Bruce M; Cooley, Linda D; Gaynon, Paul S; Hirsch, Betsy; Magenis, R Ellen; McGavran, Loris; Patil, Shivanand; Pettenati, Mark J; Pullen, Jeanette; Rao, Kathleen; Roulston, Diane; Schneider, Nancy R; Shuster, Jonathan J; Sanger, Warren; Sutcliffe, Maxine J; van Tuinen, Peter; Watson, Michael S; Carroll, Andrew J

    2007-07-01

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and high hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes) are considered to have a relatively good prognosis. The specific extra chromosomes are not random; extra copies of some chromosomes occur more frequently than those of others. We examined the extra chromosomes present in high hyperdiploid ALL to determine if there were a relation of the specific extra chromosomes and modal number (MN) and if the extra chromosomes present could differentiate high hyperdiploid from near-triploid and near-tetraploid cases. Karyotypes of 2,339 children with ALL and high hyperdiploidy at diagnosis showed a distinct nonrandom sequential pattern of gain for each chromosome as MN increased, with four groups of gain: chromosomes 21, X, 14, 6, 18, 4, 17, and 10 at MN 51-54; chromosomes 8, 5, 11, and 12 at MN 57-60; chromosomes 2, 3, 9,16, and 22 at MN 63-67; chromosomes 1, 7 13, 15, 19, and 20 at MN 68-79, and Y only at MN >or=80. Chromosomes gained at lower MN were retained as the MN increased. High hyperdiploid pediatric ALL results from a single abnormal mitotic division. Our results suggest that the abnormal mitosis involves specific chromosomes dependent on the number of chromosomes aberrantly distributed, raising provocative questions regarding the mitotic mechanism. The patterns of frequencies of tetrasomy of specific chromosomes differs from that of trisomies with the exception of chromosome 21, which is tetrasomic in a high frequency of cases at all MN. These results are consistent with different origins of high hyperdiploidy, near-trisomy, and near-tetrasomy. PMID:17431878

  12. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  13. Chromosome abnormalities and the genetics of congenital corneal opacification.

    PubMed

    Mataftsi, A; Islam, L; Kelberman, D; Sowden, J C; Nischal, K K

    2011-01-01

    Congenital corneal opacification (CCO) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders that have different etiologies, including genetic and environmental. Terminology used in clinical phenotyping is commonly not specific enough to describe separate entities, for example both the terms Peters anomaly and sclerocornea have been ascribed to a clinical picture of total CCO, without investigating the presence or absence of iridocorneal adhesions. This is not only confusing but also unhelpful in determining valid genotype-phenotype correlations, and thereby revealing clues for pathogenesis. We undertook a systematic review of the literature focusing on CCO as part of anterior segment developmental anomalies (ASDA), and analyzed its association specifically with chromosomal abnormalities. Genes previously identified as being associated with CCO are also summarized. All reports were critically appraised to classify phenotypes according to described features, rather than the given diagnosis. Some interesting associations were found, and are discussed.

  14. Abnormal chromosome behavior in human oocytes which remained unfertilized during human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, H; Krüger, C; Stauber, M; Vogel, R

    1985-09-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and abnormal embryonic development have previously been observed after human in vitro fertilization (IVF). Chromosomal abnormalities may arise not only after fertilization but even earlier during meiotic maturation of human oocytes in culture. Since chromosomal analysis is simple in oocytes during meiotic maturation, the chromosomal status was analyzed in oocytes which remained unfertilized in a human in vitro fertilization program. In 50 fertilization attempts the chromosomes of 62 unfertilized oocytes could be analyzed; 45 of them were in the process of meiotic maturation. In three oocytes two small polar bodies were observed 16-18 hr after insemination in the absence of fertilization. In one oocyte abnormal chromosome behavior was found during the first meiotic division, and in four oocytes during metaphase of the second meiotic division. These data suggest that chromosomal analysis of unfertilized oocytes in human IVF may improve the understanding human oocyte maturation and fertilization.

  15. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Robert J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Martin, Christa L; Cragan, Janet D; Shin, Mikyong; Correa, Adolfo

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs) in an analysis of population-based surveillance data. We reviewed data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population-based birth-defects surveillance system, to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among live-born infants and fetal deaths with CHDs delivered from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2005. Among 4430 infants with CHDs, 547 (12.3%) had a chromosomal abnormality. CHDs most likely to be associated with a chromosomal abnormality were interrupted aortic arch (type B and not otherwise specified; 69.2%), atrioventricular septal defect (67.2%), and double-outlet right ventricle (33.3%). The most common chromosomal abnormalities observed were trisomy 21 (52.8%), trisomy 18 (12.8%), 22q11.2 deletion (12.2%), and trisomy 13 (5.7%). In conclusion, in our study, approximately 1 in 8 infants with a CHD had a chromosomal abnormality. Clinicians should have a low threshold at which to obtain testing for chromosomal abnormalities in infants with CHDs, especially those with certain types of CHDs. Use of new technologies that have become recently available (e.g., chromosomal microarray) may increase the identified contribution of chromosomal abnormalities even further.

  16. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to congenital heart defects: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Robert J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Martin, Christa L; Cragan, Janet D; Shin, Mikyong; Correa, Adolfo

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs) in an analysis of population-based surveillance data. We reviewed data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population-based birth-defects surveillance system, to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among live-born infants and fetal deaths with CHDs delivered from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2005. Among 4430 infants with CHDs, 547 (12.3%) had a chromosomal abnormality. CHDs most likely to be associated with a chromosomal abnormality were interrupted aortic arch (type B and not otherwise specified; 69.2%), atrioventricular septal defect (67.2%), and double-outlet right ventricle (33.3%). The most common chromosomal abnormalities observed were trisomy 21 (52.8%), trisomy 18 (12.8%), 22q11.2 deletion (12.2%), and trisomy 13 (5.7%). In conclusion, in our study, approximately 1 in 8 infants with a CHD had a chromosomal abnormality. Clinicians should have a low threshold at which to obtain testing for chromosomal abnormalities in infants with CHDs, especially those with certain types of CHDs. Use of new technologies that have become recently available (e.g., chromosomal microarray) may increase the identified contribution of chromosomal abnormalities even further. PMID:21728077

  17. Psychological characteristics of and counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Wu, B; Guo, K M; Tian, R H

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a psychological problem has gained increasing attention. Male partners among infertile couples have elevated levels of psychological distress, which could affect semen quality, result in hormonal abnormalities, and increase the occurrence of early miscarriage. Infertile women are more vulnerable to psychological distress and require psychological support. Subfertile women who conceive after assisted reproduction have higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertility patients. However, psychosocial characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities have not been studied. We report the characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities and their influence on psychological counseling. Seventy-five patients were carriers of reciprocal translocations, 25 carried Robertsonian translocations, 17 carried inversions, 10 carried deletions, and 3 carried isochromosomes. The main clinical characteristics were recurrent spontaneous abortion, oligospermatism, azoospermatism, primary amenorrhea, and fetal death. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those scores of women with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those of men with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than their scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality. Women carriers with structural chromosome abnormality were more vulnerable to psychological distress. Psychosocial counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities should focus on self-confidence and treatment with assisted reproductive technology. PMID:27173267

  18. [The relationship between clinical outcomes of reproduc-tive abnormalities and chromosome polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Deng, Jian-Xia; Li, Jin-Jin

    2007-11-01

    To study the relationship between chromosome polymorphism and clinical effect of reproductive abnormalities, we prepared chromosomes from peripheral blood lymphocytes and carried out G/C banding and karyotype analyses. Out of 1 414 cases who came in for genetic counseling, 273 had chromosome abnormalities. Among these 273 cases, 180 cases (65.93%) were karyotype variations, with the remaining 93 cases (34.07%) being non-polymorphic chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotype variations included 10 cases of satellite increases in the D/G group, 35 cases of secondary constriction increases, 99 cases of big or small Y chromosome, 6 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome Y and 30 cases of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. These results indicated that clinical effect such as abortion, sterility, stillbirth and congenital malformation are mainly related to chromosome polymorphisms.

  19. Benign parotid oncocytoma with the chromosomal abnormality trisomy 7.

    PubMed

    Mark, J; Dahlenfors, R; Havel, G; Böckmann, P

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns the first cytogenetical study of a benign salivary gland oncocytoma. The cultured tumor was studied in five consecutive preparations. The first three were dominated by cells with a normal karyotype. In the two subsequent preparations a hyperdiploid stemline characterized by trisomy 7 had taken over. Trisomy 7 has previously been observed in a number of different, benign, premalignant and malignant conditions. We interpreted trisomy 7 in the salivary gland oncocytoma, as in these other conditions, to be a neoplasia-related, probably primary, gross chromosomal change and not an expression of aging or comparable events in normal cells.

  20. Molecular detection of chromosomal abnormalities in germ and somatic cells of aged male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; Baulch, J.; Quintana, L.; Ramsey, M.; Breneman, J.; Tucker, J.; Wyrobek, A.; Collins, B.; Allen, J.; Holland, N.

    1994-12-31

    Three cytogenetic methods were applied to eight B6C3F1 male mice aged 22.5 - 30.5mo to determine if advanced age was associated with an elevated risk of producing chromosomally defective germinal and somatic cells; sperm aneuploidy analysis by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization for three chromosomes, spermatid micronucleus analysis with anti-kinetochore antibodies, and translocation analysis of somatic metaphases by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} for two chromosomes. Eight mice aged 2.4mo served as controls. Sperm aneuploidy was measured by multi-color fluorescence in situ co-hybridization with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, scoring 10,000 cells per animal. The aged group showed significant 1.5 - 2.0 fold increases in the hyperhaploidy phenotypes X-X-8, Y-Y-8, 8-8-Y, and 8-8-X with the greater effects appearing in animals aged >29mo. The aged group also showed significantly increased frequencies of micronucleated spermatids (2.0 vs 0.4 per 1000; all were kinetochore negative). Analysis of metaphase chromosomes from blood by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} of chromosomes 2 and 8 yielded 4 translocation per 858 cell-equivalents in the aged group which was a non-significant elevation over 0/202 in controls. Although interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of animals analyzed, these findings suggest that advanced paternal age may be a risk factor for chromosomal abnormalities of reproductive and somatic importance.

  1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

  2. Chromosome numbers in antlions (Myrmeleontidae) and owlflies (Ascalaphidae) (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036

  3. Meiotic behavior and chromosome number of Urochloa adspersa (Trin.) R. D. Webster from the Brazilian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Felismino, M F; Maior, R L S; Damasceno, G A; Pott, A; Pagliarini, M S

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of meiotic division in Uro-chloa adspersa (Trin.) collected from the Brazilian Chaco. Meiotic analyses were performed on three specimens of U. adspersa named G10, G15, and G16. Inflorescences were collected and fixed in a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid (3:1, v/v) for 24 h and then stored in 70% alcohol. Diakinesis revealed different chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. All three plants were polyploids: G10 and G15 exhibited 2n = 6x = 54 chromosomes (arranged in 27 bivalents), while G16 exhibited 2n = 4x = 36 chromosomes (18 bivalents). Meiotic behavior was mainly normal in the hexaploid G15 and the tetraploid G16 (5.3 and 6.2% of the cells were abnormal, respective-ly), revealing only a few meiotic abnormalities that are common to polyploids, i.e., those related to irregular chromosome segregation. G10 exhibited other meiotic abnormalities during meiosis II, such as chromosome stickiness, irregular spindle orientation, and irregular cytokinesis, which led to the formation of a few triads, resulting in 16.9% of the cells being abnormal. The origin of these abnormalities is discussed, and we suggest that the genes that control meiotic steps may be present in the Urochloa gene pool. PMID:26214424

  4. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M.

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Scaling Chromosomes for an Evolutionary Karyotype: A Chromosomal Tradeoff between Size and Number across Woody Species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guolu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the expected scaling relationships between chromosome size and number across woody species and to clarify the importance of the scaling for the maintenance of chromosome diversity by analyzing the scaling at the inter- & intra-chromosomal level. To achieve for the goals, chromosome trait data were extracted for 191 woody species (including 56 evergreen species and 135 deciduous species) from the available literature. Cross-species analyses revealed a tradeoff among chromosomes between chromosome size and number, demonstrating there is selective mechanism crossing chromosomes among woody species. And the explanations for the result were presented from intra- to inter-chromosome contexts that the scaling may be compromises among scale symmetry, mechanical requirements, and resource allocation across chromosomes. Therein, a 3/4 scaling pattern was observed between total chromosomes and m-chromosomes within nucleus which may imply total chromosomes may evolve from more to less. In addition, the primary evolutionary trend of karyotype and the role of m-chromosomes in the process of karyotype evolution were also discussed. PMID:26657837

  6. Chromosome aberrations, micronucleus and sperm head abnormalities in mice treated with natamycin, [corrected] a food preservative.

    PubMed

    Rasgele, Pinar Goc; Kaymak, Fisun

    2010-03-01

    Natamycin [corrected] is used as preservative in foods. The genotoxic effects of the food preservative natamycin [corrected] were evaluated using chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assays in mice. Blood samples were taken from mice and levels of total testosterone in serum were also determined. Natamycin [corrected] was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Natamycin [corrected] did not induce chromosome aberrations but significantly increased the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and sperm head abnormalities at all concentrations and treatment periods. It also decreased MI at all concentrations for 6, 12 and 24h treatment periods. Natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio at all concentrations for 48h in female mice, for 24 and 48h treatment periods in male mice. At the 800 mg/kg concentration, natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio for 24 and 72h in female mice. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentage of sperm head abnormalities. The levels of serum testosterone decreased dose-dependently. The obtained results indicate that natamycin [corrected] is not clastogenic, but it is aneugenic in mice bone marrow and it is a potential germ cell mutagen in sperm cells.

  7. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Seifried, Erhard; Fournier, Claudia; Tonn, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34(+) cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60-85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤ 0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼ 30-35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼ 25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼ 70% and ∼ 40% for 1 Gy of carbon ions and X-rays, respectively), with a higher fraction of non-transmissible aberrations. In contrast, for both radiation qualities the percentage of clones with chromosomal abnormalities was similar (40%). Using the frequency of colonies with clonal aberrations as a surrogate marker for the leukemia risk following radiotherapy of solid tumors, charged particle therapy is not expected to lead to an increased risk of

  8. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Seifried, Erhard; Fournier, Claudia; Tonn, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34(+) cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60-85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤ 0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼ 30-35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼ 25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼ 70% and ∼ 40% for 1 Gy of carbon ions and X-rays, respectively), with a higher fraction of non-transmissible aberrations. In contrast, for both radiation qualities the percentage of clones with chromosomal abnormalities was similar (40%). Using the frequency of colonies with clonal aberrations as a surrogate marker for the leukemia risk following radiotherapy of solid tumors, charged particle therapy is not expected to lead to an increased risk of

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in couples with repeated miscarriage in Mexico.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente-Cortés, Beatriz E; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; García-Vielma, Catalina; De la Rosa Alvarado, Rosa M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2009-04-01

    Cytogenetic studies have an important role in the evaluation of couples with repeated miscarriages and poor obstetric history. To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in 158 couples with repeated miscarriages, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Monterrey, Mexico from 1995 to 2003. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for chromosomal studies using standard methods. Twelve couples showed chromosomal abnormalities (7.60%), two Robertsonian translocations (1.27%), two balanced translocations (1.27%), one inversion (0.63%), and one a novel insertion (0.63%). This insertion [46, XX, ins (15;8) (q26;p11p23)] is unique, and is the third reported in association with repeated abortion. Mosaicism was observed in six couples (3.80%, three with structural abnormalities and three with numerical abnormalities). A female to male ratio of 1.4:1 was observed. In addition to these chromosomal abnormalities, polymorphic variants in constitutive heterochromatin of the 1qh+, 9qh+, and 16qh+ chromosomes were observed in 25 couples (15.82%), of the Yqh+ chromosome in 21 couples (13.29%), and of satellite in 35 couples (22.15%). In conclusion, chromosome analysis is necessary for appropriate clinical management of these patients.

  10. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  11. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers. PMID:22290472

  12. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  13. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate – including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort. PMID:25382409

  14. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate - including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort.

  15. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40-70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  16. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40–70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  17. Down-Turner Syndrome: A Case with Double Monoclonal Chromosomal Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Manassero, Denisse; Merino-Luna, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coexistence of Down and Turner syndromes due to double chromosome aneuploidy is very rare; it is even more rare to find the presence of a double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality. Objective. To report a unique case of double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality with trisomy of chromosome 21 and an X ring chromosome in all cells studied; no previous report has been found. Case Report. Female, 28 months old, with pathological short stature from birth, with the following dysmorphic features: tilted upward palpebral fissures, short neck, brachycephaly, and low-set ears. During the neonatal period, the infant presented generalized hypotonia and lymphedema of hands and feet. Karyotype showed 47,X,r(X),+21 [30]. Conclusion. Clinical features of both Down and Turner syndromes were found, highlighting short stature that has remained below 3 z score from birth to the present, associated with delayed psychomotor development. G-banded karyotype analysis in peripheral blood is essential for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:27672470

  18. Down-Turner Syndrome: A Case with Double Monoclonal Chromosomal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Manassero-Morales, Gioconda; Alvarez-Manassero, Denisse; Merino-Luna, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coexistence of Down and Turner syndromes due to double chromosome aneuploidy is very rare; it is even more rare to find the presence of a double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality. Objective. To report a unique case of double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality with trisomy of chromosome 21 and an X ring chromosome in all cells studied; no previous report has been found. Case Report. Female, 28 months old, with pathological short stature from birth, with the following dysmorphic features: tilted upward palpebral fissures, short neck, brachycephaly, and low-set ears. During the neonatal period, the infant presented generalized hypotonia and lymphedema of hands and feet. Karyotype showed 47,X,r(X),+21 [30]. Conclusion. Clinical features of both Down and Turner syndromes were found, highlighting short stature that has remained below 3 z score from birth to the present, associated with delayed psychomotor development. G-banded karyotype analysis in peripheral blood is essential for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:27672470

  19. Down-Turner Syndrome: A Case with Double Monoclonal Chromosomal Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Manassero, Denisse; Merino-Luna, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coexistence of Down and Turner syndromes due to double chromosome aneuploidy is very rare; it is even more rare to find the presence of a double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality. Objective. To report a unique case of double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality with trisomy of chromosome 21 and an X ring chromosome in all cells studied; no previous report has been found. Case Report. Female, 28 months old, with pathological short stature from birth, with the following dysmorphic features: tilted upward palpebral fissures, short neck, brachycephaly, and low-set ears. During the neonatal period, the infant presented generalized hypotonia and lymphedema of hands and feet. Karyotype showed 47,X,r(X),+21 [30]. Conclusion. Clinical features of both Down and Turner syndromes were found, highlighting short stature that has remained below 3 z score from birth to the present, associated with delayed psychomotor development. G-banded karyotype analysis in peripheral blood is essential for a definitive diagnosis.

  20. Down-Turner Syndrome: A Case with Double Monoclonal Chromosomal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Manassero-Morales, Gioconda; Alvarez-Manassero, Denisse; Merino-Luna, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coexistence of Down and Turner syndromes due to double chromosome aneuploidy is very rare; it is even more rare to find the presence of a double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality. Objective. To report a unique case of double monoclonal chromosomal abnormality with trisomy of chromosome 21 and an X ring chromosome in all cells studied; no previous report has been found. Case Report. Female, 28 months old, with pathological short stature from birth, with the following dysmorphic features: tilted upward palpebral fissures, short neck, brachycephaly, and low-set ears. During the neonatal period, the infant presented generalized hypotonia and lymphedema of hands and feet. Karyotype showed 47,X,r(X),+21 [30]. Conclusion. Clinical features of both Down and Turner syndromes were found, highlighting short stature that has remained below 3 z score from birth to the present, associated with delayed psychomotor development. G-banded karyotype analysis in peripheral blood is essential for a definitive diagnosis.

  1. Anal atresia, abnormal genitalia, and absent thumb: congenital malformations associated with mosaic ring chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Z; Ozlu, T; Vural, M

    2013-01-01

    Because of the deletion of a segment of the chromosome during the formation of a ring, several clinical findings may be associated with ring chromosomes. Ring chromosome 13 is one of such disorders in which the genotype-phenotype correlation is stronger by virtue of the accumulating literature. It can be associated with multiple congenital abnormalities and severe mental retardation. We report a case with mosaic ring chromosome 13 whose prenatal ultrasound revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly. Anal atresia, unidentifiable external genitalia, and an absent thumb were observed in the postmortem examination.

  2. Chromosome numbers for three species of medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.).

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge; Kovalenko, Nataliya; Doroshenko, Karyna; Petrauskiene, Laima; Klymenko, Vyacheslav

    2009-10-01

    Karyological preparations were made from the testisacs of three medicinal leech species Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758, H. verbana Carena, 1820 and H. orientalis Utevsky & Trontelj, 2005 . The samples originated from different populations in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The chromosome numbers were determined both from mitotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis using the propionic haematoxylin staining technique. All three species were found to have different haploid chromosome numbers: H. medicinalis 14, H. verbana 13 and H. orientalis 12, thus corroborating the validity of these taxa. The chromosomes can be classified as meta-, submetacentric and acrocentric. The chromosome numbers obtained are similar to that of the related species Haemopis sanguisuga (Linnaeus, 1758), which has 13 pairs.

  3. Brain abnormalities, defective meiotic chromosome synapsis and female subfertility in HSF2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Marko; Chang, Yunhua; Manuel, Martine; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Rallu, Murielle; Gitton, Yorick; Pirkkala, Lila; Loones, Marie-Thérèse; Paslaru, Liliana; Larney, Severine; Hiard, Sophie; Morange, Michel; Sistonen, Lea; Mezger, Valérie

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock factor 2, one of the four vertebrate HSFs, transcriptional regulators of heat shock gene expression, is active during embryogenesis and spermatogenesis, with unknown functions and targets. By disrupting the Hsf2 gene, we show that, although the lack of HSF2 is not embryonic lethal, Hsf2–/– mice suffer from brain abnormalities, and meiotic and gameto genesis defects in both genders. The disturbances in brain are characterized by the enlargement of lateral and third ventricles and the reduction of hippocampus and striatum, in correlation with HSF2 expression in proliferative cells of the neuroepithelium and in some ependymal cells in adults. Many developing spermatocytes are eliminated via apoptosis in a stage-specific manner in Hsf2–/– males, and pachytene spermatocytes also display structural defects in the synaptonemal complexes between homologous chromosomes. Hsf2–/– females suffer from multiple fertility defects: the production of abnormal eggs, the reduction in ovarian follicle number and the presence of hemorrhagic cystic follicles are consistent with meiotic defects. Hsf2–/– females also display hormone response defects, that can be rescued by superovulation treatment, and exhibit abnormal rates of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNAs. PMID:12032072

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in neutron-induced acute myeloid leukemias in CBA/H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bouffler, S.D.; Meijne, E.I.M.; Huiskamp, R.

    1996-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) induced in CBA/H mice by 1 MeV fission neutrons have been examined for chromosomal abnormalities by G-band analysis. In common with X-ray- and {alpha}-particle-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice, more than 90% (16/17) of the myeloid leukemias had chromosome 2 abnormalities, in this case, all interstitial deletions. Chromosome 2 breakpoints were not wholly consistent, but clustering in three specific G-band regions was observed. Very distal (H-region) breakpoints were more common in the neutron AMLs than in X-ray- or {alpha}-particle-induced leukemias. These data indicate that neutron-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice are not characterized by a specific chromosome deletion but that a variety of chromosome 2 deletion types are associated with the disease. Trisomy of chromosome 1 (12.5% AMLs) and aneusomy of chromosomes 6 (31% AMLs) and Y (37.5% AMLs) were noted. While chromatid breakage was observed occasionally in neutron-induced AML, no clear indications of persistent chromosomal instability or high levels of stable chromosomal change were apparent. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Consistent chromosome abnormalities including double minutes (dms) in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C.A.; Morsberger, L.; Ellingham, T.

    1994-09-01

    Little is known about the somatic genetic changes which characterize pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA), and identification of acquired genomic alterations would further our understanding of the biology of this neoplasm. We have studied 62 primary specimens of PA using classical and FISH methods. Clonally abnormal karyotypes were observed in 44 neoplasms. Karyotypes were generally complex (greater than 3 abnormalities) including both numerical and structural chromosome changes. Many tumors contained at least one marker chromosome. The most frequent whole chromosomal gains were chromosomes 20 (7 tumors) and 7 (5 tumors). Losses were much more frequent: chromosome 18 was lost in 22 tumors, followed by chromosomes 13 (15 tumors), 12 (13 tumors), and 6 (12 tumors). Structural abnormalities were common. 200 chromosome breakpoints were identified. Excluding Robertsonian translocations, chromosomal arms most frequently involved were 6q (12 chromosomes), 1p and 3p (10 each), 11p and 17p (9 each), 1q (8), 8p and 19q (7 each). Of particular interest, we found dms in 6 cases. These represent the first PAs with cytogenetic evidence of gene amplification, and are under investigation using chromosome microdissection. To begin to define the smallest region of 6q which is deleted, 5 tumors with 6q deletions were hybridized with a biotin-labeled probe, made by microdissection of 6q24-qter. Loss of one copy of this region was verified in 4/5 tumors; additional probes are being made. Our results are similar to those of 34 other reported PAs, and the combined data suggest that gains of chromosomes 7 and 20 and deletions and rearrangements of 1p and 6q may be particularly important in the biology of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

  6. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-10-31

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids.

  7. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (P<0.001), although the detection of the 22q11 microdeletion was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.583). In addition, all fetuses with the 22q11 microdeletion occurred de novo. In conclusion, genetic factors are important in the etiology of CHD. Where fetuses present with cardiac defects, additional chromosomal analysis is required to detect extracardiac abnormalities. Fetuses with heart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  8. Unequal mitotic sister chromatid exchange: A rare mechanism for chromosomal abnormality resulting in duplication/deletion of chromosome 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Eydoux, P.; Ortenberg, J.; Chalifoux, N.

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of unequal mitotic chromatid exchange, which has rarely been reported as a mechanism for microscopic chromosomal anomalies. The proposita was born at 40 weeks, after an uneventful pregnancy, of parents with a negative family history. The baby was small for gestational age and had dysmorphic features, including scaphocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds and palpebral ptosis, mild hypertelorism, hypoplasia of orbital contours, right coloboma, bulbous prominent nose, retrognathism, downturned mouth, low set posteriorly rotated ears, tapering of the limbs. bilateral Sydney creases. At 5 months, she was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference, and had a mild developmental delay. The karyotype showed an abnormality of chromosome 7 in all cells, half with a duplication and half with a deletion of the same region; 46,XX,del(7)(q33{yields}q34)/46,XX,dup(7)(q33{yields}q34). This chromosomal abnormality could be explained by an unequal chromatid exchange occuring in the first mitosis of the embryo. To our knowledge, only one such human microscopic abnormality, involving chromosome Y, has been reported to date. This type of genetic unbalance could be missed by molecular techniques.

  9. A time stamp comparative analysis of frequent chromosomal abnormalities in Romanian patients.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicolae; Plaiasu, Vasilica

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities represent the leading cause in many human genetic disorders. Gain or loss of genetic material can disrupt the normal expression of genes important in fetal development and result in abnormal phenotypes. Approximately 60% of first-trimester spontaneous abortions exhibit karyotype abnormalities. The majority of these abnormalities consist of numerical chromosomal changes, such as autosomal trisomy, monosomy X and polyploidy. In our current study, 411 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years, which reflected the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in Romania. Down syndrome showed the highest frequency at 79%. At 2.6% structural chromosome abnormality syndromes and Turner syndrome followed suit. Next were the Edwards and Patau syndromes with an incidence of 1.2%. Klinefelter, Cri du chat and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes all had an incidence of 0.7%. Finally, the lowest frequencies were shown by Williams at 0.4% and only one case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with abnormal karyotype. The average maternal age at childbirth was 31.15 years (SD = 6.96) and the average paternal age was 33.41 years (SD = 7.17). PMID:23570267

  10. [Lived experience of women with fetal chromosomal abnormality receiving termination at second trimester].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mei; Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Lonng

    2007-12-01

    Fetal chromosomal examination helps screen fetal chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Diagnosis of such anomalies allows pregnancy termination, but causes tremendous trauma during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities who are urgently required to terminate their pregnancy. The qualitative field study was conducted at a medical center in Taipei. The researcher, a primary nurse, conducted interviews with five women face to face or over the phone to collect the data. The period of care lasted for two weeks, beginning with confirmed diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, followed by the subjects' decision on pregnancy termination, and ending up with their discharge from the hospital. The study is presented in narrative form and the data analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. Three categories of lived experience emerged from the data: (1) recurring nightmares, (2) the torment from making the decision of pregnancy termination, and (3) frustration or sadness afterwards. The results illustrated that the lived experience of the women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities and receiving termination was a continuous process. We suggest that medical staff concern themselves with the issue and provide humanistic caring for patients during the various different phases.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men Referred to Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Center

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Mantegy, Sanaz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of somatic chromosomal abnormalities in infertile male individuals has been reported to vary in different literatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations among infertile men referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Centre (IBTO). Materials and Methods Chromosomal analysis was performed on phytohemag-glutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 1052 infertile men using standard cytogenetic methods. The study took place during 1997 to 2007. Results Total chromosome alterations were revealed in 161 (15.30%) infertile men. The most prevalent chromosomal abnormality in the infertile men was 47, XXY, that was seen in 94 (58.38%) men while one of them had a mosaic karyotype: mos 47, XX[54]/47,XXY[18]/46,XY[9]. In 37 (22.98%) cases, structural aberrations were detected. There were 30 (18.63%) cases of sex reversal. Conclusion Cytogenetic studies of these patients showed increased chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men in comparison with that of the normal population, justifying the need for cytogenetic analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. PMID:23926486

  12. Ring chromosome 5 associated with severe growth retardation as the sole major physical abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, M.V.; Pettinari, A.; Cherubini, V.; Bartolotta, E.; Pecora, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a case of ring chromosome 5 in a 36-month-old girl with severe growth retardation, clinodactyly, mild psychological abnormalities, and normal facial appearance. Endocrine tests showed partial growth hormone deficiency. Cytogenetic investigation failed to demonstrate any apparent microscopic deletion of either the short or long arm of chromosome 5 as a consequence of ring formation. In 12% of cells examined, the ring was either absent or present in multiple copies. Only 3 previous cases of ring chromosome 5 have been reported in association with short stature of prenatal onset and minor anomalies, without mental retardation. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  15. Moderate Ovarian Stimulation Does Not Increase the Incidence of Human Embryo Chromosomal Abnormalities in in Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Ernesto; Alamá, Pilar; Rubio, Carmen; Rodrigo, Lorena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Context: A high chromosomal abnormalities rate has been observed in human embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. The real incidence in natural cycles has been poorly studied, so whether this frequency may be induced by external factors, such as use of gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation, remains unknown. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a University-affiliated private infertility clinic with a comparison between unstimulated and stimulated ovarian cycles in the same women. Preimplantation genetic screening by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in all viable d 3 embryos. Objective: The primary objective was to compare the incidence of embryo chromosomal abnormalities in an unstimulated cycle and in an ulterior moderate ovarian stimulated cycle. Secondary outcome measures were embryo quality, blastocyst rate of biopsied embryos, number of normal blastocysts per donor, type of chromosomal abnormalities, and clinical outcome. Results: One hundred eighty-five oocyte donors were initially recruited for the unstimulated cycle, and preimplantation genetic screening could be performed in 51 of them, showing 35.3% of embryo chromosomal abnormalities. Forty-six of them later completed a stimulated cycle. The sperm donor sample was the same for both cycles. The proportion of embryos displaying abnormalities in the unstimulated cycle was 34.8% (16 of 46), whereas it was 40.6% (123 of 303) in the stimulated cycle with risk difference = 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −20.6–9.0], and relative risk = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.77–1.77) (P = 0.45). When an intrasubject comparison was made, the abnormalities rate was 34.8% (95% CI = 20.5–49.1) in the unstimulated cycle and 38.2% (95% CI = 30.5–45.8) in the stimulated cycle [risk difference = 3.4 (95% CI = −17.9–11.2); P = 0.64]. No differences were observed for embryo quality and type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusions: Moderate ovarian stimulation in young

  16. Sequencing chromosomal abnormalities reveals neurodevelopmental loci that confer risk across diagnostic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Talkowski, Michael E.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Blumenthal, Ian; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Chiang, Colby; Heilbut, Adrian; Ernst, Carl; Hanscom, Carrie; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lindgren, Amelia; Pereira, Shahrin; Ruderfer, Douglas; Kirby, Andrew; Ripke, Stephan; Harris, David; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Ha, Kyungsoo; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Lucente, Diane; Sims, Katherine; Ohsumi, Toshiro K.; Borowsky, Mark L.; Loranger, Stephanie; Quade, Bradley; Lage, Kasper; Miles, Judith; Wu, Bai-Lin; Shen, Yiping; Neale, Benjamin; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Daly, Mark J.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs) represent a reservoir of single gene disruptions in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). We sequenced BCAs in autism and related NDDs, revealing disruption of 33 loci in four general categories: 1) genes associated with abnormal neurodevelopment (e.g., AUTS2, FOXP1, CDKL5), 2) single gene contributors to microdeletion syndromes (MBD5, SATB2, EHMT1, SNURF-SNRPN), 3) novel risk loci (e.g., CHD8, KIRREL3, ZNF507), and 4) genes associated with later onset psychiatric disorders (e.g., TCF4, ZNF804A, PDE10A, GRIN2B, ANK3). We also discovered profoundly increased burden of copy number variants among 19,556 neurodevelopmental cases compared to 13,991 controls (p = 2.07×10−47) and enrichment of polygenic risk alleles from autism and schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (p = 0.0018 and 0.0009, respectively). Our findings suggest a polygenic risk model of autism incorporating loci of strong effect and indicate that some neurodevelopmental genes are sensitive to perturbation by multiple mutational mechanisms, leading to variable phenotypic outcomes that manifest at different life stages. PMID:22521361

  17. No prognostic effect of additional chromosomal abnormalities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 11q23 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moorman, A V; Raimondi, S C; Pui, C H; Baruchel, A; Biondi, A; Carroll, A J; Forestier, E; Gaynon, P S; Harbott, J; Harms, D O; Heerema, N; Pieters, R; Schrappe, M; Silverman, L B; Vilmer, E; Harrison, C J

    2005-04-01

    This study characterized the additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACA) associated with 11q23 rearrangements in 450 infants and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and examined the impact of these ACA on survival. Overall, 213 (47%) cases had ACA but the incidence varied according to patient age and 11q23 subgroup. Infants and patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) had the lowest incidence of ACA (50/182 (27%) and 57/216 (26%) respectively), whereas patients with del(11)(q23) had the highest incidence (66/93 (71%)). Del(11)(q23) abnormalities were heterogeneous and occasionally secondary to t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). Thus, patients with del(11)(q23) comprised a separate biological entity, which was clearly distinct from those with an 11q23 translocation. The most frequent specific ACA were trisomy X (n = 38), abnormal 12p (n = 32), abnormal 9p (n = 28) and del(6q) (n = 19). The presence of ACA did not change the 5 year event-free survival estimates among children (56% (95% Cl 46-65%) vs 62% (54-69%)) or infants (22% (15-29%) vs 18% (9-29%)), nor when the different 11q23 subgroups were analyzed separately. This study has conclusively demonstrated that there is no prognostic effect of secondary chromosomal changes in association with 11q23 abnormalities in childhood ALL. However, characterization of these ACA is important to determine their potential role in initiation of MLL driven leukemogenesis.

  18. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  19. Overview of epidemiology, genetics, birth defects, and chromosome abnormalities associated with CDH.

    PubMed

    Pober, Barbara R

    2007-05-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations.

  20. Health-related quality of life experienced by children with chromosomal abnormalities and congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Joffe, Ari R; Robertson, Charlene M T; Atallah, Joseph; Alton, Gwen; Sauve, Reg S; Dinu, Irina A; Ross, David B; Rebeyka, Ivan M

    2014-03-01

    Long-term outcomes are fundamental in advising parents about the potential future of their children with congenital heart disease (CHD). No published reports have described the health-related quality of life (HRQL) experienced by children with chromosomal abnormalities who had surgery in early infancy for CHD. A study was undertaken to assess HRQL among children with chromosomal abnormalities and CHD. The authors hypothesized that these children have a worse HRQL than healthy children or a cohort of children matched for CHD diagnosis. Infants with chromosomal abnormalities undergoing cardiac surgery for CHD at 6 weeks of age or younger at the Stollery Children's Hospital between July 2000 and June 2005 were included in the study. The HRQL of these infants was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales completed by their parents at a 4-year follow-up evaluation. The study compared the scores for 16 children with normative data. The children with chromosomal abnormalities and CHD had significantly lower mean total PedsQL (71.3 vs. 87.3; p < 0.0001), Psychosocial Summary (70.3 vs. 86.1; p < 0.0001), and Physical Summary (74.3 vs. 89.2; p = 0.0006) scores. Compared with the matched children, those with chromosomal abnormalities had a significantly lower median total PedsQL (75.0 vs. 84.6; p = 0.03), Physical Summary (79.5 vs. 96.9; p = 0.007), and School Functioning (68.5 vs. 83.0; p = 0.03) scores. A better understanding of the mechanisms and determinants of HRQL in these children has the potential to yield important implications for clinical practice including clarity for treatment decision making as well as determination of targeted supports and services to meet the needs of these children and their families differentially.

  1. AB155. Clinical presentation and its relationship with chromosomal abnormalities in Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Bui Phuong; Dung, Vu Chi; Khanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ngoc, Can Thi Bich; Hoan, Nguyen Thi; Phuong, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Background Turner syndrome is a relatively common chromosomal disorder. The disease affects only females, causing hypogonadism and short stature. Early treatment can improve short stature and hypogonadism. The study aims to describe chromosomal abnormalities, clinical characteristics and its relationship with chromosomal abnormalities in patients with Turner syndrome. Methods A total of 213 patients with Turner syndrome diagnosed in National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi. A cross section study was used. Results Mean age on diagnosis was 12.2±4.9 years. Monosomy 45,XO occupied 54,31%; 45,X/46,XX was seen in 14.66%; 27.59% had structural disorders of chromosome X. Short stature was found in all patients aged more than 15 years. Severity of short stature and percentage of patients with short stature went up with age. There was no difference in term of height between karyotype groups. In group aged ≥12 years, 95.2% of cases had hypogonadism. Other symptoms frequently seen were nail hypoplasia (77.4%), cubitus valgus (74.7%), broad chest (69.2%)/abnormalities in face and neck were epicanthic fold (55.6%), low posterior line (51.3%), excessive skin in the back of the neck/webbed neck (42.5%). In a group aged <1 year, lymphoedema of hands/feet, epicanthic fold, broad chest, cubitus valgus were found in 100%. Majority of symptoms, congenital defects of heart/kidney were seen more frequently in 45,X group. Conclusions Lymphoedema of hands/feet in infants, low growth velocity, delayed puberty, abnormalities in face and neck, and other symptoms should be checked to early diagnose and treat Turner syndrome. Patients with 45,X had more severe presentation compared to patients with 45,X/46,XX and structural abnormalities of X chromosome.

  2. Chromosome number and cytogenetics of Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, J R; Karam, D; Fernandes, G W

    2008-01-01

    Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a herbaceous species of great economic importance due to its invasive potential and consequent damage to agriculture and pasture land. For the first time, we provide information on its chromosome number, morphology, and behavior of mitotic chromosomes. Seeds were germinated and submitted to four treatments to obtain metaphases: 0.5% colchicine for 2 to 5 h, at ambient temperature; 0.5% colchicine for 16 to 24 h; 0.0029 M 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) for 2 to 5 h at ambient temperature, and 0.0029 M 8-HQ for 16 to 24 h at 4 degrees C. The material was then fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1) and kept at -20 degrees C for 24 h. Roots were macerated in the enzyme solution of Flaxzyme (NOVO FERMENT)-distilled water (1:40) at 34 degrees C for 2 h and later fixed again. Chromosome preparations were obtained by the dissociation of the apical meristems. The best chromosome preparations were obtained with the use of 8-HQ for 21 h 30 min at 4 degrees C. E. heterophylla showed 2n = 28 chromosomes. The short arm of the largest pair of chromosomes of the complement (pair number 1) displayed a secondary constriction while the nucleolus was observed in the interphasic cell. Structural rearrangements were also observed in the E. heterophylla L. genome. The genomic instability associated with polyploidy may be the result of selection shaped by environmental adaptations and/or human-induced manipulation through agricultural practices. PMID:18393225

  3. Molecular investigation of a dicentric 13;17 chromosome found in a 21-week gestation fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cockwell, A E; Maloney, V K; Thomas, N S; Smith, E L; Gonda, P; Bass, P; Crolla, J A

    2006-01-01

    We report a 21-week gestation fetus terminated because of multiple congenital abnormalities seen on ultrasound scan, including ventriculomegaly, possible clefting of the hard palate, cervical hemivertebrae, micrognathia, abnormal heart, horseshoe kidney and a 2-vessel umbilical cord. On cytogenetic examination, the fetus was found to have a male karyotype with 45 chromosomes with a dicentric chromosome, which appeared to consist of the long arms of chromosomes 13 and 17. Molecular genetic investigations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unexpectedly showed that the derivative chromosome contained two interstitial blocks of chromosome 17 short arm sequences, totalling approximately 7 Mb, between the two centromeres. This effectively made the fetus monosomic for approximately 15 Mb of 17p without the concurrent trisomy for another chromosome normally seen following malsegregation of reciprocal translocations. It also illustrates the complexity involved in the formation of some structurally abnormal chromosomes, which can only be resolved by detailed molecular investigations.

  4. Analysis of non-clonal chromosome abnormalities observed in hematologic malignancies among Southwest Oncology Group patients

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, T.S.; Dobin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    From 1987-1994, the Southwest Oncology Group Cytogenetics Committee reviewed 1571 studies in 590 adult patient cases with ALL, AML, CML or CLL. These were analyzed for the presence of clinically important non-clonal abnormalities (NCA). Abnormalities were defined as non-clonal if one metaphase had a structural abnormality or an extra chromosome. Chromosome loss was not analyzed due to the possibility of random loss. In 72 cases (12%) comprising 136 studies, at least one NCA was observed. In 21 of these cases (29%), NCAs consisted of obvious clonal evolution or instability, and thus were not included in the analysis. At least one structural NCA was observed in which the abnormality differed from the mainline in 36 (50%) patients. Seventeen of the 36 cases had a normal mode. Nineteen of the 36 patients had an abnormal or normal/abnormal mode. At least one numerical NCA was found in 15 cases (21%). Fifteen cases (21%) contained at least one marker chromosome. Several cases involved NCA in more than one of the above divisions. NCAs could be classified into several categories: (1){open_quotes}the clone to come{close_quotes}, (2) evolving clones which then disappeared, (3) NCAs with putative clinical importance that never became clonal, (4) NCAs during remission identical to the preceding clonal abnormality, (5) NCAs which indicated clonal evolution or instability. Examples include one metaphase with t(9;22) or del(20q) or inv(16) or +8 which either preceded or followed clonal findings of the same aberration. Such findings should be communicated to the clinician.

  5. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ring chromosome 5: report of a child with congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2012-02-01

    We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed.

  6. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ring chromosome 5: report of a child with congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2012-02-01

    We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed. PMID:22193390

  7. Additional chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, José; Montesinos, Pau; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; Calasanz, María J.; Aventín, Anna; Ferro, María T.; Luño, Elisa; Sánchez, Javier; Vellenga, Edo; Rayón, Chelo; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Rivas, Concha; González, José D.; Tormo, Mar; Amutio, Elena; González, Marcos; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the t(15;17). The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia is still a controversial matter. Design and Methods Based on cytogenetic data available for 495 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in two consecutive PETHEMA trials (LPA96 and LPA99), we analyzed the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities who had been treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation. Results Additional chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 140 patients (28%). Trisomy 8 was the most frequent abnormality (36%), followed by abn(7q) (5%). Patients with additional chromosomal abnormalities more frequently had coagulopathy (P=0.03), lower platelet counts (P=0.02), and higher relapse-risk scores (P=0.02) than their counterparts without additional abnormalities. No significant association with FLT3/ITD or other clinicopathological characteristics was demonstrated. Patients with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities had similar complete remission rates (90% and 91%, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that additional chromosomal abnormalities were associated with a lower relapse-free survival in the LPA99 trial (P=0.04), but not in the LPA96 trial. However, neither additional chromosomal abnormalities overall nor any specific abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The lack of independent prognostic value of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia does not support the use of alternative therapeutic strategies when such abnormalities are found. PMID:19903674

  8. Retrospective evaluation of the clinical and laboratory data from 300 patients of various hematological malignancies with chromosome 3 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Suning; Pan, Jinlan; He, Xuefeng; Liang, Jianying; Chen, Zixing

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory behaviors of chromosome 3 abnormalities by analyzing the morphological, cytogenetic, and follow-up data from 300 patients of various hematological malignancies with chromosome 3 abnormalities. From the results, trisomy 3, translocation (3q), and del(3) were the abnormal types most frequently observed (>10%) among the chromosome 3 abnormalities. In hematological malignancies, chromosome 3 abnormalities were most frequently seen in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (24.7%) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (16%), followed by those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (13.7%) and multiple myeloma (MM) (12.7%). In this series, genomic losses were the most frequent genetic abnormalities in AML, ALL, and hybrid acute leukemia (HAL) patients, whereas structural rearrangements were frequently seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and MDS patients, and genomic gains in MM, lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Chromosome 3 abnormalities mainly occurred as a component of a complex abnormality (251/300) rather than a sole one (14/300). Survival analysis demonstrated a statistical difference between the patients with trisomy 3, who had a better prognosis, and patients with del(3), who had a worse prognosis in this series (P < 0.05). Abnormalities in chromosome 3 may imply an unfavorable outcome in CML and ALL.

  9. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results.

  10. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results. PMID:23307271

  11. Implication of sperm chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent abortion and multiple implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Caseiro, Ana Lara; Regalo, Ana; Pereira, Elisa; Esteves, Telma; Fernandes, Fernando; Carvalho, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    Currently, some infertility treatment centres provide sperm karyotype analysis, although the impact of sperm chromosomal abnormalities on fertility is not yet fully understood. Several studies using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse sperm chromosomal constitution discovered that the incidence of aneuploidy is increased in individuals with a history of repeated abortion or implantation failure and is even higher in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT), abnormal somatic karyotype or in spermatozoa retrieved directly from the testis or epididymis, showing that the application of FISH in these cases may be of some benefit for improving the reproductive outcome. This article presents the results of clinical trials of FISH analysis on spermatozoa, the medical indications for performing this examination, its results in infertile patients and the advantages when performing genetic counselling prior to treatment. Also discussed is the possibility of applying the latest techniques of genetic analysis in these cases and the potential benefits for improving the prognosis of male infertility. PMID:26299791

  12. Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai

    1995-06-01

    We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

  13. Implication of sperm chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent abortion and multiple implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Caseiro, Ana Lara; Regalo, Ana; Pereira, Elisa; Esteves, Telma; Fernandes, Fernando; Carvalho, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    Currently, some infertility treatment centres provide sperm karyotype analysis, although the impact of sperm chromosomal abnormalities on fertility is not yet fully understood. Several studies using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse sperm chromosomal constitution discovered that the incidence of aneuploidy is increased in individuals with a history of repeated abortion or implantation failure and is even higher in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT), abnormal somatic karyotype or in spermatozoa retrieved directly from the testis or epididymis, showing that the application of FISH in these cases may be of some benefit for improving the reproductive outcome. This article presents the results of clinical trials of FISH analysis on spermatozoa, the medical indications for performing this examination, its results in infertile patients and the advantages when performing genetic counselling prior to treatment. Also discussed is the possibility of applying the latest techniques of genetic analysis in these cases and the potential benefits for improving the prognosis of male infertility.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of TP53 for the detection of chromosome 17 abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castro, Judit; Marco-Betés, Víctor; Gómez-Arbonés, Xavier; García-Cerecedo, Tomás; López, Ricard; Talavera, Elisabeth; Fernández-Ruiz, Sara; Ademà, Vera; Marugan, Isabel; Luño, Elisa; Sanzo, Carmen; Vallespí, Teresa; Arenillas, Leonor; Marco Buades, Josefa; Batlle, Ana; Buño, Ismael; Martín Ramos, María Luisa; Blázquez Rios, Beatriz; Collado Nieto, Rosa; Vargas, Ma Teresa; González Martínez, Teresa; Sanz, Guillermo; Solé, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Conventional G-banding cytogenetics (CC) detects chromosome 17 (chr17) abnormalities in 2% of patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We used CC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (LSI p53/17p13.1) to assess deletion of 17p in 531 patients with de novo MDS from the Spanish Group of Hematological Cytogenetics. FISH detected - 17 or 17p abnormalities in 13 cases (2.6%) in whom no 17p abnormalities were revealed by CC: 0.9% of patients with a normal karyotype, 0% in non-informative cytogenetics, 50% of patients with a chr17 abnormality without loss of 17p and 4.7% of cases with an abnormal karyotype not involving chr17. Our results suggest that applying FISH of 17p13 to identify the number of copies of the TP53 gene could be beneficial in patients with a complex karyotype. We recommend using FISH of 17p13 in young patients with a normal karyotype or non-informative cytogenetics, and always in isolated del(17p). PMID:25754580

  15. Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. PMID:17436298

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities & oxidative stress in women with premature ovarian failure (POF)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Dhananjay; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Kriplani, Alka; Ammini, A.C.; Dada, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as the cessation of ovarian function under the age of 40 yr and is characterized by amenorrhoea, hypoestrogenism and elevated serum gonadotrophin levels. The cause of POF remains undetermined in majority of the cases. This study was aimed to investigate the type and frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic POF and also to study the role of oxidative stress in such cases. Methods: Seventy five women with idiopathic POF were included in this study. Chromosome analysis was done in peripheral blood lymphocytes by conventional GTG banding to identify numerical or structural abnormalities. Cytogenetically normal cases were investigated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in their blood by luminol-chemiluminescence assay. Results: Eighteen chromosomal anomalies were identified in POF patients (24%). Majority of the cases were found to have X-chromosome abnormalities (28%). Overall median ROS range was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) in POF patients [50480 (120,132966) RLU/min] compared to controls [340 (120,5094) RLU/min]. Among these, 50 per cent of the POF patients had higher ROS levels, 20 per cent had medium elevation and 30 per cent were found to have normal values comparable to controls. Interpretation & conclusions: X-chromosome anomalies were found to be the major contributor of POF. Oxidative stress may be the underlying aetiology in idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Thus the results of this study highlight the role of cytogenetic abnormalities and supraphysiological levels of ROS in causation of idiopathic POF. But the role of oxidative stress needs to be confirmed by other studies on patients from different geographical areas and from different ethnicities. PMID:22382189

  17. Structural chromosomal abnormalities in patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies: a new series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Karaman, A; Aksoy, A; Tukun, A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA/MR). Screening for these chromosomal imbalances has mainly been done by standard karyotyping. The objective of this study was to report standard chromosome analysis and FISH screening of a series of 24 patients with MCA/MR. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 24 alterations and included 5 deletions, 2 duplications, 6 unbalanced translocations, 3 inversions, 2 insertions, 3 derivative chromosomes, 2 marker chromosomes and 1 isochromosome. We confirm that a high percentage of MCA/MR cases hitherto considered idiopathic is caused by chromosomal imbalances. We conclude that patients with MCA/MR should be routinely karyotyped.

  18. Radiation exposure and chromosome abnormalities. Human cytogenetic studies at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, 1963-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, T.; Kohno, S.; Minamihisamatsu, M. )

    1990-03-01

    The results of human cytogenetic studies performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan for about 25 years are described. The studies were pursued primarily under two major projects: one involving people exposed to radiation under various conditions and the other involving patients with malignant diseases, especially leukemias. Whereas chromosome abnormalities in radiation-exposed people are excellent indicators of radiation exposure, their behavior in bone marrow provide useful information for a better understanding of chromosome abnormalities in leukemias and related disorders. The role of chromosome abnormalities in the genesis and development of leukemia and related disorders is considered, suggesting a view for future studies in this field.

  19. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  20. Genomic imprinting as a probable explanation for variable intrafamilial phenotypic expression of an unusual chromosome 3 abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Fryburg, J.S.; Shashi, V.; Kelly, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    We present a 4 generation family in which an abnormal chromosome 3 with dup(3)(q25) segregated from great-grandmother to grandmother to son without phenotypic effect. The son`s 2 daughters have dysmorphic features, mild developmental delays and congenital heart disease. Both girls have the abnormal chr. 3 but are the only family members with the abnormality to have phenotypic effects. An unaffected son of the father has normal chromosomes. FISH with whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, and 22 excluded these as the origin of the extra material. Chromosome 3-specific paint revealed a uniform pattern, suggesting that the extra material is from chromosome 3. Comparative genomic hybridization and DNA studies are pending. Possible explanations for the discordance in phenotypes between the 4th generation offspring and the first 3 generations include: an undetected rearrangement in the previous generations that is unbalanced in the two affected individuals; the chromosome abnormality may be a benign variant and unrelated to the phenotype; or, most likely, genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is suggested by the observation that a phenotypic effect was only seen after the chromosome was inherited from the father. The mothers in the first two generations appear to have passed the abnormal chr. 3 on without effect. This is an opportunity to delineate a region of the human genome affected by paternal imprinting.

  1. Familial Constitutional Rearrangement of Chromosomes 4 & 8: Phenotypically Normal Mother and Abnormal Progeny.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Fulesh; Bakshi, Sonal R

    2016-04-01

    Balanced chromosome translocations carriers mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression but may have more risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions &/or children with serious birth defects due to unbalanced chromosome complements. Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements have variable clinical expression and are rare. We present here a case report of three siblings affected with intellectual disability and minor dysmorphic features of face and limbs, born to a non-consanguineous couple in which mother had 5 abortions. The constitutional chromosome analysis revealed balanced translocation t (4;8) in mother and all the three siblings were karyotypically normal. Chromosomal microarray in one of the probands revealed partial monosomy 8pter-p23 and a partial trisomy 4pter-p16. Phenotypic features were recorded in 3 probands using Human Phenotype Ontology terms to query web-based tool Phenomizer. The harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is very important especially in case of rare genetic conditions and the heterogeneous phenotypes which make it even more challenging. The prevalence of sub-microscopic unbalanced translocations may be under-reported due to lesser use of molecular genetic analysis. The familial expression of abnormal phenotypes including intellectual disability make the individuals candidate for molecular genetic analysis and phenotyping to help defer the status of idiopathic mental retardation and identify sub-entity of genetic condition. PMID:27190830

  2. Familial Constitutional Rearrangement of Chromosomes 4 & 8: Phenotypically Normal Mother and Abnormal Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Fulesh

    2016-01-01

    Balanced chromosome translocations carriers mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression but may have more risk of recurrent spontaneous abortions &/or children with serious birth defects due to unbalanced chromosome complements. Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements have variable clinical expression and are rare. We present here a case report of three siblings affected with intellectual disability and minor dysmorphic features of face and limbs, born to a non-consanguineous couple in which mother had 5 abortions. The constitutional chromosome analysis revealed balanced translocation t (4;8) in mother and all the three siblings were karyotypically normal. Chromosomal microarray in one of the probands revealed partial monosomy 8pter-p23 and a partial trisomy 4pter-p16. Phenotypic features were recorded in 3 probands using Human Phenotype Ontology terms to query web-based tool Phenomizer. The harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is very important especially in case of rare genetic conditions and the heterogeneous phenotypes which make it even more challenging. The prevalence of sub-microscopic unbalanced translocations may be under-reported due to lesser use of molecular genetic analysis. The familial expression of abnormal phenotypes including intellectual disability make the individuals candidate for molecular genetic analysis and phenotyping to help defer the status of idiopathic mental retardation and identify sub-entity of genetic condition. PMID:27190830

  3. Ancestral chromosomal blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bures, Petr

    2007-10-01

    The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n >or= 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2-2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this species outside the tribe Brassiceae. Chromosome duplication detected in Orychophragmus as well as chromosome rearrangements shared by Zillineae species demonstrate the usefulness of comparative cytogenetics for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships.

  4. Azacitidine treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 3q abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wanquet, Anne; Prebet, Thomas; Berthon, Céline; Sebert, Marie; Roux, Clémence; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Esterni, Benjamin; Itzykson, Raphael; Thepot, Sylvain; Recher, Christian; Delaunay, Jacques; Dreyfus, François; Mufti, Ghulam; Fenaux, Pierre; Vey, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) with chromosome 3q abnormalities have a dismal outcome either untreated or with conventional treatments. Azacitidine (AZA) is now considered as the standard of care in high-risk MDS and oligoblastic AML patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of azacitine treatment in this cytogenetic subgroup. We report here a multicentre retrospective study of 157 patients treated with AZA for AML/MDS with chromosome 3q abnormalities and 27 patients with isolated EVI-1 overexpression. Median age was 65 years, 40 patients (25%) had inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2), 36 patients (23%) had other balanced 3q26 rearrangements, 8 patients (5%) had balanced 3q21 rearrangements and 73 patients (46%) had other 3q abnormalities. The overall response rate was 50% (29% CR). Median overall survival was 10.6 months. By multivariate analysis, patients with lower bone marrow blast counts, higher platelet counts, non-complex cytogenetics, and absence of prior treatment with intensive chemotherapy had a better outcome. 27 patients were allo-transplanted and achieved a 21-month median OS. Balanced 3q21 translocations were associated with a better response rate and overall survival. Outcome of patients with isolated EVI-1 overexpression was comparable to that of patients with chromosome 3q lesions. Thus, AML/MDS patients with 3q abnormalities appear to be a heterogeneous group in their response to AZA, and AZA may represent a suitable option in particular as a bridge to allogeneic transplantation.

  5. Endocrine abnormalities in ring chromosome 11: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Renata; Von Linsingen, Caoê; Mata, Fernanda; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; Arruda, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that have not yet been reported. A 20-year-old female patient had facial dysmorphism, short stature, psychomotor developmental delays, a ventricular septal defect, and thrombocytopenia. Karyotyping demonstrated RC11 (46,XX,r(11)(p15q25)). This patient presented with clinical features that may be related to Jacobsen syndrome, which is caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. Regarding endocrine abnormalities, our patient presented with precocious puberty followed by severe hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, clitoromegaly, and amenorrhea, which were associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hyperinsulinemia; therefore, this case meets the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine abnormalities are rare in patients with RC11, and the association of RC11 with precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM has not been reported previously. We speculate that gene(s) located on chromosome 11 might be involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Despite the rarity of RCs, studies to correlate the genes located on the chromosomes with the phenotypes observed could lead to major advances in the understanding and treatment of more prevalent diseases. Learning points We hypothesize that the endocrine features of precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM might be associated with 11q-syndrome.A karyotype study should be performed in patients with short

  6. Analysis of X chromosome genomic DNA sequence copy number variation associated with premature ovarian failure (POF)

    PubMed Central

    Quilter, C.R.; Karcanias, A.C.; Bagga, M.R.; Duncan, S.; Murray, A.; Conway, G.S.; Sargent, C.A.; Affara, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a heterogeneous disease defined as amenorrhoea for >6 months before age 40, with an FSH serum level >40 mIU/ml (menopausal levels). While there is a strong genetic association with POF, familial studies have also indicated that idiopathic POF may also be genetically linked. Conventional cytogenetic analyses have identified regions of the X chromosome that are strongly associated with ovarian function, as well as several POF candidate genes. Cryptic chromosome abnormalities that have been missed might be detected by array comparative genomic hybridization. METHODS In this study, samples from 42 idiopathic POF patients were subjected to a complete end-to-end X/Y chromosome tiling path array to achieve a detailed copy number variation (CNV) analysis of X chromosome involvement in POF. The arrays also contained a 1 Mb autosomal tiling path as a reference control. Quantitative PCR for selected genes contained within the CNVs was used to confirm the majority of the changes detected. The expression pattern of some of these genes in human tissue RNA was examined by reverse transcription (RT)–PCR. RESULTS A number of CNVs were identified on both Xp and Xq, with several being shared among the POF cases. Some CNVs fall within known polymorphic CNV regions, and others span previously identified POF candidate regions and genes. CONCLUSIONS The new data reported in this study reveal further discrete X chromosome intervals not previously associated with the disease and therefore implicate new clusters of candidate genes. Further studies will be required to elucidate their involvement in POF. PMID:20570974

  7. Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-05-01

    The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555 kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement. PMID:24458548

  8. Recurring structural chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, M; Finn, W G; Yelavarthi, K K; Roenigk, H H; Samuelson, E; Peterson, L; Kuzel, T M; Rosen, S T

    1997-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from 19 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) stimulated with either phytohemagglutinin, a conventional mitogen, or a combination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus IL-7. The use of both PHA-stimulated and IL-2 plus IL-7-stimulated cultures enhanced the ability to identify clonal abnormalities. Clonal abnormalities were observed in 11 patients (53%) including one with monosomy for the sex chromosome as the sole abnormality. Five of the 11 patients with clonal abnormalities had normal peripheral white blood cell counts, indicating detectability of clones in the absence of frankly leukemic disease. The presence of clonal abnormalities correlated with advanced stage disease and a significantly reduced survival duration from the time of cytogenetic studies. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 1 and 8 were observed in six cases. In five cases with aberrations of chromosome 1, loss of material involved the region between 1p22 and 1p36. In an additional case, a reciprocal translocation involving 1p33 was observed. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 10 and 17 were observed in 5 cases, clonal abnormalities involving chromosome 2 in 4 cases, and clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 19, and 20 in 3 cases. In 2 cases a der(8)t(8;17)(p11;q11) was observed. Regions of the genome that encode T-cell receptors were not involved in abnormalities. The region between 1p22 and 1p36 is identified as a region of the genome that requires detailed analysis toward the identification of potential gene(s) involved in the process of malignant transformation and/or progression in MF/SS.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 15 abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region by traditional and molecular cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Magenis, R.E.; Leff, S.

    1995-02-13

    With improvements in culturing and banding techniques, amniotic fluid studies now achieve a level of resolution at which the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) region may be questioned. Chromosome 15 heteromorphisms, detected with Q- and R-banding and used in conjunction with PWS/AS region-specific probes, can confirm a chromosome deletion and establish origin to predict the clinical outcome. We report four de novo cases of an abnormal-appearing chromosome 15 in amniotic fluid samples referred for advanced maternal age or a history of a previous chromosomally abnormal child. The chromosomes were characterized using G-, Q-, and R-banding, as well as isotopic and fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for the proximal chromosome 15 long arm. In two cases, one chromosome 15 homolog showed a consistent deletion of the ONCOR PWS/AS region A and B. In the other two cases, one of which involved an inversion with one breakpoint in the PWS/AS region, all of the proximal chromosome 15 long arm DNA probes used in the in situ hybridization were present on both homologs. Clinical follow-up was not available on these samples, as in all cases the parents chose to terminate the pregnancies. These cases demonstrate the ability to prenatally diagnose chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with PWS/AS. In addition, they highlight the need for a better understanding of this region for accurate prenatal diagnosis. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4.

  11. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saman Kumara, L. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4.

  12. Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Genomewide Detection of Submicroscopic Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M. ; de Vries, Bert B. A. ; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo ; Janssen, Irene M. ; Feuth, Ton ; Choy, Chik On ; Straatman, Huub ; van der Vliet, Walter ; Huys, Erik H. L. P. G. ; van Rijk, Anke ; Smeets, Dominique ; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A. ; Knoers, Nine V. ; van der Burgt, Ineke ; de Jong, Pieter J. ; Brunner, Han G. ; van Kessel, Ad Geurts ; Schoenmakers, Eric F. P. M. ; Veltman, Joris A. 

    2003-01-01

    Microdeletions and microduplications, not visible by routine chromosome analysis, are a major cause of human malformation and mental retardation. Novel high-resolution, whole-genome technologies can improve the diagnostic detection rate of these small chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization allows such a high-resolution screening by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference DNAs to arrays consisting of thousands of genomic clones. In this study, we tested the diagnostic capacity of this technology using ∼3,500 flourescent in situ hybridization–verified clones selected to cover the genome with an average of 1 clone per megabase (Mb). The sensitivity and specificity of the technology were tested in normal-versus-normal control experiments and through the screening of patients with known microdeletion syndromes. Subsequently, a series of 20 cytogenetically normal patients with mental retardation and dysmorphisms suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality were analyzed. In this series, three microdeletions and two microduplications were identified and validated. Two of these genomic changes were identified also in one of the parents, indicating that these are large-scale genomic polymorphisms. Deletions and duplications as small as 1 Mb could be reliably detected by our approach. The percentage of false-positive results was reduced to a minimum by use of a dye-swap-replicate analysis, all but eliminating the need for laborious validation experiments and facilitating implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. This high-resolution assay will facilitate the identification of novel genes involved in human mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and will provide insight into the flexibility and plasticity of the human genome. PMID:14628292

  13. DNA base composition of Allium genomes with different chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, A; Brown, S C

    1997-12-31

    The present report examines whether the presence of an additional chromosome can be detected as modifying the nuclear DNA amount and base composition of the cell, determined here by flow cytometry of interphasic nuclei, using four monosomic additions (chromosomes 3C, 4C, 7C and 8C transmitted from Allium cepa to Allium fistulosum L.). A. cepa differs significantly from A. fistulosum in genome size (2C DNA = 33.2 pg in A. cepa and 23.3 pg in A. fistulosum) as well as in GC content (38.7% and 39.8%, respectively). The presence of an extra chromosome of A. cepa obviously increases the nuclear DNA amount above the A. fistulosum value but also alters the apparent mean GC content. By comparing the monosomic additions and the parental background, the DNA amount and base composition of each of the four single chromosomes were calculated to quantify the GC content per chromosome and therefore to deduce their initial contribution to the A. cepa genome. Taken individually, some chromosomes are atypical in terms of GC content: the single chromosome 3C is AT-rich, having only about only 25% GC. However, the three other chromosomes examined are typical of the A. cepa genome in base composition. Indeed, this biological panel gives access to chromosomal features via a cytometric assay of nuclei. It should facilitate quantification of GC-rich repetitive sequences forming heterochromatic domains located mainly at the telomeres in the monocotyledonous A. cepa genome. PMID:9461399

  14. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  15. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: a general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1993-01-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here I describe and analyze a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, approximately 50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomeres should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. PMID:8352277

  16. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and relationship with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants. PMID:25080930

  17. A novel syndrome of abnormal striatum and congenital cataract: evidence for linkage to chromosomes 11.

    PubMed

    Al-Owain, M; Al-Zahrani, J; Al-Bakheet, A; Abudheim, N; Al-Younes, B; Aldhalaan, H; Al-Zaidan, H; Colak, D; Almohaileb, F; Abouzied, M E; Al-Fadhli, F; Meyer, B; Kaya, N

    2013-09-01

    We report a consanguineous family of three girls and one boy affected with a novel syndrome involving the lens and the basal ganglia. The phenotype is strikingly similar between affected siblings with cognitive impairment, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), microcephaly, growth retardation, congenital cataract, and dystonia. The magnetic resonance imaging showed unusual pattern of swelling of the caudate heads and thinning of the putamina with severe degree of hypometabolism on the [18F] deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Furthermore, the clinical assessment provides the evidence that the neurological phenotype is very slowly progressive. We utilized the 10K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray genotyping for linkage analysis. Genome-wide scan indicated a 45.9-Mb region with a 4.2353 logarithm of the odds score on chromosome 11. Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 assay did not show any gross chromosomal abnormality. Targeted sequencing of two candidate genes within the linkage interval (PAX6 and B3GALTL) as well as mtDNA genome sequencing did not reveal any putative mutations.

  18. Down syndrome-associated haematopoiesis abnormalities created by chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Yakura, Yuwna; Abe, Satoshi; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Honma, Kazuhisa; Suemori, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Toki, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at a high risk of developing transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). A GATA1 mutation leading to the production of N-terminally truncated GATA1 (GATA1s) in early megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors is linked to the onset of TAM and cooperated with the effect of trisomy 21 (Ts21). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the progression to TAM in DS patients, we generated human pluripotent stem cells harbouring Ts21 and/or GATA1s by combining microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies. In vitro haematopoietic differentiation assays showed that the GATA1s mutation blocked erythropoiesis irrespective of an extra chromosome 21, while Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation independently perturbed megakaryopoiesis and the combination of Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation synergistically contributed to an aberrant accumulation of skewed megakaryocytes. Thus, the DS model cells generated by these two technologies are useful in assessing how GATA1s mutation is involved in the onset of TAM in patients with DS. PMID:25159877

  19. A chromosomal translocation causing multiple abnormalities including open eyelids at birth and glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Mary H; Cacheiro, Nestor L; Rudofsky, Ulrich H; Montgomery, Jeffry C; Collins, Doris N; Flaherty, Lorraine A

    2002-08-01

    We have characterized the phenotype of a mouse with a t(2;13) reciprocal translocation induced by chlorambucil. It results in abnormal eyelid formation as well as a series of neurological, physiological, and immunological abnormalities. This mutant has been termed T(2;13)1Fla/+. T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice exhibit open eyelids at birth, a dilute coat color, hyperactivity, and occasional circling and stargazing activity. At 1-6 months, T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice show signs of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and die prematurely. Additionally, double-stranded DNA autoantibodies have been found in sera of T(2;13)1Fla/+ mice. Cytogenetic analysis situated the translocation breakpoint at the proximal end of Chromosome (chr) 2 at band A2, and on Chr 13 at band A4. The mutant phenotype completely correlated with the presence of the translocation. Additional genetic studies have mapped the mutation and translocation breakpoint to Chr 13 between D13Mit16 and D13Mit64, and to Chr 2 proximal to D2Mit5. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the position of this mutation/translocation on Chr 13 has been mapped to a region less than 1cM from D13Mit61. PMID:12226706

  20. Amniotic fluid-AFP in Down syndrome and other chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Crandall, B F; Matsumoto, M; Perdue, S

    1988-05-01

    80.2 Per cent of 111 Down syndrome pregnancies had anmiotic fluid (AF) alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels on or below the median and 10.8 per cent at or below 0.5 MoM compared with 41.9 and 1.4 per cent of controls. These differences were even more striking when the gestational age was less than 18 weeks compared with greater than or equal to 18 weeks. No such association was seen for other chromosome abnormalities including trisomy 18,45,X and mosaics, 47,XXY,47,XXX, and other structural abnormalities and triploidy, even when high levels due to defects such as omphalocele and cystic hygroma were excluded. All cases of trisomy 13 and 80 per cent with 47,XYY had AF-AFP levels above the median. Selection of cases for karyotyping by a low level of AF-AFP would clearly fail to detect aneuploidies other than Down syndrome and is not recommended. A possible weak association between low maternal serum (MS) and AF-AFPs in Down syndrome was most evident at less than 18 weeks, suggesting that MS screening between 16 and 18 weeks may be the most informative time. PMID:2456565

  1. Characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement using chromosome, FISH, and microarray assays in a girl with multiple congenital abnormalities and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Hemmat, Morteza; Yang, Xiaojing; Chan, Patricia; McGough, Robert A; Ross, Leslie; Mahon, Loretta W; Anguiano, Arturo L; Boris, Wang T; Elnaggar, Mohamed M; Wang, Jia-Chi J; Strom, Charles M; Boyar, Fatih Z

    2014-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient's developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient.

  2. Characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement using chromosome, FISH, and microarray assays in a girl with multiple congenital abnormalities and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient’s developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient. PMID:25478007

  3. Chromosome number evolves independently of genome size in a clade with nonlocalized centromeres (Carex: Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyong-Sook; Hipp, Andrew L; Roalson, Eric H

    2012-09-01

    The effects of chromosome rearrangement on genome size are poorly understood. While chromosome duplications and deletions have predictable effects on genome size, chromosome fusion, fission, and translocation do not. In this study, we investigate genome size and chromosome number evolution in 87 species of Carex, one of the most species-rich genera of flowering plants and one that has undergone an exceptionally high rate of chromosome rearrangement. Using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression, we find that the correlation between chromosome number and genome size in the genus grades from flat or weakly positive at fine phylogenetic scales to weakly negative at deeper phylogenetic scales. The rate of chromosome evolution exhibits a significant increase within a species-rich clade that arose approximately 5 million years ago. Genome size evolution, however, demonstrates a nearly constant rate across the entire tree. We hypothesize that this decoupling of genome size from chromosome number helps explain the high lability of chromosome number in the genus, as it reduces indirect selection on chromosome number.

  4. Cytogenetic abnormalities and genomic copy number variations in EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) genes in primary myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Purvi; Korgaonkar, Seema; Shanmukhaiah, Chandrakala; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2016-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are heterogeneous clonal haematopoeitic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoeisis, cytopenias and risk of progression to AML. We studied 150 MDS patients for cytogenetic aberrations and 60 patients with normal karyotype and 40 patients harboring cytogenetic abnormalities for copy number variations (CNVs). Cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 46% of patients with a majority of patients harboring abnormalities of chromosome 7 and del (20q) at frequencies of 16% and 12% respectively. We explored the potential of quantitative multiplex PCR assay of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) to identify CNVs and correlated the findings with cytogenetic data and disease prognosis. CNVs (n=31) were detected in 28.3% of karyotypically normal and 23% patients with abnormal karyotype. Genetic losses or deletions (n=26) were more frequent than duplications (n=5). EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) emerged as new candidate genes susceptible to genetic losses with 57.7% deletions identified in regions on chromosome 7. The CNVs correlated with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate disease risk group. Our integrative cytogenetic and copy number variation study suggests that abnormalities of chromosome 7 are predominant in Indian population and that they may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be evaluated further for asserting their clinical significance and influence on disease prognosis.

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities and genomic copy number variations in EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) genes in primary myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Purvi; Korgaonkar, Seema; Shanmukhaiah, Chandrakala; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2016-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are heterogeneous clonal haematopoeitic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoeisis, cytopenias and risk of progression to AML. We studied 150 MDS patients for cytogenetic aberrations and 60 patients with normal karyotype and 40 patients harboring cytogenetic abnormalities for copy number variations (CNVs). Cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 46% of patients with a majority of patients harboring abnormalities of chromosome 7 and del (20q) at frequencies of 16% and 12% respectively. We explored the potential of quantitative multiplex PCR assay of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) to identify CNVs and correlated the findings with cytogenetic data and disease prognosis. CNVs (n=31) were detected in 28.3% of karyotypically normal and 23% patients with abnormal karyotype. Genetic losses or deletions (n=26) were more frequent than duplications (n=5). EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) emerged as new candidate genes susceptible to genetic losses with 57.7% deletions identified in regions on chromosome 7. The CNVs correlated with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate disease risk group. Our integrative cytogenetic and copy number variation study suggests that abnormalities of chromosome 7 are predominant in Indian population and that they may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be evaluated further for asserting their clinical significance and influence on disease prognosis. PMID:27282568

  6. Disorders of sexual development and abnormal early development in domestic food-producing mammals: the role of chromosome abnormalities, environment and stress factors.

    PubMed

    Favetta, L A; Villagómez, D A F; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G; Webb, A; Crain, S; King, W A

    2012-01-01

    The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of sex determination and sex differentiation. In recent years, a growing interest has developed around the environmental insults, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) and heat stressors, which affect fertility, early embryonic development and, in some instances, directly the sex ratio and/or the development of 1 specific sex versus the other. A variety of chemical compounds present in the environment at low doses has been shown to have major effects on the reproductive functions in human and domestic animals following prolonged exposure. In this review, we present an overview of congenital/chromosomal factors that are responsible for the DSDs and link them and the lack of proper embryonic development to environmental factors that are becoming a major global concern.

  7. Infantile spasms are associated with abnormal copy number variations.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay N; Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Huq, A H M M

    2013-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that de novo copy number variations (CNVs) implicated in known genomic disorders ("pathogenic CNVs") are significant predisposing factors of infantile spasms. The authors performed a genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray data to identify the role of de novo/known pathogenic large CNVs in 13 trios of children affected by infantile spasms. A rare, large (4.8 Mb) de novo duplication was detected in the 15q11-13 region of 1 patient. In addition, 3 known pathogenic CNVs (present in the patient as well as 1 of the parents) were detected in total. In 1 patient, a known pathogenic deletion was detected in the region of 2q32.3. Similarly, in 1 other patient, 2 known pathogenic deletions in the regions of 16p11.2 and Xp22.13 (containing CDKL5) were detected. These findings suggest that some specific pathogenic CNVs predispose to infantile spasms and may be associated with different phenotypes. PMID:22914377

  8. Telomere-centric genome repatterning determines recurring chromosome number reductions during the evolution of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiyin; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Paterson, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is central to the evolution of many eukaryotic genomes, in particular rendering angiosperm (flowering plant) genomes much less stable than those of animals. Following repeated duplication/triplication(s), angiosperm chromosome numbers have usually been restored to a narrow range, as one element in a 'diploidization' process that re-establishes diploid heredity. In several angiosperms affected by WGD, we show that chromosome number reduction (CNR) is best explained by intra- and/or inter-chromosomal crossovers to form new chromosomes that utilize the existing telomeres of 'invaded' and centromeres of 'invading' chromosomes, the alternative centromeres and telomeres being lost. Comparison with the banana (Musa acuminata) genome supports a 'fusion model' for the evolution of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes 2 and 3, implying that the grass common ancestor had seven chromosomes rather than the five implied by a 'fission model.' The 'invading' and 'invaded' chromosomes are frequently homoeologs, originating from duplication of a common ancestral chromosome and with greater-than-average DNA-level correspondence to one another. Telomere-centric CNR following recursive WGD in plants is also important in mammals and yeast, and may be a general mechanism of restoring small linear chromosome numbers in higher eukaryotes.

  9. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saman Kumara, L. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  10. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  11. Genetic Counseling for a Prenatal Diagnosis of Structural Chromosomal Abnormality with High-Resolution Analysis Using a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Akiko; Takeshita, Naoki; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46, XY, add(9)(p24). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing. PMID:27777709

  12. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

  13. Analysis of Turner syndrome patients within the Jordanian population, with a focus on four patients with Y chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daggag, H; Srour, W; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings in Turner syndrome (TS) patients from the Jordanian population, with focus on 4 patients with Y chromosomal abnormalities. From 1989 to 2011, 504 patients with TS stigmata were referred to our institute for karyotyping, resulting in 142 positive TS cases. Of these, 62 (43.7%) had the typical 45,X karyotype and the remaining individuals (56.3%) were found to be mosaics. Fifteen TS patients (10.5%) carried a structural abnormality of the Y chromosome and presented with the mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. From these, 4 TS cases were investigated further. Karyotyping revealed that 1 patient carried a small supernumerary marker chromosome, whereas cytogenetic and molecular analyses showed that 3 patients carried 2 copies of the SRY gene. Further analysis by SRY sequencing revealed no mutations within the gene. The analyzed patients were found to be phenotypically either females or males, depending on the predominance of the cell line carrying the Y chromosome. This study demonstrates the importance of detailed cytogenetic analysis (such as FISH) in TS patients, and it also emphasizes the need for molecular analysis (such as PCR and sequencing) when fragments of the Y chromosome are present.

  14. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  15. Live births after simultaneous avoidance of monogenic diseases and chromosome abnormality by next-generation sequencing with linkage analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liying; Huang, Lei; Xu, Liya; Huang, Jin; Ma, Fei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Tang, Yaqiong; Liu, Mingshan; Lian, Ying; Liu, Ping; Li, Rong; Lu, Sijia; Tang, Fuchou; Qiao, Jie; Xie, X. Sunney

    2015-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) help patients to select embryos free of monogenic diseases and aneuploidy (chromosome abnormality). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, while experiencing a rapid cost reduction, have improved the precision of PGD/PGS. However, the precision of PGD has been limited by the false-positive and false-negative single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), which are not acceptable in IVF and can be circumvented by linkage analyses, such as short tandem repeats or karyomapping. It is noteworthy that existing methods of detecting SNV/copy number variation (CNV) and linkage analysis often require separate procedures for the same embryo. Here we report an NGS-based PGD/PGS procedure that can simultaneously detect a single-gene disorder and aneuploidy and is capable of linkage analysis in a cost-effective way. This method, called “mutated allele revealed by sequencing with aneuploidy and linkage analyses” (MARSALA), involves multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) for single-cell whole-genome amplification. Aneuploidy is determined by CNVs, whereas SNVs associated with the monogenic diseases are detected by PCR amplification of the MALBAC product. The false-positive and -negative SNVs are avoided by an NGS-based linkage analysis. Two healthy babies, free of the monogenic diseases of their parents, were born after such embryo selection. The monogenic diseases originated from a single base mutation on the autosome and the X-chromosome of the disease-carrying father and mother, respectively. PMID:26712022

  16. Live births after simultaneous avoidance of monogenic diseases and chromosome abnormality by next-generation sequencing with linkage analyses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liying; Huang, Lei; Xu, Liya; Huang, Jin; Ma, Fei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Tang, Yaqiong; Liu, Mingshan; Lian, Ying; Liu, Ping; Li, Rong; Lu, Sijia; Tang, Fuchou; Qiao, Jie; Xie, X Sunney

    2015-12-29

    In vitro fertilization (IVF), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) help patients to select embryos free of monogenic diseases and aneuploidy (chromosome abnormality). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, while experiencing a rapid cost reduction, have improved the precision of PGD/PGS. However, the precision of PGD has been limited by the false-positive and false-negative single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), which are not acceptable in IVF and can be circumvented by linkage analyses, such as short tandem repeats or karyomapping. It is noteworthy that existing methods of detecting SNV/copy number variation (CNV) and linkage analysis often require separate procedures for the same embryo. Here we report an NGS-based PGD/PGS procedure that can simultaneously detect a single-gene disorder and aneuploidy and is capable of linkage analysis in a cost-effective way. This method, called "mutated allele revealed by sequencing with aneuploidy and linkage analyses" (MARSALA), involves multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) for single-cell whole-genome amplification. Aneuploidy is determined by CNVs, whereas SNVs associated with the monogenic diseases are detected by PCR amplification of the MALBAC product. The false-positive and -negative SNVs are avoided by an NGS-based linkage analysis. Two healthy babies, free of the monogenic diseases of their parents, were born after such embryo selection. The monogenic diseases originated from a single base mutation on the autosome and the X-chromosome of the disease-carrying father and mother, respectively. PMID:26712022

  17. Live births after simultaneous avoidance of monogenic diseases and chromosome abnormality by next-generation sequencing with linkage analyses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liying; Huang, Lei; Xu, Liya; Huang, Jin; Ma, Fei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Tang, Yaqiong; Liu, Mingshan; Lian, Ying; Liu, Ping; Li, Rong; Lu, Sijia; Tang, Fuchou; Qiao, Jie; Xie, X Sunney

    2015-12-29

    In vitro fertilization (IVF), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) help patients to select embryos free of monogenic diseases and aneuploidy (chromosome abnormality). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, while experiencing a rapid cost reduction, have improved the precision of PGD/PGS. However, the precision of PGD has been limited by the false-positive and false-negative single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), which are not acceptable in IVF and can be circumvented by linkage analyses, such as short tandem repeats or karyomapping. It is noteworthy that existing methods of detecting SNV/copy number variation (CNV) and linkage analysis often require separate procedures for the same embryo. Here we report an NGS-based PGD/PGS procedure that can simultaneously detect a single-gene disorder and aneuploidy and is capable of linkage analysis in a cost-effective way. This method, called "mutated allele revealed by sequencing with aneuploidy and linkage analyses" (MARSALA), involves multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) for single-cell whole-genome amplification. Aneuploidy is determined by CNVs, whereas SNVs associated with the monogenic diseases are detected by PCR amplification of the MALBAC product. The false-positive and -negative SNVs are avoided by an NGS-based linkage analysis. Two healthy babies, free of the monogenic diseases of their parents, were born after such embryo selection. The monogenic diseases originated from a single base mutation on the autosome and the X-chromosome of the disease-carrying father and mother, respectively.

  18. Copy number variants and rasopathies: germline KRAS duplication in a patient with syndrome including pigmentation abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Bilan, Frédéric; Cavé, Hélène; Verloes, Alain; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    RAS/MAPK pathway germline mutations were described in Rasopathies, a class of rare genetic syndromes combining facial abnormalities, heart defects, short stature, skin and genital abnormalities, and mental retardation. The majority of the mutations identified in the Rasopathies are point mutations which increase RAS/MAPK pathway signaling. Duplications encompassing RAS/MAPK pathway genes (PTPN11, RAF1, MEK2, or SHOC2) were more rarely described. Here we report, a syndromic familial case of a 12p duplication encompassing the dosage sensitive gene KRAS, whose phenotype overlapped with rasopathies. The patient was referred because of a history of mild learning disabilities, small size, facial dysmorphy, and pigmentation abnormalities (café-au-lait and achromic spots, and axillar lentigines). This phenotype was reminiscent of rasopathies. No mutation was identified in the most common genes associated with Noonan, cardio-facio-cutaneous, Legius, and Costello syndromes, as well as neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient constitutional DNA exhibited a ~10.5 Mb duplication at 12p, including the KRAS gene. The index case's mother carried the same chromosome abnormality and also showed development delay with short stature, and numerous café-au-lait spots. Duplication of the KRAS gene may participate in the propositus phenotype, in particular of the specific pigmentation abnormalities. Array-CGH or some other assessment of gene/exon CNVs of RAS/MAPK pathway genes should be considered in the evaluation of individuals with rasopathies. PMID:27450488

  19. Chromosome abnormalities diagnosed in utero: a Japanese study of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens collected before 22 weeks gestations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Miyuki; Yan, Jim; Yotsumoto, Junko; Sawai, Hideaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of abnormal karyotype in Japan by amniocentesis before 22 weeks of gestation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens in a local population collected before 22 weeks gestations for fetal karyotyping. The incidence of abnormal karyotype was 6.0%. The main indication was advanced maternal age (AMA) of 35 years and older, which represented over half of the clinical indications. Abnormal karyotype was most frequently reported among the referrals for abnormal ultrasound findings (21.8%), followed by positive maternal serum screen results (5.3%). Three-fourths of abnormal karyotype was either autosomal aneuploidy (64.0%) or sex chromosome aneuploidy (11.6%). Abnormal karyotype was detected in 2.8% of pregnant women referred for AMA. Clinically significant abnormal karyotype increased with advancing maternal age. The frequency and type of abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis for various indications were determined. Amniocentesis was mainly performed among the referrals for AMA, which is a characteristic distribution of indications of Japan.

  20. Resolution of six chromosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis and conservation of size and number among isolates.

    PubMed

    Lehker, M W; Alderete, J F

    1999-10-01

    The electrophoretic karyotype of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates was determined by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. Six chromosomal bands ranging between 50 kbp and 6 Mbp were reliably resolved by our separation method. Trichomonad chromosomes fell into 3 distinct size classes. The 3 maxichromosomes were approximately 5,700, 4,700, and 3,500 kbp. Two intermediate-sized chromosomes were approximately 1,200 kbp and 1,100 kbp. A minichromosome was approximately 75 kbp. The same size and number of chromosomes were present in 15 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from different geographic regions, reinforcing the idea of a highly conserved karyotype among trichomonal isolates worldwide. PMID:10577741

  1. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders.

  2. Increased likelihood of post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis in Ph-negative MPN patients with chromosome 12 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Benton, Christopher B; Tanaka, Maria; Wilson, Catherine; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-04-01

    Chromosome 12 (Chr12) abnormalities have been described for individual patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-neg MPN), however the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of such patients as a whole have not been investigated. We reviewed a database of 1787 consecutive Ph-neg MPN patients seen at our institution and determined that 2% of Ph-neg MPN patients harbored an alteration involving Chr12 by cytogenetic evaluation. Retrospective chart review revealed that patients with Chr12 abnormalities had a higher likelihood of having myelofibrosis (MF) compared to patients without a Chr12 abnormality, and were more likely to have post-polycythemia vera MF. The most common alterations in Chr12 in MF patients involved 12q13, 12q15, 12q24, and trisomy 12, and >40% of Chr12 Ph-neg MPN patients had cytogenetic evolution. Chr12 abnormalities did not significantly correlate with JAK2 status, progression to acute myeloid leukemia, or survival, however patients with 12q24 abnormalities trended toward poorer outcomes.

  3. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  4. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  5. Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

  6. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies. PMID:1387478

  7. Detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities (chr. 1 and 18) before and after photodynamic therapy of human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Kleinschmidt, Klaus; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1997-12-01

    The application of nonradioactive in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes for cytogenetic analysis has increased significantly in recent years. In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT) the hypothesis is that after PDT the remaining viable malignant cells are potentially metastatic cells. Therefore, we performed in vitro experiments on human bladder carcinoma cells to evaluate numerical chromosomal abnormalities before and after PDT. The possible genotoxic effect of PDT with porphycene (AamTPPn) appears to be small based on criteria such as numerical chromosomal abnormalities for chromosome 1 and 18.

  8. Ribosomal DNA and Stellate gene copy number variation on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G

    1989-01-01

    Multigene families on the Y chromosome face an unusual array of evolutionary forces. Both ribosomal DNA and Stellate, the two families examined here, have multiple copies of similar sequences on the X and Y chromosomes. Although the rate of sequence divergence on the Y chromosome depends on rates of mutation, gene conversion and exchange with the X chromosome, as well as purifying selection, the regulation of gene copy number may also depend on other pleiotropic functions, such as maintenance of chromosome pairing. Gene copy numbers were estimated for a series of 34 Y chromosome replacement lines using densitometric measurements of slot blots of genomic DNA from adult Drosophila melanogaster. Scans of autoradiographs of the same blots probed with the cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene, a single copy gene, served as internal standards. Copy numbers span a 6-fold range for ribosomal DNA and a 3-fold range for Stellate DNA. Despite this magnitude of variation, there was no association between copy number and segregation variation of the sex chromosomes. Images PMID:2494656

  9. X-chromosome tiling path array detection of copy number variants in patients with chromosome X-linked mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal, I; Rodríguez-Revenga, L; Armengol, L; González, E; Rodriguez, B; Badenas, C; Sánchez, A; Martínez, F; Guitart, M; Fernández, I; Arranz, JA; Tejada, MI; Pérez-Jurado, LA; Estivill, X; Milà, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Aproximately 5–10% of cases of mental retardation in males are due to copy number variations (CNV) on the X chromosome. Novel technologies, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), may help to uncover cryptic rearrangements in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) patients. We have constructed an X-chromosome tiling path array using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and validated it using samples with cytogenetically defined copy number changes. We have studied 54 patients with idiopathic mental retardation and 20 controls subjects. Results Known genomic aberrations were reliably detected on the array and eight novel submicroscopic imbalances, likely causative for the mental retardation (MR) phenotype, were detected. Putatively pathogenic rearrangements included three deletions and five duplications (ranging between 82 kb to one Mb), all but two affecting genes previously known to be responsible for XLMR. Additionally, we describe different CNV regions with significant different frequencies in XLMR and control subjects (44% vs. 20%). Conclusion This tiling path array of the human X chromosome has proven successful for the detection and characterization of known rearrangements and novel CNVs in XLMR patients. PMID:18047645

  10. Transient pancytopenia preceding adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal abnormalities including the Philadelphia chromosome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YUN; DING, LUYIN; LI, XIAN; WANG, WEIQIN; ZHANG, XIAOHONG

    2015-01-01

    A preleukaemic phase, typified by transient pancytopenia, is a rare occurrence that usually affects children and adolescents. The present study reports the case of a 50-year-old woman with transient pancytopenia, which manifested as a fever, cough and severe anemia. Three weeks following treatment of pancytopenia with antibiotics, red blood cell and platelet transfusion, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and human γ globulin, the condition of the patient was improved. However, 3 weeks following discharge from hospital, the patient was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with complex chromosomal abnormalities, including Philadelphia chromosome and P190 breakpoint cluster region-ABL. Complete remission was achieved following one course of combination chemotherapy. In conclusion, adult ALL with pancytopenia as a preceding symptom is rare, difficult to diagnose early and easily misdiagnosed. In addition, the pathogenesis of ALL and the precipitating factors underlying this disease require further investigation. PMID:26788209

  11. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27

    PubMed Central

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder Jr, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene MF; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype–phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies. PMID:24736736

  12. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27.

    PubMed

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene M F; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype-phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies.

  13. Role of the Number of Microtubules in Chromosome Segregation during Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of chromosomes between two spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated so that coherent chromosome motion emerges from a large collection of random and deterministic processes. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation during mitosis. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compares well with early observations in mammalian cell spindles. Our results shed new light on the origin of several pathological conditions related to chromosomal instability. PMID:26506005

  14. Complex chromosomal rearrangements leading to MECOM overexpression are recurrent in myeloid malignancies with various 3q abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Baldazzi, Carmen; Luatti, Simona; Zuffa, Elisa; Papayannidis, Cristina; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Marzocchi, Giulia; Ameli, Gaia; Bardi, Maria Antonella; Bonaldi, Laura; Paolini, Rossella; Gurrieri, Carmela; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Cuneo, Antonio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele; Testoni, Nicoletta

    2016-04-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving 3q26 are recurrent findings in myeloid malignancies leading to MECOM overexpression, which has been associated with a very poor prognosis. Other 3q abnormalities have been reported and cryptic MECOM rearrangements have been identified in some cases. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, we investigated 97 acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome patients with various 3q abnormalities to determine the role and the frequency of the involvement of MECOM. We identified MECOM rearrangements in 51 patients, most of them showed 3q26 involvement by chromosome banding analysis (CBA): inv(3)/t(3;3) (n = 26) and other balanced 3q26 translocations (t(3q26)) (n = 15); the remaining cases (n = 10) showed various 3q abnormalities: five with balanced translocations involving 3q21 or 3q25; two with homogenously staining region (hsr) on 3q; and three with other various 3q abnormalities. Complex rearrangements with multiple breakpoints on 3q, masking 3q26 involvement, were identified in cases with 3q21/3q25 translocations. Furthermore, multiple breaks were observed in two cases with t(3q26), suggesting that complex rearrangement may also occur in apparently simple t(3q26). Intrachromosomal gene amplification was another mechanism leading to MECOM overexpression in two cases with hsr on 3q. In the last three cases, FISH analysis revealed 3q26 involvement that was missed by CBA because of metaphases' suboptimal quality. All cases with MECOM rearrangements showed overexpression by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, MECOM rearrangements can occur in patients with 3q abnormalities even in the absence of specific 3q26 involvement, underlining that their frequency is underestimated. As MECOM rearrangement has been associated with very poor prognosis, its screening should be performed in patients with any 3q abnormalities.

  15. Complex chromosomal rearrangements leading to MECOM overexpression are recurrent in myeloid malignancies with various 3q abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Baldazzi, Carmen; Luatti, Simona; Zuffa, Elisa; Papayannidis, Cristina; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Marzocchi, Giulia; Ameli, Gaia; Bardi, Maria Antonella; Bonaldi, Laura; Paolini, Rossella; Gurrieri, Carmela; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Cuneo, Antonio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele; Testoni, Nicoletta

    2016-04-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving 3q26 are recurrent findings in myeloid malignancies leading to MECOM overexpression, which has been associated with a very poor prognosis. Other 3q abnormalities have been reported and cryptic MECOM rearrangements have been identified in some cases. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, we investigated 97 acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome patients with various 3q abnormalities to determine the role and the frequency of the involvement of MECOM. We identified MECOM rearrangements in 51 patients, most of them showed 3q26 involvement by chromosome banding analysis (CBA): inv(3)/t(3;3) (n = 26) and other balanced 3q26 translocations (t(3q26)) (n = 15); the remaining cases (n = 10) showed various 3q abnormalities: five with balanced translocations involving 3q21 or 3q25; two with homogenously staining region (hsr) on 3q; and three with other various 3q abnormalities. Complex rearrangements with multiple breakpoints on 3q, masking 3q26 involvement, were identified in cases with 3q21/3q25 translocations. Furthermore, multiple breaks were observed in two cases with t(3q26), suggesting that complex rearrangement may also occur in apparently simple t(3q26). Intrachromosomal gene amplification was another mechanism leading to MECOM overexpression in two cases with hsr on 3q. In the last three cases, FISH analysis revealed 3q26 involvement that was missed by CBA because of metaphases' suboptimal quality. All cases with MECOM rearrangements showed overexpression by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, MECOM rearrangements can occur in patients with 3q abnormalities even in the absence of specific 3q26 involvement, underlining that their frequency is underestimated. As MECOM rearrangement has been associated with very poor prognosis, its screening should be performed in patients with any 3q abnormalities. PMID:26815134

  16. A novel method for sex determination by detecting the number of X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Shojo, Hideki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takada, Aya; Adachi, Noboru; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for sex determination, based on the detection of the number of X chromosomes, was established. Current methods, based on the detection of the Y chromosome, can directly identify an unknown sample as male, but female gender is determined indirectly, by not detecting the Y chromosome. Thus, a direct determination of female gender is important because the quality (e.g., fragmentation and amelogenin-Y null allele) of the Y chromosome DNA may lead to a false result. Thus, we developed a novel sex determination method by analyzing the number of X chromosomes using a copy number variation (CNV) detection technique (the comparative Ct method). In this study, we designed a primer set using the amelogenin-X gene without the CNV region as the target to determine the X chromosome copy number, to exclude the influence of the CNV region from the comparative Ct value. The number of X chromosomes was determined statistically using the CopyCaller software with real-time PCR. All DNA samples from participants (20 males, 20 females) were evaluated correctly using this method with 1-ng template DNA. A minimum of 0.2-ng template DNA was found to be necessary for accurate sex determination with this method. When using ultraviolet-irradiated template DNA, as mock forensic samples, the sex of the samples could not be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis but was correctly determined using our method. Thus, we successfully developed a method of sex determination based on the number of X chromosomes. Our novel method will be useful in forensic practice for sex determination.

  17. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  18. Numbers and ratios of X-chromosomal-linked opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Sharpe, L T; Knau, H; Wissinger, B

    1998-11-01

    Quantitative Southern blotting and PCR/RFLP analysis were used to determine the number and ratio of long-wave-sensitive (L-) and mid-wave-sensitive (M-) opsin genes in 25 colour-normal caucasian males. The average observed ratio was 1:2.8 +/- 1.2 for Southern blot analysis and 1:3.0 +/- 1.7 for PCR/RFLP analysis. Thus, the two techniques yielded similar results for the ratio of L- to M-opsin genes (Wilcoxon t-test, P < 0.01). PCR/RFLP analysis of a Sma I polymorphism specific for the most proximal opsin gene suggested an average gene number of 6.0 +/- 2.1, with a range from 4 to 12 in individual subjects. In contrast, Southern blot analysis suggested an average number of 3.8 +/- 1.2, with a range from 2 to 7 (on the assumption that only one L-opsin gene is ever present). Differences between the L- to M-opsin gene ratio and the total gene number in some subjects may result from the presence of multiple L-opsin genes and/or hybrid opsin genes in colour-normal males. An exact determination of the total gene number will require employing other molecular techniques.

  19. Clinical and prognostic significance of 3q26.2 and other chromosome 3 abnormalities in CML in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cortes, Jorge E; Lin, Pei; Beaty, Michael W; Ai, Di; Amin, Hesham M; McDonnell, Timothy J; Ok, Chi Young; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Hu, Shimin

    2015-10-01

    Chromosome 3q26.2 abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia, including inv(3)/t(3;3) and t(3;21), have been studied and are associated with a poor prognosis. Their prevalence, response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, and prognostic significance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are largely unknown. In this study, we explored these aspects using a cohort of 2013 patients with CML diagnosed in the era of TKI therapy. Chromosome 3 abnormalities were observed in 116 (5.8%) of 2013 cases. These cases were divided into 5 distinct groups: A, inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2), 26%; B, t(3;21)(q26.2;q22), 17%; C, other 3q26.2 rearrangements, 7%; D, rearrangements involving chromosome 3 other than 3q26.2 locus, 32%; and E, gain or loss of partial or whole chromosome 3, 18%. In all, 3q26.2 rearrangements were the most common chromosome 3 abnormalities (50%, groups A-C). 3q26.2 rearrangements emerged at different leukemic phases. For cases with 3q26.2 rearrangements that initially emerged in chronic or accelerated phase, they had a high rate of transformation to blast phase. Patients with 3q26.2 abnormalities showed a marginal response to TKI treatment, and no patients achieved a long-term sustainable response at a cytogenetic or molecular level. Compared with other chromosomal abnormalities in CML, patients with 3q26.2 rearrangements had poorer overall survival. The presence or absence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities did not affect survival in these patients, reflecting the predominant role of 3q26.2 rearrangements in determining prognosis. Interestingly, although heterogeneous, chromosome 3 abnormalities involving non-3q26.2 loci (groups D, E) also conferred a worse prognosis compared with changes involving other chromosomes in this cohort.

  20. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  1. Global patterns of large copy number variations in the human genome reveal complexity in chromosome organization.

    PubMed

    Veerappa, Avinash M; Suresh, Raviraj V; Vishweswaraiah, Sangeetha; Lingaiah, Kusuma; Murthy, Megha; Manjegowda, Dinesh S; Padakannaya, Prakash; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2015-01-01

    Global patterns of copy number variations (CNVs) in chromosomes are required to understand the dynamics of genome organization and complexity. For this study, analysis was performed using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 chip and CytoScan High-Density arrays. We identified a total of 44 109 CNVs from 1715 genomes with a mean of 25 CNVs in an individual, which established the first drafts of population-specific CNV maps providing a rationale for prioritizing chromosomal regions. About 19 905 ancient CNVs were identified across all chromosomes and populations at varying frequencies. CNV count, and sometimes CNV size, contributed to the bulk CNV size of the chromosome. Population specific lengthening and shortening of chromosomal length was observed. Sex bias for CNV presence was largely dependent on ethnicity. Lower CNV inheritance rate was observed for India, compared to YRI and CEU. A total of 33 candidate CNV hotspots from 5382 copy number (CN) variable region (CNVR) clusters were identified. Population specific CNV distribution patterns in p and q arms disturbed the assumption that CNV counts in the p arm are less common compared to long arms, and the CNV occurrence and distribution in chromosomes is length independent. This study unraveled the force of independent evolutionary dynamics on genome organization and complexity across chromosomes and populations. PMID:26390810

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of sub-microscopic partial trisomy 10q using chromosomal microarray analysis in a phenotypically abnormal fetus with normal karyotype.

    PubMed

    Browne, P C; Adam, S; Badr, M; Brooks, C R; Edwards, J; Walker, P; Mohamed, S; Gregg, A R

    2016-05-17

    Partial trisomy of the 10q region was originally reported in 1979 [1]. For 25 years, the diagnosis was made microscopically based on large, visible insertions in the region identified by karyotype analysis. Previous case reports have included both unbalanced translocations and large duplications/insertions in the 10q region [2]. Probands with partial trisomy 10q syndrome often have an abnormal phenotype that may include developmental delay [3-5], craniofacial abnormalities [3, 5], talipes (clubfoot) [2], microcephaly [2-4], or congenital heart disease [2-6]. Prenatal diagnoses by karyotype have been made following ultrasound diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma [7], renal pyelectasis [3, 8-10], and other fetal abnormalities [4]. In this case, we report the first prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 10q (10q22.3-10q23.2) with a normal karyotype and an abnormal chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). This is the smallest copy number variant (CNV) (7.5 Mb) in the 10q22.3-10q23.2 regions yet reported. PMID:27197934

  3. Identification of unbalanced genome copy number abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Yuhei; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Sanada, Masashi; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Enami, Terukazu; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Kurita, Naoki; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Okoshi, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Chiba, Shigeru

    2012-10-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray (SNP array) analysis provides detailed information on chromosomal copy number aberrations. To obtain detailed information on genomic abnormalities related to pathogenesis or prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM), we performed 250K SNP array analysis in 39 MM patients and 11 cell lines. We identified an accumulation of deletions and uniparental disomies at 22q12.1. Among the hyperdiploid MM cases, chromosomal imbalance at this locus was associated with poor prognosis. On sequencing, we also found a mutation in the seizure-related 6 homolog (mouse)-like (SEZ6L) gene located at ch.22q12.1 in an MM cell line, NOP1. We further found isolated deletions in 17 genes, five of which are known tumor suppressor genes. Of these, deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD) was found in three samples, including two patients. Consistent with previous reports, non-hyperdiploid MM, deletion of 13q (del13q) and gain of 1q in non-hyperdiploid MMs were predictive of poor prognosis (p = 0.039, p = 0.049, and p = 0.013, respectively). However, our analysis revealed that unless accompanied by gain of 1q, the prognosis of non-hyperdiploid MM was as good as that of hyperdiploid MM. Thus, SNP array analysis provides significant information useful to understanding the pathogenesis and prognosis of MM.

  4. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  5. Marker chromosomes lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA: A new intriguing class of abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.A.; Zinn, A.B.; Stallard, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies have implicated {alpha}-satellite DNA as an integral part of the centromere and important for the normal segregation of chromosomes. We analyzed four supernumerary marker chromosomes in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could detect neither pancentromeric or chromosome specific {alpha}-satellite DNA. Mosaicism of the markers existed, but each was present in the majority of cells indicating that they segregated normally. FISH with chromosome-specific libraries identified the origins of these markers as chromosomes 13 (1 case) and 15 (3 cases). High resolution analysis, combined with hybridization of a series of cosmid probes, revealed that each marker was a symmetrical duplication of the terminal long arm of the parent chromosome. Telomeric sequences were detected by FISH indicating linear structures. Breakpoint heterogeneity, as defined by cosmid probes, was demonstrated in the three cases involving chromosome 15. No pericentromeric satellite III DNA could be detected on three markers. Studies with anti-centromere antibodies are in progress to assay for centromeric antigens on the markers, as expected at functional centromeric sites. Our results demonstrate that the precise structural identification and heterogeneity of these markers can be easily elucidated using FISH with unique sequence cosmid probes. We conclude from our studies and others in the literature: (1) there is a newly defined class of markers lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA and containing duplications of terminal sequences; (2)neither {alpha}-satellite nor satellite III DNA at levels detectable by FISH is necessary for fidelity in the normal segregation of chromosomes; and (3) these markers were most likely formed by recombination of the long arms during meiosis.

  6. Abnormal pairing of X and Y sex chromosomes during meiosis I in interspecific hybrids of Phodopus campbelli and P. sungorus

    PubMed Central

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Kazuma; Ohishi, Namiko; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid sterility plays an important role in the maintenance of species identity and promotion of speciation. Male interspecific hybrids from crosses between Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian hamster (P. sungorus) exhibit sterility with abnormal spermatogenesis. However, the meiotic phenotype of these hybrids has not been well described. In the present work, we observed the accumulation of spermatocytes and apoptosis of spermatocyte-like cells in the testes of hybrids between P. campbelli females and P. sungorus males. In hybrid spermatocytes, a high frequency of asynapsis of X and Y chromosomes during the pachytene-like stage and dissociation of these chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) was observed. No autosomal univalency was observed during pachytene-like and MI stages in the hybrids; however, a low frequency of synapsis between autosomes and X or Y chromosomes, interlocking and partial synapsis between autosomal pairs, and γ-H2AFX staining in autosomal chromatin was observed during the pachytene-like stage. Degenerated MI-like nuclei were frequently observed in the hybrids. Most of the spermatozoa in hybrid epididymides exhibited head malformation. These results indicate that the pairing of X and Y chromosomes is more adversely affected than that of autosomes in Phodopus hybrids. PMID:25801302

  7. Abnormal pairing of X and Y sex chromosomes during meiosis I in interspecific hybrids of Phodopus campbelli and P. sungorus.

    PubMed

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Kazuma; Ohishi, Namiko; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-03-24

    Hybrid sterility plays an important role in the maintenance of species identity and promotion of speciation. Male interspecific hybrids from crosses between Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian hamster (P. sungorus) exhibit sterility with abnormal spermatogenesis. However, the meiotic phenotype of these hybrids has not been well described. In the present work, we observed the accumulation of spermatocytes and apoptosis of spermatocyte-like cells in the testes of hybrids between P. campbelli females and P. sungorus males. In hybrid spermatocytes, a high frequency of asynapsis of X and Y chromosomes during the pachytene-like stage and dissociation of these chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) was observed. No autosomal univalency was observed during pachytene-like and MI stages in the hybrids; however, a low frequency of synapsis between autosomes and X or Y chromosomes, interlocking and partial synapsis between autosomal pairs, and γ-H2AFX staining in autosomal chromatin was observed during the pachytene-like stage. Degenerated MI-like nuclei were frequently observed in the hybrids. Most of the spermatozoa in hybrid epididymides exhibited head malformation. These results indicate that the pairing of X and Y chromosomes is more adversely affected than that of autosomes in Phodopus hybrids.

  8. Photosynthesis of Grass Species Differing in Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathways : VII. CHROMOSOME NUMBERS, METAPHASE I CHROMOSOME BEHAVIOR, AND MODE OF REPRODUCTION OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY DISTINCT PANICUM SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Bouton, J H; Brown, R H; Bolton, J K; Campagnoli, R P

    1981-03-01

    Panicum species of the Laxa group were investigated in a series of published reports and were found to possess C(4), C(3), and intermediate photosynthetic characteristics. Taxonomic and other relationships among these plants, however, are not clear. It was the objective of this investigation to document chromosome number, metaphase I chromosome behavior, and mode of reproduction, including abnormalities in the embryo sac, for these species.Chromosome counts showed a basic number (x) of 10 and ploidy levels of diploid (2n = 2x = 20), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60) in this group of Panicum. One diploid and one tetraploid accession of the C(4) species, Panicum prionitis Griseb., were obtained. Of the intermediate species, Panicum milioides Nees ex Trin. was diploid, Panicum schenckii Hack. was hexaploid, and Panicum decipiens Nees, ex Trin. was found to possess two ploidy levels, one accession being diploid and the other accession being hexaploid. All the C(3) species, which included two accessions of Panicum laxum Sw., three accessions of Panicum hylaeicum Mez., and one accession of Panicum rivulare Trin., were tetraploid.Meiosis was regular with primarily bivalent pairing at metaphase I in all species except the tetraploid accession of P. prionitis which possessed from 4 to 10 tetravalents. Stainable pollen was high in all species, ranging from 70 to 99%. Embryo sac analyses showed a single sac in all plants except the tetraploid accession of P. prionitis, which was found to possess an additional sac at anthesis. An additional sac was also observed in some ovaries of the P. schenckii accession. Self-pollinated seed set was high in all accessions except the diploid accession of P. prionitis and one accession of P. laxum where no seed was set under bagged conditions.This information establishes, within the limits of this collection, a base for future studies on genetic, taxonomic, photosynthetic, and evolutionary relationships among these

  9. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic and intellectual disability with normal karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Pratte-Santos, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Katyanne Heringer; Santos, Thainá Altoe; Cintra, Terezinha Sarquis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with normal conventional karyotype. Methods Retrospective study, carried out from January 2012 to February 2014, analyzing the CGH-array results of 39 patients. Results Twenty-six (66.7%) patients had normal results and 13 (33.3%) showed abnormal results - in that, 6 (15.4%) had pathogenic variants, 6 (15.4%) variants designated as uncertain and 1 (2.5%) non-pathogenic variants. Conclusion The characterization of the genetic profile by CGH-array in patients with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features enabled making etiologic diagnosis, followed by genetic counseling for families and specific treatment. PMID:27074231

  10. Evolution of genome size in Carex (Cyperaceae) in relation to chromosome number and genomic base composition

    PubMed Central

    Lipnerová, Ivana; Bureš, Petr; Horová, Lucie; Šmarda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Carex exhibits karyological peculiarities related to holocentrism, specifically extremely broad and almost continual variation in chromosome number. However, the effect of these peculiarities on the evolution of the genome (genome size, base composition) remains unknown. While in monocentrics, determining the arithmetic relationship between the chromosome numbers of related species is usually sufficient for the detection of particular modes of karyotype evolution (i.e. polyploidy and dysploidy), in holocentrics where chromosomal fission and fusion occur such detection requires knowledge of the DNA content. Methods The genome size and GC content were estimated in 157 taxa using flow cytometry. The exact chromosome numbers were known for 96 measured samples and were taken from the available literature for other taxa. All relationships were tested in a phylogenetic framework using the ITS tree of 105 species. Key Results The 1C genome size varied between 0·24 and 1·64 pg in Carex secalina and C. cuspidata, respectively. The genomic GC content varied from 34·8 % to 40·6 % from C. secalina to C. firma. Both genomic parameters were positively correlated. Seven polyploid and two potentially polyploid taxa were detected in the core Carex clade. A strong negative correlation between genome size and chromosome number was documented in non-polyploid taxa. Non-polyploid taxa of the core Carex clade exhibited a higher rate of genome-size evolution compared with the Vignea clade. Three dioecious taxa exhibited larger genomes, larger chromosomes, and a higher GC content than their hermaphrodite relatives. Conclusions Genomes of Carex are relatively small and very GC-poor compared with other angiosperms. We conclude that the evolution of genome and karyotype in Carex is promoted by frequent chromosomal fissions/fusions, rare polyploidy and common repetitive DNA proliferation/removal. PMID:23175591

  11. Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions by Microarray Analysis: A Study of 5,380 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lina; Shaw, Chad A.; Lu, Xin-Yan; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema R.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Li, Yinfeng; Neill, Sarah; Pursley, Amber N.; Chinault, A. Craig; Patel, Ankita; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.

    2009-01-01

    Subtelomeric imbalances are a significant cause of congenital disorders. Screening for these abnormalities has traditionally utilized GTG-banding analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a relatively new technology that can identify microscopic and submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. It has been proposed that an array with extended coverage at subtelomeric regions could characterize subtelomeric aberrations more efficiently in a single experiment. The targeted arrays for chromosome microarray analysis (CMA), developed by Baylor College of Medicine, have on average 12 BAC/PAC clones covering 10 Mb of each of the 41 subtelomeric regions. We screened 5,380 consecutive clinical patients using CMA. The most common reasons for referral included developmental delay (DD), and/or mental retardation (MR), dysmorphic features (DF), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), seizure disorders (SD), and autistic, or other behavioral abnormalities. We found pathogenic rearrangements at subtelomeric regions in 236 patients (4.4%). Among these patients, 103 had a deletion, 58 had a duplication, 44 had an unbalanced translocation, and 31 had a complex rearrangement. The detection rates varied among patients with a normal karyotype analysis (2.98%), with an abnormal karyotype analysis (43.4%), and with an unavailable or no karyotype analysis (3.16%). Six patients out of 278 with a prior normal subtelomere-FISH analysis showed an abnormality including an interstitial deletion, two terminal deletions, two interstitial duplications, and a terminal duplication. In conclusion, genomic imbalances at subtelomeric regions contribute significantly to congenital disorders. Targeted array-CGH with extended coverage (up to 10 Mb) of subtelomeric regions will enhance the detection of subtelomeric imbalances, especially for submicroscopic imbalances. PMID

  12. Chromosome

    MedlinePlus

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  13. Characterization of the temporal persistence of chromosomal abnormalities in the semen of Hodkin`s disease patients after treatment with NOVP chemotherapy using multi-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, M.J.; Robbins, W.A.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to sperm of men with Hodgkin`s disease to measure the persistence of chromosomally abnormal sperm within the time interval of 3 to 33 months after the end of treatment. NOVP chemotherapy includes the agents novantrone, oncovin, vinblastine, and prednisone, two of which are spindle poisons expected to induce aneuploidy. Semen samples were evaluated for the frequencies of fluorescence phenotypes representing hyperhaploidy, hypohaploidy, and genomic duplications using DNA probes specific for repetitive sequences on chromosomes X,Y, and 8. Using this procedure, NOVP was previously shown to induce chromosomally abnormal sperm in treated patients. In a longitudinal assessment of 11 semen samples from 2 men, frequencies of abnormal sperm appeared to return to pre-treatment levels at {approximately}6 months after the end of treatment and remained at these levels up to 33 months after the end of treatment. However, pre-treatment frequencies of chromosomally abnormal cells in Hodgkin`s patients were elevated above those found in normal healthy men. Additional patients are being evaluated to determine how long after therapy Hodgkin`s disease patients remain at increased risk for producing chromosomally abnormal sperm.

  14. Characterization of chromosome 14 abnormalities by interphase in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization in 124 meningiomas: correlation with clinical, histopathologic, and prognostic features.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, María Dolores; Espinosa, Ana Belén; Maíllo, Angel; Sayagués, José María; Alguero, María del Carmen; Lumbreras, Eva; Díaz, Pedro; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Onzain, Ignacio; Merino, Marta; Morales, Francisco; Orfao, Alberto

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed quantitative chromosome 14 abnormalities in 124 meningiomas by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) and confirmed the nature of abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We correlated the abnormalities with clinical, histopathologic, and prognostic factors. Of 124 cases, 50 (40.3%) showed loss (14.5%) or gain (25.8%) of the 14q32 chromosome region by iFISH. Most corresponded to numeric abnormalities: monosomy (12.9%), trisomy (1.6%), or tetrasomy (24.2%); in only 2 cases (1.6%), chromosome 14 loss did not involve the whole chromosome and was restricted to the 14q31-q32 region (confirmed by CGH). Cases with gain or monosomy corresponded more frequently to histologically malignant tumors (P = .009). Patients with monosomy 14/14q-, but not those with gain, more often were male (P = .04) and had a greater incidence of recurrence (P = .003) and shorter relapse-free survival (P = .03). The 2 patients with loss limited to 14q31-q32 had histologically benign tumors and no relapse after more than 5 years' follow-up. Most meningiomas with chromosome 14 abnormalities have numeric changes, with interstitial deletions of 14q31-q32 present in few cases. Of the abnormalities detected, only monosomy 14 showed an adverse prognostic impact. PMID:15981814

  15. The Landscape of Somatic Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations in GEM Models of Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Frias, Daniella; Hernandez, Susana A.; Coleman, Roger; Wu, Hong; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Human prostate cancer (PCa) is known to harbor recurrent genomic aberrations consisting of chromosomal losses, gains, rearrangements and mutations that involve oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been constructed to assess the causal role of these putative oncogenic events and provide molecular insight into disease pathogenesis. While GEM models generally initiate neoplasia by manipulating a single gene, expression profiles of GEM tumors typically comprise hundreds of transcript alterations. It is unclear whether these transcriptional changes represent the pleiotropic effects of single oncogenes, and/or cooperating genomic or epigenomic events. Therefore, it was determined if structural chromosomal alterations occur in GEM models of PCa and whether the changes are concordant with human carcinomas. Whole genome array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in the widely used TRAMP, Hi-Myc, Pten-null and LADY GEM models. Interestingly, very few SCNAs were identified and the genomic architecture of Hi-Myc, Pten-null and LADY tumors were essentially identical to the germline. TRAMP neuroendocrine carcinomas contained SCNAs, which comprised three recurrent aberrations including a single copy loss of chromosome 19 (encoding Pten). In contrast, cell lines derived from the TRAMP, Hi-Myc, and Pten-null tumors were notable for numerous SCNAs that included copy gains of chromosome 15 (encoding Myc) and losses of chromosome 11 (encoding p53). PMID:25298407

  16. Transcriptional activation by TAL1 and FUS-CHOP proteins expressed in acute malignancies as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, I; Rabbitts, T H

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that appear to participate in transcriptional control of gene expression are increasingly implicated in leukemias and malignant solid tumors. We report here that the N-terminal domains of the proteins TAL1 (ectopically activated in T-cell acute leukemias after chromosomal abnormalities caused by V-D-J recombinase error) (V, variable; D, diversity; J, joining) and FUS-CHOP (a liposarcoma tumor-specific fusion protein that is produced as a result of a chromosomal translocation) can function as transcription activators of specific responsive reporter genes. The result with TAL1 provides evidence that transcriptional activation can be mediated by a gene activated by translocation in T-cell acute leukemias. In the case of the liposarcoma, transactivation by the FUS-CHOP protein occurs because the FUS transcriptional activation domain is added to the DNA-binding CHOP protein normally lacking such activity. Therefore, the association of transcriptional activation and DNA-binding elements is a common consequence in proteins activated or newly created as fusion proteins after chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias and in malignant solid tumors. Images PMID:8058726

  17. Risk stratification of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic myelogenous leukemia in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cortes, Jorge E; Tang, Guilin; Khoury, Joseph D; Wang, Sa; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; DiGiuseppe, Joseph A; Chen, Zi; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Hu, Shimin

    2016-06-01

    Clonal cytogenetic evolution with additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is generally associated with decreased response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy and adverse survival. Although ACAs are considered as a sign of disease progression and have been used as one of the criteria for accelerated phase, the differential prognostic impact of individual ACAs in CML is unknown, and a classification system to reflect such prognostic impact is lacking. In this study, we aimed to address these questions using a large cohort of CML patients treated in the era of TKIs. We focused on cases with single chromosomal changes at the time of ACA emergence and stratified the 6 most common ACAs into 2 groups: group 1 with a relatively good prognosis including trisomy 8, -Y, and an extra copy of Philadelphia chromosome; and group 2 with a relatively poor prognosis including i(17)(q10), -7/del7q, and 3q26.2 rearrangements. Patients in group 1 showed much better treatment response and survival than patients in group 2. When compared with cases with no ACAs, ACAs in group 2 conferred a worse survival irrelevant to the emergence phase and time. In contrast, ACAs in group 1 had no adverse impact on survival when they emerged from chronic phase or at the time of CML diagnosis. The concurrent presence of 2 or more ACAs conferred an inferior survival and can be categorized into the poor prognostic group. PMID:27006386

  18. Increased recombinant protein production owing to expanded opportunities for vector integration in high chromosome number Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Takahashi, Mai; Ali Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kumamoto, Toshitaka; Frank, Jana; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cultures of these cells gradually develop heterogeneity even if established from a single cell clone. We isolated cells containing different numbers of chromosomes from a CHO-DG44-based human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)-producing cell line and found that high chromosome number cells showed higher hGM-CSF productivity. Therefore, we focused on the relationship between chromosome aneuploidy of CHO cells and high recombinant protein-producing cell lines. Distribution and stability of chromosomes were examined in CHO-DG44 cells, and two cell lines expressing different numbers of chromosomes were isolated from the original CHO-DG44 cell line to investigate the effect of aneuploid cells on recombinant protein production. Both cell lines were stably transfected with a vector that expresses immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), and specific antibody production rates were compared. Cells containing more than 30 chromosomes had higher specific antibody production rates than those with normal chromosome number. Single cell analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp)-gene transfected cells revealed that increased GFP expression was relative to the number of gene integration sites rather than the difference in chromosome numbers or vector locations. Our results suggest that CHO cells with high numbers of chromosomes contain more sites for vector integration, a characteristic that could be advantageous in biopharmaceutical production.

  19. Chromosome Numbers and Genome Size Variation in Indian Species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Šída, Otakar; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Sabu, Mamyil; Fér, Tomáš; Trávníček, Pavel; Suda, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that significantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unbalanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the Indian subcontinent, and an assessment was made of the value of these data for taxonomic purposes. Methods Genome size of 161 homogeneously cultivated plant samples classified into 51 taxonomic entities was determined by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome numbers were counted in actively growing root tips using conventional rapid squash techniques. Key Results Six different chromosome counts (2n = 22, 42, 63, >70, 77 and 105) were found, the last two representing new generic records. The 2C-values varied from 1·66 pg in C. vamana to 4·76 pg in C. oligantha, representing a 2·87-fold range. Three groups of taxa with significantly different homoploid genome sizes (Cx-values) and distinct geographical distribution were identified. Five species exhibited intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content, reaching up to 15·1 % in cultivated C. longa. Chromosome counts and genome sizes of three Curcuma-like species (Hitchenia caulina, Kaempferia scaposa and Paracautleya bhatii) corresponded well with typical hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) Curcuma spp. Conclusions The basic chromosome number in the majority of Indian taxa (belonging to subgenus Curcuma) is x = 7; published counts correspond to 6x, 9x, 11x, 12x and 15x ploidy levels. Only a few species-specific C-values were found, but karyological and/or flow cytometric data may support taxonomic decisions in some species alliances with morphological similarities. Close evolutionary relationships among some cytotypes are suggested based on the similarity in homoploid genome sizes and geographical grouping

  20. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies.

  1. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and timing of karyotype analysis in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    De Sutter, P.; Stadhouders, R.; Dutré, M.; Gerris, J.; Dhont, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the prevalence and type of karyotype abnormalities in RIF patients and to evaluate the adequate timing for analysis and the presence of possible risk factors. Methods: 615 patients (317 women and 298 men) with RIF, having undergone at least 3 sequential failed IVF/ICSI cycles prior to karyotype analysis, were included in this study. Anomaly rates found were compared with published series. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed in 2.1% of patients (13/615): 8 females (2.5%) and 5 males (1.7%) which is significantly higher for the females than in unselected newborns (0.8%) and normo-ovulatory women (0.6%) but lower than in women with high-order implantation failure (10.8%). No significant differences were found with couples at the start of IVF/ICSI (2.0%). Karyotyping all patients prior to IVF/ICSI results in a higher cost than selecting RIF patients. Two subgroups showed an increased prevalence of abnormalities: secondary infertile women with a history of only miscarriages (9.1%) and women with female infertility (6.0%). Conclusion: A karyotype analysis is indicated in all women with RIF. Nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage and women with documented infertility are at greater risk of CA and are to be advised to undergo karyotyping. PMID:24753890

  2. Karyotype stability and predictors of chromosome number variation in sedges: a study in Carex section Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Escudero, Marcial; Hipp, Andrew L; Luceño, Modesto

    2010-10-01

    Previous work on holocentric chromosomes in the angiosperm genus Carex demonstrates that many of the traditional sections are marked by different ranges of chromosome number, suggesting phylogenetic autocorrelation. It has been hypothesized that shifting constraints on chromosome rearrangements may limit the potential for hybridization among lineages, promoting speciation. In this study, we evaluated alternative evolutionary models to test for such transitions in Carex section Spirostachyae as well as the relative effects of several plausible drivers of intraspecific chromosome diversity. Chromosome number variation in section Spirostachyae shows significant phylogenetic signal, but no evidence of clade-specific shifts in chromosome number distribution. This gradual model of chromosome evolution contrasts with the shifting equilibrium model previously identified in a younger section of the same genus, suggesting that section Spirostachyae may have a more slowly evolving karyotype. Chromosome number variance, on the other hand, exhibits low phylogenetic signal. Average time of coalescence rather than geographic range or chromosome number itself predicts chromosome number variance, demonstrating a previously unreported relationship between population history and cytogenetic variation.

  3. Number and size of human X chromosome fragments transferred to mouse cells by chromosome-mediated gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.S.; McBride, O.W.; Moore, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    Labeled probes of unique-sequence human X chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, prepared by two different procedures, were used to measure the amount of human X chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in 12 mouse cell lines expressing human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase after chromosome-mediated gene transfer. The amount of X chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid detected by this procedure ranged from undetectable levels in the three stable transformants and some unstable transformants examined to about 20% of the human X chromosome in two unstable transformants. Reassociation kinetics of the X chromosomal probe with deoxyribonucleic acid from the two unstable transformants containing 15 to 20% of the human X chromosome indicate that a single copy of these sequences is present. In one of these lines, the X chromosomal sequences exist as multiple fragments which were not concordantly segregated when the cells were selected for loss of hprt.

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Prolonged exposure to acid and bile induces chromosome abnormalities that precede malignant transformation of benign Barrett’s epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an asymptomatic, pre-malignant condition of the esophagus that can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). BE arises typically in individuals with long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The neoplastic progression of BE has been extensively studied histologically and defined as a metaplasia- dyplasia- carcinoma sequence. However the genetic basis of this process is poorly understood. It is conceived that preclinical models of BE may facilitate discovery of molecular markers due to ease of longitudinal sampling. Clinical markers to stratify the patients at higher risk are vital to institute appropriate therapeutic intervention since EAC has very poor prognosis. We developed a dynamic in-vitro BE carcinogenesis (BEC) model by exposing naïve Barrett’s epithelium cell line (BAR-T) to acid and bile at pH4 (B4), 5min/day for a year. The BEC model acquired malignant characteristics after chronic repeated exposure to B4 similar to the sequential progression of BE to EAC in vivo. Aim To study cytogenetic changes during progressive transformation in the BEC model. Results We observed that the BAR-T cells progressively acquired several chromosomal abnormalities in the BEC model. Evidence of chromosomal loss (-Y) rearrangements [t(10;16) and dup (11q)] and clonal selection appeared during the early stages of the BEC model. Clonal selection resulted in a stabilized monoclonal population of cells that had a changed morphology and formed colony in soft agar. BAR-T cells grown in parallel without any exposure did not show any of these abnormalities. Conclusions Prolonged acid and bile exposure induced chromosomal aberrations and clonal selection in benign BAR-T cells. Since aneuploidy preceded morphological/dysplastic changes in the BEC model, chromosomal aberrations may be an early predictor of BE progression. The [t(10;16) and dup(11q)] aberrations identified in this study harbor several genes associated with cancer

  6. Genetic Counseling for Patients Considering Screening and Diagnosis for Chromosomal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chard, Renée L; Norton, Mary E

    2016-06-01

    With the introduction of cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and chromosomal microarray for prenatal diagnostic testing, options for pregnant women have become increasingly complex. Discussions regarding options for prenatal testing for aneuploidy should occur prior to any testing and should include pertinent risks and benefits of each alternative test. There is no single screening or diagnostic test option that is the right choice for all patients; patient decisions should be based on each individual woman's values and preferences after a discussion of all options. PMID:27235908

  7. Use of a 10,600-nm CO2 Laser Mandibular Vestibular Extension in a Patient With a Chromosomal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert; Vitruk, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Vestibuloplasty involves a series of surgical procedures designed to restore alveolar ridge height by lowering the muscles attached to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws. The technique is indicated in cases of insufficient vestibular depth that may result from atrophy of the alveolar ridge and/or high attachment of muscle or movable mucosa. This article focuses on a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser vestibular extension procedure performed in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. The 10,600-nm CO2 laser is shown to offer several advantages over a conventional scalpel and other laser wavelengths for soft-tissue pre-prosthetic surgery, including vestibular extension. PMID:27608196

  8. The use of molecular and cytogenetic methods as a valuable tool in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in horses: a case of sex chromosome chimerism in a Spanish purebred colt.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Membrillo, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Anaya, G; Moreno-Millán, M

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities associated to sex chromosomes are reported as a problem more common than believed to be in horses. Most of them remain undiagnosed due to the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of interest of breeders and veterinarians in this type of diagnosis. Approximately 10 years ago, the Spanish Purebred Breeders Association implemented a DNA paternity test to evaluate the pedigree of every newborn foal. All candidates who showed abnormal or uncertain results are routinely submitted to cytogenetical analysis to evaluate the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. We studied the case of a foal showing 3 and even 4 different alleles in several loci in the short tandem repeat (STR) -based DNA parentage test. To confirm these results, a filiation test was repeated using follicular hair DNA showing normal results. A complete set of conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed to determine their chromosomal complements. C-banding and FISH had shown that the foal presents a sex chimerism 64,XX/64,XY with a cellular percentage of approximately 70/30, diagnosed in blood samples. The use of a diagnostic approach combining routine parentage QF-PCR-based STR screening tested with classical or molecular cytogenetic analysis could be a powerful tool that allows early detection of foals that will have a poor or even no reproductive performance due to chromosomal abnormalities, saving time, efforts and breeders' resources.

  9. Genomewide copy number analysis of Müllerian adenosarcoma identified chromosomal instability in the aggressive subgroup.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Changou, Chun A; Liang, Cher-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Neng; Lauria, Alexandra; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Lin, Chin-Yao; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Davidson, Ben; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Kuo, Kuan-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Müllerian adenosarcomas are malignant gynecologic neoplasms. Advanced staging and sarcomatous overgrowth predict poor prognosis. Because the genomic landscape remains poorly understood, we conducted this study to characterize the genomewide copy number variations in adenosarcomas. Sixteen tumors, including eight with and eight without sarcomatous overgrowth, were subjected to a molecular inversion probe array analysis. Copy number variations, particularly losses, were significantly higher in cases with sarcomatous overgrowth. Frequent gains of chromosomal 12q were noted, often involving cancer-associated genes CDK4 (six cases), MDM2, CPM, YEATS4, DDIT3, GLI1 (five each), HMGA2 and STAT6 (four), without association with sarcomatous overgrowth status. The most frequent losses involved chromosomes 13q (five cases), 9p, 16q and 17q (four cases each) and were almost limited to cases with sarcomatous overgrowth. MDM2 and CDK4 amplification, as well as losses of RB1 (observed in two cases) and CDKN2A/B (one case), was verified by FISH. By immunohistochemistry, all MDM2/CDK4-coamplified cases were confirmed to overexpress both encoded proteins, whereas all four cases with (plus an additional four without) gain of HMGA2 overexpressed the HMGA2 protein. Both cases with RB1 loss were negative for the immunostaining of the encoded protein. Chromothripsis-like copy number profiles involving chromosome 12 or 14 were observed in three fatal cases, all of which harbored sarcomatous overgrowth. With whole chromosome painting and deconvolution fluorescent microscopy, dividing tumor cells in all three cases were shown to have scattered extrachromosomal materials derived from chromosomes involved by chromothripsis, suggesting that this phenomenon may serve as visual evidence for chromothripsis in paraffin tissue. In conclusion, we identified frequent chromosome 12q amplifications, including loci containing potential pharmacological targets. Global chromosomal instability and

  10. Delineation of a deletion region critical for corpus callosal abnormalities in chromosome 1q43–q44

    PubMed Central

    Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Bay, Carolyn; Pettigrew, Anjana; Lalani, Seema R; Herman, Kristin; Graham, Brett H; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata JM; Proud, Monica; Craigen, William J; Hopkins, Bobbi; Kozel, Beth; Plunkett, Katie; Hixson, Patricia; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2012-01-01

    Submicroscopic deletions involving chromosome 1q43–q44 result in cognitive impairment, microcephaly, growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and variable involvement of other organ systems. A consistently observed feature in patients with this deletion are the corpus callosal abnormalities (CCAs), ranging from thinning and hypoplasia to complete agenesis. Previous studies attempting to delineate the critical region for CCAs have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 1q43–q44. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. Four patients had CCAs, and shared the smallest region of overlap that contains only three protein coding genes, CEP170, SDCCAG8, and ZNF238. One patient with a small deletion involving SDCCAG8 and AKT3, and another patient with an intragenic deletion of AKT3 did not have any CCA, implying that the loss of these two genes is unlikely to be the cause of CCA. CEP170 is expressed extensively in the brain, and encodes for a protein that is a component of the centrosomal complex. ZNF238 is involved in control of neuronal progenitor cells and survival of cortical neurons. Our results rule out the involvement of AKT3, and implicate CEP170 and/or ZNF238 as novel genes causative for CCA in patients with a terminal 1q deletion. PMID:21934713

  11. Loss of CENP-F results in distinct microtubule-related defects without chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Roth, Gretchen M.; Miller, Paul M.; Gintzig, Anneelizabeth G.; Ohi, Ryoma; Bader, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-binding centromere protein F (CENP-F) was previously shown to play a role exclusively in chromosome segregation during cellular division. Many cell models of CENP-F depletion show a lag in the cell cycle and aneuploidy. Here, using our novel genetic deletion model, we show that CENP-F also regulates a broader range of cellular functions outside of cell division. We characterized CENP-F+/+ and CENP-F–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and found drastic differences in multiple cellular functions during interphase, including cell migration, focal adhesion dynamics, and primary cilia formation. We discovered that CENP-F–/– MEFs have severely diminished MT dynamics, which underlies the phenotypes we describe. These data, combined with recent biochemical research demonstrating the strong binding of CENP-F to the MT network, support the conclusion that CENP-F is a powerful regulator of MT dynamics during interphase and affects heterogeneous cell functions. PMID:27146114

  12. Loss of CENP-F results in distinct microtubule-related defects without chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R; Roth, Gretchen M; Miller, Paul M; Gintzig, Anneelizabeth G; Ohi, Ryoma; Bader, David M

    2016-07-01

    Microtubule (MT)-binding centromere protein F (CENP-F) was previously shown to play a role exclusively in chromosome segregation during cellular division. Many cell models of CENP-F depletion show a lag in the cell cycle and aneuploidy. Here, using our novel genetic deletion model, we show that CENP-F also regulates a broader range of cellular functions outside of cell division. We characterized CENP-F(+/+) and CENP-F(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and found drastic differences in multiple cellular functions during interphase, including cell migration, focal adhesion dynamics, and primary cilia formation. We discovered that CENP-F(-/-) MEFs have severely diminished MT dynamics, which underlies the phenotypes we describe. These data, combined with recent biochemical research demonstrating the strong binding of CENP-F to the MT network, support the conclusion that CENP-F is a powerful regulator of MT dynamics during interphase and affects heterogeneous cell functions. PMID:27146114

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of a small supernumerary, XIST-negative, mosaic ring X chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in an abnormal male fetus.

    PubMed

    Le Caignec, C; Boceno, M; Joubert, M; Winer, N; Aubron, F; Fallet-Bianco, C; Rival, J M

    2003-02-01

    Marker or ring X [r(X)] chromosomes of varying size are often found in patients with Turner syndrome. Patients with very small r(X) chromosomes that did not include the X-inactivation locus (XIST) have been described with a more severe phenotype. Small r(X) chromosomes are rare in males and there are only five previous reports of such cases. We report the identification of a small supernumerary X chromosome in an abnormal male fetus. Cytogenetic analysis from chorionic villus sampling was performed because of fetal nuchal translucency thickness and it showed mosaicism 46,XY/47,XY,+r(X)/48,XY,+r(X),+r(X). Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) showed the marker to be of X-chromosome origin and not to contain the XIST locus. Additional specific probes showed that the r(X) included a euchromatic region in proximal Xq. At 20 weeks gestation, a second ultrasound examination revealed cerebral abnormalities. After genetic counselling, the pregnancy was terminated. The fetus we describe is the first male with a mosaic XIST-negative r(X) chromosome identified at prenatal diagnosis. The phenotype we observed was probably the result of functional disomy of the genes in the r(X) chromosome, secondary to loss of the XIST locus. PMID:12575022

  14. Human glioblastoma cells persistently infected with simian virus 40 carry nondefective episomal viral DNA and acquire the transformed phenotype and numerous chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Steinberg, V I; Kosz-Vnenchak, M

    1985-02-01

    A stable, persistent infection of A172 human glioblastoma cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) was readily established after infection at an input of 450 PFU per cell. Only 11% of the cells were initially susceptible to SV40, as shown by indirect immunofluorescent staining for the SV40 T antigen at 48 h. However, all cells produced T antigen by week 11. In contrast, viral capsid proteins were made in only about 1% of the cells in the established carrier system. Weekly viral yields ranged between 10(4) and 10(6) PFU/ml. Most of the capsid protein-producing cells contained enormous aberrant (lobulated or multiple) nuclei. Persistent viral DNA appeared in an episomal or "free" state exclusively in Southern blots and was indistinguishable from standard SV40 DNA by restriction analysis. Viral autointerference activity was not detected, and yield reduction assays did not indicate defective interfering particle activity, further implying that variant viruses were not a factor in this carrier system. Interferon was also not a factor in the system, as shown by direct challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus. Persistent infection resulted in cellular growth changes (enhanced saturation density and plating efficiency) characteristic of SV40 transformation. Persistent infection also led to an increased frequency of cytogenetic effects. These included sister chromatid exchanges, a variety of chromosomal abnormalities (ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, breaks, and gaps), and an increase in the chromosome number. Nevertheless, the persistently infected cells continued to display a bipolar glial cell-like morphology with extensive process extension and intercellular contacts.

  15. Application of molecular cytogenetic techniques to clarify apparently balanced complex chromosomal rearrangements in two patients with an abnormal phenotype: case report

    PubMed Central

    de Vree, Paula JP; Simon, Marleen EH; van Dooren, Marieke F; Stoevelaar, Gerda HT; Hilkmann, José TW; Rongen, Michel A; Huijbregts, Gido CM; Verkerk, Annemieke JMH; Poddighe, Pino J

    2009-01-01

    Background Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) are rare cytogenetic findings that are difficult to karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis partially because of the relative low resolution of this technique. High resolution genotyping is necessary in order to identify cryptic imbalances, for instance near the multiple breakpoints, to explain the abnormal phenotype in these patients. We applied several molecular techniques to elucidate the complexity of the CCRs of two adult patients with abnormal phenotypes. Results Multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) showed that in patient 1 the chromosomes 1, 10, 15 and 18 were involved in the rearrangement whereas for patient 2 the chromosomes 5, 9, 11 and 13 were involved. A 250 k Nsp1 SNP-array analysis uncovered a deletion in chromosome region 10p13 for patient 1, harbouring 17 genes, while patient 2 showed no pathogenic gains or losses. Additional FISH analysis with locus specific BAC-probes was performed, leading to the identification of cryptic interstitial structural rearrangements in both patients. Conclusion Application of M-FISH and SNP-array analysis to apparently balanced CCRs is useful to delineate the complex chromosomal rearrangement in detail. However, it does not always identify cryptic imbalances as an explanation for the abnormal phenotype in patients with a CCR. PMID:19594915

  16. Chromosome numbers and pollen stainability of three species of Pacific Island breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Ragone, D

    2001-04-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined for 48 accessions of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, A. mariannensis, and A. camansi [Moraceae]) from 16 Pacific Island groups, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Artocarpus camansi and A. mariannensis exhibit counts of 2n = 56; 2n = 56 (diploidy) and 2n = 84 (triploidy) were observed for A. altilis. Most diploid cultivars of A. altilis were seeded, but two cultivars with reduced seed number were observed. Micronesian accessions included putative interspecific hybrids between A. altilis and A. mariannensis. The majority of these accessions were seedless diploids, but triploid putative hybrids were also observed. Pollen stainablility was shown to correlate with the degree of seediness.

  17. Fine-Scale Survey of X Chromosome Copy Number Variants and Indels Underlying Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Annabel C.; Plagnol, Vincent; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Abidi, Fatima; Fullston, Tod; Choma, Maja K.; Boucher, Catherine A.; Shepherd, Lorraine; Willatt, Lionel; Parkin, Georgina; Smith, Raffaella; Futreal, P. Andrew; Shaw, Marie; Boyle, Jackie; Licata, Andrea; Skinner, Cindy; Stevenson, Roger E.; Turner, Gillian; Field, Michael; Hackett, Anna; Schwartz, Charles E.; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R.; Raymond, F. Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Copy number variants and indels in 251 families with evidence of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) were investigated by array comparative genomic hybridization on a high-density oligonucleotide X chromosome array platform. We identified pathogenic copy number variants in 10% of families, with mutations ranging from 2 kb to 11 Mb in size. The challenge of assessing causality was facilitated by prior knowledge of XLID-associated genes and the ability to test for cosegregation of variants with disease through extended pedigrees. Fine-scale analysis of rare variants in XLID families leads us to propose four additional genes, PTCHD1, WDR13, FAAH2, and GSPT2, as candidates for XLID causation and the identification of further deletions and duplications affecting X chromosome genes but without apparent disease consequences. Breakpoints of pathogenic variants were characterized to provide insight into the underlying mutational mechanisms and indicated a predominance of mitotic rather than meiotic events. By effectively bridging the gap between karyotype-level investigations and X chromosome exon resequencing, this study informs discussion of alternative mutational mechanisms, such as noncoding variants and non-X-linked disease, which might explain the shortfall of mutation yield in the well-characterized International Genetics of Learning Disability (IGOLD) cohort, where currently disease remains unexplained in two-thirds of families. PMID:20655035

  18. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome: two case reports show heterogeneous cutaneous abnormalities, an association with genetically programmed ageing changes, and increased chromosomal radiosensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, B; Ashcroft, G S; Scott, D; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W; Donnai, D

    1996-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder associated with characteristic cutaneous changes, sparse hair, juvenile cataracts, short stature, skeletal defects, dystrophic teeth and nails, and hypogonadism. Mental retardation is unusual. An increased incidence of certain malignancies has been reported. Clonal or mosaic chromosome abnormalities and abnormalities in DNA repair mechanisms have been reported in some cases. We report two cases of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, both with intellectual handicap, associated in one with a previously undescribed histological appearance of involved skin, suggesting that the spectrum of abnormalities is even more heterogeneous than previously presumed. Both cases exhibited chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes which may be an indication of a DNA repair defect. This is the first report of an association between Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and unique, intrinsic, age related skin changes. Images PMID:8950673

  19. Lycopene modulates initiation of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis: studies on chromosomal abnormalities, membrane fluidity and antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Bansal, Mohinder Pal; Koul, Ashwani

    2013-11-25

    Oxidative damage due to free radicals generated during nitrosamine metabolism has been suggested as one of the major cause for the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Lycopene, is a well known antioxidant and have promising preventive potentials, however the mechanism of action remain hypothetical and unclear. To investigate the involvement of lycopene extracted from tomatoes (LycT) against oxidative stress induced deleterious effect of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) on cellular macromolecules, female Balb/c mice were divided in four groups: Control, NDEA (cumulative dose of 200mg NDEA/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally in 8 weeks), LycT (5mg/kg body weight given orally on alternate days, throughout the study) and LycT+NDEA (co-administration of LycT and NDEA). NDEA treatment commenced after 2 weeks of LycT administration. At the end of NDEA exposure i.e., at 10th week, enhanced activities of hepatic phase I enzymes, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in NDEA group which may have contributed in chromosomal aberrations, enhanced micronucleated cell score, membrane fluidity and serum liver marker enzymes. A significant decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system could delineate the mechanism behind such NDEA insults. LycT pre-treatment to NDEA challenged group showed lower chromosomal abnormalities, micronucleated cells score, ROS, LPO levels and liver enzymes. Lycopene aids in normalizing the membrane fluidity and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione which could account for the reduced oxidative damage in LycT+NDEA group. It seemed that lycopene supplementation target multiple dys-regulated pathways during initiation of carcinogenesis. Thus, dietary supplementation with lycopene can serve as an alternate measure to intervene the initiation of carcinogenesis. PMID:24144777

  20. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating

  1. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating

  2. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Golub, Natalia V.; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

  3. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2013-11-26

    In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

  4. LIN-41 inactivation leads to delayed centrosome elimination and abnormal chromosome behavior during female meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Rieko; Ashikawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2016-03-01

    During oogenesis, two successive meiotic cell divisions occur without functional centrosomes because of the inactivation and subsequent elimination of maternal centrosomes during the diplotene stage of meiosis I. Despite being a conserved phenomenon in most metazoans, the means by which this centrosome behavior is controlled during female meiosis remain elusive. Here, we conducted a targeted RNAi screening in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad to identify novel regulators of centrosome behavior during oogenesis. We screened 513 genes known to be essential for embryo production and directly visualized GFP-γ-tubulin to monitor centrosome behavior at all stages of oogenesis. In the screening, we found that RNAi-mediated inactivation of 33 genes delayed the elimination of GFP-γ-tubulin at centrosomes during oogenesis, whereas inactivation of nine genes accelerated the process. Depletion of the TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 led to a significant delay in centrosome elimination and to the separation and reactivation of centrosomes during oogenesis. Upon LIN-41 depletion, meiotic chromosomes were abnormally condensed and pulled toward one of the two spindle poles around late pachytene even though the spindle microtubules emanated from both centrosomes. Overall, our work provides new insights into the regulation of centrosome behavior to ensure critical meiotic events and the generation of intact oocytes.

  5. LIN-41 inactivation leads to delayed centrosome elimination and abnormal chromosome behavior during female meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Rieko; Ashikawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2016-01-01

    During oogenesis, two successive meiotic cell divisions occur without functional centrosomes because of the inactivation and subsequent elimination of maternal centrosomes during the diplotene stage of meiosis I. Despite being a conserved phenomenon in most metazoans, the means by which this centrosome behavior is controlled during female meiosis remain elusive. Here, we conducted a targeted RNAi screening in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad to identify novel regulators of centrosome behavior during oogenesis. We screened 513 genes known to be essential for embryo production and directly visualized GFP–γ-tubulin to monitor centrosome behavior at all stages of oogenesis. In the screening, we found that RNAi-mediated inactivation of 33 genes delayed the elimination of GFP–γ-tubulin at centrosomes during oogenesis, whereas inactivation of nine genes accelerated the process. Depletion of the TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 led to a significant delay in centrosome elimination and to the separation and reactivation of centrosomes during oogenesis. Upon LIN-41 depletion, meiotic chromosomes were abnormally condensed and pulled toward one of the two spindle poles around late pachytene even though the spindle microtubules emanated from both centrosomes. Overall, our work provides new insights into the regulation of centrosome behavior to ensure critical meiotic events and the generation of intact oocytes. PMID:26764090

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  7. Scoring of sperm chromosomal abnormalities by manual and automated approaches: qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G; Cheng, Siu Yan; Gillott, David J; Handyside, Alan H; Thornhill, Alan R; Griffin, Darren K

    2010-03-01

    It is now well known that levels of sperm disomy correlate to levels of infertility (as well as other factors). The risk of perpetuating aneuploidy to the offspring of infertile males undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a hotly debated issue in assisted reproduction; however, there remain barriers to the practical implementation of offering sperm disomy screening in a clinical setting. The major barrier is the operator time taken to analyze a statistically meaningful (sufficient) number of cells. The introduction of automated 'spot counting' software-hardware combinations presents a potential solution to this problem. In this preliminary validation study, we analyzed 10 patients, both manually and using a commercially available spot counter. Results show a statistically significant correlation between both approaches for scoring of sperm disomy, but no correlation is found when scoring for diploid sperm. The most likely explanation for the latter is an apparent overscoring of two closely associated sperm heads as a single diploid cell. These results, and similar further studies that will ensue, help to inform cost-benefit analyses that individual clinics need to carry out in order to decide whether to adopt sperm aneuploidy screening as a routine tool for the assessment of sperm from men requiring ICSI treatment. PMID:20037599

  8. Scoring of sperm chromosomal abnormalities by manual and automated approaches: qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G; Cheng, Siu Yan; Gillott, David J; Handyside, Alan H; Thornhill, Alan R; Griffin, Darren K

    2010-03-01

    It is now well known that levels of sperm disomy correlate to levels of infertility (as well as other factors). The risk of perpetuating aneuploidy to the offspring of infertile males undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a hotly debated issue in assisted reproduction; however, there remain barriers to the practical implementation of offering sperm disomy screening in a clinical setting. The major barrier is the operator time taken to analyze a statistically meaningful (sufficient) number of cells. The introduction of automated 'spot counting' software-hardware combinations presents a potential solution to this problem. In this preliminary validation study, we analyzed 10 patients, both manually and using a commercially available spot counter. Results show a statistically significant correlation between both approaches for scoring of sperm disomy, but no correlation is found when scoring for diploid sperm. The most likely explanation for the latter is an apparent overscoring of two closely associated sperm heads as a single diploid cell. These results, and similar further studies that will ensue, help to inform cost-benefit analyses that individual clinics need to carry out in order to decide whether to adopt sperm aneuploidy screening as a routine tool for the assessment of sperm from men requiring ICSI treatment.

  9. Presence of XIST specific sequences and apparent failure of X dosage compensation by inactivation in a patient with a severe Turner phenotype and mosaicism for X chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Williams, A.H.; Felton, S.M.; Driscoll, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    An XIST FISH analysis and a late replication chromosome study was performed for a 10 year old female with Turner stigmata, mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies and a cytogenetic mosaicism of 45,X,inv(9)(p11q13)/46,X,del(X)(q22),inv(9)(p11q13)/46,X,+mar,inv(9)(p11q13). The X chromosomes from a cell line in which one was deleted for the distal long arm segment (breakpoint of Xq22), observed in 6% of metaphase cells from peripheral blood and 23.3% of metaphase cells from skin fibroblasts, did not demonstrate an asynchronous or differential staining pattern by BrDU techniques. However, both the normal X chromosome and the deleted X chromosome were demonstrated to contain XIST specific sequences by FISH analysis. A very small marker chromosome, observed in 6% of metaphase cells from peripheral blood and 3.3% of metaphase cells from skin fibroblasts, appeared to consist exclusively of X chromosome alpha satellite centromeric material (DXZ1). This finding was consistent with the morphology of the marker chromosome as observed by conventional G-banding. Due to its small size and low level frequency, analysis by late replication BrDU techniques was not possible. The predominate cell line containing a signal X chromosome was observed in 88% of metaphase cells from peripheral blood and 73.3% of metaphase cells from skin fibroblasts. This case is significant because: (1) it represents another case of an X chromosome abnormality in which XIST is apparently present but not expressed; and (2) the more severe phenotype expressed is probably attributable to the failure of X gene dosage compensation by inactivation.

  10. Sporadic male patients with intellectual disability: contribution of X-chromosome copy number variants.

    PubMed

    Isrie, M; Froyen, G; Devriendt, K; de Ravel, T; Fryns, J P; Vermeesch, J R; Van Esch, H

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization has become the first in line diagnostic tool in the clinical work-up of patients presenting with intellectual disability. As a result, chromosome X-copy number variations are frequently being detected in routine diagnostics. We retrospectively reviewed genome wide array-CGH data in order to determine the frequency and nature of chromosome X-copy number variations (X-CNV) in a cohort of 2222 sporadic male patients with intellectual disability (ID) referred to us for diagnosis. In this cohort, 68 males were found to have at least one X-CNV (3.1%). However, correct interpretation of causality remains a challenging task, and is essential for proper counseling, especially when the CNV is inherited. On the basis of these data, earlier experience and literature data we designed and propose an algorithm that can be used to evaluate the clinical relevance of X-CNVs detected in sporadic male ID patients. Applied to our cohort, 19 male ID patients (0.85%) were found to carry a (likely) pathogenic X-CNV.

  11. An initial map of chromosomal segmental copy number variations in the chicken

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chromosomal segmental copy number variation (CNV) has been recently recognized as a very important source of genetic variability. Some CNV loci involve genes or conserved regulatory elements. Compelling evidence indicates that CNVs impact genome functions. The chicken is a very important farm animal species which has also served as a model for biological and biomedical research for hundreds of years. A map of CNVs in chickens could facilitate the identification of chromosomal regions that segregate for important agricultural and disease phenotypes. Results Ninety six CNVs were identified in three lines of chickens (Cornish Rock broiler, Leghorn and Rhode Island Red) using whole genome tiling array. These CNVs encompass 16 Mb (1.3%) of the chicken genome. Twenty six CNVs were found in two or more animals. Whereas most small sized CNVs reside in none coding sequences, larger CNV regions involve genes (for example prolactin receptor, aldose reductase and zinc finger proteins). These results suggest that chicken CNVs potentially affect agricultural or disease related traits. Conclusion An initial map of CNVs for the chicken has been described. Although chicken genome is approximately one third the size of a typical mammalian genome, the pattern of chicken CNVs is similar to that of mammals. The number of CNVs detected per individual was also similar to that found in dogs, mice, rats and macaques. A map of chicken CNVs provides new information on genetic variations for the understanding of important agricultural traits and disease. PMID:20525236

  12. A small number of abnormal brain connections predicts adult autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Noriaki; Morimoto, Jun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Lisi, Giuseppe; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Miho; Yamada, Takashi; Megumi, Fukuda; Imamizu, Hiroshi; Náñez, José E; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong condition, its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Recently, neuroimaging-based classifiers for ASD and typically developed (TD) individuals were developed to identify the abnormality of functional connections (FCs). Due to over-fitting and interferential effects of varying measurement conditions and demographic distributions, no classifiers have been strictly validated for independent cohorts. Here we overcome these difficulties by developing a novel machine-learning algorithm that identifies a small number of FCs that separates ASD versus TD. The classifier achieves high accuracy for a Japanese discovery cohort and demonstrates a remarkable degree of generalization for two independent validation cohorts in the USA and Japan. The developed ASD classifier does not distinguish individuals with major depressive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder from their controls but moderately distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from their controls. The results leave open the viable possibility of exploring neuroimaging-based dimensions quantifying the multiple-disorder spectrum. PMID:27075704

  13. A small number of abnormal brain connections predicts adult autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Noriaki; Morimoto, Jun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Lisi, Giuseppe; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Miho; Yamada, Takashi; Megumi, Fukuda; Imamizu, Hiroshi; Náñez Sr, José E.; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong condition, its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Recently, neuroimaging-based classifiers for ASD and typically developed (TD) individuals were developed to identify the abnormality of functional connections (FCs). Due to over-fitting and interferential effects of varying measurement conditions and demographic distributions, no classifiers have been strictly validated for independent cohorts. Here we overcome these difficulties by developing a novel machine-learning algorithm that identifies a small number of FCs that separates ASD versus TD. The classifier achieves high accuracy for a Japanese discovery cohort and demonstrates a remarkable degree of generalization for two independent validation cohorts in the USA and Japan. The developed ASD classifier does not distinguish individuals with major depressive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder from their controls but moderately distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from their controls. The results leave open the viable possibility of exploring neuroimaging-based dimensions quantifying the multiple-disorder spectrum. PMID:27075704

  14. Somatosensory Profiles but Not Numbers of Somatosensory Abnormalities of Neuropathic Pain Patients Correspond with Neuropathic Pain Grading

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981

  15. Fluorescent in situ hybridization assessment of chromosome 8 copy number in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Afify, A; Bland, K I; Mark, H F

    1996-01-01

    Conventional cytogenetics of breast and other solid tumors has been hampered by a number of factors. An analysis of breast tumor tissues was therefore undertaken using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 34 specimens were analyzed using a chromosome 8-specific alpha-satellite probe. Various approaches were tested and compared. Among 30 informative samples, 11 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS), 5 ductal carcinomas in situ, 5 lobular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas, and 6 benign lesions were studied. Of the 11 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinomas (NOS) analyzed, four cases showed 3 signals, one case showed 4 signals, and the rest showed 2 signals. Of the 5 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ samples, 1 showed 3 signals and the other 4 cases showed 2 signals. All cases of lobular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, and benign lesions showed 2 signals. We inferred from these data that 36% of the infiltrating ductal carcinomas (NOS) were trisomic and 9% were tetrasomic, whereas 20% of the ductal carcinomas in situ were trisomic. All samples from lobular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, and the benign lesions were disomic. From our preliminary data, it can further be concluded that a subset of breast cancer is characterized by chromosome 8 trisomy. These data are consistent with an ever-increasing database on the association of chromosomal 8 trisomy with other cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, prostate cancer, ovarian carcinoma, salivary gland tumor, malignant melanoma, desmoid tumors, and recently gestational trophoblastic disease. It is also noted that the ability to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival material will enable a more comprehensive cytogenetic study of breast cancer than is currently available.

  16. ChromEvol: assessing the pattern of chromosome number evolution and the inference of polyploidy along a phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Glick, Lior; Mayrose, Itay

    2014-07-01

    We announce the release of chromEvol version 2.0, a software tool for inferring the pattern of chromosome number change along a phylogeny. The software facilitates the inference of the expected number of polyploidy and dysploidy transitions along each branch of a phylogeny and estimates ancestral chromosome numbers at internal nodes. The new version features a novel extension of the model accounting for general multiplication events, other than doubling of the number of chromosomes. This allows the monoploid number (commonly referred to as x, or the base-number) of a group of interest to be inferred in a statistical framework. In addition, we devise an inference scheme, which allows explicit categorization of each terminal taxon as either diploid or polyploid. The new version also supports intraspecific variation in chromosome number and allows hypothesis testing regarding the root chromosome number. The software, alongside a detailed usage manual, is available at http://www.tau.ac.il/∼itaymay/cp/chromEvol/.

  17. Epigenetic abnormality of SRY gene in the adult XY female with pericentric inversion of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Warita, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Teruo; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Takasaki, Ichiro; Kondo, Takashi; Hayashi, Fumio; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Miki, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Nanmori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kant, Jeffrey A; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2010-06-01

    In normal ontogenetic development, the expression of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene, involved in the first step of male sex differentiation, is spatiotemporally regulated in an elaborate fashion. SRY is expressed in germ cells and Sertoli cells in adult testes. However, only few reports have focused on the expressions of SRY and the other sex-determining genes in both the classical organ developing through these genes (gonad) and the peripheral tissue (skin) of adult XY females. In this study, we examined the gonadal tissue and fibroblasts of a 17-year-old woman suspected of having disorders of sexual differentiation by cytogenetic, histological, and molecular analyses. The patient was found to have the 46,X,inv(Y)(p11.2q11.2) karyotype and streak gonads with abnormally prolonged SRY expression. The sex-determining gene expressions in the patient-derived fibroblasts were significantly changed relative to those from a normal male. Further, the acetylated histone H3 levels in the SRY region were significantly high relative to those of the normal male. As SRY is epistatic in the sex-determination pathway, the prolonged SRY expression possibly induced a destabilizing effect on the expressions of the downstream sex-determining genes. Collectively, alterations in the sex-determining gene expressions persisted in association with disorders of sexual differentiation not only in the streak gonads but also in the skin of the patient. The findings suggest that correct regulation of SRY expression is crucial for normal male sex differentiation, even if SRY is translated normally.

  18. Fine Mapping of a QTL Associated with Kernel Row Number on Chromosome 1 of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Claudia I.; Yandell, Brian S.; Doebley, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying changes in ear morphology, and particularly the inheritance of kernel row number (KRN), have been broadly investigated in diverse mapping populations in maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped a region on the long arm of chromosome 1 containing a QTL for KRN. This work was performed using a set of recombinant chromosome nearly isogenic lines (RCNILs) derived from a BC2S3 population produced using the inbred maize line W22 and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) as the parents. A set of 48 RCNILs was evaluated in the field during the summer of 2013 in order to perform the mapping. A QTL for KRN was found that explained approximately 51% of the phenotypic variance and had a 1.5-LOD confidence interval of 203 kb. Seven genes are described in this interval. One of these candidate genes may have been the target of domestication processes in maize and contributed to the shift from two kernel row ears in teosinte to a highly polystichous ear in maize. PMID:26930509

  19. A novel mechanistic spectrum underlies glaucoma-associated chromosome 6p25 copy number variation

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Bhaskar; Asai-Coakwell, Mika; Ye, Ming; Mungall, Andrew J.; Barrow, Margaret; Dobyns, William B.; Behesti, Hourinaz; Sowden, Jane C.; Carter, Nigel P.; Walter, Michael A.; Lehmann, Ordan J.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that mediate chromosomal rearrangement remain incompletely defined. Among regions prone to structural variant formation, chromosome 6p25 is one of the few in which disease-associated segmental duplications and segmental deletions have been identified, primarily through gene dosage attributable ocular phenotypes. Using array comparative genome hybridization, we studied ten 6p25 duplication and deletion pedigrees and amplified junction fragments from each. Analysis of the breakpoint architecture revealed that all the rearrangements were non-recurrent, and in contrast to most previous examples the majority of the segmental duplications and deletions utilized coupled homologous and non-homologous recombination mechanisms. One junction fragment exhibited an unprecedented 367 bp insert derived from tandemly arranged breakpoint elements. While this accorded with a recently described replication-based mechanism, it differed from the previous example in being unassociated with template switching, and occurring in a segmental deletion. These results extend the mechanisms involved in structural variant formation, provide strong evidence that a spectrum of recombination, DNA repair and replication underlie 6p25 rearrangements, and have implications for genesis of copy number variations in other genomic regions. These findings highlight the benefits of undertaking the extensive studies necessary to characterize structural variants at the base pair level. PMID:18694899

  20. Identification and molecular characterization of a small chromosome 10q duplication [dir dup (10) (q24.2-24.3)] inherited from a mother mosaic for the abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, V.; Schneider, N.R.; Schultz, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Inheritance of a cytogenetic abnormality from a clinically normal parent who is mosaic for the anomaly is rare event, although recent data suggest that such events may be more frequent than originally thought. The identification of such cases can have important implications for genetic counseling and can offer valuable resources for the mapping and analysis of genes involved in human disease and development. We describe a family in which two siblings exhibited developmental delay and very specific neurological abnormalities which included normal muscle mass but reduced muscle tone and mild muscle weakness. Cytogenetic evaluation revealed that both children had inherited a tandem duplication of a small portion of the long arm of chromosome 10 [dir dup (10) (q24.2-24.3)]. The clinically normal mother was found to be mosaic for the duplication which was identified in only two of the twenty metaphases examined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches, including total chromosome painting and the use of previously characterized regional-specific cosmid probes, were used to confirm and characterize the chromosome 10q origin of the duplicated material. This represents the smallest confirmed duplication of distal chromosome 10q reported to date.

  1. Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected at amniocentesis: frequency in approximately 75,000 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses and associations with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Cross, P K

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed rates of extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected in prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses of amniotic fluid reported to the New York Chromosome Registry. These karyotypes include both extra unidentified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EUSAC)--often denoted as "markers"--and extra identified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EISAC). The rate of all EUSAC was 0.64/1,000 (0.32-0.40/1,000 mutant and 0.23-0.32 inherited), and that of all EISAC was 0.11/1,000 (0.07/1,000 mutant and 0.04/1,000 inherited). The rate of all ESAC was approximately 0.8/1,000-0.4-0.5/1,000 mutant and 0.3-0.4/1,000 inherited. Mean +/- SD maternal age of mutant cases was 37.5 +/- 2.9, significantly greater than the value of 35.8 years in controls. A regression analysis indicated a rate of change of the log of the rate of about +0.20 with each year of maternal age between 30 and 45 years. When paternal age was introduced, the maternal age coefficient increased to about +0.25--close to that seen for 47, +21--but the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. After being matched for maternal age and year of diagnosis, the case-control difference in paternal age for 24 mutant cases was -2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.6 to -0.1 years. In a regression analysis of the effects of both parental ages on the (log) rate, the maternal age coefficient was +0.25 and the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. These results are consistent with a (weak) negative paternal age effect in the face of a strong maternal age effect. Since ESAC include a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, the maternal age and paternal age trends, if not the result of statistical fluctuation or undetected biases, may involve different types of events. Data in the literature suggest that chromosomes with de novo duplicated inversions of 15p have a strong maternal age effect (but little paternal age effect). Such chromosomes, however, do not account for the active maternal age trends seen in the data analyzed here

  2. 40 CFR 798.5385 - In vivo mammalian bone marrow cytogenetics tests: Chromosomal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-related increase in the number of structual chromosomal aberrations or abnormal metaphase figures. Another... significant dose-related increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations or abnormal metaphase figures or a.... The use of a single sex or smaller number of animals should be justified. (iv)......

  3. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Four small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6, 8, 11 and 12 in a patient with minimal clinical abnormalities: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are still a problem in cytogenetic diagnostic and genetic counseling. This holds especially true for the rare cases with multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Most such cases are reported to be clinically severely affected due to the chromosomal imbalances induced by the presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Here we report the first case of a patient having four different small supernumerary marker chromosomes which, apart from slight developmental retardation in youth and non-malignant hyperpigmentation, presented no other clinical signs. Case presentation Our patient was a 30-year-old Caucasian man, delivered by caesarean section because of macrosomy. At birth he presented with bilateral cryptorchidism but no other birth defects. At age of around two years he showed psychomotor delay and a bilateral convergent strabismus. Later he had slight learning difficulties, with normal social behavior and now lives an independent life as an adult. Apart from hypogenitalism, he has multiple hyperpigmented nevi all over his body, short feet with pes cavus and claw toes. At age of 30 years, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 50,XY,+min(6)(:p11.1-> q11.1:),+min(8)(:p11.1->q11.1:),+min(11)(:p11.11->q11:),+min(12)(:p11.2~12->q10:), leading overall to a small partial trisomy in 12p11.1~12.1. Conclusions Including this case, four single case reports are available in the literature with a karyotype 50,XN,+4mar. For prenatally detected multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes in particular we learn from this case that such a cytogenetic condition may be correlated with a positive clinical outcome. PMID:20682055

  5. Chromosome 15q11-13 duplication syndrome brain reveals epigenetic alterations in gene expression not predicted from copy number

    PubMed Central

    Hogart, Amber; Leung, Karen N.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Wu, David J.; Driscoll, Jennette; Vallero, Roxanne O.; Schanen, N. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosome 15q11-13 contains a cluster of imprinted genes essential for normal mammalian neurodevelopment. Deficiencies in paternal or maternal 15q11-13 alleles result in Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes, respectively, and maternal duplications lead to a distinct condition that often includes autism. Overexpression of maternally expressed imprinted genes is predicted to cause 15q11-13-associated autism, but a link between gene dosage and expression has not been experimentally determined in brain. Methods Post-mortem brain tissue was obtained from a male with 15q11-13 hexasomy and a female with 15q11-13 tetrasomy. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure ten 15q11-13 transcripts in maternal 15q11-13 duplication, Prader-Willi syndrome, and control brain samples. Southern blot, bisulfite sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to investigate epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Results Gene expression and DNA methylation correlated with parental gene dosage in the male 15q11-13 duplication sample with severe cognitive impairment and seizures. Strikingly, the female with autism and milder Prader-Willi-like characteristics demonstrated unexpected deficiencies in the paternally expressed transcripts SNRPN, NDN, HBII85, and HBII52 and unchanged levels of maternally expressed UBE3A compared to controls. Paternal expression abnormalities in the female duplication sample were consistent with elevated DNA methylation of the 15q11-13 imprinting control region (ICR). Expression of nonimprinted 15q11-13 GABA receptor subunit genes was significantly reduced specifically in the female 15q11-13 duplication brain without detectable GABRB3 methylation differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that genetic copy number changes combined with additional genetic or environmental influences on epigenetic mechanisms impact outcome and clinical heterogeneity of 15q11-13 duplication syndromes. PMID:18835857

  6. The long-term clinical implications of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib mesylate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Choi, Soo Young; Bang, Ju-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jang, Eun-Jung; Byeun, Ji-Young; Park, Jin Eok; Jeon, Hye-Rim; Oh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical significance of an additional chromosomal abnormality (ACA), variant Philadelphia chromosome (vPh) at diagnosis, and newly developed other chromosomal abnormalities (OCA) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) on imatinib (IM) therapy. Sequential cytogenetic data from 281 consecutive new chronic phase CML patients were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 78.6 months, the 22 patients with vPh (P = 0.034) or ACA (P = 0.034) at diagnosis had more events of IM failure than did the patients with a standard Ph. The 5-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and failure-free survival (FFS) rates for patients with vPh at diagnosis were 77.8%, 75.0%, and 53.3%, respectively; for patients with ACA at diagnosis, 100%, 66.3%, and 52.1%, respectively; and for patients with a standard Ph, 96.0%, 91.3%, and 83.7%, respectively. During IM therapy, eight patients developed an OCA, which had no impact on outcomes as a time-dependent covariate in our Cox proportional hazards regression models. This study showed that vPh was associated with poor OS and FFS and that ACA had adverse effects on EFS and FFS. In addition, no OCA, except monosomy 7, had any prognostic impact, suggesting that the development of OCA may not require a change in treatment strategy. PMID:23111092

  7. Multiple Genes on Chromosome 7 Regulate Dopaminergic Amacrine Cell Number in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Irene E.; Raven, Mary A.; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Williams, Robert W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The size of neuronal populations is modulated by gene variants that influence cell production and survival, in turn influencing neuronal connectivity, function, and disease risk. The size of the dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cell population is a highly heritable trait exhibiting six-fold variation among inbred strains of mice, and is used here to identify genes that modulate the number of DA cells. Methods The entire population was counted in retinal wholemounts from 37 genetically defined lines of mice, including six standard inbred strains, 25 recombinant inbred strains (AXB/BXA), reciprocal F1 hybrids, a chromosome (Chr) 7 consomic line, and three additional genetically modified lines. Results We mapped much of this variation to a broad locus on Chr 7 (Dopaminergic amacrine cell number control, Chr 7). The Dacnc7 locus is flanked by two candidate genes known to modulate the number of other types of retinal neuron—the pro-apoptotic gene, Bax, and tyrosinase. The Tyr mutation was shown to modulate DA cell number modestly, although in the direction opposite that predicted. In contrast, Bax deficiency increased the population four-fold. Bax expression was significantly greater in the A/J strain relative to C57BL/6J, an effect that may be due to an SNP in a p53 consensus binding site known to modulate transcription. Finally, we note a strong candidate situated at the peak of the Dacnc7 locus, Lrrk1, a Parkinson’s disease gene exhibiting mis-sense mutations segregating within the AXB/BXA cross. Conclusions Multiple polymorphic genes on Chr. 7 modulate the size of the population of DA cells. PMID:19168892

  8. Dynamic mosaicism manifesting as loss, gain and rearrangement of an isodicentric Y chromosome in a male child with growth retardation and abnormal external genitalia.

    PubMed

    Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Liehr, T; Monakhov, V V; Soloviev, I V; Yurov, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Isodicentric chromosomes are considered the most common structural abnormality of the human Y chromosome. Because of their instability during cell division, loss of an isodicentric Y seems mainly to lie at the origin of mosaicism in previously reported patients with a 45,X cell line. Here, we report on a similar case, which, however, turned out to be an example of dynamic mosaicism involving isodicentric chromosome Y and isochromosome Y after FISH with a set of chromosome Y-specific probes and multicolor banding. Cytogenetic analyses (GTG-, C-, and Q-banding) have shown three different cell lines: 45,X/46, X,idic(Y)(q12)/46,X,+mar. The application of molecular cytogenetic techniques established the presence of four cell lines: 45,X (48%), 46,X,idic(Y)(q11.23) (42%), 46,X,i(Y)(p10) (6%) and 47,X,idic(Y)(q11.23),+idic(Y)(q11.23) (4%). According to the available literature, this is the first case of dynamic mosaicism with up to four different cell lines involving loss, gain, and rearrangement of an idic(Y)(q11.23). The present report indicates that cases of mosaicism involving isodicentric and isochromosome Ys can be more dynamic in terms of somatic intercellular variability that probably has an underappreciated effect on the phenotype. PMID:18758177

  9. Variability of 18rDNA loci in four lace bug species (Hemiptera, Tingidae) with the same chromosome number

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Natalia V.; Golub, Viktor B.; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Male karyotypes of Elasmotropis testacea (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), Tingis cardui (Linnaeus, 1758), Tingis crispata (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1838), and Agramma femorale Thomson, 1871 (Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha, Tingidae) were analyzed using conventional chromosome staining and FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. The FISH technique was applied for the first time in the Tingidae. In spite of the fact that all species showed the same chromosome number (2n = 12 + XY), they have significant differences in the number and position of rDNA loci. FISH with the classical insect (TTAGG)n probe produced no signals on chromosomes suggesting telomeres in lace bugs to be of some other molecular composition. Tingidae share absence of the (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence with all so far studied taxa of the advanced true bug infraorders Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha. PMID:26753071

  10. Quantifying Impact of Chromosome Copy Number on Recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T Steele; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-07-17

    The ability to precisely and efficiently recombineer synthetic DNA into organisms of interest in a quantitative manner is a key requirement in genome engineering. Even though considerable effort has gone into the characterization of recombination in Escherichia coli, there is still substantial variability in reported recombination efficiencies. We hypothesized that this observed variability could, in part, be explained by the variability in chromosome copy number as well as the location of the replication forks relative to the recombination site. During rapid growth, E. coli cells may contain several pairs of open replication forks. While recombineered forks are resolving and segregating within the population, changes in apparent recombineering efficiency should be observed. In the case of dominant phenotypes, we predicted and then experimentally confirmed that the apparent recombination efficiency declined during recovery until complete segregation of recombineered and wild-type genomes had occurred. We observed the reverse trend for recessive phenotypes. The observed changes in apparent recombination efficiency were found to be in agreement with mathematical calculations based on our proposed mechanism. We also provide a model that can be used to estimate the total segregated recombination efficiency based on an initial efficiency and growth rate. These results emphasize the importance of employing quantitative strategies in the design of genome-scale engineering efforts.

  11. Chromosome 10 and RET gene copy number alterations in hereditary and sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Raffaele; Romei, Cristina; Cosci, Barbara; Vivaldi, Agnese; Bottici, Valeria; Renzini, Giulia; Ugolini, Clara; Tacito, Alessia; Basolo, Fulvio; Pinchera, Aldo; Elisei, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    About 30% of hereditary Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) have been demonstrated to harbour imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET alleles. We studied the RET copy number alterations (RET CNA) in 65 MTC and their correlation with RET mutation and patients' outcome. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Real-time PCR revealed RET CNA in 27.7% MTC but only in a variable percentage of cells. In sporadic MTC, RET CNA were represented by chromosome 10 aneuploidy while in hereditary MTC by RET amplification. A significant higher prevalence of RET CNA was observed in RET mutated MTC (P=0.003). RET CNA was also associated to a poorer outcome (P=0.005). However, the multivariate analysis revealed that only RET mutation and advanced clinical stage correlated with the worst outcome. In conclusion, 30% MTC harbour RET CNA in variable percentage of cells suggesting cell heterogeneity. RET CNA can be considered a poor prognostic factor potentiating the poor prognostic role of RET mutation. PMID:21867742

  12. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  13. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Jamie; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  14. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  15. Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) with low and high chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Vershinina, Alisa O; Anokhin, Boris A; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric repeats are important parts of eukaryotic genome. However, little is known about their organization and localization in karyotypes of organisms with holocentric chromosomes. Here we present first cytogenetic study of these molecular structures in seven blue butterflies of the genus Polyommatus Latreille, 1804 with low and high chromosome numbers (from n=10 to n=ca.108) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric probes. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe showed the presence of two different variants of the location of major rDNA clusters in Polyommatus species: with one or two rDNA-carrying chromosomes in haploid karyotype. We discuss evolutionary trends and possible mechanisms of changes in the number of ribosomal clusters. We also demonstrate that Polyommatus species have the classical insect (TTAGG) n telomere organization. This chromosome end protection mechanism probably originated de novo in small chromosomes that evolved via fragmentations.

  16. Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) with low and high chromosome numbers

    PubMed Central

    Vershinina, Alisa O.; Anokhin, Boris A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribosomal DNA clusters and telomeric repeats are important parts of eukaryotic genome. However, little is known about their organization and localization in karyotypes of organisms with holocentric chromosomes. Here we present first cytogenetic study of these molecular structures in seven blue butterflies of the genus Polyommatus Latreille, 1804 with low and high chromosome numbers (from n=10 to n=ca.108) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe showed the presence of two different variants of the location of major rDNA clusters in Polyommatus species: with one or two rDNA-carrying chromosomes in haploid karyotype. We discuss evolutionary trends and possible mechanisms of changes in the number of ribosomal clusters. We also demonstrate that Polyommatus species have the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization. This chromosome end protection mechanism probably originated de novo in small chromosomes that evolved via fragmentations. PMID:26140159

  17. The contrasting effects of genome size, chromosome number and ploidy level on plant invasiveness: a global analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Maharaj K; White, Steven M; Pocock, Michael J O

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how species' traits relate to their status (e.g. invasiveness or rarity) is important because it can help to efficiently focus conservation and management effort and infer mechanisms affecting plant status. This is particularly important for invasiveness, in which proactive action is needed to restrict the establishment of potentially invasive plants. We tested the ability of genome size (DNA 1C-values) to explain invasiveness and compared it with cytogenetic traits (chromosome number and ploidy level). We considered 890 species from 62 genera, from across the angiosperm phylogeny and distributed from tropical to boreal latitudes. We show that invasiveness was negatively related to genome size and positively related to chromosome number (and ploidy level), yet there was a positive relationship between genome size and chromosome number; that is, our result was not caused by collinearity between the traits. Including both traits in explanatory models greatly increased the explanatory power of each. This demonstrates the potential unifying role that genome size, chromosome number and ploidy have as species' traits, despite the diverse impacts they have on plant physiology. It provides support for the continued cataloguing of cytogenetic traits and genome size of the world's flora.

  18. The blue butterfly Polyommatus (Plebicula) atlanticus (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) holds the record of the highest number of chromosomes in the non-polyploid eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    The blue butterfly species Polyommatus (Plebicula) atlanticus (Elwes, 1906) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) is known to have a very high haploid number of chromosomes (n= circa 223). However, this approximate count made by Hugo de Lesse 45 years ago was based on analysis of a single meiotic I metaphase plate, not confirmed by study of diploid chromosome set and not documented by microphotographs. Here I demonstrate that (1) Polyommatus atlanticus is a diploid (non-polyploid) species, (2) its meiotic I chromosome complement includes at least 224-226 countable chromosome bodies, and (3) all (or nearly all) chromosome elements in meiotic I karyotype are represented by bivalents. I also provide the first data on the diploid karyotype and estimate the diploid chromosome number as 2n=ca448-452. Thus, Polyommatus atlanticus is confirmed to possess the highest chromosome number among all the non-polyploid eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26753083

  19. The blue butterfly Polyommatus (Plebicula) atlanticus (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) holds the record of the highest number of chromosomes in the non-polyploid eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The blue butterfly species Polyommatus (Plebicula) atlanticus (Elwes, 1906) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) is known to have a very high haploid number of chromosomes (n= circa 223). However, this approximate count made by Hugo de Lesse 45 years ago was based on analysis of a single meiotic I metaphase plate, not confirmed by study of diploid chromosome set and not documented by microphotographs. Here I demonstrate that (1) Polyommatus atlanticus is a diploid (non-polyploid) species, (2) its meiotic I chromosome complement includes at least 224-226 countable chromosome bodies, and (3) all (or nearly all) chromosome elements in meiotic I karyotype are represented by bivalents. I also provide the first data on the diploid karyotype and estimate the diploid chromosome number as 2n=ca448-452. Thus, Polyommatus atlanticus is confirmed to possess the highest chromosome number among all the non-polyploid eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26753083

  20. Persistence of histone H2AX phosphorylation after meiotic chromosome synapsis and abnormal centromere cohesion in Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp-1) null oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feikun; Baumann, Claudia; De La Fuente, Rabindranath

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the impact of aneuploidy on human health little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of structural or numerical chromosome abnormalities during meiosis. Here, we provide novel evidence indicating that lack of PARP-1 function during oogenesis predisposes the female gamete to genome instability. During prophase I of meiosis, a high proportion of Parp-1 (−/−) mouse oocytes exhibit a spectrum of meiotic defects including incomplete homologous chromosome synapsis or persistent histone H2AX phosphorylation in fully synapsed chromosomes at the late pachytene stage. Moreover, the X chromosome bivalent is also prone to exhibit persistent double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In striking contrast, such defects were not detected in mutant pachytene spermatocytes. In fully-grown wild type oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, PARP-1 protein associates with nuclear speckles and upon meiotic resumption, undergoes a striking re-localization towards spindle poles as well as pericentric heterochromatin domains at the metaphase II stage. Notably, a high proportion of in vivo matured Parp-1 (−/−) oocytes show lack of recruitment of the kinetochore-associated protein BUB3 to centromeric domains and fail to maintain metaphase II arrest. Defects in chromatin modifications in the form of persistent histone H2AX phosphorylation during prophase I of meiosis and deficient sister chromatid cohesion during metaphase II predispose mutant oocytes to premature anaphase II onset upon removal from the oviductal environment. Our results indicate that PARP-1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of chromosome stability at key stages of meiosis in the female germ line. Moreover, in the metaphase II stage oocyte PARP-1 is required for the regulation of centromere structure and function through a mechanism that involves the recruitment of BUB3 protein to centromeric domains. PMID:19463809

  1. Distal 8p deletion (8) (p23.1): An easily missed chromosomal abnormality that may be associated with congenital heart defect and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bai-Lin; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analyses of three patients with a similar distal deletion of chromosome 8. Each child had mild developmental delay and subtle minor anomalies. Two had cardiac anomalies but no other major congenital anomalies were present. High resolution G and R banding showed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint in case 1 was distal to 8p23.1, in case 2 was in the middle of 8p23.1, and in case 3 proximal to 8p23.1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement had occurred. FISH with a chromosome 8-specific telomere probe indicated that two patients had terminal deletions. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 1 and mother of case 2 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Thirteen individual patients including the three in this study, and three relatives in one family with del(8)(p23.1), have been reported in the past 5 years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defects, are most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1. Three patients were found within a 3-year period in this study and five cases were found within 4 years by another group, indicating that distal 8p deletion might be a relatively common chromosomal abnormality. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e., cases 1 and 2 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Results of high-dose therapy for 1000 patients with multiple myeloma: durable complete remissions and superior survival in the absence of chromosome 13 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Desikan, R; Barlogie, B; Sawyer, J; Ayers, D; Tricot, G; Badros, A; Zangari, M; Munshi, N C; Anaissie, E; Spoon, D; Siegel, D; Jagannath, S; Vesole, D; Epstein, J; Shaughnessy, J; Fassas, A; Lim, S; Roberson, P; Crowley, J

    2000-06-15

    High-dose therapy (HDT) has increased complete remission (CR) rates and survival in multiple myeloma (MM). We now report on continuous CR (CCR) and associated prognostic factors in 1000 consecutive patients receiving melphalan-based tandem HDT. Five-year CCR was 52% among 112 CR patients without chromosome 13 (triangle up13) abnormalities and with beta-2-microglobulin abnormalities, 35% enjoyed 5-year CCR but none of 54 with triangle up13 abnormalities. triangle up13 abnormalities, present in overall 16%, reduced 5-year event-free survival from 20% to 0% and overall survival from 44% to 16% (both P <.0001). CR and a second HDT cycle applied within 6 months both extended event-free and overall survival significantly, justifying further pursuit of HDT, especially toward curing non-triangle up13 MM. (Blood. 2000;95:4008-4010)

  3. Structural alterations of the c-mos locus in benign pleomorphic adenomas with chromosome abnormalities of 8q12.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sahlin, P; Mark, J; Landys, D

    1991-07-01

    Recent mapping studies have assigned the human c-mos proto-oncogene to chromosome 8, bands q11-12. This region is frequently affected by chromosomal translocations in benign pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. Using Southern blot analysis we report here that the c-mos gene and its flanking sequences are structurally altered in pleomorphic adenomas with chromosomal rearrangements of 8q12. Rearrangements were detected in two out of 23 tumors. Restriction fragment analysis indicated that the rearrangements were due to multiple, subtle mutations involving the c-mos open reading frame and its flanking sequences. There was no direct evidence of translocation of mos in any of the tumors. Control DNAs from the two patients showed a normal restriction pattern for all enzymes tested, indicating that the rearrangements are tumor specific. Collectively, our cytogenetic and molecular data suggest involvement of the c-mos gene in the pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenomas.

  4. Maximum likelihood inference implies a high, not a low, ancestral haploid chromosome number in Araceae, with a critique of the bias introduced by ‘x’

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Natalie; Sousa, Aretuza; Renner, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims For 84 years, botanists have relied on calculating the highest common factor for series of haploid chromosome numbers to arrive at a so-called basic number, x. This was done without consistent (reproducible) reference to species relationships and frequencies of different numbers in a clade. Likelihood models that treat polyploidy, chromosome fusion and fission as events with particular probabilities now allow reconstruction of ancestral chromosome numbers in an explicit framework. We have used a modelling approach to reconstruct chromosome number change in the large monocot family Araceae and to test earlier hypotheses about basic numbers in the family. Methods Using a maximum likelihood approach and chromosome counts for 26 % of the 3300 species of Araceae and representative numbers for each of the other 13 families of Alismatales, polyploidization events and single chromosome changes were inferred on a genus-level phylogenetic tree for 113 of the 117 genera of Araceae. Key Results The previously inferred basic numbers x = 14 and x = 7 are rejected. Instead, maximum likelihood optimization revealed an ancestral haploid chromosome number of n = 16, Bayesian inference of n = 18. Chromosome fusion (loss) is the predominant inferred event, whereas polyploidization events occurred less frequently and mainly towards the tips of the tree. Conclusions The bias towards low basic numbers (x) introduced by the algebraic approach to inferring chromosome number changes, prevalent among botanists, may have contributed to an unrealistic picture of ancestral chromosome numbers in many plant clades. The availability of robust quantitative methods for reconstructing ancestral chromosome numbers on molecular phylogenetic trees (with or without branch length information), with confidence statistics, makes the calculation of x an obsolete approach, at least when applied to large clades. PMID:22210850

  5. Chromosomal Copy Number Variation in Saccharomyces pastorianus Is Evidence for Extensive Genome Dynamics in Industrial Lager Brewing Strains

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, M.; Bolat, I.; Nijkamp, J. F.; Ramos, E.; Luttik, M. A. H.; Koopman, F.; Geertman, J. M.; de Ridder, D.; Pronk, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Lager brewing strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus are natural interspecific hybrids originating from the spontaneous hybridization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Over the past 500 years, S. pastorianus has been domesticated to become one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Production of lager-type beers requires a set of essential phenotypes, including the ability to ferment maltose and maltotriose at low temperature, the production of flavors and aromas, and the ability to flocculate. Understanding of the molecular basis of complex brewing-related phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for rational strain improvement. While genome sequences have been reported, the variability and dynamics of S. pastorianus genomes have not been investigated in detail. Here, using deep sequencing and chromosome copy number analysis, we showed that S. pastorianus strain CBS1483 exhibited extensive aneuploidy. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR and by flow cytometry. As a direct consequence of this aneuploidy, a massive number of sequence variants was identified, leading to at least 1,800 additional protein variants in S. pastorianus CBS1483. Analysis of eight additional S. pastorianus strains revealed that the previously defined group I strains showed comparable karyotypes, while group II strains showed large interstrain karyotypic variability. Comparison of three strains with nearly identical genome sequences revealed substantial chromosome copy number variation, which may contribute to strain-specific phenotypic traits. The observed variability of lager yeast genomes demonstrates that systematic linking of genotype to phenotype requires a three-dimensional genome analysis encompassing physical chromosomal structures, the copy number of individual chromosomes or chromosomal regions, and the allelic variation of copies of individual genes. PMID:26150454

  6. Characterization of a 5.8-Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 3p in a girl with 46,XX,inv(7)dn karyotype and phenotypic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Mademont-Soler, I; Armengol, L; Milà, M; Badenas, C; Andrés, S; Soler, A; Sánchez, A

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 3 are rare, and a specific clinical phenotype has not been defined. We report the first isolated cryptic proximal interstitial 3p deletion, del(3)(p12.3p13), assessed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization in a girl with an inversion of chromosome 7, whose phenotype includes neurodevelopmental delay, growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, hypophysis hypoplasia, gastroesophageal reflux, clinodactyly, preauricular appendix, and myopia. Her features are similar to those observed in the previously reported cases of proximal 3p deletions overlapping with our imbalance, indicating that her clinical manifestations are likely to be due to the deletion. As our patient's imbalance is the first non-cytogenetically visible proximal interstitial 3p deletion uncomplicated by other imbalances, its characterization has allowed us to narrow the minimal deletion interval associated with growth retardation and neurodevelopmental delay to the 3p12.3-p13 region. Among the genes found in this region, ROBO1, ROBO2, PDZRN3 and CNTN3 might play a role in the neurodevelopmental delay of the patient. This study provides additional evidence that cryptic imbalances anywhere along the genome can be found in patients with phenotypic abnormalities and a balanced chromosome rearrangement.

  7. Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. These differences could have evolved through multiple speciation events, each involving the fixation of a single chromosomal rearrangement. Alternatively, marked changes in the karyotype may be the consequence of within-species accumulation of multiple chromosomal fissions/fusions, resulting in highly polymorphic systems with the subsequent extinction of intermediate karyomorphs. Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. Results We present the discovery of exceptional intraspecific variability in the karyotype of the widespread Eurasian butterfly Leptidea sinapis. We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. We demonstrate that this karyotypic variability is intraspecific because in L. sinapis a broad geographical distribution is coupled with a homogenous morphological and genetic structure. Conclusions The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. Leptidea sinapis may be used as a model system for studying speciation by means of chromosomally-based suppressed recombination mechanisms, as well as clinal speciation, a process that is theoretically possible but difficult to document. The discovered cline seems to represent a narrow time-window of the very first steps of species formation linked to multiple chromosomal

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences: April--June 1995. Volume 18, Number 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence (AO) as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such occurrences to be made to Congress. This report provides a description of those incidents and events that have been determined to be AOs during the period of April 1 through June 30, 1995. This report addresses five AOs at NRC-licensed facilities. One involved a reactor coolant system blowdown at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant, one involved a previously unidentified path for the potential release of radioactivity at a PWR nuclear power plant, two involved medical brachytherapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical therapeutic radiopharmaceutical misadministration. Four AOs submitted by the Agreement States are included. One involved a medical teletherapy misadministration, two involved medical brachytherapy misadministrations, and one involved the overexposure of personnel at a medical center. The report also contains an update of one AO previously reported by an NRC licensee, and two AOs previously reported by the Agreement States. No ``Other Events of Interest`` items are being reported.

  9. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive Systems in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER I. Abnormal Spermatid Development in Males with a Heterochromatin-Deficient X Chromosome (sc4sc8)

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, W. J.; Miklos, George L. Gabor; Goodchild, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The meiotic drive characteristics of the In(1)sc4Lsc8R/Y system have been examined by genetic analysis and by light and electron microscopy. sc4sc8/Y males show a direct correlation between nondisjunction frequency and meiotic drive. Temperature-shift experiments reveal that the temperature-sensitive period for nondisjunction is at meiosis, whereas that for meiotic drive has both meiotic and post-meiotic components. Cytological analyses in the light and electron microscopes reveal failures in spermiogenesis in the testes of sc4sc8 males. The extent of abnormal spermatid development increases as nondisjunction becomes more extreme. PMID:805751

  10. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure. PMID:26386773

  11. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure.

  12. Clonal evolution and clinical significance of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome arm 6p in acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Betensky, Marisol; Babushok, Daria; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Mason, Philip J; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Busse, Tracy M; Li, Yimei; Lind, Curt; Papazoglou, Anna; Monos, Dimitri; Podsakoff, Gregory; Bessler, Monica; Olson, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) results from the T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors predicting response to immune suppression therapy (IST) or development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are beginning to be elucidated. Our recent data suggest most patients with aAA treated with IST develop clonal somatic genetic alterations in hematopoietic cells. One frequent acquired abnormality is copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 6p (6p CN-LOH) involving the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus. We hypothesized that because 6p CN-LOH clones may arise from selective pressure to escape immune surveillance through deletion of HLA alleles, the development of 6p CN-LOH may affect response to IST. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array genotyping and targeted next-generation sequencing of HLA alleles to assess frequency of 6p CN-LOH, identity of HLA alleles lost through 6p CN-LOH, and impact of 6p CN-LOH on response to IST. 6p CN-LOH clones were present in 11.3% of patients, remained stable over time, and were not associated with development of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities. Notably, no patient with 6p CN-LOH treated with IST achieved a complete response. In summary, clonal 6p CN-LOH in aAA defines a unique subgroup of patients that may provide insights into hematopoietic clonal evolution. PMID:26702937

  13. Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes and chromosome 9 karyotypic abnormalities in human bladder cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, J.; Proffitt, J.; Roberts, P.; Smith, B.; Selby, P.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of cell cycle control through the structural or functional aberration of checkpoint genes and their products is a potentially important process in carcinogenesis. In this study, a panel of well-characterised established human bladder cancer cell lines was screened by the polymerase chain reaction for homozygous loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p15, p16 and p27. The results demonstrate that, whereas there was no genetic loss of p27, homozygous deletion of both p15 and p16 genes occurred in seven of 13 (54%) independent bladder cell lines tested. Differential loss of either the p15 or p16 gene was not seen. The p15 and p16 genes are known to be juxtaposed on chromosome 9p21 at the locus of a putative tumour-suppressor gene involved in the initiation of bladder cancer. Cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed karyotypes ranging from near diploid to near pentaploid with complex rearrangements of some chromosomes and a high prevalence of chromosome 9p rearrangements, although all cell lines contained at least one cytogenetically normal 9p21 region. These observations support a role for p15/p16 gene inactivation in bladder carcinogenesis and/or the promotion of cell growth in vitro and lend support to the hypothesis that homozygous deletion centred on 9p21 is a mechanism by which both p15 and p16 genes are co-inactivated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7577470

  14. Nuclear DNA Variation, Chromosome Numbers and Polyploidy in the Endemic and Indigenous Grass Flora of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    MURRAY, B. G.; DE LANGE, P. J.; FERGUSON, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Little information is available on DNA C-values for the New Zealand flora. Nearly 85 % of the named species of the native vascular flora are endemic, including 157 species of Poaceae, the second most species-rich plant family in New Zealand. Few C-values have been published for New Zealand native grasses, and chromosome numbers have previously been reported for fewer than half of the species. The aim of this research was to determine C-values and chromosome numbers for most of the endemic and indigenous Poaceae from New Zealand. • Scope To analyse DNA C-values from 155 species and chromosome numbers from 55 species of the endemic and indigenous grass flora of New Zealand. • Key Results The new C-values increase significantly the number of such measurements for Poaceae worldwide. New chromosome numbers were determined from 55 species. Variation in C-value and percentage polyploidy were analysed in relation to plant distribution. No clear relationship could be demonstrated between these variables. • Conclusions A wide range of C-values was found in the New Zealand endemic and indigenous grasses. This variation can be related to the phylogenetic position of the genera, plants in the BOP (Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae, Pooideae) clade in general having higher C-values than those in the PACC (Panicoideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae + Centothecoideae) clade. Within genera, polyploids typically have smaller genome sizes (C-value divided by ploidy level) than diploids and there is commonly a progressive decrease with increasing ploidy level. The high frequency of polyploidy in the New Zealand grasses was confirmed by our additional counts, with only approximately 10 % being diploid. No clear relationship between C-value, polyploidy and rarity was evident. PMID:16243852

  15. Possible influences on the expression of X chromosome-linked dystrophin abnormalities by heterozygosity for autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, A.H.; Neumann, P.E.; Anderson, M.S.; Kunkel, L.M. ); Arahata, Kiichi; Arikawa, Eri; Nonaka, Ikuya )

    1992-01-15

    Abnormalities of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein of muscle and nerve, are generally considered specific for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. However, several patients have recently been identified with dystrophin deficiency who, before dystrophin testing, were considered to have Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) on the basis of clinical findings. Epidemiologic data suggest that only 1/3,500 males with autosomal recessive FCMD should have abnormal dystrophin. To explain the observation of 3/23 FCMD males with abnormal dystrophin, the authors propose that dystrophin and the FCMD gene product interact and that the earlier onset and greater severity of these patients' phenotype (relative to Duchenne muscular dystrophy) are due to their being heterozygous for the FCMD mutation in addition to being hemizygous for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a genotype that is predicted to occur in 1/175,000 Japanese males. This model may help explain the genetic basis for some of the clinical and pathological variability seen among patients with FCMD, and it has potential implications for understanding the inheritance of other autosomal recessive disorders in general. For example, sex ratios for rare autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in proteins that interact with X chromosome-linked gene products may display predictable deviation from 1:1.

  16. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5-8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be...

  17. Chromosomal localization, copy number assessment, and transcriptional status of BamHI repeat fractions in water buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Deepali; Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Madhulika; Garg, Lalit C; Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher

    2006-04-01

    Higher eukaryotes contain a wide variety of repetitive DNA, although their functions often remain unknown. We describe cloning, chromosomal localization, copy number assessment, and transcriptional status of 1378- and 673-bp repeat fractions in the buffalo genome. The pDS5, representing the 1378-bp fragment, showed FISH signals in the centromeric region of acrocentric chromosomes only, whereas pDS4, corresponding to 673 bp, detected signals in the centromeric regions of all the chromosomes. Crosshybridization studies of pDS5 and pDS4 with genomic DNA from different sources showed signals only in buffalo, cattle, goat, and sheep. Real-time PCR analysis uncovered 1234 and 3420 copies of pDS5 and pDS4 fragments per the haploid genome, corresponding to 30 and 68 copies per chromosome, respectively. Analysis of cDNA from different tissues of buffalo with Real-time PCR showed maximum expression of pDS5 and pDS4 in the spleen and liver, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed a close relationship between buffalo and cattle. The prospect of this approach in comparative genomics is highlighted.

  18. [Future aspect of cytogenetics using chromosomal microarray testing].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of chromosomal microarray testing, microdeletions can be detected in approximately 17% of cases without any abnormality detectable by conventional karyotyping. Structural abnormalities frequently occur at the terminal regions of the chromosomes, called the subtelomeres, because of their structural features. Subtelomere deletions and unbalanced translocations between chromosomes are frequently observed. However, most microdeletions observed by chromosomal microarray testing are microdeletions in intermediate regions. Submicroscopic duplications reciprocal to the deletions seen in the microdeletion syndromes, such as the 16p11.2 region, have been revealed. Discovery of multi-hit chromosomal abnormalities is another achievement by chromosomal microarray testing. Chromosomal microarray testing can determine the ranges of chromosomal structural abnormalities at a DNA level. Thus, the effects of a specific gene deletion on symptoms can be revealed by comparing multiple patients with slightly different chromosomal deletions in the same region (genotype/phenotype correlation). Chromosomal microarray testing comprehensively determines the genomic copy number, but reveals no secondary structure, requiring verification by cytogenetics using FISH. To interpret the results, familial or benign copy number variations (CNV) should be taken into consideration. An appropriate system should be constructed to provide opportunities of chromosomal microarray testing for patients who need this examination and to facilitate the use of results for medical practice.

  19. [Distribution of abnormal cell clone with deletion of chromosome 20q in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Qin, Ling; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Xie, Kuang-Cheng; Yan, Shi-Ke; Gao, Yan-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Zhao, Chu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of abnormal clone in marrow cell lineages and apoptosis cells in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 20q. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid precursors (CD15), erythroid precursors (GPA), T cells (CD3(+)CD56(-)CD16(-)), B cells (CD19), NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(+)) were used to sort bone marrow cells in a MDS patient with del (20q) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Annexin V-FITC and PI were used to sort bone marrow Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells by FACS. The sorted positive cells were detected by interphase dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) using a LSI D20S108 probe (Spectrum Orange) and a Telvysion TM 20p probe (Spectrum Green). FACS and FISH analysis were also performed on the samples from 4 cases with normal karyotype. The results showed that the proportions of MDS clone in the myeloid and erythroid precursors were 70.50% and 93.33% respectively, in the RAEB-1 patient with del (20q) and were obviously higher than that in control group (5.39% and 6.17%). The proportions of abnormal clone in T, B and NK cells were 3.23%, 4.32% and 5.77% respectively and were less than that in control group (5.76%, 4.85%, 6.36%). The percentage of apoptotic cells in the bone marrow nucleated cells was 16.09%. The proportions of MDS clone in Annexin V(+)PI(-) and Annexin V(-)PI(-) cells were 32.48% and 70.11%, respectively. It is concluded that most myeloid and erythroid precursors are originated from the abnormal clone in MDS with del (20q). A little part of apoptotic cells are derived from the abnormal clone.

  20. Abnormalities of follicular helper T-cell number and function in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Dai, Rongxin; Li, Wenyan; Zhao, Hongyi; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhou, Lina; Du, Hongqiang; Luo, Guangjin; Wu, Junfeng; Niu, Linlin; An, Yunfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ding, Yuan; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is a hematopoietic-specific regulator of actin nucleation. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients show immunodeficiencies, most of which have been attributed to defective T-cell functions. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the major CD4+ T-cell subset with specialized B-cell helper capabilities. Aberrant Tfh cells activities are involved in immunopathologies such as autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies, and lymphomas. We found that in WAS patients, the number of circulating Tfh cells was significantly reduced due to reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis, and Tfh cells were Th2 and Th17 polarized. The expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS) in circulating Tfh cells was higher in WAS patients than in controls. BCL6 expression was decreased in total CD4+ T and Tfh cells of WAS patients. Mirroring the results in patients, the frequency of Tfh cells in WAS knockout (KO) mice was decreased, as was the frequency of BCL6+ Tfh cells, but the frequency of ICOS+ Tfh cells was increased. Using WAS chimera mice, we found that the number of ICOS+ Tfh cells was decreased in WAS chimera mice, indicating that the increase in ICOS+ Tfh cells in WAS KO mice was cell extrinsic. The data from in vivo CD4+ naive T-cell adoptive transfer mice as well as in vitro coculture of naive B and Tfh cells showed that the defective function of WASp-deficient Tfh cells was T-cell intrinsic. Consistent findings in both WAS patients and WAS KO mice suggested an essential role for WASp in the development and memory response of Tfh cells and that WASp deficiency causes a deficient differentiation defect in Tfh cells by downregulating the transcription level of BCL6. PMID:27170596

  1. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Camps, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  2. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  3. Avian comparative genomics: reciprocal chromosome painting between domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and the stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadriiformes)—An atypical species with low diploid number

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The chicken is the most extensively studied species in birds and thus constitutes an ideal reference for comparative genomics in birds. Comparative cytogenetic studies indicate that the chicken has retained many chromosome characters of the ancestral avian karyotype. The homology between chicken macrochromosomes (1–9 and Z) and their counterparts in more than 40 avian species of 10 different orders has been established by chromosome painting. However, the avian homologues of chicken micro-chromosomes remain to be defined. Moreover, no reciprocal chromosome painting in birds has been performed due to the lack of chromosome-specific probes from other avian species. Here we have generated a set of chromosome-specific paints using flow cytometry that cover the whole genome of the stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadriiformes), a species with one of the lowest diploid number so far reported in birds, as well as paints from more microchromosomes of the chicken. A genome-wide comparative map between the chicken and the stone curlew has been constructed for the first time based on reciprocal chromosome painting. The results indicate that extensive chromosome fusions underlie the sharp decrease in the diploid number in the stone curlew. To a lesser extent, chromosome fissions and inversions occurred also during the evolution of the stone curlew. It is anticipated that this complete set of chromosome painting probes from the first Neoaves species will become an invaluable tool for avian comparative cytogenetics. PMID:19172404

  4. A case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an unreported combination of chromosomal abnormalities: gain of isochromosome 5p, tetrasomy 8 and unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises a spectrum of myeloid malignancies which are often associated with distinct chromosomal abnormalities, and the analysis of such abnormalities provides us with important information for disease classification, treatment selection and prognosis. Some chromosomal abnormalities albeit recurrent are rare such as tetrasomy 8 or isochromosome 5p. In addition, erratic chromosomal rearrangements may occur in AML, sometimes unbalanced and also accompanied by other abnormalities. Knowledge on the contribution of rare abnormalities to AML disease, progression and prognosis is limited. Here we report a unique case of acute monoblastic leukemia with gain of i(5)(p10), tetrasomy 8, an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3) and mutated NPM1. Results Bone marrow cells were examined by conventional karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and mutation analysis at diagnosis and follow-up. At diagnosis we detected trisomy 8, an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3) and mutated NPM1. During the course of the disease we observed clonal evolution with gain of i(5)(p10), tetrasomy 8 and eventually duplication of der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3). By using the der(19)t(17;19) as clonal marker, we found that i(5)(p10) and tetrasomy 8 were secondary genetic events and that tetrasomy 8 had clonally evolved from trisomy 8. Conclusions This case of acute monoblastic leukemia presents a combination of rare chromosomal abnormalities including the unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3), hitherto un-reported in AML. In addition, our case supports the hypothesis of a step-wise clonal evolution from trisomy 8 to tetrasomy 8 in AML. Reporting and collecting data of rare chromosomal abnormalities will add information to AML disease, progression and prognosis, and may eventually translate to improved patient management. PMID:24079663

  5. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5–8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs. PMID:22929023

  6. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-02-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5-8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs.

  7. SNP Array Karyotyping Allows for the Detection of Uniparental Disomy and Cryptic Chromosomal Abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD

    PubMed Central

    Gondek, Lukasz P.; Dunbar, Andrew J.; Szpurka, Hadrian; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2007-01-01

    We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD), including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In typical MPD cases (N = 8), which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD) of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30), 11 (4/30), 12 (1/30) and 22 (1/30). Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. PMID:18030353

  8. INT1 and GLI genes are not rearranged or amplified in benign pleomorphic adenomas with chromosome abnormalities of 12q13-15.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, P; Mark, J; Stenman, G

    1992-01-01

    A subgroup of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands is characterized by translocations involving chromosome 12, with consistent breakpoints at 12q13-15. Two proto-oncogenes, INT1 and GLI, have been assigned to this region of chromosome 12. We studied the possible involvement of these genes in pleomorphic adenomas with different karyotypic abnormalities, including cases with involvement of 12q13-15. Using detailed restriction fragment analysis of tumor DNAs from 25 cases, we found no evidence of rearrangement or amplification of INT1 or GLI. Because we previously found an adenoma with a del(12)(q13q15), we also analyzed normal and tumor DNAs from the 25 tumors separately to identify possible allelic losses at the GLI locus. Thirteen of the 25 tumors were informative, and none of these showed evidence of allelic losses. Collectively, these findings indicate that neither the INT1 nor the GLI gene appears to be the primary target gene for the translocations and deletions involving the 12q13-15 region in pleomorphic adenomas.

  9. The Molecular through Ecological Genetics of Abnormal Abdomen in Drosophila Mercatorum. VI. the Non-Neutrality of the Y Chromosome Rdna Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Hollocher, H.; Templeton, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    An association between quantitative variation of rDNA on the Y chromosome and male expression of the juvenilized, adult cuticle of the abnormal abdomen syndrome has been found for Drosophila mercatorum. Many pleiotropic effects of this syndrome have been described previously for females, but little was known about possible pleiotropic effects in males. The effects on males open up new avenues for the action of natural selection operating on the system. In females, the syndrome causes an increase in egg-to-adult development time, precocious sexual maturation, increased fecundity and decreased longevity. In addition to the cuticle phenotype, in males abnormal abdomen causes delayed sexual maturation, increased longevity, and decreased mating success, yet no change in egg-to-adult development time. Thus the syndrome has opposing fitness effects in the two sexes, which may help explain the genetic polymorphism observed in this system. Although investigated intensively, associations between naturally occurring Y-linked polymorphism and fitness phenotypes have not been found in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8013914

  10. High frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 internal tandem duplication.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, Theodore S; Zou, Ying; Ning, Yi; Emadi, Ashkan; Duong, Vu H; Tidwell, Michael L; Chen, Ching; Rassool, Feyruz V; Baer, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most commonly in those with a normal karyotype, and are associated with short relapse-free survival. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of FLT3-ITD cell lines have demonstrated reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA double-strand breaks and associated error-prone DNA repair as a mechanism of genomic instability, and we hypothesized that genomic instability might be manifested by cytogenetic changes at relapse of FLT3-ITD AML. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) FLT3-ITD AML treated at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, with attention to metaphase analysis results at relapse. Cytogenetic data were available from first and, when applicable, subsequent relapses for 15 patients diagnosed with CN FLT3-ITD AML. Among 12 patients with documented FLT3-ITD at first and, when applicable, subsequent relapse, 10 had cytogenetic changes, including nine with rare structural abnormalities. The high frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse in our case series supports a role of genomic instability in the genesis of relapse, and suggests that reactive oxygen species-generating and DNA repair pathways might be therapeutic targets in FLT3-ITD AML. PMID:25441683

  11. Gene expression analysis of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons carrying copy number variants of chromosome 15q11-q13.1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Duplications of the chromosome 15q11-q13.1 region are associated with an estimated 1 to 3% of all autism cases, making this copy number variation (CNV) one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several genes located within the 15q11-q13.1 duplication region including ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A), the gene disrupted in Angelman syndrome (AS), are involved in neural function and may play important roles in the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with chromosome 15q11-q13.1 duplication (Dup15q) syndrome. Methods We have generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from five different individuals containing CNVs of 15q11-q13.1. The iPSC lines were differentiated into mature, functional neurons. Gene expression across the 15q11-q13.1 locus was compared among the five iPSC lines and corresponding iPSC-derived neurons using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Genome-wide gene expression was compared between neurons derived from three iPSC lines using mRNA-Seq. Results Analysis of 15q11-q13.1 gene expression in neurons derived from Dup15q iPSCs reveals that gene copy number does not consistently predict expression levels in cells with interstitial duplications of 15q11-q13.1. mRNA-Seq experiments show that there is substantial overlap in the genes differentially expressed between 15q11-q13.1 deletion and duplication neurons, Finally, we demonstrate that UBE3A transcripts can be pharmacologically rescued to normal levels in iPSC-derived neurons with a 15q11-q13.1 duplication. Conclusions Chromatin structure may influence gene expression across the 15q11-q13.1 region in neurons. Genome-wide analyses suggest that common neuronal pathways may be disrupted in both the Angelman and Dup15q syndromes. These data demonstrate that our disease-specific stem cell models provide a new tool to decipher the underlying cellular and genetic disease mechanisms of ASD and may also offer a

  12. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  13. Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on one chloroplast and two nuclear loci: ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution.

    PubMed

    Harpke, Dörte; Meng, Shuchun; Rutten, Twan; Kerndorff, Helmut; Blattner, Frank R

    2013-03-01

    Crocus consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Our study focuses on clarifying phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution within the genus using sequences of the chloroplast trnL-F region, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and a part of the nuclear single-copy gene pCOSAt103. In a combined dataset of ITS and trnL-F sequences, 115 individuals representing 110 taxa from both subgenera and all sections and series of Crocus were analyzed with Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For pCOSAt103 79 individuals representing 74 Crocus taxa were included, and for the majority of them PCR amplicons were cloned and up to eight clones per individual were sequenced to detect allopolyploidization events. Romulea species were included as outgroup in both analyses. Characteristics of seed surface structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS/trnL-F data resulted in a monophyletic genus Crocus, probably monophyletic sections Crocus and Nudiscapus, and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The C. biflorus aggregate, thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Cloning of pCOSAt103 resulted in the detection of homoeologous copies in about one third of the taxa of section Nudiscapus, indicating an allotetraploid origin of this section. Reconstruction of chromosome number evolution along the phylogenetic tree using a probabilistic and a parsimony approach arrived at partly contradictory results. Both analyses agreed however on the occurrence of multiple polyploidization and dysploidy events. B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within the genus, preferentially in clades characterized by karyotype changes.

  14. B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans are present in all body parts analyzed and show extensive variation for rDNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans are considered to be mitotically stable, because all meiotic (primary spermatocytes and oocytes) or mitotic (embryos, ovarioles, and gastric caecum) cells analyzed within the same individual show the same B chromosome number. Nothing is known, however, about body parts with somatic tissues with no mitotic activity in adult individuals, constituting the immense majority of their body. Therefore, we investigated whether B chromosomes are present in 8 non-mitotically active somatic body parts from both sexes in addition to ovarioles and testes by PCR analysis of 2 B-specific molecular markers. We also elucidated the number of B chromosomes that an individual carried through quantifying the B-located rDNA copy number by qPCR. Our results indicated the amplification of both B-specific markers in all analyzed body parts. However, we found high variation between males for the estimated number of rDNA units in the B chromosomes. These results demonstrate the presence of B chromosomes in all body parts from the same individual and suggest a high variation in the rDNA content of the B chromosomes carried by different individuals from the same population, presumably due to unequal crossovers during meiosis.

  15. White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

  16. The First Cytogenetic Data on Strumigenys louisianae Roger, 1863 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Dacetini): The Lowest Chromosome Number in the Hymenoptera of the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, Ana Paula; Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; Chaul, Júlio Cézar Mário; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the first cytogenetic data was obtained for the ant species Strumigenys louisianae, from a genus possessing no previous cytogenetic data for the Neotropical region. The chromosome number observed was 2n = 4, all possessing metacentric morphology. Blocks rich in GC base pairs were observed in the interstitial region of the short arm of the largest chromosome pair, which may indicate that this region corresponds to the NORs. The referred species presented the lowest chromosome number observed for the subfamily Myrmicinae and for the Hymenoptera found in the Neotropical region. Observation of a low chromosome number karyotype has been described in Myrmecia croslandi, in which the occurrence of tandem fusions accounts for the most probable rearrangement for its formation. The accumulation of cytogenetic data may carry crucial information to ensure deeper understanding of the systematics of the tribe Dacetini. PMID:25379715

  17. Alu-mediated diverse and complex pathogenic copy-number variants within human chromosome 17 at p13.3

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shen; Yuan, Bo; Campbell, Ian M.; Beck, Christine R.; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Erez, Ayelet; Patel, Ankita; Bacino, Carlos A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu–Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ∼150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu–Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process. PMID:25908615

  18. Alu-mediated diverse and complex pathogenic copy-number variants within human chromosome 17 at p13.3.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shen; Yuan, Bo; Campbell, Ian M; Beck, Christine R; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Patel, Ankita; Bacino, Carlos A; Shaw, Chad A; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R

    2015-07-15

    Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ∼150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process.

  19. What`s in a name? Chromosome 22q abnormalities and the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomalies face syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfsberg, E.A.; Leana-Cox, J.; Neri, G.

    1996-11-11

    The recent advances in our understanding of the phenotype associated with deletion of the DiGeorge Chromosome Region (DGCR) at 22q11.2 are in many ways analogous to the fable about the blind men and the elephant. Originally described as three distinct phenotypes (DiGeorge (DG) syndrome, velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome, and the conotruncal anomalies face (CTAF) syndrome), it is now clear that there is only a single broad and variable phenotype associated with deletion of the DGCR. As in the fable, distinguished clinicians approached this phenotypic {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} from different perspectives and provided three separate, although overlapping descriptions. Our analogy to this fable is not to imply some {open_quotes}blindness{close_quotes} on the part of these clinicians, but rather to point out the well-known difficulty in delineating the indistinct phenotypic boundaries of a syndrome until a genetic or biochemical marker for the condition is available. The recent availability of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe to detect deletion of the DGCR now allows delineation of the broad phenotype of our {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} which spans from lethal DG phenotypes through the intermediate VCF and CTAF phenotypes to the newly recognized {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} phenotype consisting of only developmental delays and subtle facial abnormalities. 33 refs.

  20. [Successful treatment with idarubicin in a pediatric case of t(8;21) acute myelogenous leukemia with additional chromosomal abnormalities at relapse].

    PubMed

    Wakazono, Y; Kataoka, A; Fusaoka, T; Tunamoto, K

    1998-07-01

    A 9-year old boy was admitted to our hospital due to a relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A chromosomal analysis at the time of relapse revealed abnormalities in addition to 45, X,-Y, t(8;21) (q22;q22) when AML was first diagnosed. The patient was given granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and aclarubicin (CAG therapy), but this treatment regimen was not effective. He was next treated with G-CSF (started 3 days prior to the administration of anticancer drugs), Ara-C, (200 mg/mm2 for 7 days), Etoposide (VP.16, 150 mg/mm2 for 5 days) and Idarubicin (8 mg/mm2 for 5 days) according to the modified Japan Cooperative Protocol ANLL 91 for children. Although his condition had been septic and he had experienced renal and respiratory failure, he achieved a complete remission after 140 days without additional therapy. The patient returned to a condition of health and received a bone marrow transplant from an unrelated donor. We concluded that this treatment regimen is effective for the relapse of AML in children.

  1. Assessment of Genotoxic Potential of Hridayarnava Rasa (A Herbo-Mineralo-Metallic Ayurvedic Formulation) Using Chromosomal Aberration and Sperm Abnormality Assays

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y.; Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Herbo-mineral formulations are being successfully used in therapeutics since centuries. But recently, they came under the scanner for their metallic contents especially the presence of heavy metals. Hence it is the need of the hour to assess and establish the safety of these formulations through toxicity studies. In line with the various toxicity studies that are being carried out, Government of India expressed the need for conducting genotoxicity studies of different metal- or mineral-based drugs. Till date very few Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulations have been studied for their genotoxic potential. The present study is aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Hridayarnava Rasa. Materials and Methods: It was prepared as per classical guidelines and administered to Swiss albino mice for 14 consecutive days. Chromosomal aberration and sperm abnormality assay were done to evaluate the genotoxic potential of the test drugs. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. Results: All treated groups exhibited significant body weight gain in comparison to CP group. Results revealed no structural deformity in the above parameters in comparison to the CP-treated group. Conclusion: Reported data showed that both tested samples of Hridayarnava Rasa does not possess genotoxic potential under the experimental conditions and can be safely used. PMID:25948961

  2. A Copy Number Variant on Chromosome 20q13.3 Implicated in Thinness and Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hasstedt, Sandra J.; Xin, Yuanpei; Mao, Rong; Lewis, Tracey; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives. To identify copy number variants (CNVs) which are associated with body mass index (BMI). Subjects/Methods. CNVs were identified using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on members of pedigrees ascertained through severely obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) sib pairs (86 pedigrees) and thin (BMI ≤ 23 kg/m2) probands (3 pedigrees). Association was inferred through pleiotropy of BMI with CNV log⁡2 intensity ratio. Results. A 77-kilobase CNV on chromosome 20q13.3, confirmed by real-time qPCR, exhibited deletions in the obese subjects and duplications in the thin subjects (P = 2.2 × 10−6). Further support for the presence of a deletion derived from inference by likelihood analysis of null alleles for SNPs residing in the region. Conclusions. One or more of 7 genes residing in a chromosome 20q13.3 CNV region appears to influence BMI. The strongest candidate is ARFRP1, which affects glucose metabolism in mice. PMID:26881067

  3. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839) from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata).

    PubMed

    Gornung, Ekaterina; Mosconi, Fabio; Annesi, Flavia; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839) was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  4. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  5. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  6. A further look at porcine chromosome 7 reveals VRTN variants associated with vertebral number in Chinese and Western pigs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yin; Xing, Yuyun; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ai, Huashui; Ouyang, Zixuan; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Ming; Li, Pinghua; Chen, Yijie; Gao, Jun; Li, Lin; Huang, Lusheng; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The number of vertebrae is an economically important trait that affects carcass length and meat production in pigs. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for thoracic vertebral number has been repeatedly identified on pig chromosome (SSC) 7. To dissect the genetic basis of the major locus, we herein genotyped a large sample of animals from 3 experimental populations of Chinese and Western origins using 60K DNA chips. Genome-wide association studies consistently identified the locus across the 3 populations and mapped the locus to a 947-Kb region on SSC7. An identical-by-descent sharing assay refined the locus to a 100-Kb segment that harbors only two genes including VRTN and SYNDIG1L. Of them, VRNT has been proposed as a strong candidate of the major locus in Western modern breeds. Further, we resequenced the VRTN gene using DNA samples of 35 parental animals with known QTL genotypes by progeny testing. Concordance tests revealed 4 candidate causal variants as their genotypes showed the perfect segregation with QTL genotypes of the tested animals. An integrative analysis of evolutional constraints and functional elements supported two VRTN variants in a complete linkage disequilibrium phase as the most likely causal mutations. The promising variants significantly affect the number of thoracic vertebrae (one vertebra) in large scale outbred animals, and are segregating at rather high frequencies in Western pigs and at relatively low frequencies in a number of Chinese breeds. Altogether, we show that VRTN variants are significantly associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in both Chinese and Western pigs. The finding advances our understanding of the genetic architecture of the vertebral number in pigs. Furthermore, our finding is of economical importance as it provides a robust breeding tool for the improvement of vertebral number and meat production in both Chinese indigenous pigs and Western present-day commercial pigs.

  7. Conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without chromosome 8q12 abnormalities: identification of SII as a new fusion partner gene.

    PubMed

    Aström, A K; Voz, M L; Kas, K; Röijer, E; Wedell, B; Mandahl, N; Van de Ven, W; Mark, J; Stenman, G

    1999-02-15

    We have previously shown (K. Kas et al, Nat. Genet., 15: 170-174, 1997) that the developmentally regulated zinc finger gene pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is the target gene in 8q12 in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations. The t(3;8) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1 and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), leading to activation of PLAG1 expression and reduced expression of CTNNB1. Here we have studied the expression of PLAG1 by Northern blot analysis in 47 primary benign and malignant human tumors with or without cytogenetic abnormalities of 8q12. Overexpression of PLAG1 was found in 23 tumors (49%). Thirteen of 17 pleomorphic adenomas with a normal karyotype and 5 of 10 with 12q13-15 abnormalities overexpressed PLAG1, which demonstrates that PLAG1 activation is a frequent event in adenomas irrespective of karyotype. In contrast, PLAG1 was overexpressed in only 2 of 11 malignant salivary gland tumors analyzed, which suggests that, at least in salivary gland tumors, PLAG1 activation preferentially occurs in benign tumors. PLAG1 over-expression was also found in three of nine mesenchymal tumors, i.e., in two uterine leiomyomas and one leiomyosarcoma. RNase protection, rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of five adenomas with a normal karyotype revealed fusion transcripts in three tumors. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these showed that they contained fusions between PLAG1 and CTNNB1 (one case) or PLAG1 and a novel fusion partner gene, i.e., the gene encoding the transcription elongation factor SII (two cases). The fusions occurred in the 5' noncoding region of PLAG1, leading to exchange of regulatory control elements and, as a consequence, activation of PLAG1 gene expression. Because all of the cases had grossly normal karyotypes, the rearrangements must result from cryptic rearrangements. The results suggest that in addition to

  8. [Number of aberrations per cell as a parameter of chromosome instability. 2. Comparative analysis of the factors of different nature].

    PubMed

    Kutsokon', N K; Lazarenko, L M; Bezrukov, V F; Rashydov, N M; Grodzyns'kyĭ, D M

    2004-01-01

    The average number of aberrations per aberrant cell was concluded to carry out information on chromosome instability peculiarities induced by different mutagens as it was shown in our previous work. The purpose of the current study was to present comparative analysis of intercellular distribution of number of aberrations and their theoretical approximations. Distribution of numbers of aberrations per cell in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. root tip cells induced by different mutagenic factors (gamma-irradiation, thiotepa, formaldehyde and seed aging) have been studied. The results were approximated to theoretical Poisson, geometric and negative binomial distributions. The intercellular distribution of aberrations did not correspond to any of the used theoretical distributions when A. cepa seeds were gamma-irradiated. There was some, but not regular, accordance with theoretical distributions when chemical mutagens thiotepa in A. cepa and formaldehyde in A. fistulosum and seed aging in both species were evaluated. During seed aging frequency of aberrant cells increased more quickly in A. fistulosum in comparison with A. cepa. PMID:15098449

  9. Estimating the number of hematopoietic or lymphoid stem cells giving rise to clonal chromosome aberrations in blood T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakano, M; Kodama, Y; Ohtaki, K; Itoh, M; Awa, A A; Cologne, J; Kusunoki, Y; Nakamura, N

    2004-03-01

    Quantifying the proliferative capacity of long-term hematopoietic stem cells in humans is important for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. Obtaining appropriate data is difficult, however, because the experimental tools are limited. We hypothesized that tracking clonal descendants originating from hematopoietic stem cells would be possible if we used clonal chromosome aberrations as unique tags of individual hematopoietic stem cells in vivo. Using FISH, we screened 500 blood T lymphocytes from each of 513 atomic bomb survivors and detected 96 clones composed of at least three cells with identical aberrations. The number of clones was inversely related to their population size, which we interpreted to mean that the progenitor cells were heterogeneous in the number of progeny that they could produce. The absolute number of progenitor cells contributing to the formation of the observed clones was estimated as about two in an unexposed individual. Further, scrutiny of ten clones revealed that lymphocyte clones could originate roughly equally from hematopoietic stem cells or from mature T lymphocytes, thereby suggesting that the estimated two progenitor cells are shared as one hematopoietic stem cell and one mature T cell. Our model predicts that one out of ten people bears a non- aberrant clone comprising >10% of the total lymphocytes, which indicates that clonal expansions are common and probably are not health-threatening. PMID:14982487

  10. Treatment-influenced associations of PML-RARα mutations, FLT3 mutations, and additional chromosome abnormalities in relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Barry K.; Racevskis, Janis; Poiré, Xavier; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Roulston, Diane; Schachter-Tokarz, Esther; Zhou, Da-cheng; Chen, I-Ming L.; Harvey, Richard; Koval, Greg; Sher, Dorie A.; Feusner, James H.; Tallman, Martin S.; Larson, Richard A.; Powell, Bayard L.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Paietta, Elisabeth; Willman, Cheryl L.; Stock, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)–targeted ligand binding domain of PML-RARα (PRα/LBD+) have been implicated in the passive selection of ATRA-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia clones leading to disease relapse. Among 45 relapse patients from the ATRA/chemotherapy arm of intergroup protocol C9710, 18 patients harbored PRα/LBD+ (40%), 7 of whom (39%) relapsed Off-ATRA selection pressure, suggesting a possible active role of PRα/LBD+. Of 41 relapse patients coanalyzed, 15 (37%) had FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD+), which were differentially associated with PRα/LBD+ depending on ATRA treatment status at relapse: positively, On-ATRA; negatively, Off-ATRA. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) had additional chromosome abnormalities (ACAs); all coanalyzed PRα/LBD mutant patients who relapsed off-ATRA (n = 5) had associated ACA. After relapse Off-ATRA, ACA and FLT3-ITD+ were negatively associated and were oppositely associated with presenting white blood count and PML-RARα type: ACA, low, L-isoform; FLT3-ITD+, high, S-isoform. These exploratory results suggest that differing PRα/LBD+ activities may interact with FLT3-ITD+ or ACA, that FLT3-ITD+ and ACA are associated with different intrinsic disease progression pathways manifest at relapse Off-ATRA, and that these different pathways may be short-circuited by ATRA-selectable defects at relapse On-ATRA. ACA and certain PRα/LBD+ were also associated with reduced postrelapse survival. PMID:22734072

  11. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  12. Birth outcomes of cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities and pregnancy complications in their mothers depending on the number of component defects. Population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA) represent the most severe category of structural birth defects, (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]). Unfortunately, most MCA are not recognized and/or identified as MCA syndromes or MCA associations in the clinical practice. The term unclassified MCA (UMCA) is used for this category of MCA. We decided to evaluate the component CA of UMCA cases. The population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (1980-1996) was evaluated. 'False' MCA, such as complex CA, polytopic field defects and sequences were excluded from the category of MCA. In addition, MCA syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and major mutant genes with preconceptional origin were excluded from the dataset of the Surveillance. MCA syndromes caused by teratogens and MCA associations with well-defined component CA were also excluded in the study. Thus, only UMCA cases (i) without the recognition of previously delineated MCA syndromes (ii) and/or without the identification of new MCA syndromes or (iii) caused by random combination of CA were included in the study. We compared data from 1349 cases with UMCA, 2405 matched population controls without any CA, and 21 494 malformed controls with isolated CA. There was a higher rate of stillbirth and a moderate male excess in UMCA cases, a somewhat shorter gestational age at delivery and an obvious reduction in birthweight. The intrauterine fetal growth retardation and rate of low-birthweight newborns showed an association with the number of component CA in UMCA cases. A similar association was not found with gestational age and the rate of preterm birth. UMCA represent one of the most severe categories of CA. The degree of intrauterine fetal growth retardation depends on number of component CA in UMCA cases.

  13. Heterogeneity of chromosome 17 and erbB-2 gene copy number in primary and metastatic bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sauter, G.; Mihatsch, M.J.; Gasser, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    To study the relationship of tumor genomic heterogeneity with bladder cancer phenotype and p53 gene alterations, 139 primary bladder tumors were examined by dual labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for chromosome 17 centromere (p17H8) and p53 (17p13.1). The number of different aneusomic populations >5% (and monosomic populations >20%) of cells served as a marker for heterogeneity. Nuclear p53 overexpression and Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) were determined by immunohistochemistry. The number of aneusomic populations was 0 in 53 tumors, 1 in 18, 2 in 47, 3 in 9, and >3 in 11 tumors. Presence of aneusomy was associated with tumor grade and stage (P < 0.0001 each). Ki67 LI was low in disomic tumors (11.0 {+-} 7.7), higher in tumors with 1-3 aneusomic populations (17.4 {+-} 11.3), and highest in tumors with >3 aneusomic populations (25.8 {+-} 10.9; P = 0.02 for >3 vs. 1-3 populations). Aneusomy and heterogeneity were associated with p53 alterations. Aneusomy was seen in 35% of tumors with neither p53 expression nor p53 deletion but in 97% of tumors with both p53 deletion and expression. Nine of 11 tumors with >3 aneusomic populations exhibited both p53 deletion and overexpression. To study genomic heterogeneity in tumor progression, two recurrences and three metastases of a tumor with known erbB-2 amplification were examined for centromere 17 and erbB-2 copy number. A considerable heterogeneity in centromere 17 and erbB-2 gene copy number was found in both recurrences and metastases, indicating a marked genomic instability in these metastatic cells. These results show that genomic heterogeneity is common in bladder cancer. Highly heterogeneous tumors might represent a particularly aggressive subtype of bladder carcinoma. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A prenatally ascertained, maternally inherited 14.8 Mb duplication of chromosomal bands Xq13.2-q21.31 associated with multiple congenital abnormalities in a male fetus.

    PubMed

    Sismani, C; Donoghue, J; Alexandrou, A; Karkaletsi, M; Christopoulou, S; Konstantinidou, A E; Livanos, P; Patsalis, P C; Velissariou, V

    2013-11-01

    Duplications of the X chromosome are rare cytogenetic findings, and have been associated with an abnormal phenotype in the male offspring of apparently normal or near normal female carriers. We report on the prenatal diagnosis of a duplication on the long arm of chromosome X from chromosomal band Xq13.2 to q21.31 in a male fetus with increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester and polyhydramnios at 22 weeks of gestation. Amniocentesis was undertaken and cytogenetic analysis revealed additional chromosomal material in the long arm of chromosome X at position Xq13. Analysis with high resolution array CGH revealed the additional material is in fact a duplication of the region Xq13.2-q21.13. The duplication is 14.8 Mb in size and includes fourteen genes: SLC16A2, KIAA2022, ABCB7, ZDHHC15, ATRX, MAGT1, ATP7A, PGK1, TBX22, BRWD3, POU3F4, ZNF711, POF1B and CHM. Analysis of the parents revealed the mother to be a carrier of the same duplication. After elected termination of the pregnancy at 28 weeks a detailed autopsy of the fetus allowed for genotype-phenotype correlations.

  15. A new index for the quantification of chromosome number variation: an application to selected animal and plant groups.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Caparelli, Katia Francesca; Bedini, Gianni

    2014-07-21

    Quantitative parameters have been used to characterize chromosome number (CN) variation. This gave us the idea to collect available data in various organisms and compare them, in order to verify if variation patterns differ between animal and plant groups and to quantify these patterns with an Index of CN Heterogeneity (ICNH), useful as a parameter to compare related taxonomical/geographical groups of organisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to compare CN variation in animal and plant groups with large datasets. The quantitative analysis allowed detecting significant differences among most groups of animals and plants. The most striking difference, however, is the close relationship between mean CN and SD restricted to plants, in which higher CN are also associated with a larger variation degree, possibly due to the well known genomic plasticity in this group and a propensity for polyploidization higher than in animals. The ICNH defined here can be easily calculated for both animal and plant groups based on commonly available data. It summarizes data accumulated in over a century of research and includes so-called anomalies like fB and fOCN, sometimes overlooked by researchers due to lack of a proper way of comparison.

  16. Copy-number variations in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor regions identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuki; Miyado, Mami; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Yoko; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Atsumi; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Hidekazu; Kubota, Toshiro; Okada, Hiroshi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2015-03-01

    Although copy-number variations (CNVs) in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF) regions have been associated with the risk of spermatogenic failure (SF), the precise frequency, genomic basis and clinical consequences of these CNVs remain unclear. Here we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 56 Japanese SF patients and 65 control individuals. We compared the results of MLPA with those of conventional sequence-tagged site PCR analyses. Eleven simple and complex CNVs, including three hitherto unreported variations, were identified by MLPA. Seven of the 11 CNVs were undetectable by conventional analyses. CNVs were widely distributed in AZF regions and shared by ~60% of the patients and ~40% of the controls. Most breakpoints resided within locus-specific repeats. The majority of CNVs, including the most common gr/gr deletion, were identified in the patient and control groups at similar frequencies, whereas simple duplications were observed exclusively in the patient group. The results imply that AZF-linked CNVs are more frequent and heterogeneous than previously reported. Non-allelic homologous recombination likely underlies these CNVs. Our data confirm the functional neutrality of the gr/gr deletion in the Japanese population. We also found a possible association between AZF-linked simple duplications and SF, which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  17. Chromosomal DNA Replication Pattern in Human Tumour Cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kucheria, Kiran

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with the chromosomal DNA replication pattern in human solid tumour cells in vitro. This was studied at the terminal stages of the S-period. All the cell lines of female origin showed a late replicating chromosome in group XX6-12. In cell lines of male origin one of the chromosomes of group 21-22Y was later replicating than the rest of the members of the group. The DNA replication pattern of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes was similar to that of the cultured human leucocytes. The results of the present study show that the DNA replication pattern of the chromosome in neoplastic cells is basically unchanged despite the changes in the chromosome number and morphology. Therefore the abnormal behaviour of the neoplastic cells cannot be related to the changes in the pattern of the chromosomal DNA replication. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 6Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5475754

  18. Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia. XXX. Banding studies of primary intestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sonta, S; Sandberg, A A

    1978-01-01

    The chromosomes of 15 primary intestinal tumors were analyzed with a banding technique. Of the 15 tumors, 12 had some chromosomal abnormalities (8 with numerical changes and 4 with both numerical and structural abnormalities) and in the remaining three no karyotypic abnormalities were found. No common marker chromosomes were seen among the various tumors and no two tumors with chromosomal changes and identical karyotypes, though some chromosomes were involved more often than others. Excessive chromosomes in the primary tumors were usually due to extra chromosomes in the following groups (numbers of tumors involved are shown in parenthesis): No. 8 (7), No. 13 (4), No. 15 (4), No. 17 (6) and No. 21 (6). On the other hand, chromosomes losses, though much less frequent, involved chromosomes No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, No. 10 and No. 16. Most of the tumor cells with chromosomal changes were hyperdiploid and usually contained less than 60 chromosomes. Only one tumor contained hypodiploid cells. The cytogenetic data presented on primary intestinal tumors indicate that they consist primarily of numerical changes, relative infrequency (when compared to metastases) and small number (1-4) of markers. PMID:626926

  19. Chromosomal Copy Number Variation, Selection and Uneven Rates of Recombination Reveal Cryptic Genome Diversity Linked to Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Henk, Daniel A.; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi constitute a growing threat to both plant and animal species on a global scale. Despite a clonal mode of reproduction dominating the population genetic structure of many fungi, putatively asexual species are known to adapt rapidly when confronted by efforts to control their growth and transmission. However, the mechanisms by which adaptive diversity is generated across a clonal background are often poorly understood. We sequenced a global panel of the emergent amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), to high depth and characterized rapidly changing features of its genome that we believe hold the key to the worldwide success of this organism. Our analyses show three processes that contribute to the generation of de novo diversity. Firstly, we show that the majority of wild isolates manifest chromosomal copy number variation that changes over short timescales. Secondly, we show that cryptic recombination occurs within all lineages of Bd, leading to large regions of the genome being in linkage equilibrium, and is preferentially associated with classes of genes of known importance for virulence in other pathosystems. Finally, we show that these classes of genes are under directional selection, and that this has predominantly targeted the Global Panzootic Lineage (BdGPL). Our analyses show that Bd manifests an unusually dynamic genome that may have been shaped by its association with the amphibian host. The rates of variation that we document likely explain the high levels of phenotypic variability that have been reported for Bd, and suggests that the dynamic genome of this pathogen has contributed to its success across multiple biomes and host-species. PMID:23966879

  20. Interpretation of clinical relevance of X-chromosome copy number variations identified in a large cohort of individuals with cognitive disorders and/or congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leeuw, Nicole; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Pfundt, Rolph; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Yntema, Helger G; Nillesen, Willy M; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide array studies are now routinely being used in the evaluation of patients with cognitive disorders (CD) and/or congenital anomalies (CA). Therefore, inevitably each clinician is confronted with the challenging task of the interpretation of copy number variations detected by genome-wide array platforms in a diagnostic setting. Clinical interpretation of autosomal copy number variations is already challenging, but assessment of the clinical relevance of copy number variations of the X-chromosome is even more complex. This study provides an overview of the X-Chromosome copy number variations that we have identified by genome-wide array analysis in a large cohort of 4407 male and female patients. We have made an interpretation of the clinical relevance of each of these copy number variations based on well-defined criteria and previous reports in literature and databases. The prevalence of X-chromosome copy number variations in this cohort was 57/4407 (∼1.3%), of which 15 (0.3%) were interpreted as (likely) pathogenic.

  1. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Kartapradja, Hannie; Marzuki, Nanis Sacharina; Pertile, Mark D.; Francis, David; Suciati, Lita Putri; Anggaratri, Helena Woro; Ambarwati, Debby Dwi; Idris, Firman Prathama; Lesmana, Harry; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Paramayuda, Chrysantine; Harahap, Alida Roswita

    2015-01-01

    We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband's mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP) FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband's mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother's and grandmother's CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations. PMID:25722897

  2. Chromosome numbers, characterization of chromosomal pairing during meiosis, origin and natural propagation in polyploid cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) of Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) in northwest Himalayas (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puneet; Rana, Pawan K; Himshikha; Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, R C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the presence of intraspecific polyploidy (2x, 4x, 5x and 6x) in Agrimonia eupatoria, origin of these cytotypes has never been addressed adequately. The aim of the present study was to record the original chromosome counts and characterize chromosomal pairing during meiosis and microsporogenesis in the 5x cytotype, and discussing the hypothesis regarding the possible origin of polyploid cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) in the species. The geographical distribution pattern of cytotypes in the Indian Himalayas and elsewhere has also been analyzed. The present meiotic analysis revealed three chromosomes counts, the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 56), the pentaploid (2n = 5x = 70) and the hexaploid (2n = 6x = 84) cytotypes based on x = 14. Meiotic course was perfectly normal in the 4x and 6x cytotypes resulting into high pollen fertility (94-100 %). Meiotic course in the imbalanced 5x cytotype has been found to be irregular characterized by the presence of high frequency of univalents at diakinesis and metaphase-I. Abnormal meiotic course contributed towards high pollen sterility (74-88 %). Even the apparently fertile/stained pollen grains were of irregular shape and of heterogeneous sizes. Meiotic behaviour of the 5x cytotype is like typical of allopolyploid. Individuals of 5x cytotype did not produce seeds and propagate vegetatively (root suckers) while 4x and 6x cytotypes exploited sexual (seeds) as well as vegetative means for propagation. Chromosomal pairing in pentaploid cytotype is like typical of an allopolyploid and we assume that it might have originated owing to natural inter-cytotype hybridization between 4x and 6x cytotypes in a mixed population. Analysis of geographical distribution pattern of cytotypes shows that Indian Himalayas represent the most cytotype-diverse region for A. eupatoria with the existence of all the four cytotypes (2x, 4x, 5x, 6x). This shows the dynamic nature of the species at chromosomal level in this part of the world.

  3. A new autosomal recessive non-progressive congenital cerebellar ataxia associated with mental retardation, optic atrophy, and skin abnormalities (CAMOS) maps to chromosome 15q24-q26 in a large consanguineous Lebanese Druze Family.

    PubMed

    Delague, Valérie; Bareil, Corinne; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Salem, Nabiha; Chouery, Eliane; Loiselet, Jacques; Mégarbané, André; Claustres, Mireille

    2002-03-01

    Congenital cerebellar ataxias are a heterogeneous group of non-progressive disorders characterized by hypotonia and developmental delay followed by the appearance of ataxia, and often associated with dysarthria, mental retardation, and atrophy of the cerebellum. We report the mapping of a disease gene in a large inbred Lebanese Druze family, with five cases of a new form of non-progressive autosomal recessive congenital ataxia associated with optic atrophy, severe mental retardation, and structural skin abnormalities, to a 3.6-cM interval on chromosome 15q24-15q26.

  4. On the spot: very local chromosomal rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Helsmoortel, Céline; Vandeweyer, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the detection of chromosomal abnormalities has shifted from conventional karyotyping under a light microscope to molecular detection using microarrays. The latter technology identified copy number variation as a major source of variation in the human genome; moreover, copy number variants were found responsible for 10-20% of cases of intellectual disability. Recent technological advances in microarray technology have also enabled the detection of very small local chromosomal rearrangements, sometimes affecting the function of only a single gene. Here, we illustrate how high resolution microarray analysis has led to increased insights into the contribution of specific genes in disease. PMID:23189093

  5. Abnormal protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a submicroscopic X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Joy, J E; Poglod, R; Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Merril, C R

    1991-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and, in many cases, mental retardation. Some Norrie disease cases have been shown to be associated with a submicroscopic deletion in chromosomal region Xp11.3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from four male patients with an X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease. CSF proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and then analyzed by computer using the Elsie V program. Our analysis revealed a protein that appears to be altered in patients with Norrie disease deletion.

  6. An interstitial deletion of 7.1Mb in chromosome band 6p22.3 associated with developmental delay and dysmorphic features including heart defects, short neck, and eye abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Anna; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Giacobini, Maibritt

    2009-01-01

    Seven cases with an interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 6 involving the 6p22 region have previously been reported. The clinical phenotype of these cases includes developmental delay, brain-, heart-, and kidney defects, eye abnormalities, short neck, craniofacial malformations, hypotonia, as well as clinodactyly or syndactyly. Here, we report a patient with a 7.1Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome band 6p22.3, detected by genome-wide screening array CGH. The patient is a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay and dysmorphic features including eye abnormalities, short neck, and a ventricular septum defect. The deleted region at 6p22.3 in our patient overlaps with six out of the seven previously reported cases with a 6p22-24 interstitial deletion. This enabled us to further narrow down the critical region for the 6p22 deletion phenotype to 2.2Mb. Twelve genes are mapped to the overlapping deleted region, among them the gene encoding the ataxin-1 protein, the ATXN1 gene. Mice with homozygous deletions in ATXN1 are phenotypically normal but show cognitive delay. Haploinsufficiency of ATXN1 may therefore contribute to the learning difficulties observed in the patients harboring a 6p22 deletion.

  7. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC) were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism), which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that, epigenetic mechanisms play an

  8. The genetic contribution to sex determination and number of sex chromosomes vary among populations of common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N; Vuille, Y; Brelsford, A; Merilä, J; Perrin, N

    2016-07-01

    The patterns of sex determination and sex differentiation have been shown to differ among geographic populations of common frogs. Notably, the association between phenotypic sex and linkage group 2 (LG2) has been found to be perfect in a northern Swedish population, but weak and variable among families in a southern one. By analyzing these populations with markers from other linkage groups, we bring two new insights: (1) the variance in phenotypic sex not accounted for by LG2 in the southern population could not be assigned to genetic factors on other linkage groups, suggesting an epigenetic component to sex determination; (2) a second linkage group (LG7) was found to co-segregate with sex and LG2 in the northern population. Given the very short timeframe since post-glacial colonization (in the order of 1000 generations) and its seemingly localized distribution, this neo-sex chromosome system might be the youngest one described so far. It does not result from a fusion, but more likely from a reciprocal translocation between the original Y chromosome (LG2) and an autosome (LG7), causing their co-segregation during male meiosis. By generating a strict linkage between several important genes from the sex-determination cascade (Dmrt1, Amh and Amhr2), this neo-sex chromosome possibly contributes to the 'differentiated sex race' syndrome (strictly genetic sex determination and early gonadal development) that characterizes this northern population. PMID:27071845

  9. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines.

    PubMed

    Korac, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kusec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-12-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease.

  10. [Hebephrenic symptoms as an expression of an XYY chromosome abnormality? Case report of a patient with suspected sexual abuse of his own 2 minor children].

    PubMed

    Dirksen, T; Mönikes, E

    1995-06-01

    A 48 year old patient was hospitalised because of parasuicidal behaviour and suicidal ideation. He was under suspicion of having sexually abused his 4-year old daughter and his 4-year old son. At the age of 17, he was hospitalised in a psychiatric ward under the diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia. He successfully received an insulin coma therapy. Because of his increased height (1.89 m), mental retardation and other psychical disorders in his youth, we now suspected him of having an extra Y chromosome which was confirmed by chromosome analysis. The non-uniform symptomatology of XYY-individuals includes a hebephrenic aspect. Concerning the different therapeutical and juridical consequences, we considered a critical investigation of the former diagnosis "Hebephrenic Schizophrenia".

  11. Distal Partial Trisomy 15q26 and Partial Monosomy 16p13.3 in a 36-Year-Old Male with Clinical Features of Both Chromosomal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Devin M; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-01-01

    We report a 36-year-old Caucasian male identified with distal partial trisomy 15q and partial monosomy 16p from an unbalanced chromosome translocation detected by microarray and FISH analysis. He had a history of developmental delay and intellectual disability, chronic anemia, tall and slender stature, thoracic scoliosis and lumbar lordosis, and dysmorphic features. The distal partial trisomy 15q included the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene involved with growth, while genes in the distal partial monosomy 16p region are involved with alpha hemoglobin production, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and acromegaly. The chromosome derivative found in our patient contains genes known to play a role in his phenotype.

  12. A prenatally ascertained de novo terminal deletion of chromosomal bands 1q43q44 associated with multiple congenital abnormalities in a female fetus.

    PubMed

    Sismani, Carolina; Christopoulou, Georgia; Alexandrou, Angelos; Evangelidou, Paola; Donoghue, Jacqueline; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E; Velissariou, Voula

    2015-01-01

    Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) and a single umbilical artery (SUA) and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8 Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS). Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome.

  13. Rapid generation of region-specific probes by chromosome microdissection: Application to the identification of chromosomal rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J.M.; Guan, X.Y.; Zang, J.; Meltzer, P.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors present results using a novel strategy for chromosome microdissection and direct in vitro amplification of specific chromosomal regions, to identify cryptic chromosome alterations, and to rapidly generate region-specific genomic probes. First, banded chromosomes are microdissected and directly PCR amplified by a procedure which eliminates microchemistry (Meltzer, et al., Nature Genetics, 1:24, 1992). The resulting PCR product can be used for several applications including direct labeling for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to normal metaphase chromosomes. A second application of this procedure is the extremely rapid generation of chromosome region-specific probes. This approach has been successfully used to determine the derivation of chromosome segments unidentifiable by standard chromosome banding analysis. In selected instances these probes have also been used on interphase nuclei and provides the potential for assessing chromosome abnormalities in a variety of cell lineages. The microdissection probes (which can be generated in <24 hours) have also been utilized in direct library screening and provide the possibility of acquiring a significant number of region-specific probes for any chromosome band. This procedure extends the limits of conventional cytogenetic analysis by providing an extremely rapid source of numerous band-specific probes, and by enabling the direct analysis of essentially any unknown chromosome region.

  14. Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae), a new limestone endemic from Taiwan, with notes on its atypical basic chromosome number, phylogenetic affinities, and a limestone refugium hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koh; Chung, Shih-Wen; Kono, Yoshiko; Ho, Meng-Jung; Hsu, Tian-Chuan; Peng, Ching-I

    2014-01-01

    A new species Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae) endemic to middle altitude (ca 1,000-2,000 m asl) limestone mountains of eastcentral Taiwan is described based on morphological and chromosome cytological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Ixeridium calcicola resembles Ixeridium transnokoense, endemic to upper montane and alpine ranges (2,600-3,500 m asl) of Taiwan, in the dwarf habit, but differs in the oblong to lanceolate leaf blades (vs. linear to linear-lanceolate), the presence of mucronulate teeth on the leaf margin and petiole (vs. smooth to very sparse), the dark purple lower leaf surface (vs. greenish), the capitulum with 10 to 12 florets (vs. 5 to 7) and 8 to 10 inner phyllaries (vs. 5, rarely to 7). The basic chromosome number in Ixeridium was known as X = 7. However, the new species has a basic chromosome number of X = 8, as recorded also in the closely related Ixeris. Molecular phylogenetic analyses with the expanded sampling of Ixeridium and Ixeris including both type species supported the monophyly of each of the genera and the placement of the new species in Ixeridium. The result of the phylogenetic analyses and detailed observation of the chromosome morphology revealed that X = 8 in Ixeridium calcicola is derived from centric fission in an ancestral karyomorphotype with X = 7 in Ixeridium. Ixeridium calcicola and Ixeridium transnokoense formed a Taiwan endemic lineage and their estimated divergence time was in the middle Pleistocene. Their common ancestral lineage may have experienced altitudinal distribution shifts in response to glacial-interglacial temperature fluctuation, and a lineage which had not retreated to alpine ranges in an interglacial period likely survived in a limestone refugium, where ordinary plant species did not grow, leading to allopatric speciation. PMID:25295587

  15. Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae), a New Limestone Endemic from Taiwan, with Notes on Its Atypical Basic Chromosome Number, Phylogenetic Affinities, and a Limestone Refugium Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiko; Ho, Meng-Jung; Hsu, Tian-Chuan; Peng, Ching-I

    2014-01-01

    A new species Ixeridium calcicola (Compositae) endemic to middle altitude (ca 1,000–2,000 m asl) limestone mountains of eastcentral Taiwan is described based on morphological and chromosome cytological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Ixeridium calcicola resembles Ixeridium transnokoense, endemic to upper montane and alpine ranges (2,600–3,500 m asl) of Taiwan, in the dwarf habit, but differs in the oblong to lanceolate leaf blades (vs. linear to linear-lanceolate), the presence of mucronulate teeth on the leaf margin and petiole (vs. smooth to very sparse), the dark purple lower leaf surface (vs. greenish), the capitulum with 10 to 12 florets (vs. 5 to 7) and 8 to 10 inner phyllaries (vs. 5, rarely to 7). The basic chromosome number in Ixeridium was known as X = 7. However, the new species has a basic chromosome number of X = 8, as recorded also in the closely related Ixeris. Molecular phylogenetic analyses with the expanded sampling of Ixeridium and Ixeris including both type species supported the monophyly of each of the genera and the placement of the new species in Ixeridium. The result of the phylogenetic analyses and detailed observation of the chromosome morphology revealed that X = 8 in Ixeridium calcicola is derived from centric fission in an ancestral karyomorphotype with X = 7 in Ixeridium. Ixeridium calcicola and Ixeridium transnokoense formed a Taiwan endemic lineage and their estimated divergence time was in the middle Pleistocene. Their common ancestral lineage may have experienced altitudinal distribution shifts in response to glacial-interglacial temperature fluctuation, and a lineage which had not retreated to alpine ranges in an interglacial period likely survived in a limestone refugium, where ordinary plant species did not grow, leading to allopatric speciation. PMID:25295587

  16. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Rice and Pineapple Contributes to Understand the Chromosome Number Reduction and Genomic Changes in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinpeng; Yu, Jiaxiang; Sun, Pengchuan; Li, Yuxian; Xia, Ruiyan; Liu, Yinzhe; Ma, Xuelian; Yu, Jigao; Yang, Nanshan; Lei, Tianyu; Wang, Zhenyi; Wang, Li; Ge, Weina; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Xiaojian; Sun, Sangrong; Liu, Tao; Jin, Dianchuan; Pan, Yuxin; Wang, Xiyin

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the most researched model plant, and has a genome structure most resembling that of the grass common ancestor after a grass common tetraploidization ∼100 million years ago. There has been a standing controversy whether there had been five or seven basic chromosomes, before the tetraploidization, which were tackled but could not be well solved for the lacking of a sequenced and assembled outgroup plant to have a conservative genome structure. Recently, the availability of pineapple genome, which has not been subjected to the grass-common tetraploidization, provides a precious opportunity to solve the above controversy and to research into genome changes of rice and other grasses. Here, we performed a comparative genomics analysis of pineapple and rice, and found solid evidence that grass-common ancestor had 2n = 2x = 14 basic chromosomes before the tetraploidization and duplicated to 2n = 4x = 28 after the event. Moreover, we proposed that enormous gene missing from duplicated regions in rice should be explained by an allotetraploid produced by prominently divergent parental lines, rather than gene losses after their divergence. This means that genome fractionation might have occurred before the formation of the allotetraploid grass ancestor. PMID:27757123

  17. Chromosomal diversification of diploid number, heterochromatin and rDNAs in two species of Phanaeus beetles (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, Amanda; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Martins, Cesar; de Cássia de Moura, Rita; de Souza, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    The genus Phanaeus is included in the tribe Phanaeini, one of the most diverse tribes within the subfamily Scarabaeinae in terms of chromosomal characteristics. However, so far the species of this genus were not studied with differential cytogenetic techniques, limiting any inference of the probable mechanisms responsible for this diversity. In this work, several techniques were applied with the aim of cytogenetically characterizing two Phanaeus species. The karyotype found for Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) chalcomelas was 2n = 12, neo-XY, and that of P. (N.) splendidulus was 2n = 20, Xyp, considered primitive for the family Scarabaeidae. The chromosomes of both species showed a high amount of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), with blocks rich in base pairs GC (CMA3+). Moreover, in P. (N.) chalcomelas the marks revealed by C-banding and fluorochrome staining were different in size, showing CH variability. Sites of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were identified in one autosomal pair of P. (N.) chalcomelas and in five autosomal pairs of P. (N.) splendidulus. On the other hand, only one autosomal pair exhibited 5S rDNA sequences in these species. The results suggest that the karyotype differentiation of the Phanaeus species studied here involved pericentric inversions and centric fusions, as well as mechanisms related to amplification and dispersion of CH and rDNA sequences. PMID:24130440

  18. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric DNA probes as a new approach to distinguish chromosome breakage from aneuploidy in interphase cells and micronuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Eastmond, D.A.; Rupa, D.S.; Chen, H.W.; Hasegawa, L.

    1993-12-31

    Chromosomal abnormalities are believed to contribute significantly to human reproductive failure, carcinogenesis and other pathophysiological conditions. For example, approximately 15% of recognized pregnancies terminate in spontaneous abortion, and of these approximately 30% have been shown to be chromosomally abnormal. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to early embryonic and fetal death appears to decrease with gestational age, suggesting that as many as 67% of the aborted embryos in early embryonic deaths are chromosomally abnormal. Furthermore, clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities can also be found to be present in approximately 0.58 to 0.67% of live births. These figures indicate that within a given year, hundreds of thousands of chromosomally abnormal babies will be born throughout the world and additional millions of chromosomally abnormal embryos will have been spontaneously aborted. For the past several years, our research has focused on utilizing new molecular cytogenetic techniques to develop assays for detecting aneuploidy-inducing agents in mammalian cells. One approach that we have sucessfully employed involves the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes to determine the number of copies of a representative chromosome present within the nucleus following chemical exposure. DNA sequences (probes) which hybridize to blocks of repetitive centromeric DNA on specific chromosomes have been developed for most of the human chromosomes. In situ hybridization with these probes results in the staining of a compact chromosomal region which can be easily detected in interphase nuclei. The presence of 3 (or more) hybridization domains in an interphase nucleus indicates the presence of three centromeric regions and has been presumed to indicate that three copies of the entire chromosome were present in the nucleus.

  19. Piperaquine Resistance Is Associated with a Copy Number Variation on Chromosome 5 in Drug-Pressured Plasmodium falciparum Parasites▿†

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Richard T.; Dharia, Neekesh V.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Fidock, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin has recently become the official first-line therapy in several Southeast Asian countries. The pharmacokinetic mismatching of these drugs, whose plasma half-lives are ∼20 days and ∼1 h, respectively, implies that recrudescent or new infections emerging shortly after treatment cessation will encounter piperaquine as a monotherapy agent. This creates substantial selection pressure for the emergence of resistance. To elucidate potential resistance determinants, we subjected cloned Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 parasites to continuous piperaquine pressure in vitro (47 nM; ∼2-fold higher than the Dd2 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]). The phenotype of outgrowth parasites was assayed in two clones, revealing an IC50 against piperaquine of 2.1 μM and 1.7 μM, over 100-fold greater than that of the parent. To identify the genetic determinant of resistance, we employed comparative whole-genome hybridization analysis. Compared to the Dd2 parent, this analysis found (in both resistant clones) a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism in P. falciparum crt (pfcrt), deamplification of an 82-kb region of chromosome 5 (that includes pfmdr1), and amplification of an adjacent 63-kb region of chromosome 5. Continued propagation without piperaquine selection pressure resulted in “revertant” piperaquine-sensitive parasites. These retained the pfcrt polymorphism and further deamplified the chromosome 5 segment that encompasses pfmdr1; however, these two independently generated revertants both lost the neighboring 63-kb amplification. These results suggest that a copy number variation event on chromosome 5 (825600 to 888300) is associated with piperaquine resistance. Transgene expression studies are underway with individual genes in this segment to evaluate their contribution to piperaquine resistance. PMID:21576453

  20. Extensive variation in chromosome number and genome size in sexual and parthenogenetic species of the jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Archaeognatha)

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Melitta; Dejaco, Thomas; Schönswetter, Peter; Marec, František; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M

    2014-01-01

    Parthenogenesis in animals is often associated with polyploidy and restriction to extreme habitats or recently deglaciated areas. It has been hypothesized that benefits conferred by asexual reproduction and polyploidy are essential for colonizing these habitats. However, while evolutionary routes to parthenogenesis are manifold, study systems including polyploids are scarce in arthropods. The jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Insecta: Archaeognatha) includes both sexual and parthenogenetic species, and recently, the occurrence of polyploidy has been postulated. Here, we applied flow cytometry, karyotyping, and mitochondrial DNA sequencing to three sexual and five putatively parthenogenetic Eastern-Alpine Machilis species to investigate whether (1) parthenogenesis originated once or multiply and (2) whether parthenogenesis is strictly associated with polyploidy. The mitochondrial phylogeny revealed that parthenogenesis evolved at least five times independently among Eastern-Alpine representatives of this genus. One parthenogenetic species was exclusively triploid, while a second consisted of both diploid and triploid populations. The three other parthenogenetic species and all sexual species were diploid. Our results thus indicate that polyploidy can co-occur with parthenogenesis, but that it was not mandatory for the emergence of parthenogenesis in Machilis. Overall, we found a weak negative correlation of monoploid genome size (Cx) and chromosome base number (x), and this connection is stronger among parthenogenetic species alone. Likewise, monoploid genome size decreased with elevation, and we therefore hypothesize that genome downsizing could have been crucial for the persistence of alpine Machilis species. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary consequences of intraspecific chromosomal rearrangements and the presence of B chromosomes. In doing so, we highlight the potential of Alpine Machilis species for research on chromosomal and genome-size alterations

  1. Extensive variation in chromosome number and genome size in sexual and parthenogenetic species of the jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Archaeognatha).

    PubMed

    Gassner, Melitta; Dejaco, Thomas; Schönswetter, Peter; Marec, František; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M

    2014-11-01

    Parthenogenesis in animals is often associated with polyploidy and restriction to extreme habitats or recently deglaciated areas. It has been hypothesized that benefits conferred by asexual reproduction and polyploidy are essential for colonizing these habitats. However, while evolutionary routes to parthenogenesis are manifold, study systems including polyploids are scarce in arthropods. The jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Insecta: Archaeognatha) includes both sexual and parthenogenetic species, and recently, the occurrence of polyploidy has been postulated. Here, we applied flow cytometry, karyotyping, and mitochondrial DNA sequencing to three sexual and five putatively parthenogenetic Eastern-Alpine Machilis species to investigate whether (1) parthenogenesis originated once or multiply and (2) whether parthenogenesis is strictly associated with polyploidy. The mitochondrial phylogeny revealed that parthenogenesis evolved at least five times independently among Eastern-Alpine representatives of this genus. One parthenogenetic species was exclusively triploid, while a second consisted of both diploid and triploid populations. The three other parthenogenetic species and all sexual species were diploid. Our results thus indicate that polyploidy can co-occur with parthenogenesis, but that it was not mandatory for the emergence of parthenogenesis in Machilis. Overall, we found a weak negative correlation of monoploid genome size (Cx) and chromosome base number (x), and this connection is stronger among parthenogenetic species alone. Likewise, monoploid genome size decreased with elevation, and we therefore hypothesize that genome downsizing could have been crucial for the persistence of alpine Machilis species. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary consequences of intraspecific chromosomal rearrangements and the presence of B chromosomes. In doing so, we highlight the potential of Alpine Machilis species for research on chromosomal and genome-size alterations

  2. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  3. Array CGH identifies distinct DNA copy number profiles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in chromosomal- and microsatellite-unstable sporadic colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lassmann, Silke; Weis, Roland; Makowiec, Frank; Roth, Jasmine; Danciu, Mihai; Hopt, Ulrich; Werner, Martin

    2007-03-01

    DNA copy number changes represent molecular fingerprints of solid tumors and are as such relevant for better understanding of tumor development and progression. In this study, we applied genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify gene-specific DNA copy number changes in chromosomal (CIN)- and microsatellite (MIN)-unstable sporadic colorectal cancers (sCRC). Genomic DNA was extracted from microdissected, matching normal colorectal epithelium and invasive tumor cells of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of 22 cases with colorectal cancer (CIN = 11, MIN = 11). DNA copy number changes were determined by aCGH for 287 target sequences in tumor cell DNAs, using pooled normal DNAs as reference. aCGH data of tumor cell DNAs was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for three genes on serial tissues as those used for aCGH. aCGH revealed DNA copy number changes previously described by metaphase CGH (gains 7, 8q, 13q, and 20q; losses 8p, 15q, 18q, and 17p). However, chromosomal regions 20q, 13q, 7, and 17p were preferentially altered in CIN-type tumors and included DNA amplifications of eight genes on chromosome 20q (TOP1, AIB1, MYBL2, CAS, PTPN1, STK15, ZNF217, and CYP24), two genes on chromosome 13q (BRCA2 and D13S25), and three genes on chromosome 7 (IL6, CYLN2, and MET) as well as DNA deletions of two genes on chromosome 17p (HIC1 and LLGL1). Finally, additional CIN-tumor-associated DNA amplifications were identified for EXT1 (8q24.11) and MYC (8q24.12) as well as DNA deletions for MAP2K5 (15q23) and LAMA3 (18q11.2). In contrast, distinct MIN-tumor-associated DNA amplifications were detected for E2F5 (8p22-q21.3), GARP (11q13.5-q14), ATM (11q22.3), KAL (Xp22.3), and XIST (Xq13.2) as well as DNA deletions for RAF1 (3p25), DCC (18q21.3), and KEN (21q tel). aCGH revealed distinct DNA copy number changes of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in CIN- and MIN-type sporadic colorectal carcinomas. The identified candidate

  4. Continuous absence of metaphase-defined cytogenetic abnormalities, especially of chromosome 13 and hypodiploidy, ensures long-term survival in multiple myeloma treated with Total Therapy I: interpretation in the context of global gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, John; Jacobson, Joth; Sawyer, Jeff; McCoy, Jason; Fassas, Athanasios; Zhan, Fenghuang; Bumm, Klaus; Epstein, Joshua; Anaissie, Elias; Jagannath, Sundar; Vesole, David; Siegel, David; Desikan, Raman; Munshi, Nikhil; Badros, Ashraf; Tian, Erming; Zangari, Maurizio; Tricot, Guido; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2003-05-15

    Metaphase cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs), especially of chromosome 13 (CA 13), confer a grave prognosis in multiple myeloma even with tandem autotransplantations as applied in Total Therapy I, which enrolled 231 patients between 1989 and 1994. With a median follow-up of almost 9 years, the prognostic implications of all individual CAs, detected prior to treatment and at relapse, were investigated. Among all CAs and standard prognostic factors examined prior to therapy, only hypodiploidy and CA 13 (hypo-13 CA), alone or in combination, were associated with shortest event-free survival and overall survival (OS). The shortest postrelapse OS was observed with hypo-13 CA, which was newly detected in 18 of all 28 patients presenting with this abnormality at relapse. Superior prognosis was associated with the absence of any CA at both diagnosis and relapse (10-year OS, 40%). The lack of independent prognostic implications of other CAs points to a uniquely aggressive behavior of hypo-13 CA (present in 16% of patients at diagnosis). With the use of microarray data in 146 patients enrolled in Total Therapy II, overexpression of cell cycle genes distinguished CA from no CA, especially in cases of del(13) detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH 13, resulting in a haploinsufficiency of RB1 and other genes mapping to chromosome 13, as well as activation of IGF1R, appears to have an amplifying effect on cell cycle gene expression, thus providing a molecular explanation for the dire outcome of patients with CA 13 compared with those with other CAs.

  5. Detection of sex chromosomal aneuploidies X-X, Y-Y, and X-Y in human sperm using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Robbins, W.A. |; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H.U.; Mehraein, Y. |

    1994-10-15

    Sex chromosome aneuploidy is the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality in humans at birth and a substantial portion of these abnormalities involve paternal chromosomes. An efficient method is presented for using air-dried smears of human semen to detect the number of X and Y chromosomes in sperm chromatin using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. Air-dried semen smears were pre-treated with dithiothreitol and 3,4-diiodosalicylate salt to decondense the sperm chromatin and then were hybridized with repetitive sequence DNA probes that had been generated by PCR and differentially labeled. Hybridizations with X and Y specific probes showed the expected ratio of 50%X:50%Y bearing sperm. Sperm carrying extra fluorescence domains representing disomy for the X or Y chromosomes occurred at frequencies of {approximately} 4 per 10,000 sperm each. Cells carrying both X and Y fluorescence domains occurred at a frequency of {approximately} 6/10,000. Thus, the overall frequency of sperm that carried an extra sex chromosome was 1.4/1,000. The frequencies of sperm carrying sex chromosome aneuploidies determined by hybridization did not differ statistically from those reported from the same laboratory using the human-sperm/hamster-egg cytogenetic technique. Multi-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization to sperm is a promising method for assessing sex-ratio alterations in human semen and for determining the fraction of sperm carrying sex or other chromosome aneuploidies which may be transmissible to offspring. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  7. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  8. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond; Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  9. Detection Of Amplified Or Deleted Chromosomal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond , Pinkel, Daniel , Gray, Joe W.

    1997-05-27

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  10. Normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene and abnormal incorporation of fibrillin into the extracellular matrix in Lujan Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhaw, G.A.; Stone, C.; Milewicz, D.

    1994-09-01

    Lujan syndrome is an X-linked condition that includes mild-to-moderate mental retardation, poor social integration, normal secondary sexual development with normal testicular size, generalized hypotonia, hypernasal voice and dolichostenomelia. Major cardiac complications and lens dislocation have not been reported although severe myopia may occur. All reported cases have had negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome but establishing this constellation of findings as a distinctive entity has been difficult. We report 4 males in two sibships with clinical findings consistent with Lujan syndrome, normal karyotypes, negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome and a normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Dermal fibroblasts explanted from one of the affected males were used to study fibrillin synthesis secretion and extracellular matrix incorporation into microfibrils. Cells from the affected individual showed normal synthesis and secretion of fibrillin when compared to control cells, but the fibrillin was not incorporated into the extracellular matrix. These results suggest the presence of a gene on the X chromosome which may play a role in microfibril assembly and when deficient may disrupt the incorporation of fibrillin into microfibrils. This may be important not only in normal body morphogenesis but also in the development/function of the brain. More affected individuals are needed to investigate these findings further.

  11. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jessica; Tan, Seang Lin; Hartshorne, Geraldine M.; McAinsh, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI) division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age. PMID:26718930

  12. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jessica; Tan, Seang Lin; Hartshorne, Geraldine M; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2015-12-30

    The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI) division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  13. Variability of the 5S and 45S rDNA Sites in Passiflora L. Species with Distinct Base Chromosome Numbers

    PubMed Central

    DE MELO, NATONIEL FRANKLIN; GUERRA, MARCELO

    2003-01-01

    Cytologically, the species of Passiflora with known chromosome number can be divided into four groups: (1) 2n = 12, 24, 36; (2) 2n = 24; (3) 2n = 18, 72; and (4) 2n = 20. The base chromosome number proposed for the genus is x = 6, with x = 9, x = 10 and x = 12 being considered secondary base numbers. In the present study, variability of 5S and 45S rDNA sites was investigated in 20 species of these four groups to check the reliability of this hypothesis. In the group with x = 6, five diploid species (2n = 12) exhibit two 5S rDNA sites and two (P. capsularis, P. morifolia and P. rubra) or four (P. misera 2x and P. tricuspis) 45S rDNA sites. The hexaploid cytotype of P. misera had 12 45S rDNA sites and six 5S rDNA. A tetraploid species, P. suberosa, had ten 45S rDNA sites and four 5S rDNA sites, both in the same chromosomes as the 45S rDNA sites. In the group with x = 9, P. actinia, P. amethystina, P. edmundoi, P. elegans, P. galbana, P. glandulosa and P. mucronata displayed six 45S rDNA sites, whereas P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis var. roxo and P. laurifolia had four sites. In this group, all species were diploid (2n = 18) and had only two 5S rDNA sites. Passiflora foetida, the only species with 2n = 20, had six 45S rDNA sites and four 5S rDNA sites. The species with x = 12 (2n = 24), P. haematostigma and P. pentagona, showed four 45S rDNA sites and two 5S rDNA. In general, the number and location of 5S and 45S rDNA sites were consistent with the hypothesis of x = 6 as the probable ancestral genome for the genus, while the groups of species with x = 9, x = 10 and x = 12 were considered to be of tetraploid origin with descending dysploidy and gene silencing of some redundant gene sites, mainly those of 5S rDNA. PMID:12876193

  14. Variability of the 5S and 45S rDNA sites in Passiflora L. species with distinct base chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Natoniel Franklin; Guerra, Marcelo

    2003-08-01

    Cytologically, the species of Passiflora with known chromosome number can be divided into four groups: (1) 2n = 12, 24, 36; (2) 2n = 24; (3) 2n = 18, 72; and (4) 2n = 20. The base chromosome number proposed for the genus is x = 6, with x = 9, x = 10 and x = 12 being considered secondary base numbers. In the present study, variability of 5S and 45S rDNA sites was investigated in 20 species of these four groups to check the reliability of this hypothesis. In the group with x = 6, five diploid species (2n = 12) exhibit two 5S rDNA sites and two (P. capsularis, P. morifolia and P. rubra) or four (P. misera 2x and P. tricuspis) 45S rDNA sites. The hexaploid cytotype of P. misera had 12 45S rDNA sites and six 5S rDNA. A tetraploid species, P. suberosa, had ten 45S rDNA sites and four 5S rDNA sites, both in the same chromosomes as the 45S rDNA sites. In the group with x = 9, P. actinia, P. amethystina, P. edmundoi, P. elegans, P. galbana, P. glandulosa and P. mucronata displayed six 45S rDNA sites, whereas P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis var. roxo and P. laurifolia had four sites. In this group, all species were diploid (2n = 18) and had only two 5S rDNA sites. Passiflora foetida, the only species with 2n = 20, had six 45S rDNA sites and four 5S rDNA sites. The species with x = 12 (2n = 24), P. haematostigma and P. pentagona, showed four 45S rDNA sites and two 5S rDNA. In general, the number and location of 5S and 45S rDNA sites were consistent with the hypothesis of x = 6 as the probable ancestral genome for the genus, while the groups of species with x = 9, x = 10 and x = 12 were considered to be of tetraploid origin with descending dysploidy and gene silencing of some redundant gene sites, mainly those of 5S rDNA. PMID:12876193

  15. Structural chromosomal anomalies detected by prenatal genetic diagnosis: our experience.

    PubMed

    Farcaş, Simona; Crişan, C D; Andreescu, Nicoleta; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A G M

    2013-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis is currently widely spread and facilitates the acquiring of important genetic information about the fetus by a rate extremely accelerate and considered without precedent. In this paper, we like to present our experience concerning the genetic diagnosis and counseling offered for pregnancies in which a structural chromosomal aberration was found. The study group is formed by 528 prenatal samples of amniotic fluid and chorionic villi, received by our laboratory from 2006 through October 2012 for cytogenetic diagnosis. The appropriate genetic investigation was selected based on the indications for prenatal diagnosis. The cases with structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were analyzed as regard to the maternal age, gestational age, referral indications and type of chromosomal anomaly found. A total number of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were identified in the study group. Out of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants, six deletions and microdeletions, four situations with abnormal long "p" arm of acrocentric chromosomes, two duplications, two reciprocal translocations, two inversions, two additions, one Robertsonian translocation associating trisomy 13, one 9q heteromorphism and one complex chromosome rearrangement were noticed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Romanian study in which the diagnostic strategies and the management of the prenatal cases with structural rearrangements are presented. The data provided about the diagnosis strategy and the management of the prenatal cases with structural chromosomal anomalies represents a useful tool in genetic counseling of pregnancies diagnosed with rare structural chromosomal anomalies. PMID:23771085

  16. Copy Number Variation Screen Identifies a Rare De Novo Deletion at Chromosome 15q13.1-13.3 in a Child with Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Kerry A; Reeves, Emily; Leavett, Ruth; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Sharma, Anahita; Simpson, Nuala H; Martinelli, Angela; Thompson, Paul; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J; Newbury, Dianne F; Paracchini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of children (up to 7% in the UK) present with pronounced language difficulties that cannot be explained by obvious causes like other neurological and medical conditions. A substantial genetic component is predicted to underlie such language problems. Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, but it is not fully established to what extent they might contribute to language disorders. We conducted a CNV screen in a longitudinal cohort of young children with language-related difficulties (n = 85), focusing on single events at candidate loci. We detected a de novo deletion on chromosome 15q13.1-13.3. The adjacent 15q11-13.1 locus is disrupted in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, while disruptions across the breakpoints (BP1-BP6) have previously been implicated in different neurodevelopmental phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability (ID), seizures and developmental delay (DD). This is the first report of a deletion at BP3-BP5 being linked to a deficit confined to language impairment, in the absence of ID, expanding the range of phenotypes that implicate the chromosome 15q13 locus. PMID:26262844

  17. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  18. Somatic copy number losses on chromosome 9q21.33q22.33 encompassing the PTCH1 loci associated with cardiac fibroma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Tongjian; Wang, Dong; Liu, Jinxiu; Yu, Wenqian; Liu, Xiangju; Xiang, Xiaoli; Dong, Kai; You, Feng; Zhang, Guichun; Ju, Jifeng; Zhu, Meng; Duan, Wenyuan; Qiao, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac fibroma is an extremely rare benign tumor that remains poorly characterized genetically. Somatic copy number alterations are common in tumors and have been defined as a crucial factor leading to tumors. In this study, we present a child diagnosed with cardiac fibroma with somatic copy number losses of a total of three discontinuous segments from 9q21.33 to 9q22.33, including a mosaic deletion of PTCH1. PTCH1 has been associated with sporadic cardiac fibroma. Sequencing analysis of the PTCH1 gene has not revealed any causative mutation. Quantitative PCR analysis of PTCH1 further confirms somatic copy number losses. Our data narrow down the critical causative deletions for sporadic cardiac fibroma to a region more precise than any other previously reported one. Our results suggest important roles of somatic copy number losses on chromosome 9q21.33q22.33 in the development of sporadic cardiac fibroma; these findings may provide a better understanding of sporadic cardiac fibroma pathogenesis and contribute to the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers of this neoplasm. . PMID:26564558

  19. Position effect modifying gene expression in a patient with ring chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Dantas, Anelisa Gollo; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Colovati, Mileny Esbravatti; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The clinical phenotype of patients with ring chromosomes usually reflects the loss of genomic material during ring formation. However, phenotypic alterations can also be found in the presence of complete ring chromosomes, in which the breakage and rejoining in terminal regions of both chromosome arms result in no gene loss. Here, we present a patient with a ring chromosome 14 that lost nothing but the telomeres. Since he and other patients with a similar chromosome abnormality present certain abnormal characteristics, we investigated the gene expression of eight chromosome 14 genes to find out whether the configuration of the ring had changed it, possibly producing some of these clinical features. The expression of these eight genes was studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the patient and in seven controls matched for gender and age. Two of them were found to be downregulated in the patient compared to the controls, indicating that his phenotype might be related to alterations in the expression of genes located in the abnormal chromosome, even when the copy number is normal. Thus, the phenotypic alterations found in the presence of complete ring chromosomes may be related to changes in the chromatin architecture, bringing about a change of expression by position effect. These results may explain some of the characteristics presented by our patient.

  20. Focal Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations Identify CMTM8 and GPR177 as New Candidate Driver Genes in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Johannes; Schaap, Gerard R.; Baas, Frank; Ylstra, Bauke; Hulsebos, Theo J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor that preferentially develops in adolescents. The tumor is characterized by an abundance of genomic aberrations, which hampers the identification of the driver genes involved in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Our study aims to identify these genes by the investigation of focal copy number aberrations (CNAs, <3 Mb). For this purpose, we subjected 26 primary tumors of osteosarcoma patients to high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and identified 139 somatic focal CNAs. Of these, 72 had at least one gene located within or overlapping the focal CNA, with a total of 94 genes. For 84 of these genes, the expression status in 31 osteosarcoma samples was determined by expression microarray analysis. This enabled us to identify the genes of which the over- or underexpression was in more than 35% of cases in accordance to their copy number status (gain or loss). These candidate genes were subsequently validated in an independent set and furthermore corroborated as driver genes by verifying their role in other tumor types. We identified CMTM8 as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene and GPR177 as a new candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma. In osteosarcoma, CMTM8 has been shown to suppress EGFR signaling. In other tumor types, CMTM8 is known to suppress the activity of the oncogenic protein c-Met and GPR177 is known as an overexpressed upstream regulator of the Wnt-pathway. Further studies are needed to determine whether these proteins also exert the latter functions in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:25551557

  1. Chronic myelodysplastic syndrome (preleukemia) with the Philadelphia chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.G.; Richman, C.M.; Rowley, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    A patient with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia, and erythroid hyperplasia of the bone marrow developed fatal acute nonlymphocytic leukemia after 3 yr. A Philadelphia chromosome with the typical 9/22 translocation was identified by banding techniques in a small number of bone marrow cells throughout the preleukemic phase of the illness (14% to 38% of the metaphases) and during the acute transformation (50%). Granulocytic colony formation in vitro was abnormal in the preleukemic phase. The diagnosis of chronic granulocytic leukemia was excluded on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. The identification of the Ph/sup 1/ chromosome in this form of chronic myelodysplastic syndrome (preleukemia) provides a new example of a hematologic disorder predisposing to acute leukemia in which this chromosomal abnormality occurs.

  2. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    PubMed

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  3. [Possibilities for modifying risk factors for chromosome abnormalities--advantages of the so-called "triple" marker studies in comparison with pure "maternal age screening"].

    PubMed

    Holzgreve, W; Schloo, R; Veress, L; Schlegel, W; Tercanli, S; Schneider, H P

    1994-01-01

    We have offered the so-called "triple-marker screening" since May 1991 to all patients who came for prenatal care and did not select an invasive procedure primarily. First evaluation of 5210 cases revealed that 3.7% were test-positive for neural tube defects, 13.8% for Down's syndrome and 0.5% for both at the same time. The explanation for the comparatively high "test-positive" rate of 13.5% is the maternal age distribution with the median at 31.4 years. The highest number of women selecting triple-marker determinations was in the age group of 35 years. We detected 16 cases of Down's syndrome and in this group the majority of women was below 35 years. The decision of women to have an invasive procedure was obviously very much influenced by the actual risk assessment, because amniocentesis was chosen by 72/85 (84.8%) of women with a risk of more than 1:50, 192/290 (66.2%) of women in the risk category of 1:51 to 1:200 and 182/333 (54.6%) in the risk category of 1:201 to 1:400. The follow-up is not yet complete, but there is already good evidence for the efficiency of the screening program. Triple-marker screening also proved predictive in 10 cases of trisomy 18 and 8 cases of triploidy in this series. As a cut-off value we chose the risk of 1:386 which is equivalent to the odds of a 35 year old to have a child with Down's syndrome at birth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7871918

  4. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershteyn, Marina; Hayashi, Yohei; Desachy, Guillaume; Hsiao, Edward C.; Sami, Salma; Tsang, Kathryn M.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Ring chromosomes are structural aberrations commonly associated with birth defects, mental disabilities and growth retardation. Rings form after fusion of the long and short arms of a chromosome, and are sometimes associated with large terminal deletions. Owing to the severity of these large aberrations that can affect multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have been proposed. During cell division, ring chromosomes can exhibit unstable behaviour leading to continuous production of aneuploid progeny with low viability and high cellular death rate. The overall consequences of this chromosomal instability have been largely unexplored in experimental model systems. Here we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts containing ring chromosomes with large deletions and found that reprogrammed cells lost the abnormal chromosome and duplicated the wild-type homologue through the compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD) mechanism. The karyotypically normal iPSCs with isodisomy for the corrected chromosome outgrew co-existing aneuploid populations, enabling rapid and efficient isolation of patient-derived iPSCs devoid of the original chromosomal aberration. Our results suggest a fundamentally different function for cellular reprogramming as a means of `chromosome therapy' to reverse combined loss-of-function across many genes in cells with large-scale aberrations involving ring structures. In addition, our work provides an experimentally tractable human cellular system for studying mechanisms of chromosomal number control, which is of critical relevance to human development and disease.

  5. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  6. Significant differences in the frequency of transcriptional units, types and numbers of repetitive elements, GC content, and the number of CpG islands between a 1010-kb G-band genomic segment on chromosome 9q31.3 and a 1200-kb R-band genomic segment on chromosome 3p21.3.

    PubMed

    Daigo, Y; Isomura, M; Nishiwaki, T; Suzuki, K; Maruyama, O; Takeuchi, K; Yamane, Y; Hayashi, R; Minami, M; Hojo, Y; Uchiyama, I; Takagi, T; Nakamura, Y

    1999-08-31

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire 1,010,525-bp insert contained in CEPH YAC clone 867e8. This human genomic segment was derived from chromosome 9q31.3 and corresponds to a G-band region. We compared this segment, in terms of structure, with a previously characterized 1,201,033-bp sequence in CEPH YAC936c1 that had come from a portion of human chromosome 3p21.3 corresponding to an R-band region. The two segments were significantly different with respect to the frequency of transcriptional units, the types and numbers of repetitive elements present, their GC content, and the number of CpG islands. Alu elements, GC content, and CpG islands all showed positive correlations with the abundance of exons, but the distribution of LINE1s did not. These observations might reflect an influence of the first three of these features on the functions or expression of genes in the respective regions. In addition to a novel gene (F36) lying at the centromeric end of the 9q segment, we found a cluster of placenta-specific genes within a small section (about 400 kb) on the telomeric side of YAC867e8. This cluster consisted of four apparently unrelated ESTs and two genes, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and a novel gene (tentatively named EST-YD1). Our characterization of the two chromosomal regions provided evidence that genes are not evenly distributed throughout the human genome, and that gene richness is correlated with the GC content and with the frequency of either Alu elements or CpG islands.

  7. Cognitive and neurological aspects of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-03-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are a common group of disorders that are characterised by an abnormal number of X or Y chromosomes. However, many individuals with these disorders are not diagnosed, despite established groups of core features that include aberrant brain development and function. Clinical presentations often include characteristic profiles of intellectual ability, motor impairments, and rates of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are higher than those of the general population. Advances in genetics and neuroimaging have substantially expanded knowledge of potential mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes, including a putative dose effect of sex chromosome genes on neuroanatomical structures and cognitive abilities. Continuing attention to emerging trends in research of sex chromosome aneuploidies is important for clinicians because it informs appropriate management of these common genetic disorders. Furthermore, improved understanding of underlying neurobiological processes has much potential to elucidate sex-related factors associated with neurological and psychiatric disease in general.

  8. Whole chromosome aneuploidy: big mutations drive adaptation by phenotypic leap

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangbo; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Despite its wide existence, the adaptive role of aneuploidy (the abnormal state of having unequal number of different chromosomes) has been a subject of debate. Cellular aneuploidy has been associated with enhanced resistance to stress, whereas on the organismal level it is detrimental to multi-cellular species. Certain aneuploid karyotypes are deleterious for specific environments, but karyotype diversity in a population potentiates adaptive evolution. To reconcile these paradoxical observations, this review distinguishes the role of aneuploidy in cellular versus organismal evolution. Further, it proposes a population genetics perspective to examine the behavior of aneuploidy on a populational versus individual level. By altering the copy number of a significant portion of the genome, aneuploidy introduces large phenotypic leap that enables small cell populations to explore a wide phenotypic landscape, from which adaptive traits can be selected. The production of chromosome number variation can be further increased by stress- or mutation-induced chromosomal instability, fueling rapid cellular adaptation. PMID:22926916

  9. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; ElInati, Elias; Nussenzweig, André; Tóth, Attila; Turner, James M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities. PMID:26509888

  10. Evaluation of the Generalizability of the Number of Abnormal Scores and the Overall Test Battery Mean as Measures of Performance Validity to a Different Test Battery.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Miele, Andrea S; Stenclik, Jessica H; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Davis, Axelrod, McHugh, Hanks, and Millis (2013) documented that in a battery of 25 tests, producing 15, 10, and 5 abnormal scores at 1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations below the norm-referenced mean, respectively, and an overall test battery mean (OTBM) of T ≤ 38 accurately identifies performance invalidity. However, generalizability of these findings to other samples and test batteries remains unclear. This study evaluated the use of abnormal scores and the OTBM as performance validity measures in a different sample that was administered a 25-test battery that minimally overlapped with Davis et al.'s test battery. Archival analysis of 48 examinees with mild traumatic brain injury seen for medico-legal purposes was conducted. Producing 18 or more, 7 or more, and 5 or more abnormal scores at 1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations below the norm-referenced mean, respectively, and an OTBM of T ≤ 40 most accurately classified examinees; however, using Davis et al.'s proposed cutoffs in the current sample maintained specificity at or near acceptable levels. Due to convergence across studies, producing ≥5 abnormal scores at 2 standard deviations below the norm-referenced mean is the most appropriate cutoff for clinical implementation; however, for batteries consisting of a different quantity of tests than 25, an OTBM of T ≤ 38 is more appropriate.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  12. Frequent inactivating mutations of STAG2 in bladder cancer are associated with low tumour grade and stage and inversely related to chromosomal copy number changes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire F; Platt, Fiona M; Hurst, Carolyn D; Thygesen, Helene H; Knowles, Margaret A

    2014-04-15

    Inactivating mutations of STAG2 have been reported at low frequency in several cancers. In glioblastoma, the function of STAG2 has been related to maintenance of euploidy via its role in the cohesin complex. In a screen of a large series of bladder tumours and cell lines, we found inactivating mutations (nonsense, frameshift and splicing) in 67 of 307 tumours (21.8%) and 6 of 47 cell lines. Thirteen missense mutations of unknown significance were also identified. Inactivating mutation was associated with low tumour stage (P = 0.001) and low grade (P = 0.0002). There was also a relationship with female patient gender (P = 0.042). Examination of copy number profiles revealed an inverse relationship of mutation with both fraction of genome altered and whole chromosome copy number changes. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the majority of cases with inactivating mutations, STAG2 protein expression was absent. Strikingly, we identified a relatively large subset of tumours (12%) with areas of both positive and negative immunoreactivity, in only four of which a potentially function-altering mutation was detected. Regions of differential expression were contiguous and showed similar morphological phenotype in all cases. Microdissected positive and negative areas from one tumour showed an inactivating mutation to be present only in the negative area, suggesting intra-tumoral sub-clonal genomic evolution. Our findings indicate that loss of STAG2 function plays a more important role in non-invasive than that in muscle-invasive bladder cancer and suggest that cohesin complex-independent functions are likely to be important in these cases.

  13. Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q in hepatocellular carcinoma metabolism.

    PubMed

    Elsemman, Ibrahim E; Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Soliman, Taysir H; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-04-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide healthcare problem; however, traditional treatment methods have failed to cure all patients, and HCV has developed resistance to new drugs. Systems biology-based analyses could play an important role in the holistic analysis of the impact of HCV on hepatocellular metabolism. Here, we integrated HCV assembly reactions with a genome-scale hepatocyte metabolic model to identify metabolic targets for HCV assembly and metabolic alterations that occur between different HCV progression states (cirrhosis, dysplastic nodule, and early and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) and healthy liver tissue. We found that diacylglycerolipids were essential for HCV assembly. In addition, the metabolism of keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate was significantly changed in the cirrhosis stage, whereas the metabolism of acyl-carnitine was significantly changed in the dysplastic nodule and early HCC stages. Our results explained the role of the upregulated expression of BCAT1, PLOD3 and six other methyltransferase genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in the early and advanced HCC stages. Moreover, GNPAT and BCAP31 expression was upregulated in the early and advanced HCC stages and could lead to increased acyl-CoA consumption. By integrating our results with copy number variation analyses, we observed that GNPAT, PPOX and five of the methyltransferase genes (ASH1L, METTL13, SMYD2, TARBP1 and SMYD3), which are all located on chromosome 1q, had increased copy numbers in the cancer samples relative to the normal samples. Finally, we confirmed our predictions with the results of metabolomics studies and proposed that inhibiting the identified targets has the potential to provide an effective treatment strategy for HCV-associated liver disorders. PMID:27040643

  14. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  15. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    PubMed

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  16. Chromosome aberrations and their relevance to metal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vainio, H; Sorsa, M

    1981-01-01

    Scoring for structural chromosome abnormalities is one of the only practical methods available for detecting visual damage in human genetic material. Cytogenetic tests in vivo and in vitro have shown the clastogenic potential of a number of metals and metal compounds. The difficulties in in vivo studies lie in identifying a specific clastogen in an occupational setting, where simultaneous exposure to a number of organic and inorganic chemicals is a common phenomenon. Metals known to be carcinogens in animals also tend to possess chromosome-damaging properties, even though more extensive studies are needed before any conclusive evidence can be reached. The visible chromosomal damage produced by exposure to metal compounds should be considered as a warning indication of potentially adverse genetic and somatic effects in humans. PMID:7023931

  17. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  18. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  19. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  20. Pediatric primary central nervous system germ cell tumors of different prognosis groups show characteristic miRNome traits and chromosome copy number variations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs), are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear. Results We identified a distinct mRNA profile correlating with GCT histological differentiation and prognosis, and also present in this study the first miRNA profile of pediatric primary intracranial GCTs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were downregulated in germinomas, but miR-142-5p and miR-146a were upregulated. Genes responsible for self-renewal (such as POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and KLF4) and the immune response were abundant in germinomas, while genes associated with neuron differentiation, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (including SNAI2 (SLUG) and TWIST2) were abundant in NGMGCTs. Clear transcriptome segregation based on patient survival was observed, with malignant NGMGCTs being closest to embryonic stem cells. Chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) at cytobands 4q13.3-4q28.3 and 9p11.2-9q13 correlated with GCT malignancy and clinical risk. Six genes (BANK1, CXCL9, CXCL11, DDIT4L, ELOVL6 and HERC5) within 4q13.3-4q28.3 were more abundant in germinomas. Conclusions Our results integrate molecular profiles with clinical observations and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms causing GCT malignancy. The genes, pathways and microRNAs identified have the potential to be novel therapeutic targets. PMID:20178649

  1. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, H.F. |

    1996-07-12

    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  2. A case of autism and uniparental disomy of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Thomas H; Losh, Molly; Frantz, Rebecca S; Vieland, Veronica J; Goedken, Rhinda; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C

    2005-07-01

    We report a male child with autism found to have maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 1. The child met diagnostic criteria for the three symptom domains of autism: language impairment, deficient social communication and excessively rigid and repetitive behaviours. He also had a variety of features often associated with autism, including mild mental retardation, small head circumference, hyperactivity, poor fine motor skills, slightly dysmorphic facial features and a heightened interest in olfactory stimulation. His brother, who did not have chromosome 1 UPD, was also autistic. The mother, but not the father, had a history of psychiatric illness and a number of personality and social traits similar to the core features of autism. The discovery of the cytogenetic abnormality was made during the course of a genome-wide linkage screen, wherein genotypes at 6 out of 17 chromosome 1 markers were non-Mendelian and all transmissions were consistent with UPD. Further genotyping (a total of 54 markers) revealed alternating regions of heterodisomy and isodisomy. Whereas chromosome 1 UPD has not been shown to cause disease by effects on imprinting, numerous reports exist of the abnormality unmasking recessive disease-causing mutations. In agreement with this, one of the regions of isodisomy overlaps an emerging chromosome 1 region of interest in autism located at 150-160 Mb.

  3. Learning Disabilities in Children with Sex Chromosome Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results obtained from 44 children (ages 7 through 16) with sex chromosome abnormalities and from 17 chromosomally normal siblings demonstrated that children in the former group have an increased risk of encountering learning problems. (MP)

  4. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-01

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  5. False diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its complications in Wolfram syndrome--is it the reason for the low number of reported cases of this abnormality?

    PubMed

    Homa, Katarzyna; Stefański, Adam; Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Molęda, Piotr; Bryśkiewicz, Marta Ewa; Majkowska, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome (1/770,000 in the United Kingdom), characterised by juvenile onset of diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, sensorineural deafness, renal tract and neurological abnormalities, and primary gonadal atrophy. WS is caused mainly by biallelic mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes wolframin. Wide tissue distribution of wolframin and many mutations in the wolframin gene resulting in Wolfram syndrome may contribute to different phenotypes and the unusual combinations of clinical features. We describe a female patient with Wolfram syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25, with a previous false diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and misdiagnosed diabetic complications. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations in exon 8 of WFS1 gene: a 2-bp deletion AT at nt 1539 leading to a frameshift (Y513fs) and a single-base substitution 1174C > T resulting in a stop codon (Q392X). A detailed analysis of the patient's medical history and a review of the literature suggest that many cases of Wolfram syndrome may remain undiagnosed due to misdiagnosis as type 1 diabetes mellitus and incorrect interpretation of clinical symptoms of neurodegenerative abnormalities, especially in their early stages.

  6. SNP microarray abnormalities in a cohort of 28 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Zornitza; Behrsin, Joanna; Burgess, Trent; Ritchie, Anna; Yeung, Alison; Tan, Tiong Y; Brown, Natasha J; Savarirayan, Ravi; Patel, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are an important factor in the pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a relatively common congenital defect associated with high morbidity and mortality. The adoption of array-based platforms for chromosome analysis has resulted in the identification of numerous copy number variants (CNVs) in infants with CDH, highlighting the potential pathogenic role of many novel genes. We identified a retrospective cohort of 28 infants treated for CDH at a single institution who had microarray testing to determine the proportion of microarray abnormalities and whether these were contributory to CDH pathogenesis. Eight patients (29%) had microarray abnormality. Seven (25%) were considered likely contributory to CDH pathogenesis, including two mosaic trisomy 9s, a 9q22.31q22.32 microduplication, two atypical 22q11.21 microdeletions, a 2q35q36.1 microdeletion, and a 15q11.2 microdeletion, offering insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying CDH development.

  7. Detection of chromosomal imbalances in children with idiopathic mental retardation by array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH)

    PubMed Central

    Schoumans, J; Ruivenkamp, C; Holmberg, E; Kyllerman, M; Anderlid, B; Nordenskjold, M

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are a common cause of multiple anomaly syndromes that include growth and developmental delay and dysmorphism. Novel high resolution, whole genome technologies, such as array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH), improve the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities allowing re-investigation of cases where conventional cytogenetic techniques, Spectral karyotyping (SKY), and FISH failed to detect abnormalities. We performed a high resolution genome-wide screening for submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements using array-CGH on 41 children with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphic features. The commercially available microarray from Spectral Genomics contained 2600 BAC clones spaced at approximately 1 Mb intervals across the genome. Standard chromosome analysis (>450 bands per haploid genome) revealed no chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, multi-subtelomeric FISH screening in 30 cases and SKY in 11 patients did not detect any abnormality. Using array-CGH we detected chromosomal imbalances in four patients (9.8%) ranging in size from 2 to 14 Mb. Large scale copy number variations were frequently observed. Array-CGH has become an important tool for the detection of chromosome aberrations and has the potential to identify genes involved in developmental delay and dysmorphism. Moreover, the detection of genomic imbalances of clinical significance will increase knowledge of the human genome by performing genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:16141005

  8. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

  9. Mitotic and meiotic behavior of rye chromosomes in wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid x triticale progeny.

    PubMed

    Xie, Q; Kang, H; Sparkes, D L; Tao, S; Fan, X M; Xu, L; Fan, X; Sha, L; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; Zhou, Y

    2013-07-24

    The dynamics of rye chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis was analyzed in a subset comprising 33 F3 lines from the cross of wheat, Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid (AABBDDNsNs) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR), as visualized by genomic in situ hybridization. The results indicated that 31 of the total lines contained 4-14 rye chromosomes. Twenty-eight combinations had more rye chromosomes than the F1 hybrids, suggesting the occurrence of spontaneous quantitative increment. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected in all of the combinations tested. Mitotic analysis showed that rye chromosomes progressed normally with the wheat counterparts without loss. However, abnormal meiosis was found in almost all lines. Similar progression between wheat and rye genomes appeared from interphase to metaphase I. It was at anaphase I that many rye univalents lagged behind those of wheat, followed by equational division. This resulted in the formation of chromosomal segments and micronuclei at telophase I or II. Micronuclei could also be generated from the immobilized univalents in the periphery of cells. Synapsis and translocations between wheat and rye genomes, chromosome bridges, and unreduced gametes were detected. Therefore, it is proposed that rye chromosome elimination may involve chromatid lagging, fragmentation and micronucleation, or the immobilization of certain univalents during meiosis instead of mitosis in the relatively advanced generations. This mechanism, together with spontaneous incremental increase of rye chromosome number, permitted the generation of various germplasms for wheat improvement.

  10. International evaluation of unrecognizably uglifying human faces in late and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease. Sagliker syndrome. A unique catastrophic entity, cytogenetic studies for chromosomal abnormalities, calcium-sensing receptor gene and GNAS1 mutations. Striking and promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ismail; Sagliker, Yahya; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Inandiklioglu, Nihal; Tasdemir, Deniz; Acharya, Vidya; Zhang, Ling; Golea, Ovidia; Sabry, Alaa; Ookalkar, Dhananjay S; Capusa, Cristina; Radulescu, Dana; Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Prado Rome, Jorge; Benzegoutta, Mansour; Paylar, Nuray; Eyuboglu, Kamil; Karatepe, Ersin; Esenturk, Mustafa; Yavascan, Onder; Grzegorzevska, Alicza; Shilo, Valery; Mazdeh, Mitra Mahdavi; Francesco, Ramos Carillo; Gouda, Zaghloul; Adam, Siddik Momin; Emir, Idris; Ocal, Faith; Usta, Erol; Kiralp, Necati; Sagliker, Cemal; Ozkaynak, Piril Sagliker; Sagliker, Hasan Sabit; Bassuoni, Mahmoud; Sekin, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses explaining pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) in late and severe CKD as a unique entity called Sagliker syndrome (SS) are still unclear. This international study contains 60 patients from Turkey, India, Malaysia, China, Romania, Egypt, Tunisia, Taiwan, Mexico, Algeria, Poland, Russia, and Iran. We examined patients and first degree relatives for cytogenetic chromosomal abnormalities, calcium sensing receptor (Ca SR) genes in exons 2 and 3 abnormalities and GNAS1 genes mutations in exons 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13. Our syndrome could be a new syndrome in between SH, CKD, and hereditary bone dystrophies. We could not find chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenetics and on Ca SR gene exons 2 and 3. Interestingly, we did find promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4. We finally thought that those catastrophic bone diseases were severe SH and its late treatments due to monetary deficiencies and iatrogenic mistreatments not started as early as possible. This was a sine qua non humanity task. Those brand new striking GNAS1 genes missense mutations have to be considered from now on for the genesis of SS. PMID:22200434

  11. Analysis of unfertilized oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection using two rounds of fluorescence in-situ hybridization and probes to five chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Martini, E; Flaherty, S P; Swann, N J; Payne, D; Matthews, C D

    1997-09-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are the major cause of pre- and post-implantation embryo wastage and some studies suggest that half of all human conception have a chromosomal abnormality. Analysis of gametes provides information on the origin of these chromosomal aberrations. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable multi-probe fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) procedure that would enable us to investigate aneuploidy in unfertilized oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Oocytes were spread with HCl and Tween 20 solution, and then two rounds of triple-probe FISH were performed on each oocyte using directly-labelled centromeric probes: chromosomes 1, 7, 15 (overnight hybridization); chromosomes 1, X, Y (2 h hybridization). After the first round, the slides were counterstained and evaluated, and the positions of FISH signals were recorded. For the second round, the counterstain was removed and the second probe cocktail was applied. The chromosome 1 probe was an internal control for the two hybridization procedures, while the Y chromosome probe was used to detect sperm DNA. To evaluate the method, a total of 79 oocytes from 27 patients were studied. Of these, 67 (84.8%) were successfully spread and 97% of these oocytes exhibited discernible FISH signals. Upon lysis, oocytes exhibited one or more DNA fragments (mean 1.9, range 1-3). Of the 65 analysable oocytes, 17 (26.2%) displayed a normal haploid chromosome constitution with paired spots for the two chromatids. A further 23 oocytes (35.4%) showed an ambiguous chromosome complement due to an abnormal number of DNA fragments which may have resulted from loss of DNA during spreading or to an abnormal oocyte, while 25 oocytes (38.4%) displayed aneuploidy for one or more of the chromosomes studied. In conclusion, this new approach is a quick and efficient method with which numerical chromosomal abnormalities in human oocytes can be studied; interpretation of the patterns of DNA fragments

  12. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting. PMID:26644858

  13. Identification of supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 5, 6, 19, and 20 using FISH

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, P.; Bocian, E.; Jakubow-Durska, K.; Obersztyn, E.; Lato, E.; Starke, H.; Mroczek, K.; Mazurczak, T.

    2000-01-01

    A large number of cases with supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) should be compared to achieve a better delineation of karyotype-phenotype correlations. Here we present four phenotypically abnormal patients with autosomal marker chromosomes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation using centromeric, telomeric, and unique sequence probes, as well as forward and reverse painting. We also report the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of an SMC derived from chromosome 5. Furthermore, a marker chromosome 20 in a patient with sex differentiation abnormalities, a double mar(6) in a boy with psychomotor retardation, and the association of r(19) with dup(21q21.2q22.12) are described. Although the mar(6) was very small, the presence of euchromatin was shown, suggesting that the partial trisomy of pericentric region derived sequences is implicated in the aetiology of the abnormal phenotypes.


Keywords: supernumerary marker chromosomes; fluorescence in situ hybridisation; phenotype-genotype correlation PMID:10662811

  14. Decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors in chronic neutropenia with defective chemotaxis: spontaneous recovery from the neutrophil abnormalities during early childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, K.; Yamazaki, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Komiyama, A.; Akabane, T.

    1987-05-01

    Childhood chronic neutropenia with decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors as well as defective chemotaxis was first demonstrated in an 8-month-old girl. Chemotactic factor receptors on neutrophils were assayed using tritiated N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (/sup 3/H-FMLP). The patient's neutrophils had decreased numbers of the receptors: numbers of the receptors were 20,000 (less than 3 SD) as compared with those of control cells of 52,000 +/- 6000 (mean +/- SD) (n = 10). The neutropenia disappeared spontaneously by 28 months of age parallel with the improvement of chemotaxis and increase in numbers of chemotactic factor receptors. These results demonstrate a transient decrease of neutrophil chemotactic factor receptors as one of the pathophysiological bases of a transient defect of neutrophil chemotaxis in this disorder.

  15. Spectrum of Cytogenomic Abnormalities Revealed by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Products of Conception Culture Failure and Normal Karyotype Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Shen-Yin; Amato, Katherine; DiAdamo, Autumn; Li, Peining

    2016-03-20

    Approximately 30% of pregnancies after implantation end up in spontaneous abortions, and 50% of them are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. However, the spectrum of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in products of conception (POC) and the underlying gene-dosage-sensitive mechanisms causing spontaneous abortions remain largely unknown. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed as a salvage procedure for 128 POC culture failure (POC-CF) samples and as a supplemental procedure for 106 POC normal karyotype (POC-NK) samples. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 10% of POC-CF and pathogenic CNVs were detected in 3.9% of POC-CF and 5.7% of POC-NK samples. Compiled results from this study and relevant case series through a literature review demonstrated an abnormality detection rate (ADR) of 35% for chromosomal abnormalities in POC-CF samples, 3.7% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-CF samples, and 4.6% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-NK samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed on the genes from pathogenic CNVs found in POC samples. The denoted primary gene networks suggested that apoptosis and cell proliferation pathways are involved in miscarriage. In summary, a similar spectrum of cytogenomic abnormalities was observed in POC culture success and POC-CF samples. A threshold effect correlating the number of dosage-sensitive genes in a chromosome with the observed frequency of autosomal trisomy is proposed. A rationalized approach using firstly fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing with probes of chromosomes X/Y/18, 13/21, and 15/16/22 for common aneuploidies and polyploidies and secondly aCGH for other cytogenomic abnormalities is recommended for POC-CF samples. PMID:27020032

  16. Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

    1996-10-01

    Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

  17. Automated clinical system for chromosome analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Friedan, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic chromosome analysis system is provided wherein a suitably prepared slide with chromosome spreads thereon is placed on the stage of an automated microscope. The automated microscope stage is computer operated to move the slide to enable detection of chromosome spreads on the slide. The X and Y location of each chromosome spread that is detected is stored. The computer measures the chromosomes in a spread, classifies them by group or by type and also prepares a digital karyotype image. The computer system can also prepare a patient report summarizing the result of the analysis and listing suspected abnormalities.

  18. Correlation of secondary cytogenetic abnormalities with histologic appearance in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas bearing t(14;18)(q32;q21).

    PubMed

    Armitage, J O; Sanger, W G; Weisenburger, D D; Harrington, D S; Linder, J; Bierman, P J; Vose, J M; Purtilo, D T

    1988-06-15

    Successful cytogenetic studies were performed on 69 biopsies from 64 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma bearing a t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. This translocation appears to be a primary abnormality associated with the development of certain B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. We correlated the occurrence of secondary abnormalities, in addition to the t(14;18)(q32;q21), with histologic subtype to test the hypothesis that secondary abnormalities correlate with more aggressive histologic appearance. A large number of secondary abnormalities were identified, the most frequent being additional copies of chromosomes 7 (30%), 12 (22%), 18 (22%), 20 (16%), or 21 (14%), deletion of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 6 (17%), and either an additional chromosome 17 or an isochromosome for the long arm of chromosome 17 (13%). An extra chromosome 7 was highly associated with a diffuse histologic pattern; it was present in 52% of patients with a diffuse pattern and in only 15% of those with a follicular pattern (P = .002). A weaker association with a diffuse growth pattern was found for the addition of chromosome 17 or an i(17q); it was found in 24% of patients with a diffuse pattern and only 5% of those with a follicular pattern (P = .05). No other significant correlations between secondary chromosome abnormalities and histologic subtype were identified. Although the explanation for this association is not clear, it appears that patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas bearing the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation which also have an additional chromosome 7 are likely to exhibit a diffuse growth pattern.

  19. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  20. A Case of Autism with Ring Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Tajeran, Massoumeh; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that manifests in early childhood. Although the etiology is unknown yet but, new hypothesis focused on identifying the key genes related to autism may elucidate its etiology. The main objective of the present study was to verify the value of karyotyping in autistic children and identifying association between chromosome abnormalities and autism. Methods We examined the peripheral blood lymphocytes cell culture for cytogenetic alterations by GTG-banding technique. The investigation was carried out on 50 autistic patients referred by Pediatric neurologist to Cytogenetic Laboratory in Khorasan-e-razavi Province, Iran. Results Using GTG-banding technique, the chromosome analysis of patients identified an unbalanced male karyotype with a r (14) in all 50 metaphaseswere examined. Conclusion Since structural abnormalities may have a critical role in the etiology of autism, according to the region where is affected and number of related genes, therefore an outcome with wide spectrum of clinical manifestations could be expected. Furthermore by considering of recent study, the results indicated that there is an association between chromosome 14 with brain development and neurological disorders, but, in conclusion, it could not be suggested that in order to postulate cytogenetic testing in idiopathic autism patients, specifically screening for chromosome 14 which might has diagnostic value. PMID:26171345

  1. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    VAHIDI MEHRJARDI, Mohammad Yahya; DEHGHAN TEZERJANI, Masoud; NORI-SHADKAM, Mahmoud; KALANTAR, Seyed Mehdi; DEHGHANI, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27141501

  2. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vahidi Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya; Dehghan Tezerjani, Masoud; Nori-Shadkam, Mahmoud; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghani, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27141501

  3. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vahidi Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya; Dehghan Tezerjani, Masoud; Nori-Shadkam, Mahmoud; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghani, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis.

  4. [Genomic abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism: the use of comparative genomic hybridization in situ (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping with DNA-microchips (array CGH)].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Kurinnaia, O S; Voinova, V Iu; Iurov, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    Genomic abnormalities occur with high frequency in children with mental retardation and autistic spectrum disorders (ADS). Molecular karyotyping using DNA microarrays is a new technology for diagnosis of genomic and chromosomal abnormalities in autism implemented in the fields of biological psychiatry and medical genetics. We carried out a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of genome abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism of unknown etiology using high-resolution comparative genomic methods for hybridization (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping (array CGH). In a study of 100 children with autism, learning difficulties and congenital malformations by HRCGH, we identified genomic rearrangements in 46% of cases. Using array CGH we examined 50 children with autism. In 44 cases out of 50 (88%), different genomic abnormalities and genomic variations (CNV - copy number variations) were identified. Unbalanced genomic rearrangements, including deletions and duplications, were found in 23 cases out of 44 (52%). These data suggest that genomic abnormalities which are not detectable by common methods of chromosome analysis are often discovered by molecular cytogenetic techniques in children autism spectrum disorders. In addition, 54 children with idiopathic mental retardation and congenital malformations (31 boys and 23 girls) without autism spectrum disorders were examined using molecular karyotyping and microarray containing an increased number of DNA samples for genomic loci of chromosome X. Deletions and duplications affecting different regions of the chromosome X were detected in 11 out of 54 children (20.4%).

  5. Identification of chromosomal errors in human preimplantation embryos with oligonucleotide DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lifeng; Wang, Cassie T; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Witz, Craig; Williams, Daniel; Griffith, Jason; Skorupski, Josh; Haddad, Ghassan; Gill, Jimmy; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A previous study comparing the performance of different platforms for DNA microarray found that the oligonucleotide (oligo) microarray platform containing 385K isothermal probes had the best performance when evaluating dosage sensitivity, precision, specificity, sensitivity and copy number variations border definition. Although oligo microarray platform has been used in some research fields and clinics, it has not been used for aneuploidy screening in human embryos. The present study was designed to use this new microarray platform for preimplantation genetic screening in the human. A total of 383 blastocysts from 72 infertility patients with either advanced maternal age or with previous miscarriage were analyzed after biopsy and microarray. Euploid blastocysts were transferred to patients and clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were measured. Chromosomes in some aneuploid blastocysts were further analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate accuracy of the results. We found that most (58.1%) of the blastocysts had chromosomal abnormalities that included single or multiple gains and/or losses of chromosome(s), partial chromosome deletions and/or duplications in both euploid and aneuploid embryos. Transfer of normal euploid blastocysts in 34 cycles resulted in 58.8% clinical pregnancy and 54.4% implantation rates. Examination of abnormal blastocysts by FISH showed that all embryos had matching results comparing microarray and FISH analysis. The present study indicates that oligo microarray conducted with a higher resolution and a greater number of probes is able to detect not only aneuploidy, but also minor chromosomal abnormalities, such as partial chromosome deletion and/or duplication in human embryos. Preimplantation genetic screening of the aneuploidy by DNA microarray is an advanced technology used to select embryos for transfer and improved embryo implantation can be obtained after transfer of the screened normal embryos.

  6. [Induced acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia and prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities: trisomy in chromosome 8, inv(16)(p13q22), and t(8;21)(q22;q22)].

    PubMed

    Tretiak, N M; Vakul'chuk, O M; Kalinina, S Iu

    2008-01-01

    3 patients with secondary acute non-lymphoblastic leucosis have been observed. The cytogenetic analysis revealed pathologic karyotypes: 46, XY,+8, t(8;21), inv 16. Two patients have been found with typical markers of damaged chromosome of radiation origion. Insensibility of blastic cells to cytostatic therapy was typical for the patients. PMID:18822849

  7. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  8. Chromosome phylogenies of man, great apes, and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    De Grouchy, J

    1987-08-31

    The karyotypes of man and of the closely related Pongidae--chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan--differ by a small number of well known rearrangements, mainly pericentric inversions and one fusion which reduced the chromosome number from 48 in the Pongidae to 46 in man. Dutrillaux et al. (1973, 1975, 1979) reconstructed the chromosomal phylogeny of the entire primate order. More and more distantly related species were compared thus moving backward in evolution to the common ancestors of the Pongidae, of the Cercopithecoidae, the Catarrhini, the Platyrrhini, the Prosimians, and finally the common ancestor of all primates. Descending the pyramid it becomes possible to assign the rearrangements that occurred in each phylum, and the one that led to man in particular. The main conclusions are that this phylogeny is compatible with the occurrence during evolution of simple chromosome rearrangements--inversions, fusions, reciprocal translocation, acquisition or loss of heterochromatin--and that it is entirely consistent with the known primate phylogeny based on physical morphology and molecular evolution. If heterochromatin is not taken into account, man has in common with the other primates practically all of his chromosomal material as determined by chromosome banding. However, it is arranged differently, according to species, on account of chromosome rearrangements. This interpretation has been confirmed by comparative gene mapping, which established that the same chromosome segments, identified by banding, carry the same genes (Finaz et al., 1973; Human Gene Mapping 8, 1985). A remarkable observation made by Dutrillaux is that different primate phyla seem to have adopted different chromosome rearrangements in the course of evolution: inversions for the Pongidae, Robertsonian fusions for the lemurs, etc. This observation may raise many questions, among which is that of an organized evolution. Also, the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements observed during evolution

  9. The chromosomal complements of multipronuclear human zygotes resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Macas, E; Imthurn, B; Rosselli, M; Keller, P J

    1996-11-01

    Implementation of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF) has highlighted the need for information about the risk of nuclear spindle damage caused by this procedure. For this purpose we studied the final products of oocyte meiosis at the first cleavage division of multipronuclear zygotes arising after ICSI, and compared the results with abnormally fertilized oocytes after conventional in-vitro insemination. Of 37 successfully analysed tripronuclear zygotes, 18 had three individual metaphases. Abnormal complements of 11 zygotes in this group indicated that non-disjunction occurred predominantly at the second meiotic division of the oocytes. Nine of the 37 tripronuclear zygotes exhibited two individual metaphases. Seven were abnormal and there were some indications that non-disjunction took place during oocyte meiosis. Of the 37 tripronuclear zygotes, 10 had a single metaphase and three showed an aneuploid number of chromosomes. The overall rate of aneuploidy among tripronuclear microinjected zygotes was 56.7%. In addition, seven zygotes with more than three pronuclei arising after ICSI displayed severely depleted chromosome complements. The incidence of non-disjunction in oocytes fertilized by conventional in-vitro insemination was significantly lower (20.0%, P < 0.01), since only four zygotes had an aneuploid number of chromosomes. Our findings suggest that ICSI might interfere with regular chromosome segregation at the second meiotic division of the oocytes.

  10. Is chromosome 9 loss a marker of disease recurrence in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder?

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J. M.; Watters, A. D.; Ballantyne, S. A.; Going, J. J.; Grigor, K. M.; Cooke, T. G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC) patients classified by recurrence and/or progression has demonstrated that loss of chromosome 9, as detected by FISH analysis of the pericentromeric classical satellite marker at 9q12, occurs early. A total of 105 TCCs from 53 patients were analysed in situ by two independent observers for loss of chromosome 9 using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). All 53 primary tumours were evaluated for chromosomes 9, 7 and 17. Normal ranges for chromosomal copy number were defined for normal skin epidermis and bladder epithelium. Values for chromosome 9 copy number outwith the range 1.51-2.10 (mean +/- 3 x s.d. of normal values) were significantly abnormal. Twenty-five TCCs were detected with consistent monosomic scores. Of 89 TCCs, in which multiple tumour areas were analysed, 85 tumours (96%) demonstrated the same chromosome 9 copy number in all areas (2-6) analysed; only three tumours demonstrated heterogeneity for this locus. A total of 36% (12 out of 33) of patients with subsequent disease recurrence demonstrated loss of chromosome 9 in their primary and all subsequent TCCs analysed. Only a single patient (n = 20) with non-recurrent TCC showed loss of chromosome 9 (P = 0.0085). Of 53 primary tumours, eight showed significant elevation of chromosome 17. Of these patients, six demonstrated elevation in chromosome 7 copy number. No abnormalities were observed in non-recurrent patients. This study describes rapid quantitation of chromosomal copy number by FISH using a pericentromeric probe for chromosome 9 in TCC of the urinary bladder. Routinely fixed and processed material was evaluated without disaggregation. Strict quality control of FISH demonstrated that this technique was reproducible in a clinical environment and could be used to detect genetic changes relevant to patient outcome. It is proposed that loss of chromosome 9 from primary TCC of the urinary bladder identified

  11. Chromosome fragility in two sheep flocks exposed to dioxins during pasturage.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, L; Perucatti, A; Di Meo, G P; Polimeno, F; Ciotola, F; Incarnato, D; Peretti, V; Caputi-Jambrenghi, A; Pecoraro, A; Manniti, F; D'Alessandro, A; Vonghia, G

    2004-09-01

    In the last 3 years several farms raising cattle, river buffalo and sheep have been unable to sell dairy milk due to the presence of high levels of dioxins. Furthermore, several cases of abortion (around 25% of total births) and abnormal foetuses (2.5% of total births) were recorded in two flocks of sheep raised in the province of Naples where a higher level of dioxins (5.27 pg/g fat, as human WHO TCDD equivalent) have been found in the milk mass than that permitted (3.0 pg/g fat, as human WHO TCDD equivalent). Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 24 sheep (all females), randomly sampled from the two different flocks, one abnormal foetus and 11 female sheep (control) raised approximately 80 km from the area where the two exposed flocks were raised. Frequencies of aneuploid cells, gaps, chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, fragments and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) were determined. While no differences were observed between the number of aneuploid cells (15% of total cell population) of both exposed animals and controls, significant (P < 0.001) increases in the frequencies of other chromosome abnormalities (mean chromosome abnormality/cell = 0.76 +/- 1.1) and SCEs (mean SCE/cell = 9.4 +/- 3.7) were found in the exposed animals, compared with the control (mean chromosome abnormality/cell = 0.18 +/- 0.4; mean SCE/cell = 7.1 +/- 3.0). Significantly higher values of SCEs (mean SCE/cell = 10.9 +/- 4.4) were also found in the abnormal foetus compared with the control. Chemical analyses on soil, grass and water at two sites where the two flocks were pastured established that doses of dioxins (17 different types) were below the legally permitted limits.

  12. The isolation of a human Ig V lambda gene from a recombinant library of chromosome 22 and estimation of its copy number.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, M L; Szajnert, M F; Kaplan, J C; McColl, L; Young, B D

    1984-01-01

    We report the first isolation and characterisation of a human Ig V lambda gene. The gene was isolated from a recombinant phage library of human chromosome 22 using a mouse Ig lambda cDNA as probe. DNA sequence analysis predicts a short leader peptide interrupted by an intron of 88 nucleotides, and a mature polypeptide of 96-97 amino acids which shares 61% homology with mouse V lambda I chains. Comparison with the amino acid sequence of known human lambda chains of all six subgroups shows agreement at 22/25 low variance positions. However the maximum homology with human chains is 49%, so we conclude that this sequence represents a new IgV lambda subgroup. The coding region is followed by the conserved heptamer, CACAGTG, and nonamer, ACATAAACC, sequences which have been implicated in V-J segment recombination. This gene has the hallmarks of an active V lambda gene including recently identified transcriptional controlling sequences. Probing genomic DNA with the subcloned V lambda gene detects a family of about 10 cross hybridizing members at low stringency and 2 at high stringency. There is limited polymorphism of the V lambda locus. Images PMID:6091030

  13. Specific glucosinolate analysis reveals variable levels of epimeric glucobarbarins, dietary precursors of 5-phenyloxazolidine-2-thiones, in watercress types with contrasting chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Linde-Laursen, Ib; Chew, Frances S

    2014-10-01

    Watercress obtained in food stores in the United States contained significant levels of epiglucobarbarin [(R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethylglucosinolate] and low levels of the 2S-epimer glucobarbarin identified by an HPLC+NMR+MS/MS approach. Typical combined levels were 4-7 μmol/g dry wt. The hydrolysis product, 5-phenyloxazolidine-2-thione (barbarin), was detected at similar levels as the precursor glucosinolates after autolysis of fresh watercress in water. Fragmentation patterns in MS(2) of reference desulfoglucosinolates were side chain specific and suitable for routine identification. Watercress was of two main glucosinolate chemotypes: Material from U.S. food stores had a complex profile including glucobarbarins, gluconasturtiin, indole glucosinolates and high levels (6-28 μmol/g dry wt.) of long-chain methylsulfinylalkyl and methylthioalkyl glucosinolates. Material from European food stores had a simple profile dominated by gluconasturtiin, with low levels of epiglucobarbarin and moderate levels of indole glucosinolates. Some wild U.S. material was similar to the U.S. food store type. Both types were found to be Nasturtium officinale by floral parts morphology. Cytological analysis of one U.S. food store accession indicated that it represented a chromosome-doubled variant within N. officinale. The nutritional consequences and invasive potential of the U.S. food store chemotype are discussed.

  14. Chromosome instability in a patient with recurrent abortions.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, L; Cervantes-Luna, M I; García-Cobián, T A; Gómez-Meda, B C; de la Torre, C Ortega; Corona-Rivera, J R; Corona-Rivera, A

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the recognized possible etiologic genetic causes of recurrent spontaneous abortions. Increased chromosome instability without constitutional chromosome abnormalities is uncommon in these couples. In this work we present a non consanguineous healthy couple with recurrent abortions without constitutional chromosome aberrations in which spontaneous and induced chromosome aberrations were observed in the female. Chromosome analysis was performed in the presence of different chromosome damage inductors such as gamma radiation, Uv light, and mitomycin-C. Alterations observed only in the female were: spontaneous and induced tetraradial chromosomes and increased chromosomal damage induced only by gamma radiation. Oral mucosa micronuclei were moderately increased in the female. Chromosome instability associated to abortion is proposed. PMID:19658259

  15. A marker chromosome in post-transplant bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Morsberger, Laura; Powell, Kerry; Ning, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in karyotype analysis represents a diagnostic challenge. While such markers are usually detected during cytogenetic studies of constitutional chromosome abnormalities, they have also been found in specimens submitted from patients with acquired malignancies. We report here the detection of a marker chromosome in a bone marrow specimen from a patient who received a bone marrow transplantation. We discuss the importance of proper characterization and interpretation of marker chromosomes in clinical practice. PMID:27252781

  16. Human chromokinesins promote chromosome congression and spindle microtubule dynamics during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Wandke, Cornelia; Barisic, Marin; Sigl, Reinhard; Rauch, Veronika; Wolf, Frank; Amaro, Ana C.; Tan, Chia H.; Pereira, Antonio J.; Kutay, Ulrike; Maiato, Helder; Meraldi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chromokinesins are microtubule plus end–directed motor proteins that bind to chromosome arms. In Xenopus egg cell-free extracts, Xkid and Xklp1 are essential for bipolar spindle formation but the functions of the human homologues, hKID (KIF22) and KIF4A, are poorly understood. By using RNAi-mediated protein knockdown in human cells, we find that only co-depletion delayed progression through mitosis in a Mad2-dependent manner. Depletion of hKID caused abnormal chromosome arm orientation, delayed chromosome congression, and sensitized cells to nocodazole. Knockdown of KIF4A increased the number and length of microtubules, altered kinetochore oscillations, and decreased kinetochore microtubule flux. These changes were associated with failures in establishing a tight metaphase plate and an increase in anaphase lagging chromosomes. Co-depletion of both chromokinesins aggravated chromosome attachment failures, which led to mitotic arrest. Thus, hKID and KIF4A contribute independently to the rapid and correct attachment of chromosomes by controlling the positioning of chromosome arms and the dynamics of microtubules, respectively. PMID:22945934

  17. Human chromokinesins promote chromosome congression and spindle microtubule dynamics during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wandke, Cornelia; Barisic, Marin; Sigl, Reinhard; Rauch, Veronika; Wolf, Frank; Amaro, Ana C; Tan, Chia H; Pereira, Antonio J; Kutay, Ulrike; Maiato, Helder; Meraldi, Patrick; Geley, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Chromokinesins are microtubule plus end-directed motor proteins that bind to chromosome arms. In Xenopus egg cell-free extracts, Xkid and Xklp1 are essential for bipolar spindle formation but the functions of the human homologues, hKID (KIF22) and KIF4A, are poorly understood. By using RNAi-mediated protein knockdown in human cells, we find that only co-depletion delayed progression through mitosis in a Mad2-dependent manner. Depletion of hKID caused abnormal chromosome arm orientation, delayed chromosome congression, and sensitized cells to nocodazole. Knockdown of KIF4A increased the number and length of microtubules, altered kinetochore oscillations, and decreased kinetochore microtubule flux. These changes were associated with failures in establishing a tight metaphase plate and an increase in anaphase lagging chromosomes. Co-depletion of both chromokinesins aggravated chromosome attachment failures, which led to mitotic arrest. Thus, hKID and KIF4A contribute independently to the rapid and correct attachment of chromosomes by controlling the positioning of chromosome arms and the dynamics of microtubules, respectively. PMID:22945934

  18. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations.

  19. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations. PMID:25482192

  20. A very rare case of trisomy 4q32.3-4q35.2 and trisomy 21q11.2-21q22.11 in a patient with recombinant chromosomes 4 and 21.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Sha; Xue, Dan; Xi, Zuo-Ming; Liu, Dan-Na; Zou, Peng-Shu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Ying; Chen, Xia-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Cao, Dong-Hua

    2015-05-25

    We report the case of a patient with a clinical phenotype consistent with Down Syndrome (DS) who has a novel karyotypic abnormality. Karyotypic analyses were performed to investigate the cause of two spontaneous abortions. A balanced translocation between chromosomes 4 and 21 was identified, along with an additional abnormal chromosome 21. We performed high-resolution banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and FISH studies in both the patient and her mother to define the abnormality and determine its origin. CGH revealed a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 4, spanning at least 24.4 Mb, and a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 21, spanning at least 16.2 Mb. FISH analysis using a chromosome 21 centromere probe and chromosome 4 long arm telomere (4pter) probe confirmed the origin of the marker chromosome. It has been confirmed by the State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China that this is the first reported instance of the karyotype 47,XX,t(4;21)(q31.3;q11.2),+der(21)t(4;21)mat reported in the world. PMID:25752286

  1. Chromosomal Microarray versus Karyotyping for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555

  2. Amplifications of chromosomal region 20q13 as a prognostic indicator breast cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Tanner, Minna M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  3. Amplifications of chromosomal region 20q13 as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Tanner, Minna M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  4. Chromosome and cell genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Chromosomes in differentiation; Chromosome axis; Nuclear and organelle split genes; Chemical mutagenesis; and Chromosome architecture and additional elements.

  5. Uniparental disomy analysis in carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    May, K.M.; Pettay, D.; Muralidharan, K.

    1994-09-01

    Although most individuals who carry a balanced familial chromosome rearrangement are phenotypically normal, those who are clinically abnormal raise the question of whether or not the rearrangement plays a causative role. One possible mechanism involves meiotic segregation of a normal homolog along with the rearranged chromosome(s) such that a trisomic conception occurs. Subsequent loss by mitotic nondisjunction of the structurally normal chromosome contributed by the non-carrier parent would then result in uniparental disomy (UPD) in a conceptus carrying a balanced rearrangement. UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 has been demonstrated in several clinically abnormal individuals who carry a familial Robertsonian translocation. We have extended this type of analysis to include other forms of balanced chromosome rearrangements. We report the results of UPD analysis of 14 families who have a phenotypically abnormal child with an apparently balanced rearrangement. The series includes 4 reciprocal translocations, 4 Robertsonian translocations, 2 X;autosome translocations, and 4 inversions. High resolution chromosomes were used to compare breakpoints between parent and offspring to exclude the possibility of further rearrangements. Parental origin of the chromosome(s) involved was determined by DNA polymorphism analysis using PCR or Southern blotting techniques. We found no evidence of UPD in any of the 14 cases. Our data suggest that UPD is not a common explanation for phenotypically abnormal carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements.

  6. Comparative genomic hybridisation divides retinoblastomas into a high and a low level chromosomal instability group

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, J E; Hermsen, M A J A; Gille, H J P; Schouten-Van Meeteren, N Y N; Moll, A C; Imhof, S M; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P A; van der Valk, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood and is responsible for approximately 1% of all deaths caused by childhood cancer. Aims/methods: Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed on 13 consecutive, histologically confirmed retinoblastomas to analyse patterns of chromosomal changes and correlate these to clinicopathological variables. Six cases were hereditary and seven cases were sporadic. Results: In 11 of the 13 tumours chromosomal abnormalities were detected, most frequently gains. Frequent chromosomal gains concerned 6p (46%), 1q (38%), 2p, 9q (30%), 5p, 7q, 10q, 17q, and 20q (23%). Frequent losses occurred at Xq (46%), 13q14, 16q, and 4q (23%). High level copy number gains were found at 5p15 and 6p11–12. A loss at 13q14 occurred in three cases only. Relatively few events occurred in the hereditary cases (27) compared with the non-hereditary cases (70 events). The number of chromosomal aberrations in these 13 retinoblastomas showed a bimodal distribution. Seven tumours showed less than four chromosomal aberrations, falling into a low level chromosomal instability (CIN) group, and six tumours showed at least eight aberrations, falling into a high level CIN group. In the low level CIN group the mean age was half that seen in the high level CIN group, there were less male patients, and there were more hereditary and bilateral cases. Microsatellite instability was not detected in either of the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the complex pattern of genetic changes in retinoblastomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected preferentially. On the basis of the number of genetic events, retinoblastomas can be divided in low and a high level chromosomal instability groups, which have striking differences in clinical presentation. PMID:12499428

  7. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1998-05-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. The methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. The probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. The invention provides for automated means to detect and analyze chromosomal abnormalities. 17 figs.

  8. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  9. A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster region from the human MLL gene, a gene frequently involved in translocations in leukemia patients, flanked by positive and negative selection markers. A translocation between the YAC and a yeast chromosome, whose breakpoint falls within the MLL DNA, physically separates the markers and forms the basis for the selection. When RAD52 is deleted, essentially all of the selected and screened cells contain simple translocations. The detectable translocation rates are the same in haploids and diploids, although the mechanisms involved and true translocation rates may be distinct. A unique double-strand break induced within the MLL sequences increases the number of detectable translocation events 100- to 1000-fold. This novel system provides a tractable assay for answering basic mechanistic questions about the development of chromosomal translocations. PMID:11973293

  10. Ribosomal protein gene mapping and human chromosomal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmochi, N.; Goodman, N.; Page, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    In Drosophila, the Minute phenotype (reduced body size, diminished viability and fertility, and short, thin bristles) results from heterozygous deficiencies (deletions) at any one of 50 loci scattered about the genome. A handful of these Minute loci have been molecularly characterized, and all have been found to encode ribosomal proteins. Thus, the Minute phenotype appears to result from reduced protein synthetic capacity in flies with one rather than two copies of a given ribosomal protein (rp) gene. We are pursuing the possibility that similar reductions in protein synthetic capacity--again resulting from rp gene deficiencies--might underlie phenotypes associated with certain chromosomal disorders in humans. We and our colleagues have reported findings consistent with a role for RPS4 deficiency in the etiology of certain features of Turner syndrome, a complex human disorder classically associated with an XO karyotype. We are intrigued by the possibility that deficiencies of other human rp genes might cause phenotypic abnormalities similar to those seen in Turner syndrome--just as deficiencies of any of a number of Drosophila rp genes cause the Minute phenotype. We must first learn the chromosomal map position of each of the estimated 83 human rp genes. The task of mapping the functional (intron-containing) rp genes is complicated by the existence of processed pseudogenes elsewhere in the genome. To date, we have assigned (or confirmed the previous assignment of) 38 rp genes to individual human chromosomes by PCR analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids containing subsets of human chromosomes, with all but four chromosomes carrying at least one rp gene. We have also identified more than 100 large-insert human YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) clones that contain individual rp genes. Such screening of YAC libraries will result in precise positioning of the rp genes on the emerging physical map of the human genome.

  11. Frequent genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome with normal karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Tadayuki; Ogawa, Seishi; Dugas, Martin; Kawamata, Norihiko; Yamamoto, Go; Nannya, Yasuhito; Sanada, Masashi; Miller, Carl W.; Yung, Amanda; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten; Haferlach, Claudia; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia is a clonal hematopoietic malignant disease; about 45–50% of cases do not have detectable chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we identified hidden genomic alterations and novel disease-related regions in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome samples. Design and Methods Thirty-eight normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome samples were analyzed with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray using a new algorithm: allele-specific copy-number analysis using anonymous references (AsCNAR). Expression of mRNA in these samples was determined by mRNA microarray analysis. Results Eighteen samples (49%) showed either one or more genomic abnormalities including duplication, deletion and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Importantly, 12 patients (32%) had copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity, causing duplication of either mutant FLT3 (2 cases), JAK2 (1 case) or AML1/RUNX1 (1 case); and each had loss of the normal allele. Nine patients (24%) had small copy-number changes (< 10 Mb) including deletions of NF1, ETV6/TEL, CDKN2A and CDKN2B. Interestingly, mRNA microarray analysis showed a relationship between chromosomal changes and mRNA expression levels: loss or gain of chromosomes led, respectively, to either a decrease or increase of mRNA expression of genes in the region. Conclusions This study suggests that at least one half of cases of normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome have readily identifiable genomic abnormalities, as found by our analysis; the high frequency of copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity is especially notable. PMID:19144660

  12. Performance Evaluation of NIPT in Detection of Chromosomal Copy Number Variants Using Low-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequencing of Plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Linhua; Yin, Xuyang; Wang, Jun; Chen, Dayang; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Jinghui; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the performance of noninvasively prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal copy number variants (CNVs) in clinical samples, using a whole-genome sequencing method. Method A total of 919 archived maternal plasma samples with karyotyping/microarray results, including 33 CNVs samples and 886 normal samples from September 1, 2011 to May 31, 2013, were enrolled in this study. The samples were randomly rearranged and blindly sequenced by low-coverage (about 7M reads) whole-genome sequencing of plasma DNA. Fetal CNVs were detected by Fetal Copy-number Analysis through Maternal Plasma Sequencing (FCAPS) to compare to the karyotyping/microarray results. Sensitivity, specificity and were evaluated. Results 33 samples with deletions/duplications ranging from 1 to 129 Mb were detected with the consistent CNV size and location to karyotyping/microarray results in the study. Ten false positive results and two false negative results were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity of detection deletions/duplications were 84.21% and 98.42%, respectively. Conclusion Whole-genome sequencing-based NIPT has high performance in detecting genome-wide CNVs, in particular >10Mb CNVs using the current FCAPS algorithm. It is possible to implement the current method in NIPT to prenatally screening for fetal CNVs. PMID:27415003

  13. Structural chromosomal mosaicism and prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pipiras, E; Dupont, C; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Siffroi, J P; Bucourt, M; Batallan, A; Largillière, C; Uzan, M; Wolf, J P; Benzacken, B

    2004-02-01

    True structural chromosomal mosaicism are rare events in prenatal cytogenetics practice and may lead to diagnostic and prognostic problems. Here is described the case of a fetus carrying an abnormal chromosome 15 made of a whole chromosome 2p translocated on its short arm in 10% of the cells, in association with a normal cell line. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX,add(15)(p10).ish t(2;15)(p10;q10)(WCP2+)[3]/46,XX[27]. Pregnancy was terminated and fetus examination revealed a growth retardation associated with a dysmorphism including dolichocephaly, hypertelorism, high forehead, low-set ears with prominent anthelix and a small nose, which were characteristic of partial trisomy 2p. Possible aetiologies for prenatal mosaicism involving a chromosomal structural abnormality are discussed. PMID:14974115

  14. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

  15. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines.

  16. The use of chromosomal microarray for prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dugoff, Lorraine; Norton, Mary E; Kuller, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis is a high-resolution, whole-genome technique used to identify chromosomal abnormalities, including those detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques, as well as small submicroscopic deletions and duplications referred to as copy number variants. Because chromosomal microarray analysis has a greater resolution than conventional karyotyping, it can detect deletions and duplications down to a 50- to 100-kb level. The purpose of this document is to discuss the technique, advantages, and disadvantages of chromosomal microarray analysis and its indications and limitations. We recommend the following: (1) that chromosomal microarray analysis be offered when genetic analysis is performed in cases with fetal structural anomalies and/or stillbirth and replaces the need for fetal karyotype in these cases (GRADE 1A); (2) that providers discuss the benefits and limitations of chromosomal microarray analysis and conventional karyotype with patients who are considering amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and that both options should be available to women who choose to undergo diagnostic testing (GRADE 1B); (3) that pre- and posttest counseling should be performed by trained genetic counselors, geneticists, or other providers with expertise in the complexities of interpreting chromosomal microarray analysis results (Best Practice); (4) that patients be informed that chromosomal microarray analysis does not detect every genetic disease or syndrome and specifically does not detect autosomal-recessive disorders associated with single gene point mutations, as well as that chromosomal microarray analysis can detect consanguinity and nonpaternity in some cases (Best Practice); (5) that patients in whom a fetal variant of uncertain significance is detected by prenatal diagnosis receive counseling from experts who have access to databases that provide updated information concerning genotype-phenotype correlations (Best Practice).

  17. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  18. Chromosome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed. PMID:27276104

  19. Interstitial Chromosome 3p14.1 Deletion due to a Maternal Insertion: Phenotype and Association with Balanced Parental Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Catherine; Wang, Jia-Chi; Mahon, Loretta W.; Martinez, Ariadna; Saitta, Sulagna C.

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 3p14p12 are rare chromosome abnormalities. We present a patient with multiple congenital anomalies and a 15.4-Mb interstitial loss of chromosome 3p14p12 detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA). Our patient shared many phenotypic features with other reported cases involving the same region including prominent forehead, short palpebral fissures, hand and foot anomalies, genital abnormalities, and bilateral hearing loss. Given the clinical similarity of these cases with significant overlap of the deleted regions, it is likely that the phenotype is related to the deletion of specific genes within the region. Further molecular cytogenetic investigation revealed that our patient's rearrangement was derived from a cryptic insertion of a segment of chromosome 3p into chromosome 18q in the mother, which was balanced and therefore not visible on the mother's CMA. To our knowledge, this finding has not been previously reported. This case illustrates the importance of using molecular cytogenetics for structural analysis and parental studies. CMA is commonly the first-line study in patients with multiple congenital anomalies; however, it is not the appropriate modality to define a structural rearrangement that may be the cause of a deletion. The use of adjunct studies to define the mechanism of an identified copy number aberration has direct clinical application: to identify the underlying cause of the chromosomal abnormality and to define the recurrence risk. Additionally, this case adds to the current body of work regarding a recurrent phenotype that can be attributed to interstitial chromosome 3p deletions, which may help define the phenotypic implications of deletions in this region and support early clinical management. PMID:27194973

  20. Interstitial Chromosome 3p14.1 Deletion due to a Maternal Insertion: Phenotype and Association with Balanced Parental Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Catherine; Wang, Jia-Chi; Mahon, Loretta W; Martinez, Ariadna; Saitta, Sulagna C

    2016-04-01

    Interstitial deletions of 3p14p12 are rare chromosome abnormalities. We present a patient with multiple congenital anomalies and a 15.4-Mb interstitial loss of chromosome 3p14p12 detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA). Our patient shared many phenotypic features with other reported cases involving the same region including prominent forehead, short palpebral fissures, hand and foot anomalies, genital abnormalities, and bilateral hearing loss. Given the clinical similarity of these cases with significant overlap of the deleted regions, it is likely that the phenotype is related to the deletion of specific genes within the region. Further molecular cytogenetic investigation revealed that our patient's rearrangement was derived from a cryptic insertion of a segment of chromosome 3p into chromosome 18q in the mother, which was balanced and therefore not visible on the mother's CMA. To our knowledge, this finding has not been previously reported. This case illustrates the importance of using molecular cytogenetics for structural analysis and parental studies. CMA is commonly the first-line study in patients with multiple congenital anomalies; however, it is not the appropriate modality to define a structural rearrangement that may be the cause of a deletion. The use of adjunct studies to define the mechanism of an identified copy number aberration has direct clinical application: to identify the underlying cause of the chromosomal abnormality and to define the recurrence risk. Additionally, this case adds to the current body of work regarding a recurrent phenotype that can be attributed to interstitial chromosome 3p deletions, which may help define the phenotypic implications of deletions in this region and support early clinical management. PMID:27194973

  1. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  2. Duplication and loss of chromosome 21 in two children with Down Syndrome and acute leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, P.K.; Close, P.; Seip, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Acute leukemia in patients with Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome; DS) may often result in additional karyotypic changes in the number or structure of chromosome 21. We present two DS patients whose immunoblast karyotypes were associated with changes in chromosome 21 ploidy. Patient L.E. developed acute lymphocytic leukemia concomitant with the loss of a single copy of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 in this individual was due to maternal meiosis I nondisjunction. A recombination event resulted in reduction of maternal alleles to homozygosity distal to D21S167. Loss of the paternal chromosomes in the leukemia clone produced uniparental maternal disomy with isodisomy over a 25cM interval. This could, in theory, permit the unopposed expression of one or more homozygous recessive maternal tumor-associated genes, thus providing an explanation for leukemogenesis in this patient. Patient E.H. was diagnosed with acute monoblastic leukemia and consistently displayed tetrasomy 21 in the blast cell population. The DS karyotype probably arose from a mitotic error in which the paternal chromosome was duplicated. DNA polymorphism analysis indicated that the additional chromosome in the leukemia clone was of maternal origin. The presence of equal numbers of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the tetraploid blast clone would not appear to be consistent with the expression of a mutant tumor suppressor gene in this patient. Although tetrasomy 21 could be a non-specific karyotypic abnormality unrelated to leukemogenesis, it is possible that monoblastic leukemia may be a consequence of increased expression of one or more genes on this chromosome.

  3. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  4. Applications of comparative genomic hybridisation in constitutional chromosome studies.

    PubMed

    Breen, C J; Barton, L; Carey, A; Dunlop, A; Glancy, M; Hall, K; Hegarty, A M; Khokhar, M T; Power, M; Ryan, K; Green, A J; Stallings, R L

    1999-07-01

    G band cytogenetic analysis often leads to the discovery of unbalanced karyotypes that require further characterisation by molecular cytogenetic studies. In particular, G band analysis usually does not show the chromosomal origin of small marker chromosomes or of a small amount of extra material detected on otherwise normal chromosomes. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is one of several molecular approaches that can be applied to ascertain the origin of extra chromosomal material. CGH is also capable of detecting loss of material and thus is also applicable to confirming or further characterising subtle deletions. We have used comparative genomic hybridisation to analyse 19 constitutional chromosome abnormalities detected by G band analysis, including seven deletions, five supernumerary marker chromosomes, two interstitial duplications, and five chromosomes presenting with abnormal terminal banding patterns. CGH was successful in elucidating the origin of extra chromosomal material in 10 out of 11 non-mosaic cases, and permitted further characterisation of all of the deletions that could be detected by GTG banding. CGH appears to be a useful adjunct tool for either confirming deletions or defining their breakpoints and for determining the origin of extra chromosomal material, even in cases where abnormalities are judged to be subtle. We discuss internal quality control measures, such as the mismatching of test and reference DNA in order to assess the quality of the competitive hybridisation effect on the X chromosome.

  5. The importance of having two X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Vilain, Eric; Chen, Xuqi; Ghahramani, Negar; Itoh, Yuichiro; Li, Jingyuan; Link, Jenny C; Ngun, Tuck; Williams-Burris, Shayna M

    2016-02-19

    Historically, it was thought that the number of X chromosomes plays little role in causing sex differences in traits. Recently, selected mouse models have been used increasingly to compare mice with the same type of gonad but with one versus two copies of the X chromosome. Study of these models demonstrates that mice with one X chromosome can be strikingly different from those with two X chromosomes, when the differences are not attributable to confounding group differences in gonadal hormones. The number of X chromosomes affects adiposity and metabolic disease, cardiovascular ischaemia/reperfusion injury and behaviour. The effects of X chromosome number are likely the result of inherent differences in expression of X genes that escape inactivation, and are therefore expressed from both X chromosomes in XX mice, resulting in a higher level of expression when two X chromosomes are present. The effects of X chromosome number contribute to sex differences in disease phenotypes, and may explain some features of X chromosome aneuploidies such as in Turner and Klinefelter syndromes.

  6. Chromosome aberrations, spontaneous SCE, and growth kinetics in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes of five cases with Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Limon, J; Nedoszytko, B; Brozek, I; Hellmann, A; Zajaczek, S; Lubiński, J; Mrózek, K

    1995-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies of five patients with Sézary syndrome (SS) revealed clonal chromosome aberrations in all cases. In one patient, a del(8)(p21) was the sole abnormality, whereas the remaining cases had karyotypes with multiple chromosome changes. In three SS cases with hypodiploid chromosome numbers, structural rearrangements affecting regions 10q22-24 and 12p11-13, and aberrations leading to loss of material from 17p were found concurrently. Bands 14q11 and 14q32 were involved in structural rearrangements in one case each. Our results and review of 51 published previously SS cases that were analyzed with banding techniques indicate that the chromosomes most frequently involved in structural changes were chromosomes 1 and 2 (in 43% of cases), 6 (in 38%), 17 (in 34%), 14 (in 27%), 11 (in 25%), 13 (in 21%), and 9 (in 20%). In particular, the breakpoints tended to aggregate at 1p11, 1p36, 2p11-24, 6q, 9q, 11q, 13q11-14, 14q11, 14q32, and in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. The most common numerical change was loss of chromosome 10, detected in 32% of SS cases. In our studies of three SS cases, sister chromatid exchange frequencies were significantly higher in comparison to the normal control. Cell cycle kinetics analysis revealed that the cell cycle time in the malignant cells was significantly longer than in lymphocytes of normal individuals.

  7. Identification of Novel Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by (60)Co-γ-Irradiation in Wheat-Dasypyrum villosum Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yun; Guo, Yuanlin; Li, Guangrong; Yang, Zujun; Xu, Delin; Xuan, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Mutations induced by radiation are widely used for developing new varieties of plants. To better understand the frequency and pattern of irradiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements, we irradiated the dry seeds of Chinese Spring (CS)-Dasypyrum villosum nullisomic-tetrasomic (6A/6D) addition (6V) line (2n = 44), WD14, with (60)Co-γ-rays at dosages of 100, 200, and 300 Gy. The M₀ and M₁ generations were analyzed using Feulgen staining and non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) by using oligonucleotide probes. Abnormal mitotic behavior and chromosomes with structural changes were observed in the M₀ plants. In all, 39 M₁ plants had structurally changed chromosomes, with the B genome showing the highest frequency of aberrations and tendency to recombine with chromosomes of the D genome. In addition, 19 M₁ plants showed a variation in chromosome number. The frequency of chromosome loss was considerably higher for 6D than for the alien chromosome 6V, indicating that 6D is less stable after irradiation. Our findings suggested that the newly obtained γ-induced genetic materials might be beneficial for future wheat breeding programs and functional gene analyses. PMID:26694350

  8. Identification of Novel Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by 60Co-γ-Irradiation in Wheat-Dasypyrum villosum Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yun; Guo, Yuanlin; Li, Guangrong; Yang, Zujun; Xu, Delin; Xuan, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Mutations induced by radiation are widely used for developing new varieties of plants. To better understand the frequency and pattern of irradiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements, we irradiated the dry seeds of Chinese Spring (CS)-Dasypyrum villosum nullisomic-tetrasomic (6A/6D) addition (6V) line (2n = 44), WD14, with 60Co-γ-rays at dosages of 100, 200, and 300 Gy. The M0 and M1 generations were analyzed using Feulgen staining and non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) by using oligonucleotide probes. Abnormal mitotic behavior and chromosomes with structural changes were observed in the M0 plants. In all, 39 M1 plants had structurally changed chromosomes, with the B genome showing the highest frequency of aberrations and tendency to recombine with chromosomes of the D genome. In addition, 19 M1 plants showed a variation in chromosome number. The frequency of chromosome loss was considerably higher for 6D than for the alien chromosome 6V, indicating that 6D is less stable after irradiation. Our findings suggested that the newly obtained γ-induced genetic materials might be beneficial for future wheat breeding programs and functional gene analyses. PMID:26694350

  9. Identification of Novel Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by (60)Co-γ-Irradiation in Wheat-Dasypyrum villosum Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yun; Guo, Yuanlin; Li, Guangrong; Yang, Zujun; Xu, Delin; Xuan, Pu

    2015-12-14

    Mutations induced by radiation are widely used for developing new varieties of plants. To better understand the frequency and pattern of irradiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements, we irradiated the dry seeds of Chinese Spring (CS)-Dasypyrum villosum nullisomic-tetrasomic (6A/6D) addition (6V) line (2n = 44), WD14, with (60)Co-γ-rays at dosages of 100, 200, and 300 Gy. The M₀ and M₁ generations were analyzed using Feulgen staining and non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) by using oligonucleotide probes. Abnormal mitotic behavior and chromosomes with structural changes were observed in the M₀ plants. In all, 39 M₁ plants had structurally changed chromosomes, with the B genome showing the highest frequency of aberrations and tendency to recombine with chromosomes of the D genome. In addition, 19 M₁ plants showed a variation in chromosome number. The frequency of chromosome loss was considerably higher for 6D than for the alien chromosome 6V, indicating that 6D is less stable after irradiation. Our findings suggested that the newly obtained γ-induced genetic materials might be beneficial for future wheat breeding programs and functional gene analyses.

  10. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  11. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  12. Computational model for chromosomal instabilty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina

    2015-03-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of the chromosomes between the spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated into a coherent picture. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compares well with early observations in mammalian cell spindles. Our results shed new light on the origin of several pathological conditions related to chromosomal instability.

  13. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaey, Saeedeh; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Ahadian, Mitra; Keifi, Fatemeh; Semiramis, Tootian; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities. Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome. Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service. PMID:24027668

  14. Aplastic Anemia in Two Patients with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Rush, Eric T; Schaefer, G Bradley; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies range in incidence from rather common to exceedingly rare and have a variable phenotype. We report 2 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies who developed severe aplastic anemia requiring treatment. The first patient had tetrasomy X (48,XXXX) and presented at 9 years of age, and the second patient had trisomy X (47,XXX) and presented at 5 years of age. Although aplastic anemia has been associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome abnormalities have not been traditionally considered a risk factor for this condition. A review of the literature reveals that at least one other patient with a sex chromosome aneuploidy (45,X) has suffered from aplastic anemia and that other autosomal chromosomal anomalies have been described. Despite the uncommon nature of each condition, it is possible that the apparent association is coincidental. A better understanding of the genetic causes of aplastic anemia remains important. PMID:26571231

  15. Aplastic Anemia in Two Patients with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Rush, Eric T; Schaefer, G Bradley; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies range in incidence from rather common to exceedingly rare and have a variable phenotype. We report 2 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies who developed severe aplastic anemia requiring treatment. The first patient had tetrasomy X (48,XXXX) and presented at 9 years of age, and the second patient had trisomy X (47,XXX) and presented at 5 years of age. Although aplastic anemia has been associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome abnormalities have not been traditionally considered a risk factor for this condition. A review of the literature reveals that at least one other patient with a sex chromosome aneuploidy (45,X) has suffered from aplastic anemia and that other autosomal chromosomal anomalies have been described. Despite the uncommon nature of each condition, it is possible that the apparent association is coincidental. A better understanding of the genetic causes of aplastic anemia remains important.

  16. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    PubMed

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes.

  17. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    PubMed

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes. PMID:26835745

  18. Chromothripsis Is a Recurrent Genomic Abnormality in High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abáigar, María; Robledo, Cristina; Benito, Rocío; Ramos, Fernando; Díez-Campelo, María; Hermosín, Lourdes; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Alonso, Jose M.; Cuello, Rebeca; Megido, Marta; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; Aguilar, Carlos; Vargas, Manuel; Martín, Ana A.; García, Juan L.; Kohlmann, Alexander; del Cañizo, M. Consuelo; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases. 285 abnormalities were identified in 71 patients (23.6%). Three high-risk MDS cases (1.2%) displayed chromothripsis involving exclusively chromosome 13 and affecting some cancer genes: FLT3, BRCA2 and RB1. All three cases carried TP53 mutations as revealed by NGS. Moreover, in the whole series, the integrative analysis of aCGH and NGS enabled the identification of cryptic recurrent deletions in 2p23.3 (DNMT3A; n = 2.8%), 4q24 (TET2; n = 10%) 17p13 (TP53; n = 8.5%), 21q22 (RUNX1; n = 7%), and Xp11.4 (BCOR; n = 2.8%), while mutations in the non-deleted allele where found only in DNMT3A (n = 1), TET2 (n = 3), and TP53 (n = 4). These cryptic abnormalities were detected mainly in patients with normal (45%) or non-informative (15%) karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, except for those with TP53 deletion and mutation (15%), which had a complex karyotype. In addition to well-known copy number defects, the presence of chromothripsis involving chromosome 13 was a novel recurrent change in high-risk MDS patients. Array CGH analysis revealed the presence of cryptic abnormalities in genomic regions where MDS-related genes, such as TET2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and BCOR, are located. PMID:27741277

  19. Chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidies of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Piomboni, Paola; Stendardi, Anita; Gambera, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are relevant causes of human infertility, affecting 2 -14 % of infertile males. Patients with seminal anomalies could be affected by improper meiotic recombination and increased sperm chromosome aneuploidy. Since the transmission of a haploid chromosomal asset is fundamental for embryo vitality and development, the study of sperm chromosomes has become fundamental because intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows fertilization in cases of severe male infertility.In this chapter we summarize the data on the incidence of sperm aneuploidy, detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in infertile men with normal or abnormal karyotype. The possibility of reducing sperm chromosomal imbalance is also reported.Among control males, the lowest aneuploidy rate was detected (range: 0.09 -0.14 % for autosomes; 0.04 -0.10 % for gonosomes). In infertile patients with normal karyotype, the severity of semen alteration is correlated with the frequency of aneuploidy, particularly for X and Y chromosomes. Among patients with abnormal karyotype, 47,XXY and 47,XYY carriers showed a high variability of sperm aneuploidy both for gonosomes and autosomes. In Robertsonian translocation carriers, the increase in aneuploidy rate was particularly evident for total sex disomy, and resulted mainly from interchromosomal effect (ICE). In reciprocal translocation carriers, a high percentage of unbalanced sperm (approximately 50 %) was detected, perhaps mostly related to ICE.Sperm chromosomal constitution could be analyzed to obtain more accurate information about the causes of male infertility. It would be worthwhile to evaluate the benefits of a therapy with recombinant Follicle Stimulating Hormone (rFSH) on sperm chromosome segregation in selected infertile males.

  20. Analysis of chromosome band 1p36 alterations by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization with a microclone DNA bank.

    PubMed

    Zink, D; Weith, A; Martinsson, T; Schwab, M

    1991-09-01

    Alterations of the distal portion of chromosome Ip are a recurrent abnormality of several types of human cancer. In this study we show that chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization with a regional 1p36 DNA bank generated by microdissection and microcloning can be employed to detect translocations involving 1p36.

  1. Prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in Mexican women with primary amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2007-10-01

    Primary amenorrhoea refers to the absence of menarche by the age of 16-18 years in the presence of secondary sexual characteristics, and occurs in 1-3% of women of reproductive age. To study the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and the different options available for clinical management of women in Mexico with primary amenorrhoea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 187 women with primary amenorrhoea referred from Department of Reproductive Medicine of Morones Prieto Hospital, IMSS in Monterrey, Mexico during 1995-2003. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for chromosomal studies by the standard methods. Numerical or structural abnormalities of the sex chromosome were found in 78 women (41.71%). These women were classified into four categories: X-chromosome aneuploidies (22.99%: 12.83% pure line and 10.16% mosaicism association with a 45, X cell line); presence of chromosome Y (10.70%); structural anomalies of the X chromosome (4.28%); and marker chromosomes (3.74%). In conclusion, the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in Mexican women with primary amenorrhoea is within the range (24-46%) reported in world literature. Chromosomal analysis is absolutely necessary for appropriate clinical management of these patients.

  2. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  3. Microdissection and chromosome painting of X and B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Teruel, María; Cabrero, Josefa; Montiel, Eugenia E; Acosta, Manuel J; Sánchez, Antonio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of knowledge of the nature and DNA content of B chromosomes has been triggered by a collection of molecular techniques, one of which, microdissection, has provided interesting results in a number of B chromosome systems. Here we provide the first data on the molecular composition of B chromosomes in Locusta migratoria, after microdissection of the B and X chromosomes, DNA amplification by one (B) or two (X) different methods, and chromosome painting. The results showed that B chromosomes share at least two types of repetitive DNA sequences with the A chromosomes, suggesting that Bs in this species most likely arose intraspecifically. One of these repetitive DNAs is located on the heterochromatic distal half of the B chromosome and in the pericentromeric regions of about half of the A chromosomes, including the X. The other type of repetitive DNA is located interspersedly over the non-centromeric euchromatic regions of all A chromosomes and in an interstitial part of the proximal euchromatic half of the B chromosome. Chromosome painting, however, did not provide results sufficiently reliable to determine, in this species, which A chromosome gave rise to the B; this might be done by detailed analysis of the microdissected DNA sequences.

  4. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies by fluorescence in situ hybridization: clinical experience with 4,500 specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, B E; Gersen, S L; Carelli, M P; McGuire, N M; Dackowski, W R; Weinstein, M; Sandlin, C; Warren, R; Klinger, K W

    1993-01-01

    Detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes is possible using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We herein describe the results of the first clinical program which utilized FISH for the rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes. FISH was performed on physician request, as an adjunct to cytogenetics in 4,500 patients. Region-specific DNA probes to chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be euploid when all autosomal probes generated two hybridization signals and when a normal sex chromosome pattern was observed in greater than or equal to 80% of hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be aneuploid when greater than or equal to 70% of hybridized nuclei displayed the same abnormal hybridization pattern for a specific probe. Of the attempted analyses, 90.2% met these criteria and were reported as informative to referring physicians within 2 d of receipt. Based on these reporting parameters, the overall detection rate for aneuploidies was 73.3% (107/146), with an accuracy of informative results for aneuploidies of 93.9% (107/114). Compared to cytogenetics, the accuracy of all informative FISH results, euploid and aneuploid, was 99.8%, and the specificity was 99.9%. In those pregnancies where fetal abnormalities had been observed by ultrasound, referring physicians requested FISH plus cytogenetics at a significantly higher rate than they requested cytogenetics alone. The current prenatal FISH protocol is not designed to detect all chromosome abnormalities and should only be utilized as an adjunctive test to cytogenetics. This experience demonstrates that FISH can provide a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies. PMID:8488836

  5. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Clinical experience with 4,500 specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.E.; Gersen, S.L.; Carelli, M.P.; McGuire, N.M.; Dackowski, W.R.; Klinger, K.W. ); Weinstein, M. ); Sandlin, C. ); Klinger, K.W. )

    1993-05-01

    Detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes is possible using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The authors herein describe the results of the first clinical program which utilized FISH for the rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes. FISH was performed on physician request, as an adjunct to cytogenetics in 4,500 patients. Region-specific DNA probes to chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be euploid when all autosomal probes generated two hybridization signals and when a normal sex chromosome pattern was observed in greater than or equal to 80% of hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be aneuploid when greater than or equal to 70% of hybridized nuclei displayed the same abnormal hybridization pattern for a specific probe. Of the attempted analyses, 90.2% met these criteria and were reported as informative to referring physicians within 2 d of receipt. Based on these reporting parameters, the overall detection rate for aneuploidies was 73.3% (107/146), with an accuracy of informative results for aneuploidies of 93.9% (107/114). Compared to cytogenetics, the accuracy of all informative FISH results, euploid and aneuploid, was 99.8%, and the specificity was 99.9%. In those pregnancies where fetal abnormalities had been observed by ultrasound, referring physicians requested FISH plus cytogenetics at a significantly higher rate than they requested cytogenetics alone. The current prenatal FISH protocol is not designed to detect all chromosome abnormalities and should only be utilized as an adjunctive test to cytogenetics. This experience demonstrates that FISH can provide a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.,

  6. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  7. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  8. Chromosomal changes in a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, D P; Opheim, K E; Barry, T S; Chapman, D B; Emond, M J; Conrad, E U; Norwood, T H

    2001-01-15

    The chromosome abnormalities observed in a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma are reported. A new molecular cytogenetic technique, spectral karyotyping, was used to identify and confirm structural rearrangements in this case. A review of the literature revealed that nine cases have been reported, in eight of which a complete description of the cytogenetic abnormalities was described. Structural aberrations were most frequently reported in chromosomes 1 and 9, and chromosomes 7 and 19 were most frequently observed to be involved in numerical aberrations (trisomy and tetrasomy). In chondrosarcomas, structural aberrations in chromosomes 1 and 9 and trisomy or tetrasomy of chromosome 7 are among the more frequently observed aberrations. PMID:11172900

  9. A patient with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, David Kyle; Zadeh, Touran; Nugent, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Familial bone marrow failure has been associated with a variety of chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 8 abnormalities have been described in association with neoplastic and hematologic disorders; however, to our knowledge, inversion of the long arm of chromosome 8 has not been described in the context of familial bone marrow failure. We describe a 9-year-old female with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8 [inv (8) (q22, q24.3)]. Given the importance of considering the genetic determinants of familial bone marrow failure, the potential role of chromosome 8 abnormalities in the development of marrow failure is discussed.

  10. Partial Trisomy of Chromosome 11: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk Rena E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A case of partial trisomy of the short arms of chromosome number 11 resulting in profound retardation and multiple physical defects was confirmed by means of fluorescent karyotyping of the chromosomally balanced carrier father. (Author)

  11. Tissue culture triggers chromosome alterations, amplification, and transposition of repeat sequences in Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Dorota; Golczyk, Hieronim; Rutten, Twan; Ilnicki, Tomasz; Houben, Andreas; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2007-05-01

    Structural alterations in nuclei and chromosomes of cells derived from callus culture of Allium fistulosum have been studied with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 45S rDNA, and 375-bp repeat probes. A high frequency of chromosome abnormalities was found to be caused by the loss of telomere-located 375-bp repeats, chromosome fusion, and subsequent breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Products of chromosome fusions and monocentric and regularly shaped chromosomes showed additional 375-bp repeat and 45S rDNA clusters at unusual sites, suggesting dynamic copy-number changes and transposition of these repeats. Southern hybridization revealed no differences in the 375-bp repeat and 45S rDNA repeat array order or the degree of methylation between DNA isolated from leaves or tissue-culture cells. In addition, protruding, spike-like structures positive for 375-bp repeats were identified on the surface of different-sized nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the accumulation of densely packed chromatin within spike-like structures. Because root calyptra cells showed similar structures, it is likely that heterochromatic spike-like structures are a feature of nondividing cells at the onset of programmed cell death. PMID:17612612

  12. [Comparative chromosomal analysis of populations of phytophilous chironomidae Glyptotendipes glaucus (Mg.) from Chernobyl-affected territory].

    PubMed

    Belianina, S I

    2014-09-01

    The karyopools of the phytophilous chiromomid species of Glyptotendipes glaucus (Mg.) were studied. Chironomids originated from a number of reservoirs located in the Novozybkovsky rayon of the Bryansk region, which was affected by the Chernobyl radioactive release, and two reservoirs located in the Saratov region. Differences in the inversion spectrum and frequencies, both among Bryansk and between Bryansk and Saratov populations, were found. There were no new inversions in the Novozybkovsky populations; however, structurally small rearrangements in long chromosomes were noted. Typical abnormalities included mosaicism of the chromosome morphotypes in cells of the same saline gland, which was especially distinctive in the larvae from the forbidden zone; decondensation of the telomere regions of chromosomes; and mosaic asynapsis of the chromosome IV homologs (up to complete disjunction). Also, several larvae were polyploids. Other species of Glyptotendipes inhabiting the Novozybkovsky reservoirs were represented by the single species of G. paripes (near the Korchy settlement). The karyotypes of its several larvae were represented by an unorganized chromosomal substance. The other Glyptotendipes species seem to have lower adaptive abilities under the conditions in question and were eliminated from precatastrophe biotopes, while G. glaucus succeeded in adaptating to the new environment.

  13. Tumor-Specific Chromosome Mis-Segregation Controls Cancer Plasticity by Maintaining Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanjie