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Sample records for abnormal dna repair

  1. Abnormal XPD-induced nuclear receptor transactivation in DNA repair disorders: trichothiodystrophy and xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Khan, Sikandar G; Tamura, Deborah; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Compe, Emmanuel; Egly, Jean-Marc; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-08-01

    XPD (ERCC2) is a DNA helicase involved in nucleotide excision repair and in transcription as a structural bridge tying the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) core with the cdk-activating kinase complex, which phosphorylates nuclear receptors. Mutations in XPD are associated with several different phenotypes, including trichothiodystrophy (TTD), with sulfur-deficient brittle hair, bone defects, and developmental abnormalities without skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), with pigmentary abnormalities and increased skin cancer, or XP/TTD with combined features, including skin cancer. We describe the varied clinical features and mutations in nine patients examined at the National Institutes of Health who were compound heterozygotes for XPD mutations but had different clinical phenotypes: four TTD, three XP, and two combined XP/TTD. We studied TFIIH-dependent transactivation by nuclear receptor for vitamin D (VDR) and thyroid in cells from these patients. The vitamin D stimulation ratio of CYP24 and osteopontin was associated with specific pairs of mutations (reduced in 5, elevated in 1) but not correlated with distinct clinical phenotypes. Thyroid receptor stimulation ratio for KLF9 was not significantly different from normal. XPD mutations frequently were associated with abnormal VDR stimulation in compound heterozygote patients with TTD, XP, or XP/TTD. PMID:23232694

  2. Targeting abnormal DNA double strand break repair in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant chronic myeloid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Lisa A.; Robert, Carine; Rapoport, Aaron P.; Gojo, Ivana; Baer, Maria R.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Rassool, Feyruz V.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to imatinib (IM) and other BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI)s is an increasing problem in leukemias caused by expression of BCR-ABL1. Since chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines expressing BCR-ABL1 utilize an alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway (ALT NHEJ) to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB)s, we asked whether this repair pathway is a novel therapeutic target in TKI-resistant disease. Notably, the steady state levels of two ALT NHEJ proteins, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and DNA ligase IIIα were increased in the BCR-ABL1-positive CML cell line K562 and, to a greater extent, in its imatinib resistant (IMR) derivative. Incubation of these cell lines with a combination of DNA ligase and PARP inhibitors inhibited ALT NHEJ and selectively decreased survival with the effect being greater in the IMR derivative. Similar results were obtained with TKI-resistant derivatives of two hematopoietic cell lines that had been engineered to stably express BCR-ABL1. Together our results show that the sensitivity of cell lines expressing BCR-ABL1 to the combination of DNA ligase and PARP inhibitors correlates with the steady state levels of PARP1 and DNA ligase IIIα, and ALT NHEJ activity. Importantly, analysis of clinical samples from CML patients confirmed that the expression levels of PARP1 and DNA ligase IIIα correlated with sensitivity to the DNA repair inhibitor combination. Thus, the expression levels of PARP1 and DNA ligase IIIα serve as biomarkers to identify a subgroup of CML patients who may be candidates for therapies that target the ALT NHEJ pathway when treatment with TKIs has failed. PMID:22641215

  3. DNA Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  4. Human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Wood, R D; Mitchell, M; Sgouros, J; Lindahl, T

    2001-02-16

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process. PMID:11181991

  5. Optimality in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge. PMID:21945337

  6. Abnormal albumin gene expression is associated with weight loss in immunodeficient/DNA-repair-impaired wasted mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Loyola Univ.; Loyola Univ.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wst express a disease syndrome of immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction, increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, and dramatic weight loss that begins at 21 days of age and progresses until death at 28-32 days of age. Because of the reported association between abnormal liver status and weight loss, we designed experiments to examine expression of a variety of liver-specific genes in wst/wst mice relative to littermates (wst/.) and parental strain (BCF1) controls. METHOD: Animals were individually weighed from ages 21-28 days to determine relative weight comparisons between wst/wst mice and controls. Dot blot hybridizations were set up to quantitate the accumulation of transcripts specific for alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and other liver-specific gene products. RESULTS: These results showed a 67% reduction in albumin mRNA expression in livers derived from wst/wst mice relative to both controls. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein, as well as a variety of other liver-specific genes [secretory component (SC), metallothionein (MT-2), cytochrome P1-450 (Cyt P1-450), transferrin receptor (Tf Rec), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and immune-associated antigen (Ia)], was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a relationship between low albumin expression and wasting syndromes in mice. In addition, our data suggest that the wasted mouse may serve as a unique model for subnormal albumin expression.

  7. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  8. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, S C; Parsons, S; Hanawalt, P C

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. We have examined the relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, we have assessed the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation. The methods of Liu and Karasek were used to grow pure keratinocytes on collagen gels following their isolation from abdominal skin of newborns and adults at autopsy. Density labeling with 5-bromodeoxyuridine was used to resolve repair replication from the semiconservative mode. We found similar repair characteristics in human epidermal keratinocytes to those previously reported for cultured fibroblasts. However, the DNA repair response in basal cells was much greater than that in differentiated cells from the same skin preparation. Our comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  9. Nuclear compartmentalization of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Soutoglou, Evi

    2016-04-01

    The continuous threats on genome integrity by endogenous and exogenous sources have rendered cells competent to overcome these challenges by activating DNA repair pathways. A complex network of proteins and their modifications participate in orchestrated signaling cascades, which are induced in response to DNA damage and may determine the choice of repair pathway. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the field of DNA Double Strand Break repair with regard to the positioning of the break in the highly compartmentalized nucleus. We aim to highlight the importance of chromatin state along with the nuclear position of the DNA lesions on the choice of DNA repair pathway and maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:27266837

  10. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  11. DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

  12. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  13. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-09-18

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span.

  14. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  15. Early postnatal ataxia and abnormal cerebellar development in mice lacking Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A and Cockayne syndrome Group B DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Murai, M; Enokido, Y; Inamura, N; Yoshino, M; Nakatsu, Y; van der Horst, G T; Hoeijmakers, J H; Tanaka, K; Hatanaka, H

    2001-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are rare autosomal recessive disorders associated with a defect in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway required for the removal of DNA damage induced by UV light and distorting chemical adducts. Although progressive neurological dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of CS and of some groups of XP patients, the causative mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mice lacking both the XPA (XP-group A) and CSB (CS-group B) genes in contrast to the single mutants display severe growth retardation, ataxia, and motor dysfunction during early postnatal development. Their cerebella are hypoplastic and showed impaired foliation and stunted Purkinje cell dendrites. Reduced neurogenesis and increased apoptotic cell death occur in the cerebellar external granular layer. These findings suggest that XPA and CSB have additive roles in the mouse nervous system and support a crucial role for these genes in normal brain development. PMID:11687625

  16. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  17. Recognition and repair of chemically heterogeneous structures at DNA ends

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Sara N.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Wallace, Bret D.; Tumbale, Percy; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants and stressors, radiation, pharmaceutical drugs, inflammation, cellular respiration, and routine DNA metabolism all lead to the production of cytotoxic DNA strand breaks. Akin to splintered wood, DNA breaks are not “clean”. Rather, DNA breaks typically lack DNA 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl moieties required for DNA synthesis and DNA ligation. Failure to resolve damage at DNA ends can lead to abnormal DNA replication and repair, and is associated with genomic instability, mutagenesis, neurological disease, ageing and carcinogenesis. An array of chemically heterogeneous DNA termini arises from spontaneously generated DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs), and also from normal and/or inappropriate DNA metabolism by DNA polymerases, DNA ligases and topoisomerases. As a front line of defense to these genotoxic insults, eukaryotic cells have accrued an arsenal of enzymatic first responders that bind and protect damaged DNA termini, and enzymatically tailor DNA ends for DNA repair synthesis and ligation. These nucleic acid transactions employ direct damage reversal enzymes including Aprataxin (APTX), Polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNK), the tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterases (TDP1 and TDP2), the Ku70/80 complex and DNA polymerase β (POLβ). Nucleolytic processing enzymes such as the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1/CtIP complex, Flap endonuclease (FEN1) and the apurinic endonucleases (APE1 and APE2) also act in the chemical "cleansing" of DNA breaks to prevent genomic instability and disease, and promote progression of DNA- and RNA-DNA damage response (DDR and RDDR) pathways. Here, we provide an overview of cellular first responders dedicated to the detection and repair of abnormal DNA termini. PMID:25111769

  18. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, S G; Ho, C; Woodgate, R

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD' fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD' antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium umu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention. Images PMID:1885540

  19. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye towards how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease. PMID:23684800

  20. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M

    2013-08-01

    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within which they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye toward how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease.

  1. Protein oxidation, UVA and human DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Karran, Peter; Brem, Reto

    2016-08-01

    Solar UVB is carcinogenic. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) counteracts the carcinogenicity of UVB by excising potentially mutagenic UVB-induced DNA lesions. Despite this capacity for DNA repair, non-melanoma skin cancers and apparently normal sun-exposed skin contain huge numbers of mutations that are mostly attributable to unrepaired UVB-induced DNA lesions. UVA is about 20-times more abundant than UVB in incident sunlight. It does cause some DNA damage but this does not fully account for its biological impact. The effects of solar UVA are mediated by its interactions with cellular photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce oxidative stress. The proteome is a significant target for damage by UVA-induced ROS. In cultured human cells, UVA-induced oxidation of DNA repair proteins inhibits DNA repair. This article addresses the possible role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in determining DNA repair efficiency - with particular reference to NER and skin cancer risk.

  2. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease.

  3. Role of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitination are essential regulatory mechanisms for promoting DNA repair and the DNA damage response in mammalian cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have emerged as key players in the maintenance of genome stability. In this minireview, we discuss the recent findings on human DUBs that participate in genome maintenance, with a focus on the role of DUBs in the modulation of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling. PMID:26644404

  4. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies. PMID:26850617

  5. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies.

  6. Active DNA demethylation by DNA repair: Facts and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Schuermann, David; Weber, Alain R; Schär, Primo

    2016-08-01

    Pathways that control and modulate DNA methylation patterning in mammalian cells were poorly understood for a long time, although their importance in establishing and maintaining cell type-specific gene expression was well recognized. The discovery of proteins capable of converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to putative substrates for DNA repair introduced a novel and exciting conceptual framework for the investigation and ultimate discovery of molecular mechanisms of DNA demethylation. Against the prevailing notion that DNA methylation is a static epigenetic mark, it turned out to be dynamic and distinct mechanisms appear to have evolved to effect global and locus-specific DNA demethylation. There is compelling evidence that DNA repair, in particular base excision repair, contributes significantly to the turnover of 5mC in cells. By actively demethylating DNA, DNA repair supports the developmental establishment as well as the maintenance of DNA methylation landscapes and gene expression patterns. Yet, while the biochemical pathways are relatively well-established and reviewed, the biological context, function and regulation of DNA repair-mediated active DNA demethylation remains uncertain. In this review, we will thus summarize and critically discuss the evidence that associates active DNA demethylation by DNA repair with specific functional contexts including the DNA methylation erasure in the early embryo, the control of pluripotency and cellular differentiation, the maintenance of cell identity, and the nuclear reprogramming. PMID:27247237

  7. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  8. DNA Damage and Repair in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Painter, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Damage in DNA after irradiation can be classified into five kinds: base damage, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, DNA–DNA cross-linking, and DNA-protein cross-linking. Of these, repair of base damage is the best understood. In eukaryotes, at least three repair systems are known that can deal with base damage: photoreactivation, excision repair, and post-replication repair. Photoreactivation is specific for UV-induced damage and occurs widely throughout the biosphere, although it seems to be absent from placental mammals. Excision repair is present in prokaryotes and in animals but does not seem to be present in plants. Post-replication repair is poorly understood. Recent reports indicate that growing points in mammalian DNA simply skip past UV-induced lesions, leaving gaps in newly made DNA that are subsequently filled in by de novo synthesis. Evidence that this concept is oversimplified or incorrect is presented.—Single-strand breaks are induced by ionizing radiation but most cells can rapidly repair most or all of them, even after supralethal doses. The chemistry of the fragments formed when breaks are induced by ionizing radiation is complex and poorly understood. Therefore, the intermediate steps in the repair of single-strand breaks are unknown. Double-strand breaks and the two kinds of cross-linking have been studied very little and almost nothing is known about their mechanisms for repair.—The role of mammalian DNA repair in mutations is not known. Although there is evidence that defective repair can lead to cancer and/or premature aging in humans, the relationship between the molecular defects and the diseased state remains obscure. PMID:4442699

  9. Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419. PMID:23216312

  10. Antibody specific for a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-07-11

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  11. DNA repair meets the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chow H

    2014-02-01

    The ability to repair damaged DNA and to maintain genome stability is the utmost importance for the survival of any species. Hence, it is not surprising to find that DNA repair mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved and are expected to evolve to maintain the existence of species. In the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in the evidence linking RNA processing with DNA repair programs. For instance, the well-studied DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 can cleave RNA molecules, regulate mRNA levels, and associate physically with proteins involved in RNA processing. It is now clear that not only the expression of noncoding RNAs are changed upon DNA damage, they can modulate the expression of genes involved in the genome stability programs. The five reviews in this Forum provide the up-to-date knowledge on DNA repair, with a focus on BER, and a perspective on how the two ancient biochemical pathways are linked. The contributions demonstrate the complexity of such interactions, but also pointed out the opportunities for new therapeutic interventions. Future in vivo studies on the link between DNA repair processes and RNA metabolism should contribute to our basic understanding of physiology, disease, and treatment strategies.

  12. Nuclear position dictates DNA repair pathway choice

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Charlène; Grabarz, Anastazja; Tsouroula, Katerina; Andronov, Leonid; Furst, Audrey; Pankotai, Tibor; Heyer, Vincent; Rogier, Mélanie; Attwood, Kathleen M.; Kessler, Pascal; Dellaire, Graham; Klaholz, Bruno; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Soutoglou, Evi

    2014-01-01

    Faithful DNA repair is essential to avoid chromosomal rearrangements and promote genome integrity. Nuclear organization has emerged as a key parameter in the formation of chromosomal translocations, yet little is known as to whether DNA repair can efficiently occur throughout the nucleus and whether it is affected by the location of the lesion. Here, we induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at different nuclear compartments and follow their fate. We demonstrate that DSBs induced at the nuclear membrane (but not at nuclear pores or nuclear interior) fail to rapidly activate the DNA damage response (DDR) and repair by homologous recombination (HR). Real-time and superresolution imaging reveal that DNA DSBs within lamina-associated domains do not migrate to more permissive environments for HR, like the nuclear pores or the nuclear interior, but instead are repaired in situ by alternative end-joining. Our results are consistent with a model in which nuclear position dictates the choice of DNA repair pathway, thus revealing a new level of regulation in DSB repair controlled by spatial organization of DNA within the nucleus. PMID:25366693

  13. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  14. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. PMID:27060854

  15. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  16. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  17. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging. PMID:23633913

  19. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  20. DNA repair of oxidative DNA damage in human carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Elizur, Tamar; Sevilya, Ziv; Leitner-Dagan, Yael; Elinger, Dalia; Roisman, Laila; Livneh, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    Efficient DNA repair mechanisms comprise a critical component in the protection against human cancer, as indicated by the high predisposition to cancer of individuals with germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes. This includes biallelic germ-line mutations in the MUYH gene, encoding a DNA glycosylase that is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, which strongly predispose humans to a rare hereditary form of colorectal cancer. Extensive research efforts including biochemical, enzymological and genetic studies in model organisms established that the oxidative DNA lesion 8-oxoguanine is mutagenic, and that several DNA repair mechanisms operate to prevent its potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic outcome. Epidemiological studies on the association with sporadic cancers of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes such as OGG1, involved in the repair of 8-oxoguanine yielded conflicting results, and suggest a minor effect at best. A new approach based on the functional analysis of DNA repair enzymatic activity showed that reduced activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG) is a risk factor in lung and head and neck cancer. Moreover, the combination of smoking and low OGG activity was associated with a higher risk, suggesting a potential strategy for risk assessment and prevention of lung cancer, as well as other types of cancer. PMID:18374480

  1. Targeting backup DNA repair in cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    New research shows that DNA polymerase θ is a key player in PARP-mediated DNA damage repair and essential for the survival of cancer cells where homologous recombination is compromised. Polθ could be a biomarker for PARP-inhibitor response, and is a potential therapeutic target for overcoming resistance to these drugs.

  2. The awakening of DNA repair at Yale.

    PubMed

    Hanawalt, Philip C

    2013-12-13

    As a graduate student with Professor Richard Setlow at Yale in the late 1950s, I studied the effects of ultraviolet and visible light on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein in bacteria. I reflect upon my research in the Yale Biophysics Department, my subsequent postdoctoral experiences, and the eventual analyses in the laboratories of Setlow, Paul Howard-Flanders, and myself that constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of DNA excision repair in the early 1960s. I then offer a brief perspective on a few more recent developments in the burgeoning DNA repair field and their relationships to human disease.

  3. The Awakening of DNA Repair at Yale

    PubMed Central

    Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    As a graduate student with Professor Richard Setlow at Yale in the late 1950s, I studied the effects of ultraviolet and visible light on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein in bacteria. I reflect upon my research in the Yale Biophysics Department, my subsequent postdoctoral experiences, and the eventual analyses in the laboratories of Setlow, Paul Howard-Flanders, and myself that constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of DNA excision repair in the early 1960s. I then offer a brief perspective on a few more recent developments in the burgeoning DNA repair field and their relationships to human disease. PMID:24348216

  4. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  5. DNA Repair and Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Xia; Sjolund, Ashley; Harris, Lyndsay; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer therapy is likely to be one of the next big advances in our search for a cure for cancer. To be able to treat people in an individualized manner, researchers need to know a great deal about their genetic constitution and the DNA repair status of their tumors. Specific knowledge is required regarding the polymorphisms individuals carry and how these polymorphisms influence responses to therapy. Researchers are actively engaged in biomarker discovery and validation for this purpose. In addition, the design of clinical trials must be reassessed to include new information on biomarkers and drug responses. In this review, we focus on personalized breast cancer therapy. The hypothesis we focus upon in this review is that there is connection between the DNA repair profile of individuals, their breast tumor subtypes, and their responses to cancer therapy. We first briefly review cellular DNA repair pathways that are likely to be impacted by breast cancer therapies. Next, we review the phenotypes of breast tumor subtypes with an emphasis on how a DNA repair deficiency might result in tumorigenesis itself and lead to the chemotherapeutic responses that are observed. Specific examples of breast tumor subtypes and their responses to cancer therapy are given, and we discuss possible DNA repair mechanisms that underlie the responses of tumors to various chemotherapeutic agents. Much is known about breast cancer subtypes and the way each of these subtypes responds to chemotherapy. In addition, we discuss novel design of clinical trials that incorporates rapidly emerging information on biomarkers. PMID:20872853

  6. Genotoxic stress in plants: shedding light on DNA damage, repair and DNA repair helicases.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Panda, Brahma B; Tuteja, Renu

    2009-01-01

    Plant cells are constantly exposed to environmental agents and endogenous processes that inflict damage to DNA and cause genotoxic stress, which can reduce plant genome stability, growth and productivity. Plants are most affected by solar UV-B radiation, which damage the DNA by inducing the formation of two main UV photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also generated extra- or intra-cellularly, which constitute yet another source of genotoxic stress. As a result of this stress, the cellular DNA-damage responses (DDR) are activated, which transiently arrest the cell cycle and allow cells to repair DNA before proceeding into mitosis. DDR requires the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) genes, which regulate the cell cycle and transmit the damage signals to downstream effectors of cell-cycle progression. Since genomic protection and stability are fundamental to ensure and sustain plant diversity and productivity, therefore, repair of DNA damages is essential. In plants the bulky DNA lesions, CPDs and 6-4PPs, are repaired by a simple and error-free mechanism: photoreactivation, which is a light-dependent mechanism and requires CPD or 6-4PP specific photolyases. In addition to this direct repair process, the plants also have sophisticated light-independent general repair mechanisms, such as the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER). The completed plant genome sequences reveal that most of the genes involved in NER and BER are present in higher plants, which suggests that the network of in-built DNA-damage repair mechanisms is conserved. This article describes the insight underlying the DNA damage and repair pathways in plants. The comet assay to measure the DNA damage and the role of DNA repair helicases such as XPD and XPB are also covered.

  7. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers, mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare. However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expression of DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers. These epigenetic reductions are also found in field defects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repair likely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulate in somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesion synthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or error-prone DNA repair can cause mutations. Erroneous DNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e., epimutations, transmitted through multiple replication cycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations may cause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absent DNA repair is likely an important underlying cause of cancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers show that between thousands to hundreds of thousands of mutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations that reduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early in progression to GI cancers are a likely source of this high genomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repair are more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation by DNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment are DNA damaging agents, and their effectiveness often depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells. Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each active in one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to be subject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GI cancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair different types of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repair pathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancer and/or particular patients may prove useful in guiding choice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. PMID:25987950

  8. Regulation of DNA repair by parkin

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shyan-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Mutation of parkin is one of the most prevalent causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts on a variety of substrates, resulting in polyubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome or monoubiquitination and regulation of biological activity. However, the cellular functions of parkin that relate to its pathological involvement in PD are not well understood. Here we show that parkin is essential for optimal repair of DNA damage. Parkin-deficient cells exhibit reduced DNA excision repair that can be restored by transfection of wild-type parkin, but not by transfection of a pathological parkin mutant. Parkin also protects against DNA damage-induced cell death, an activity that is largely lost in the pathological mutant. Moreover, parkin interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein that coordinates DNA excision repair. These results suggest that parkin promotes DNA repair and protects against genotoxicity, and implicate DNA damage as a potential pathogenic mechanism in PD.

  9. DNA ligases in the repair and replication of DNA.

    PubMed

    Timson, D J; Singleton, M R; Wigley, D B

    2000-08-30

    DNA ligases are critical enzymes of DNA metabolism. The reaction they catalyse (the joining of nicked DNA) is required in DNA replication and in DNA repair pathways that require the re-synthesis of DNA. Most organisms express DNA ligases powered by ATP, but eubacteria appear to be unique in having ligases driven by NAD(+). Interestingly, despite protein sequence and biochemical differences between the two classes of ligase, the structure of the adenylation domain is remarkably similar. Higher organisms express a variety of different ligases, which appear to be targetted to specific functions. DNA ligase I is required for Okazaki fragment joining and some repair pathways; DNA ligase II appears to be a degradation product of ligase III; DNA ligase III has several isoforms, which are involved in repair and recombination and DNA ligase IV is necessary for V(D)J recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Sequence and structural analysis of DNA ligases has shown that these enzymes are built around a common catalytic core, which is likely to be similar in three-dimensional structure to that of T7-bacteriophage ligase. The differences between the various ligases are likely to be mediated by regions outside of this common core, the structures of which are not known. Therefore, the determination of these structures, along with the structures of ligases bound to substrate DNAs and partner proteins ought to be seen as a priority.

  10. Hypomorphic PCNA mutation underlies a human DNA repair disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baple, Emma L.; Chambers, Helen; Cross, Harold E.; Fawcett, Heather; Nakazawa, Yuka; Chioza, Barry A.; Harlalka, Gaurav V.; Mansour, Sahar; Sreekantan-Nair, Ajith; Patton, Michael A.; Muggenthaler, Martina; Rich, Phillip; Wagner, Karin; Coblentz, Roselyn; Stein, Constance K.; Last, James I.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Ogi, Tomoo; Lehmann, Alan R.; Green, Catherine M.; Crosby, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA’s interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration. PMID:24911150

  11. DNA Repair Deficiency and Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface Responding to genotoxic stress is a prerequisite for development of the nervous system. Mutations in a variety of DNA repair factors can lead to human diseases that are characterized by pronounced neuropathology. In many of these syndromes the neurological component is amongst the most deleterious aspects of the disease. The nervous system poses a particular challenge in terms of clinical intervention, as the neuropathology often arises during nervous system development, and can be fully penetrant by childhood. Understanding how DNA repair deficiency impacts the nervous system will provide a rationale basis for therapies targeted at ameliorating the neurological problems in these syndromes. PMID:19145234

  12. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair.

  13. Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and Cancer: Recent Progress in DNA Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Timothy L.; Rangaswamy, Suganya; Wicker, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by exogenous and environmental genotoxins, but also arise from mitochondria as byproducts of respiration in the body. ROS generate DNA damage of which pathological consequence, including cancer is well established. Research efforts are intense to understand the mechanism of DNA base excision repair, the primary mechanism to protect cells from genotoxicity caused by ROS. Recent Advances: In addition to the notion that oxidative DNA damage causes transformation of cells, recent studies have revealed how the mitochondrial deficiencies and ROS generation alter cell growth during the cancer transformation. Critical Issues: The emphasis of this review is to highlight the importance of the cellular response to oxidative DNA damage during carcinogenesis. Oxidative DNA damage, including 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, play an important role during the cellular transformation. It is also becoming apparent that the unusual activity and subcellular distribution of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, an essential DNA repair factor/redox sensor, affect cancer malignancy by increasing cellular resistance to oxidative stress and by positively influencing cell proliferation. Future Directions: Technological advancement in cancer cell biology and genetics has enabled us to monitor the detailed DNA repair activities in the microenvironment. Precise understanding of the intracellular activities of DNA repair proteins for oxidative DNA damage should provide help in understanding how mitochondria, ROS, DNA damage, and repair influence cancer transformation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 708–726. PMID:23901781

  14. Nobel Recognizes Seminal Work in DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Three scientists will share this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering research that established the inherent instability of DNA and the cellular mechanisms underlying its repair. Their discoveries of how living cells function have aided in developing new cancer therapies.

  15. Beyond DNA repair: DNA-PK function in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a pivotal component of the DNA repair machinery that governs the response to DNA damage, serving to maintain genome integrity. However, the DNA-PK kinase component was initially isolated with transcriptional complexes, and recent findings have illuminated the impact of DNA-PK-mediated transcriptional regulation on tumor progression and therapeutic response. DNA-PK expression has also been correlated with poor outcome in selected tumor types, further underscoring the importance of understanding its role in disease. Herein, the molecular and cellular consequence of DNA-PK will be considered, with an eye toward discerning the rationale for therapeutic targeting of DNA-PK. PMID:25168287

  16. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  17. Managing DNA polymerases: coordinating DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Sutton, M D; Walker, G C

    2001-07-17

    Two important and timely questions with respect to DNA replication, DNA recombination, and DNA repair are: (i) what controls which DNA polymerase gains access to a particular primer-terminus, and (ii) what determines whether a DNA polymerase hands off its DNA substrate to either a different DNA polymerase or to a different protein(s) for the completion of the specific biological process? These questions have taken on added importance in light of the fact that the number of known template-dependent DNA polymerases in both eukaryotes and in prokaryotes has grown tremendously in the past two years. Most notably, the current list now includes a completely new family of enzymes that are capable of replicating imperfect DNA templates. This UmuC-DinB-Rad30-Rev1 superfamily of DNA polymerases has members in all three kingdoms of life. Members of this family have recently received a great deal of attention due to the roles they play in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), the potentially mutagenic replication over DNA lesions that act as potent blocks to continued replication catalyzed by replicative DNA polymerases. Here, we have attempted to summarize our current understanding of the regulation of action of DNA polymerases with respect to their roles in DNA replication, TLS, DNA repair, DNA recombination, and cell cycle progression. In particular, we discuss these issues in the context of the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, that contains a DNA polymerase (Pol V) known to participate in most, if not all, of these processes.

  18. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases.

  19. Repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.J.; Hays, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Repair of irradiated phage lambda DNA in E. coli has been studied by a repressed-infection system: superinfection of homoimmune lysogenic bacteria; assay for restoration of transcribility to phage-encoded lac genes; extraction of DNA and assay for infectivity in transfection of uvrB/sup -/ recA/sup -/ recB/sup -/ spheroplasts, and for removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBP-dimers) by UV-endonuclease treatment and alkaline sedimentation. In uvr/sup +/ repressed infections with 254-nm irradiated phages (60 J/m/sup 2/) lac transcription was rapidly returned to undamaged levels, concomitant with restoration of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers. In uvrD/sup -/ cells, the frequency of phage gene inactivation corresponded to the estimated frequency of CBP-dimers per gene. In uvrA/sup -/ bacteria, however, lac expression was only 1/10 to 1/3 of that predicted by the expected frequency of gene inactivation, as if damage elsewhere affected transcription; recovery of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers was almost completely inhibited. lac/sup +/ and lacUV5 phages, expected to respond oppositely to changes in superhelical density, were constructed as probes for topological changes during DNA repair. The assays for transfection infectivity and CBP-dimer-removal have been extended to studies of repair of UV-irradiated phage DNA injected into oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis.

  20. DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Concetta; Porcellini, Antonio; Angrisano, Tiziana; Morano, Annalisa; Lee, Bongyong; Di Pardo, Alba; Messina, Samantha; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Santillo, Maria R; Muller, Mark T; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2007-07-01

    To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%-4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, approximately 50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments. PMID:17616978

  1. DNA Damage, Homology-Directed Repair, and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Angrisano, Tiziana; Morano, Annalisa; Lee, Bongyong; Pardo, Alba Di; Messina, Samantha; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Santillo, Maria R; Muller, Mark T; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2007-01-01

    To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%–4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, ~50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments. PMID:17616978

  2. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B.; Navara, Christopher S.; Schatten, Gerald P.

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  3. Defective DSB repair correlates with abnormal nuclear morphology and is improved with FTI treatment in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Dan; Csoka, Antonei B; Navara, Christopher S; Schatten, Gerald P

    2010-10-15

    Impaired DSB repair has been implicated as a molecular mechanism contributing to the accelerating aging phenotype in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), but neither the extent nor the cause of the repair deficiency has been fully elucidated. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the steady-state number of DSBs and the repair kinetics of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in HGPS cells. We report an elevated steady-state number of DSBs and impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, both of which correlated strongly with abnormal nuclear morphology. We recreated the HGPS cellular phenotype in human coronary artery endothelial cells for the first time by lentiviral transduction of GFP-progerin, which also resulted in impaired repair of IR-induced DSBs, and which correlated with abnormal nuclear morphology. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) treatment improved the repair of IR-induced DSBs, but only in HGPS cells whose nuclear morphology was also normalized. Interestingly, FTI treatment did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the higher steady-state number of DSBs. We also report a delay in localization of phospho-NBS1 and MRE11, MRN complex repair factors necessary for homologous recombination (HR) repair, to DSBs in HGPS cells. Our results demonstrate a correlation between nuclear structural abnormalities and the DSB repair defect, suggesting a mechanistic link that may involve delayed repair factor localization to DNA damage. Further, our results show that similar to other HGPS phenotypes, FTI treatment has a beneficial effect on DSB repair.

  4. Damage and repair of ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes such as extinct horses, cave bears, the marsupial wolf, the moa, and Neanderthal. In the past few years, this technology has been extended to the study of infectious disease in ancient Egyptian and South American mummies, the dietary habits of ancient animals, and agricultural practices and population dynamics of early native Americans. Hence, ancient DNA contains information pertinent to numerous fields of study including evolution, population genetics, ecology, climatology, medicine, archeology, and behavior. The major obstacles to the study of aDNA are its extremely low yield, contamination with modern DNA, and extensive degradation. In the course of this review, we will discuss the current aDNA literature describing the importance of aDNA studies as they relate to important biological questions and the difficulties associated with extracting useful information from highly degraded and damaged substrates derived from limited sources. In addition, we will present some of our own preliminary and published data on mechanisms of DNA degradation and some speculative thoughts on strategies for repair and restoration of aDNA.

  5. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  6. Targeting DNA repair pathways for cancer treatment: what's new?

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mark R; Logsdon, Derek; Fishel, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in DNA repair pathways predispose cells to accumulating DNA damage. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumors accumulate progressively more mutations in DNA repair proteins as cancers progress. DNA repair mechanisms greatly affect the response to cytotoxic treatments, so understanding those mechanisms and finding ways to turn dysregulated repair processes against themselves to induce tumor death is the goal of all DNA repair inhibition efforts. Inhibition may be direct or indirect. This burgeoning field of research is replete with promise and challenge, as more intricacies of each repair pathway are discovered. In an era of increasing concern about healthcare costs, use of DNA repair inhibitors can prove to be highly effective stewardship of R&D resources and patient expenses. PMID:24947262

  7. The Involvement of DNA-Damage and -Repair Defects in Neurological Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Avanti; Wilson, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A genetic link between defects in DNA repair and neurological abnormalities has been well established through studies of inherited disorders such as ataxia telangiectasia and xeroderma pigmentosum. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the major types of DNA damage, the molecular pathways that function in their repair, and the connection between defective DNA-repair responses and specific neurological disease. Particular attention is given to describing the nature of the repair defect and its relationship to the manifestation of the associated neurological dysfunction. Finally, the review touches upon the role of oxidative stress, a leading precursor to DNA damage, in the development of certain neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. PMID:18319069

  8. Loading clamps for DNA replication and repair.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Linda B

    2009-05-01

    Sliding clamps and clamp loaders were initially identified as DNA polymerase processivity factors. Sliding clamps are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle and slide along duplex DNA, and clamp loaders are enzymes that load these clamps onto DNA. When bound to a sliding clamp, DNA polymerases remain tightly associated with the template being copied, but are able to translocate along DNA at rates limited by rates of nucleotide incorporation. Many different enzymes required for DNA replication and repair use sliding clamps. Clamps not only increase the processivity of these enzymes, but may also serve as an attachment point to coordinate the activities of enzymes required for a given process. Clamp loaders are members of the AAA+ family of ATPases and use energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to catalyze the mechanical reaction of loading clamps onto DNA. Many structural and functional features of clamps and clamp loaders are conserved across all domains of life. Here, the mechanism of clamp loading is reviewed by comparing features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic clamps and clamp loaders.

  9. DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Sheila L; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Calder, R B; Aliper, Alexander; Milholland, Brandon; White, Ryan R; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Vijg, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Differences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals--depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles--varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ~120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. PMID:26729707

  10. DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Sheila L.; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Calder, R.B.; Aliper, Alexander; Milholland, Brandon; White, Ryan R.; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Differences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals—depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles—varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ∼120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. PMID:26729707

  11. Repair of base damage and genome maintenance in the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, María L

    2014-01-22

    Among the DNA viruses, the so-called nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) constitute a monophyletic group that currently consists of seven families of viruses infecting a very broad variety of eukaryotes, from unicellular marine protists to humans. Many recent papers have analyzed the sequence and structure of NCLDV genomes and their phylogeny, providing detailed analysis about their genomic structure and evolutionary history and proposing their inclusion in a new viral order named Megavirales that, according to some authors, should be considered as a fourth domain of life, aside from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The maintenance of genetic information protected from environmental attacks and mutations is essential not only for the survival of cellular organisms but also viruses. In cellular organisms, damaged DNA bases are removed in two major repair pathways: base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) that constitute the major pathways responsible for repairing most endogenous base lesions and abnormal bases in the genome by precise repair procedures. Like cells, many NCLDV encode proteins that might constitute viral DNA repair pathways that would remove damages through BER/NIR pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and, specially, the biological roles of those viral repair pathways have not been deeply addressed in the literature so far. In this paper, we review viral-encoded BER proteins and the genetic and biochemical data available about them. We propose and discuss probable viral-encoded DNA repair mechanisms and pathways, as compared with the functional and molecular features of known homologs proteins.

  12. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair of DNA: The very early history.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2011-07-15

    This article, taken largely from the book Correcting the Blueprint of Life: An Historical Account of the Discovery of DNA Repair Mechanisms, summarizes the very early history of the discovery of nucleotide excision repair.

  14. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  15. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  16. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  17. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  18. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity.

  19. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25960340

  20. Mutant Cockayne syndrome group B protein inhibits repair of DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Saijo, Masafumi; Bay, Mui N; Lan, Li; Kuraoka, Isao; Brooks, Philip J; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Yasui, Akira; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2011-01-01

    Two UV-sensitive syndrome patients who have mild photosensitivity without detectable somatic abnormalities lack detectable Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein because of a homozygous null mutation in the CSB gene. In contrast, mutant CSB proteins are produced in CS-B patients with the severe somatic abnormalities of Cockayne syndrome and photosensitivity. It is known that the piggyBac transposable element derived 3 is integrated within the CSB intron 5, and that CSB-piggyBac transposable element derived 3 fusion (CPFP) mRNA is produced by alternative splicing. We found that CPFP or truncated CSB protein derived from CPFP mRNA was stably produced in CS-B patients, and that wild-type CSB, CPFP, and truncated CSB protein interacted with DNA topoisomerase I. We also found that CPFP inhibited repair of a camptothecin-induced topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. The inhibition was suppressed by the presence of wild-type CSB, consistent with the autosomal recessive inheritance of Cockayne syndrome. These results suggested that reduced repair of a DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex because of truncated CSB proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of CS-B. PMID:21143350

  1. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications

    PubMed Central

    Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; O’Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations. PMID:25202323

  2. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications.

    PubMed

    Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A S; O'Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations.

  3. TOPBP1 takes RADical command in recombinational DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Smolka, Marcus B

    2016-02-01

    TOPBP1 is a key player in DNA replication and DNA damage signaling. In this issue, Moudry et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507042) uncover a crucial role for TOPBP1 in DNA repair by revealing its requirement for RAD51 loading during repair of double strand breaks by homologous recombination. PMID:26811424

  4. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by the Cockayne syndrome B DNA repair-transcription-coupling factor.

    PubMed

    Citterio, E; Van Den Boom, V; Schnitzler, G; Kanaar, R; Bonte, E; Kingston, R E; Hoeijmakers, J H; Vermeulen, W

    2000-10-01

    The Cockayne syndrome B protein (CSB) is required for coupling DNA excision repair to transcription in a process known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Cockayne syndrome patients show UV sensitivity and severe neurodevelopmental abnormalities. CSB is a DNA-dependent ATPase of the SWI2/SNF2 family. SWI2/SNF2-like proteins are implicated in chromatin remodeling during transcription. Since chromatin structure also affects DNA repair efficiency, chromatin remodeling activities within repair are expected. Here we used purified recombinant CSB protein to investigate whether it can remodel chromatin in vitro. We show that binding of CSB to DNA results in an alteration of the DNA double-helix conformation. In addition, we find that CSB is able to remodel chromatin structure at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Specifically, CSB can alter DNase I accessibility to reconstituted mononucleosome cores and disarrange an array of nucleosomes regularly spaced on plasmid DNA. In addition, we show that CSB interacts not only with double-stranded DNA but also directly with core histones. Finally, intact histone tails play an important role in CSB remodeling. CSB is the first repair protein found to play a direct role in modulating nucleosome structure. The relevance of this finding to the interplay between transcription and repair is discussed. PMID:11003660

  5. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M.; Chen, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  6. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. ); Chen, D.S. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  7. Structure of the DNA repair helicase XPD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanting; Rudolf, Jana; Johnson, Kenneth A; McMahon, Stephen A; Oke, Muse; Carter, Lester; McRobbie, Anne-Marie; Brown, Sara E; Naismith, James H; White, Malcolm F

    2008-05-30

    The XPD helicase (Rad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a component of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH), which functions in transcription initiation and Nucleotide Excision Repair in eukaryotes, catalyzing DNA duplex opening localized to the transcription start site or site of DNA damage, respectively. XPD has a 5' to 3' polarity and the helicase activity is dependent on an iron-sulfur cluster binding domain, a feature that is conserved in related helicases such as FancJ. The xpd gene is the target of mutation in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne's syndrome, characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from cancer susceptibility to neurological and developmental defects. The 2.25 A crystal structure of XPD from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii, presented here together with detailed biochemical analyses, allows a molecular understanding of the structural basis for helicase activity and explains the phenotypes of xpd mutations in humans. PMID:18510925

  8. Participation of DNA repair in the response to 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Michael D.; Wilson, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is employed clinically to manage solid tumors including colorectal and breast cancer. Intracellular metabolites of 5-FU can exert cytotoxic effects via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, or through incorporation into RNA and DNA, events that ultimately activate apoptosis. In this review, we cover the current data implicating DNA repair processes in cellular responsiveness to 5-FU treatment. Evidence points to roles for base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR). However, mechanistic details remain unexplained, and other pathways have not been exhaustively interrogated. Homologous recombination is of particular interest, because it resolves unrepaired DNA intermediates not properly dealt with by BER or MMR. Furthermore, crosstalk among DNA repair pathways and S-phase checkpoint signaling has not been examined. Ongoing efforts aim to design approaches and reagents that (i) approximate repair capacity and (ii) mediate strategic regulation of DNA repair in order to improve the efficacy of current anti-cancer treatments. PMID:18979208

  9. DNA repair: From genome maintenance to biomarker and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Shadia; Earley, Jennifer N.; Turchi, John J.

    2011-01-01

    A critical link exists between an individual's ability to repair cellular DNA damage and cancer development, progression and response to therapy. Knowledge gained regarding the proteins involved and types of damage repaired by the individual DNA repair pathways has led to the development of a variety of assays aimed at determining an individual's DNA repair capacity. These assays and their use in the analysis of clinical samples has yielded useful though somewhat conflicting data. In this review article, we discuss the major DNA repair pathways, the proteins and genes required for each, assays used to assess activity and the relevant clinical studies to date. With the recent results from clinical trials targeting specific DNA repair proteins for the treatment of cancer, accurate, reproducible and relevant analysis of DNA repair takes on an even greater significance. We highlight the strengths and limitations of these DNA repair studies and assays with respect to the clinical assessment of DNA repair capacity to determine cancer development and response to therapy. PMID:21908578

  10. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

  11. UV-induced DNA damage and repair: a review.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Häder, Donat P

    2002-04-01

    Increases in ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer have recently fuelled interest in the mechanisms of various effects it might have on organisms. DNA is certainly one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs) and their Dewar valence Isomers. However, cells have developed a number of repair or tolerance mechanism to counteract the DNA damage caused by UV or any other stressors. Photoreactivation with the help of the enzyme photolyase is one of the most important and frequently occurring repair mechanisms in a variety of organisms. Excision repair, which can be distinguished into base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER), also plays an important role in DNA repair in several organisms with the help of a number of glycosylases and polymerases, respectively. In addition, mechanisms such as mutagenic repair or dimer bypass, recombinational repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and certain alternative repair pathways are also operative in various organisms. This review deals with UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and its future perspectives.

  12. DNA mismatch repair gene mutations in human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P

    1997-01-01

    A new pathogenetic mechanism leading to cancer has been delineated in the past 3 years when human homologues of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have been identified and shown to be involved in various types of cancer. Germline mutations of MMR genes cause susceptibility to a hereditary form of colon cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), which represents one of the most common syndromes associated with cancer predisposition in man. Tumors from HNPCC patients are hypermutable and show length variation at short tandem repeat sequences, a phenomenon referred to as microsatellite instability or replication errors. A similar abnormality is found in a proportion of sporadic tumors of the colorectum as well as a variety of other organs; acquired mutations in MMR genes or other endogenous or exogenous causes may underlie these cases. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the functions of normal and mutated MMR genes elucidates mechanisms of cancer development and provides tools for diagnostic applications. PMID:9255561

  13. Repair synthesis step involving ERCC1-XPF participates in DNA repair of the Top1-DNA damage complex.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chiaki; Masuda, Yuji; Takedachi, Arato; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2015-08-01

    Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) is the intercellular target of camptothecins (CPTs). CPT blocks DNA religation in the Top1-DNA complex and induces Top1-attached nick DNA lesions. In this study, we demonstrate that excision repair cross complementing 1 protein-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) endonuclease and replication protein A (RPA) participate in the repair of Top1-attached nick DNA lesions together with other nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors. ERCC1-XPF shows nuclease activity in the presence of RPA on a 3'-phosphotyrosyl bond nick-containing DNA (Tyr-nick DNA) substrate, which mimics a Top1-attached nick DNA lesion. In addition, ERCC1-XPF and RPA form a DNA/protein complex on the nick DNA substrate in vitro, and co-localize in CPT-treated cells in vivo. Moreover, the DNA repair synthesis of Tyr-nick DNA lesions occurred in the presence of NER factors, including ERCC1-XPF, RPA, DNA polymerase delta, flap endonuclease 1 and DNA ligase 1. Therefore, some of the NER repair machinery might be an alternative repair pathway for Top1-attached nick DNA lesions. Clinically, these data provide insights into the potential of ERCC1 as a biomarker during CPT regimens.

  14. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios . E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr

    2006-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity.

  15. DNA glycosylases in the base excision repair of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, H E; Standal, R; Slupphaug, G

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA bases are removed by different DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosylic bond between the target base and deoxyribose, thus releasing a free base and leaving an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. In addition, several DNA glycosylases are bifunctional, since they also display a lyase activity that cleaves the phosphodiester backbone 3' to the AP site generated by the glycosylase activity. Structural data and sequence comparisons have identified common features among many of the DNA glycosylases. Their active sites have a structure that can only bind extrahelical target bases, as observed in the crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in a complex with double-stranded DNA. Nucleotide flipping is apparently actively facilitated by the enzyme. With bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V, a pyrimidine-dimer glycosylase, the enzyme gains access to the target base by flipping out an adenine opposite to the dimer. A conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif and an invariant Asp residue are found in the active sites of more than 20 monofunctional and bifunctional DNA glycosylases. In bifunctional DNA glycosylases, the conserved Asp is thought to deprotonate a conserved Lys, forming an amine nucleophile. The nucleophile forms a covalent intermediate (Schiff base) with the deoxyribose anomeric carbon and expels the base. Deoxyribose subsequently undergoes several transformations, resulting in strand cleavage and regeneration of the free enzyme. The catalytic mechanism of monofunctional glycosylases does not involve covalent intermediates. Instead the conserved Asp residue may activate a water molecule which acts as the attacking nucleophile. PMID:9224623

  16. DNA repair mechanisms in cancer development and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Torgovnick, Alessandro; Schumacher, Björn

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage has been long recognized as causal factor for cancer development. When erroneous DNA repair leads to mutations or chromosomal aberrations affecting oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, cells undergo malignant transformation resulting in cancerous growth. Genetic defects can predispose to cancer: mutations in distinct DNA repair systems elevate the susceptibility to various cancer types. However, DNA damage not only comprises a root cause for cancer development but also continues to provide an important avenue for chemo- and radiotherapy. Since the beginning of cancer therapy, genotoxic agents that trigger DNA damage checkpoints have been applied to halt the growth and trigger the apoptotic demise of cancer cells. We provide an overview about the involvement of DNA repair systems in cancer prevention and the classes of genotoxins that are commonly used for the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of the roles and interactions of the highly complex DNA repair machineries will lead to important improvements in cancer therapy. PMID:25954303

  17. DNA Damage Repair in the Context of Plant Chromatin1

    PubMed Central

    Donà, Mattia; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of DNA molecules is constantly challenged. All organisms have developed mechanisms to detect and repair multiple types of DNA lesions. The basic principles of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes are similar, but the association of DNA with nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromatin requires mechanisms that allow access of repair enzymes to the lesions. This is achieved by chromatin-remodeling factors, and their necessity for efficient DDR has recently been demonstrated for several organisms and repair pathways. Plants share many features of chromatin organization and DNA repair with fungi and animals, but they differ in other, important details, which are both interesting and relevant for our understanding of genome stability and genetic diversity. In this Update, we compare the knowledge of the role of chromatin and chromatin-modifying factors during DDR in plants with equivalent systems in yeast and humans. We emphasize plant-specific elements and discuss possible implications. PMID:26089404

  18. DNA repair in cancer: emerging targets for personalized therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abbotts, Rachel; Thompson, Nicola; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is under constant threat from endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair machinery to process DNA damage and maintain genomic integrity. Impaired DNA repair is a major driver for carcinogenesis and could promote aggressive cancer biology. Interestingly, in established tumors, DNA repair activity is required to counteract oxidative DNA damage that is prevalent in the tumor microenvironment. Emerging clinical data provide compelling evidence that overexpression of DNA repair factors may have prognostic and predictive significance in patients. More recently, DNA repair inhibition has emerged as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Synthetic lethality exploits intergene relationships where the loss of function of either of two related genes is nonlethal, but loss of both causes cell death. Exploiting this approach by targeting DNA repair has emerged as a promising strategy for personalized cancer therapy. In the current review, we focus on recent advances with a particular focus on synthetic lethality targeting in cancer. PMID:24600246

  19. Mitochondrial DNA repair and association with aging - an update

    PubMed Central

    Gredilla, Ricardo; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is constantly exposed to oxidative injury. Due to its location close to the main site of reactive oxygen species, the inner mitochondrial membrane, mtDNA is more susceptible than nuclear DNA to oxidative damage. The accumulation of DNA damage is thought to play a critical role in the aging process and to be particularly deleterious in post-mitotic cells. Thus, DNA repair is an important mechanism for maintenance of genomic integrity. Despite the importance of mitochondria in the aging process, it was thought for many years that mitochondria lacked an enzymatic DNA repair system comparable to that in the nuclear compartment. However, it is now well established that DNA repair actively takes place in mitochondria. Oxidative DNA damage processing, base excision repair mechanisms were the first to be described in these organelles, and consequently the best understood. However, new proteins and novel DNA repair pathways, thought to be exclusively present in the nucleus, have recently been described also to be present in mitochondria. Here we review the main mitochondrial DNA repair pathways and their association with the aging process. PMID:20096766

  20. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet (UV

  1. DNA mismatch repair pathway defects in the pathogenesis and evolution of myeloma.

    PubMed

    Velangi, Mark R; Matheson, Elizabeth C; Morgan, Gareth J; Jackson, Graham H; Taylor, Penelope R; Hall, Andrew G; Irving, Julie A E

    2004-10-01

    Genetic instability is a prominent feature in multiple myeloma and progression of this disease from monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and smouldering myeloma (SMM) is associated with increasing molecular and chromosomal abnormalities. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is a post-replicational DNA repair system that maintains genetic stability by repairing mismatched bases and insertion/deletion loops mistakenly incorporated during DNA replication. Deficiencies in proteins pivotal to this pathway result in a higher mutation rate, particularly at regions of microsatellite DNA. We have investigated the proficiency of the MMR pathway in clinical samples and myeloma cell lines. Microsatellite analysis showed instability at one or more of nine loci examined in 15 from 92 patients: 7.7% of MGUS/SMM, 20.7% of MM/plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) and 12.5% of relapsed MM/PCL. An in vitro heteroduplex G/T repair assay found reduced repair in two cell lines, JIM1 and JIM3, and in two of four PCL cases and was associated with aberrant expression of at least one mismatch repair protein. Thus we show that MMR defects are found in plasma cell dyscrasias and the increased frequency during more active stages of the disease suggests a contributory role in disease progression. PMID:15142887

  2. Drug-induced DNA repair: X-ray structure of a DNA-ditercalinium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Q; Williams, L D; Egli, M; Rabinovich, D; Chen, S L; Quigley, G J; Rich, A

    1991-01-01

    Ditercalinium is a synthetic anticancer drug that binds to DNA by bis-intercalation and activates DNA repair processes. In prokaryotes, noncovalent DNA-ditercalinium complexes are incorrectly recognized by the uvrABC repair system as covalent lesions on DNA. In eukaryotes, mitochondrial DNA is degraded by excess and futile DNA repair. Using x-ray crystallography, we have determined, to 1.7 A resolution, the three-dimensional structure of a complex of ditercalinium bound to the double-stranded DNA fragment [d(CGCG)]2. The DNA in the complex with ditercalinium is kinked (by 15 degrees) and severely unwound (by 36 degrees) with exceptionally wide major and minor grooves. Recognition of the DNA-ditercalinium complex by uvrABC in prokaryotes, and by mitochondrial DNA repair systems in eukaryotes, might be related to drug-induced distortion of the DNA helix. Images PMID:2006181

  3. Chromatin modifications and DNA repair: beyond double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    House, Nealia C. M.; Koch, Melissa R.; Freudenreich, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair must take place in the context of chromatin, and chromatin modifications and DNA repair are intimately linked. The study of double-strand break repair has revealed numerous histone modifications that occur after induction of a DSB, and modification of the repair factors themselves can also occur. In some cases the function of the modification is at least partially understood, but in many cases it is not yet clear. Although DSB repair is a crucial activity for cell survival, DSBs account for only a small percentage of the DNA lesions that occur over the lifetime of a cell. Repair of single-strand gaps, nicks, stalled forks, alternative DNA structures, and base lesions must also occur in a chromatin context. There is increasing evidence that these repair pathways are also regulated by histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of chromatin modifications that occur during non-DSB repair, highlighting similarities and differences to DSB repair as well as remaining questions. PMID:25250043

  4. BRG1 promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by facilitating the replacement of RPA with RAD51

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenjing; Wang, Ruoxi; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Ting; Boldogh, Istvan; Ba, Xueqing; Han, Liping; Zeng, Xianlu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a type of lethal DNA damage. The repair of DSBs requires tight coordination between the factors modulating chromatin structure and the DNA repair machinery. BRG1, the ATPase subunit of the chromatin remodelling complex Switch/Sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF), is often linked to tumorigenesis and genome instability, and its role in DSB repair remains largely unclear. In the present study, we show that BRG1 is recruited to DSB sites and enhances DSB repair. Using DR-GFP and EJ5-GFP reporter systems, we demonstrate that BRG1 facilitates homologous recombination repair rather than nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. Moreover, the BRG1–RAD52 complex mediates the replacement of RPA with RAD51 on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to initiate DNA strand invasion. Loss of BRG1 results in a failure of RAD51 loading onto ssDNA, abnormal homologous recombination repair and enhanced DSB-induced lethality. Our present study provides a mechanistic insight into how BRG1, which is known to be involved in chromatin remodelling, plays a substantial role in the homologous recombination repair pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:25395584

  5. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  6. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  7. A review of DNA repair and possible DNA-repair adjuvants and selected natural anti-oxidants.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Patrick; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2007-01-01

    Few other organs have the environmental exposure-neoplasia relationship that has been observed between epithelial cutaneous malignancy and UVB exposure. A significant DNA type of defective linking of DNA nucleotides involves pyrimidine dimers. Important insight into the molecular processes that affect the response of cells to UVB have been provided by the study of rare inherited diseases characterized by DNA repair defects. Nucleotide excision repair is the best characterized of these and its importance is illustrated by the disease, xeroderma pigmentosum. This heterogenous disorder clinically characterized by malignant tumor development and molecularly by distinct alterations in the nucleotide excision repair apparatus. More recently, other DNA mechanisms have been shown to have some role in skin cancer, such as DNA-mismatch repair and double-stranded DNA breaks. Herein, we discuss the DNA-repair adjuvants a aqueous extract of Urcaria tomentosa (AC-11, Optigenex, Inc.), and T4 endonuclease V that is prepared in a liposome lotion (Dimericine, Applied Genetics Inc. Dermatics). The positive effects on the integrity DNA of other substances (from nature, heat shock proteins and cytokines) including IL-12, Polypodium leucotomos, and ubiquitin are also reviewed. Understanding DNA repair mechanisms is far from complete; further understanding will provide insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and pave the way for efficacious therapeutic agents.

  8. Symposium overview: genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, J J; Mohrenweiser, H W; Bell, D A; Leadon, S A; Miller, M S

    2002-11-15

    A symposium, Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair and Cancer Risk, was presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, held in San Francisco, California, in March 2001. A brief report of the symposium was published (Kaiser, Science 292, 837-838, 2001). Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that polymorphic variants of genes involved in the metabolism and repair of carcinogens can act as cancer susceptibility genes. These variants of drug metabolic and DNA-repair enzymes either increase the activation of chemical carcinogens or decrease the cells' ability to detoxify/repair mutagenic damages. Although on an individual basis these variant alleles may only slightly change catalytic activity and increase cancer risk, their polymorphic frequency in the human population may contribute to a high proportion of cancer cases. Studies conducted over the past few years have identified variant alleles for a number of DNA-repair genes, some of which have been shown to change DNA-repair capacity. Identifying these genotypic alterations in DNA-repair enzymes and their association with cancer may help to elucidate the mechanisms of cancer etiology and to predict both disease risk and response to cancer therapy, since most antineoplastic treatments mediate their effects through DNA damage.

  9. Methods to alter levels of a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-10-17

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  10. The role of DNA repair in brain related disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Misiak, Magdalena; Ferrarelli, Leslie K; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is implicated in brain aging, neurodegeneration and neurological diseases. Damage can be created by normal cellular metabolism, which accumulates with age, or by acute cellular stress conditions which create bursts of oxidative damage. Brain cells have a particularly high basal level of metabolic activity and use distinct oxidative damage repair mechanisms to remove oxidative damage from DNA and dNTP pools. Accumulation of this damage in the background of a functional DNA repair response is associated with normal aging, but defective repair in brain cells can contribute to neurological dysfunction. Emerging research strongly associates three common neurodegenerative conditions, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and stroke, with defects in the ability to repair chronic or acute oxidative damage in neurons. This review explores the current knowledge of the role of oxidative damage repair in preserving brain function and highlights the emerging models and methods being used to advance our knowledge of the pathology of neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Overberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells.

  12. Robustness of DNA repair through collective rate control.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Paul; Heinemann, Tim; Manders, Erik; von Bornstaedt, Gesa; van Driel, Roel; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair and other chromatin-associated processes are carried out by enzymatic macromolecular complexes that assemble at specific sites on the chromatin fiber. How the rate of these molecular machineries is regulated by their constituent parts is poorly understood. Here we quantify nucleotide-excision DNA repair in mammalian cells and find that, despite the pathways' molecular complexity, repair effectively obeys slow first-order kinetics. Theoretical analysis and data-based modeling indicate that these kinetics are not due to a singular rate-limiting step. Rather, first-order kinetics emerge from the interplay of rapidly and reversibly assembling repair proteins, stochastically distributing DNA lesion repair over a broad time period. Based on this mechanism, the model predicts that the repair proteins collectively control the repair rate. Exploiting natural cell-to-cell variability, we corroborate this prediction for the lesion-recognition factor XPC and the downstream factor XPA. Our findings provide a rationale for the emergence of slow time scales in chromatin-associated processes from fast molecular steps and suggest that collective rate control might be a widespread mode of robust regulation in DNA repair and transcription.

  13. Molecular Regulation of UV-Induced DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Palak; He, Yu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight is a major etiologic factor for skin cancer, the most prevalent cancer in the U.S., as well as premature skin aging. In particular, UVB radiation causes formation of specific DNA damage photoproducts between pyrimidine bases. These DNA damage photoproducts are repaired by a process called nucleotide excision repair, also known as UV-induced DNA repair. When left unrepaired, UVB-induced DNA damage leads to accumulation of mutations, predisposing people to carcinogenesis as well as to premature aging. Genetic loss of nucleotide excision repair leads to severe disorders, namely, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are associated with predisposition to skin carcinogenesis at a young age as well as developmental and neurological conditions. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair is an attractive avenue to preventing or reversing these detrimental consequences of impaired nucleotide excision repair. Here we review recent studies on molecular mechanisms regulating nucleotide excision repair by extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways, with a special focus on the molecular regulation of individual repair factors. PMID:25534312

  14. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  15. p53 in the DNA-Damage-Repair Process.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ashley B; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA-damage-response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA-repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in providing protection from cancer development by maintaining genome stability.

  16. p53 in the DNA-Damage-Repair Process.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ashley B; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA-damage-response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA-repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in providing protection from cancer development by maintaining genome stability. PMID:27048304

  17. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair inhibition by caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.P.; Sancar, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Caffeine potentiates the mutagenic and lethal effects of genotoxic agents. It is thought that this is due, at least in some organisms, to inhibition of DNA repair. However, direct evidence for inhibition of repair enzymes has been lacking. Using purified Escherichia coli DNA photolyase and (A)BC excinuclease, we show that the drug inhibits photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair by two different mechanisms. Caffeine inhibits photoreactivation by interfering with the specific binding of photolyase to damaged DNA, and it inhibits nucleotide excision repair by promoting nonspecific binding of the damage-recognition subunit, UvrA, of (A)BC excinuclease. A number of other intercalators, including acriflavin and ethidium bromide, appear to inhibit the excinuclease by a similar mechanism--that is, by trapping the UvrA subunit in nonproductive complexes on undamaged DNA.

  18. p53 in the DNA damage repair process

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ashley B.; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in protecting from cancer development by maintaining genome stability. PMID:27048304

  19. D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

    1986-07-31

    D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

  20. Impact of Alternative DNA Structures on DNA Damage, DNA Repair, and Genetic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive genomic sequences can adopt a number of alternative DNA structures that differ from the canonical B-form duplex (i.e. non-B DNA). These non-B DNA-forming sequences have been shown to have many important biological functions related to DNA metabolic processes; for example, they may have regulatory roles in DNA transcription and replication. In addition to these regulatory functions, non-B DNA can stimulate genetic instability in the presence or absence of DNA damage, via replication-dependent and/or replication-independent pathways. This review focuses on the interactions of non-B DNA conformations with DNA repair proteins and how these interactions impact genetic instability. PMID:24767258

  1. Defective DNA repair and increased chromatin binding of DNA repair factors in Down syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Daniela; Pinto, Antonella; Tillhon, Micol; Dutto, Ilaria; Serafini, Melania Maria; Lanni, Cristina; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Prosperi, Ennio

    2015-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by genetic instability, neurodegeneration, and premature aging. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to this phenotype are not yet well understood. Here, we report that DS fibroblasts from both fetal and adult donors show the presence of oxidative DNA base damage, such as dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG), and activation of a DNA damage response (DDR), already during unperturbed growth conditions. DDR with checkpoint activation was indicated by histone H2AX and Chk2 protein phosphorylation, and by increased p53 protein levels. In addition, both fetal and adult DS fibroblasts were more sensitive to oxidative DNA damage induced by potassium bromate, and were defective in the removal of 8-oxodG, as compared with age-matched cells from control healthy donors. The analysis of core proteins participating in base excision repair (BER), such as XRCC1 and DNA polymerase β, showed that higher amounts of these factors were bound to chromatin in DS than in control cells, even in the absence of DNA damage. These findings occurred in concomitance with increased levels of phosphorylated XRCC1 detected in DS cells. These results indicate that DS cells exhibit a BER deficiency, which is associated with prolonged chromatin association of core BER factors.

  2. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Maria E.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Ade, Catherine M.; Ortego, Jonathan C.; Stark, Jeremy; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) and single strand annealing (SSA), which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the “error prone” non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair. PMID:26966913

  3. DNA repair proficiency: A potential susceptibility factor for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Helzlsouer, K.J.; Perry, H.; Harris, E.L. |

    1994-09-01

    A family study and a case-control study were conducted to examine the association between sub-optimal repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage and the development of breast cancer. A familial cluster of breast cancer was investigated in which breast cancer occurred in 4 of 6 sisters, some of whom were exposed to ionizing radiation from repeated chest fluoroscopic examinations during adolescence and early adulthood. DNA repair proficiency was measured among available family members and correlated with their history of radiation exposure. DNA repair proficiency was also measured among 16 breast cancer cases, 5 women with a family history of breast cancer and 12 controls. The results of the family study suggest an association between poor DNA repair proficiency and increased sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of early radiation exposure on breast tissue. The case-control study showed that a significantly higher percentage of women with breast cancer (63%) and women with a family history of breast cancer (80%) had poor repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage than control women (17%) (P-value=0.02). Sub-optimal repair of DNA damage may be a host susceptibility factor predisposing individuals to breast cancer through increased sensitivity to carcinogenic damage from environmental exposures such as ionizing radiation.

  4. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  5. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    PubMed

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure

  6. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien

    2014-01-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by Watson-Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases

  7. Missing piece of first-responder DNA repair machine revealed

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have revealed the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer. With this final piece of the puzzle in place, scientists can better understand how the repair mechanism fends off cancer in healthy people, and conversely, how it helps cancer cells resist chemotherapy. This could enable researchers to develop more effective therapies with fewer side effects. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/10/01/dna-repair-uncovered/

  8. Growth retardation, early death, and DNA repair defects in mice deficient for the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPF.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Shinkura, Reiko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Alt, Frederick W

    2004-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a human genetic disease which is caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair. Since this repair pathway is responsible for removing UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA, XP patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and are prone to develop skin cancer. Based on the underlying genetic defect, the disease can be divided into the seven complementation groups XPA through XPG. XPF, in association with ERCC1, constitutes a structure-specific endonuclease that makes an incision 5' to the photodamage. XPF-ERCC1 has also been implicated in both removal of interstrand DNA cross-links and homology-mediated recombination and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). To study the function of XPF in vivo, we inactivated the XPF gene in mice. XPF-deficient mice showed a severe postnatal growth defect and died approximately 3 weeks after birth. Histological examination revealed that the liver of mutant animals contained abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. Furthermore, embryonic fibroblasts defective in XPF are hypersensitive to UV irradiation and mitomycin C treatment. No defect in CSR was detected, suggesting that the nuclease is dispensable for this recombination process. These phenotypes are identical to those exhibited by the ERCC1-deficient mice, consistent with the functional association of the two proteins. The complex phenotype suggests that XPF-ERCC1 is involved in multiple DNA repair processes.

  9. DNA repair: front and center and not going away!

    PubMed

    Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the book: DNA repair protocols: third edition, edited by Bjergbaek, discusses the history and more recent developments in the field of DNA repair. This research field started in the 1950 and developed from a small group of researchers interested in the damage caused to DNA by ultraviolet irradiation from the sun to become a large field of research today. DNA damage and its repair are now thought to play an important role in the etiologies of cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and there is a great deal of interest in this venture. Thus, understanding of DNA processing is now a central field in molecular and cellular biology, and the field is still growing.

  10. DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Tomas; Baer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) contribute to the genomic instability that drives cancer development, DSB repair pathways serve as important mechanisms for tumor suppression. Thus, genetic lesions, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, that disrupt DSB repair are often associated with cancer susceptibility. In addition, recent evidence suggests that DSB “mis-repair”, in which DSBs are resolved by an inappropriate repair pathway, can also promote genomic instability and presumably tumorigenesis. This notion has gained currency from recent cancer genome sequencing studies which have uncovered numerous chromosomal rearrangements harboring pathological DNA repair signatures. In this perspective, we discuss the factors that regulate DSB repair pathway choice and their consequences for genome stability and cancer. PMID:24746645

  11. A DNA2 Homolog Is Required for DNA Damage Repair, Cell Cycle Regulation, and Meristem Maintenance in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ning; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Plant meristem cells divide and differentiate in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, ultimately giving rise to organs. In this study, we isolated the Arabidopsis jing he sheng 1 (jhs1) mutant, which exhibited retarded growth, an abnormal pattern of meristem cell division and differentiation, and morphological defects such as fasciation, an irregular arrangement of siliques, and short roots. We identified JHS1 as a homolog of human and yeast DNA Replication Helicase/Nuclease2, which is known to be involved in DNA replication and damage repair. JHS1 is strongly expressed in the meristem of Arabidopsis. The jhs1 mutant was sensitive to DNA damage stress and had an increased DNA damage response, including increased expression of genes involved in DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation, and a higher frequency of homologous recombination. In the meristem of the mutant plants, cell cycle progression was delayed at the G2 or late S phase and genes essential for meristem maintenance were misregulated. These results suggest that JHS1 plays an important role in DNA replication and damage repair, meristem maintenance, and development in plants. PMID:26951435

  12. DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Gange, R.W.; Freeman, S.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The Fanconi anemia DNA damage repair pathway in the spotlight for germline predisposition to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Franch-Expósito, Sebastià; Muñoz, Jenifer; Ocaña, Teresa; Carballal, Sabela; López-Cerón, Maria; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Lozano, Juan José; Serra, Enric; Beltran, Sergi; Brea-Fernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Garre, Pilar; Caldés, Trinidad; Cubiella, Joaquín; Balaguer, Francesc; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms in the world. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a very rare genetic disease causing bone marrow failure, congenital growth abnormalities and cancer predisposition. The comprehensive FA DNA damage repair pathway requires the collaboration of 53 proteins and it is necessary to restore genome integrity by efficiently repairing damaged DNA. A link between FA genes in breast and ovarian cancer germline predisposition has been previously suggested. We selected 74 CRC patients from 40 unrelated Spanish families with strong CRC aggregation compatible with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and without mutations in known hereditary CRC genes and performed germline DNA whole-exome sequencing with the aim of finding new candidate germline predisposition variants. After sequencing and data analysis, variant prioritization selected only those very rare alterations, producing a putative loss of function and located in genes with a role compatible with cancer. We detected an enrichment for variants in FA DNA damage repair pathway genes in our familial CRC cohort as 6 families carried heterozygous, rare, potentially pathogenic variants located in BRCA2/FANCD1, BRIP1/FANCJ, FANCC, FANCE and REV3L/POLZ. In conclusion, the FA DNA damage repair pathway may play an important role in the inherited predisposition to CRC. PMID:27165003

  14. UV protective effects of DNA repair enzymes and RNA lotion.

    PubMed

    Ke, Malcolm S; Camouse, Melissa M; Swain, Freddie R; Oshtory, Shaheen; Matsui, Mary; Mammone, Thomas; Maes, Daniel; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2008-01-01

    Solar UV radiation is known to cause immune suppression, believed to be a critical factor in cutaneous carcinogenesis. Although the mechanism is not entirely understood, DNA damage is clearly involved. Sunscreens function by attenuating the UV radiation that reaches the epidermis. However, once DNA damage ensues, repair mechanisms become essential for prevention of malignant transformation. DNA repair enzymes have shown efficacy in reducing cutaneous neoplasms among xeroderma pigmentosum patients. In vitro studies suggest that RNA fragments increase the resistance of human keratinocytes to UVB damage and enhance DNA repair but in vivo data are lacking. This study aimed to determine the effect of topical formulations containing either DNA repair enzymes (Micrococcus luteus) or RNA fragments (UVC-irradiated rabbit globin mRNA) on UV-induced local contact hypersensitivity (CHS) suppression in humans as measured in vivo using the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene. Immunohistochemistry was also employed in skin biopsies to evaluate the level of thymine dimers after UV. Eighty volunteers completed the CHS portion. A single 0.75 minimum erythema dose (MED) simulated solar radiation exposure resulted in 64% CHS suppression in unprotected subjects compared with unirradiated sensitized controls. In contrast, UV-induced CHS suppression was reduced to 19% with DNA repair enzymes, and 7% with RNA fragments. Sun protection factor (SPF) testing revealed an SPF of 1 for both formulations, indicating that the observed immune protection cannot be attributed to sunscreen effects. Biopsies from an additional nine volunteers showed an 18% decrease in thymine dimers by both DNA repair enzymes and RNA fragments, relative to unprotected UV-irradiated skin. These results suggest that RNA fragments may be useful as a photoprotective agent with in vivo effects comparable to DNA repair enzymes.

  15. Global genome nucleotide excision repair is organized into domains that promote efficient DNA repair in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shirong; Evans, Katie; Bennett, Mark; Webster, Richard M.; Leadbitter, Matthew; Teng, Yumin; Waters, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The rates at which lesions are removed by DNA repair can vary widely throughout the genome, with important implications for genomic stability. To study this, we measured the distribution of nucleotide excision repair (NER) rates for UV-induced lesions throughout the budding yeast genome. By plotting these repair rates in relation to genes and their associated flanking sequences, we reveal that, in normal cells, genomic repair rates display a distinctive pattern, suggesting that DNA repair is highly organized within the genome. Furthermore, by comparing genome-wide DNA repair rates in wild-type cells and cells defective in the global genome–NER (GG-NER) subpathway, we establish how this alters the distribution of NER rates throughout the genome. We also examined the genomic locations of GG-NER factor binding to chromatin before and after UV irradiation, revealing that GG-NER is organized and initiated from specific genomic locations. At these sites, chromatin occupancy of the histone acetyl-transferase Gcn5 is controlled by the GG-NER complex, which regulates histone H3 acetylation and chromatin structure, thereby promoting efficient DNA repair of UV-induced lesions. Chromatin remodeling during the GG-NER process is therefore organized into these genomic domains. Importantly, loss of Gcn5 significantly alters the genomic distribution of NER rates; this has implications for the effects of chromatin modifiers on the distribution of mutations that arise throughout the genome. PMID:27470111

  16. Deficient DNA repair in the human progeroid disorder, Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-09-01

    The study of how DNA repair mechanisms change with aging is central to our understanding of the aging process. Here, I review the molecular functions of a key aging protein, Werner protein (WRN), which is deficient in the premature aging disorder, Werner syndrome (WS). This protein plays a significant role in DNA repair, particularly in base excision repair and in recombination. WRN may be a key regulatory factor in these processes and may also play a role in coordinating them. WRN belongs to the RecQ helicase family of proteins, often referred to as the guardians of the genome. These proteins appear to integrate with the more classic DNA repair pathways and proteins.

  17. DNA repair by RNA: Templated, or not templated, that is the question.

    PubMed

    Meers, Chance; Keskin, Havva; Storici, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Cells are continuously exposed to both endogenous and exogenous sources of genomic stress. To maintain chromosome stability, a variety of mechanisms have evolved to cope with the multitude of genetic abnormalities that can arise over the life of a cell. Still, failures to repair these lesions are the driving force of cancers and other degenerative disorders. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most toxic genetic lesions, inhibiting cell ability to replicate, and are sites of mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. DSB repair is known to proceed via two major mechanisms: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HR reliance on the exchange of genetic information between two identical or nearly identical DNA molecules offers increased accuracy. While the preferred substrate for HR in mitotic cells is the sister chromatid, this is limited to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. However, abundant amounts of homologous genetic substrate may exist throughout the cell cycle in the form of RNA. Considered an uncommon occurrence, the direct transfer of information from RNA to DNA is thought to be limited to special circumstances. Studies have shown that RNA molecules reverse transcribed into cDNA can be incorporated into DNA at DSB sites via a non-templated mechanism by NHEJ or a templated mechanism by HR. In addition, synthetic RNA molecules can directly template the repair of DSBs in yeast and human cells via an HR mechanism. New work suggests that even endogenous transcript RNA can serve as a homologous template to repair a DSB in chromosomal DNA. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the recent advancements in DSB repair by RNA via non-templated and templated mechanisms. We will provide current findings, models and future challenges investigating RNA and its role in DSB repair. PMID:27237587

  18. DNA repair: a changing geography? (1964-2008).

    PubMed

    Maisonobe, Marion; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Eckert, Denis

    2013-07-01

    This article aims to explain the current state of DNA Repair studies' global geography by focusing on the genesis of the community. Bibliometric data is used to localize scientific activities related to DNA Repair at the city level. The keyword "DNA Repair" was introduced first by American scientists. It started to spread after 1964 that is to say, after P. Howard-Flanders (Yale University), P. Hanawalt (Stanford University) and R. Setlow (Oak Ridge Laboratories) found evidence for Excision Repair mechanisms. It was the first stage in the emergence of an autonomous scientific community. In this article, we will try to assess to what extent the geo-history of this scientific field is determinant in understanding its current geography. In order to do so, we will localize the places where the first "DNA Repair" publications were signed fifty years ago and the following spatial diffusion process, which led to the current geography of the field. Then, we will focus on the evolution of the research activity of "early entrants" in relation to the activity of "latecomers". This article is an opportunity to share with DNA Repair scientists some research results of a dynamic field in Science studies: spatial scientometrics.

  19. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  20. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays for Protein–DNA Complexes Involved in DNA Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun; Smider, Vaughn; Hwang, Byung Joon; Chu, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) can be used to study proteins that bind to DNA structures created by DNA-damaging agents. UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB), which is involved in nucleotide excision repair, binds to DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation or the anticancer drug cisplatin. Ku, XRCC4/Ligase IV, and DNA–PKcs, which are involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining, assemble in complexes at DNA ends. This chapter will describe several EMSA protocols for detecting different DNA repair protein–DNA complexes. To obtain additional information, one can apply variations of the EMSA, which include the reverse EMSA to detect binding of 35S-labeled protein to damaged DNA, and the antibody supershift assay to detect the presence of a specific protein in the protein–DNA complex. PMID:22941596

  1. Sources of DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Models of Recombinational DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anuja; Haber, James E.

    2014-01-01

    DNA is subject to many endogenous and exogenous insults that impair DNA replication and proper chromosome segregation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most toxic of these lesions and must be repaired to preserve chromosomal integrity. Eukaryotes are equipped with several different, but related, repair mechanisms involving homologous recombination, including single-strand annealing, gene conversion, and break-induced replication. In this review, we highlight the chief sources of DSBs and crucial requirements for each of these repair processes, as well as the methods to identify and study intermediate steps in DSB repair by homologous recombination. PMID:25104768

  2. Evidence implying DNA polymerase beta function in excision repair.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, J A; Szyszko, J; Pietrzykowska, I; Zmudzka, B

    1980-01-25

    Comparison was made of the ability of calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha and beta to replicate the following templates: native E. coli CR-34 DNA (T-DNA), calf thymus DNA activated by DNase I (act.DNA), BU-DNA (from E. coli CR-34 cells cultured on BUdR-containing medium) with damages resulting from incomplete excision repair, as well as thermally denatured act.DNA and BU-DNA (s.s.act.DNA and s.s.BU-DNA). 3H-TTP incorporation during extensive replication of act.DNA was similar for both enzymes, being, as expected, 40 times higher than for T-DNA. Likewise, the differences in the yield of the s.s.act.DNA or s.s.BU-DNA replication between both enzymes were negligible. In contrast, damaged native DNA was 6 - 30 times more extensively replicated by DNA polymerase beta than alpha. We propose that this is due to the greater ability of DNA polymerase beta compared with alpha to replicate single-stranded gaps, the presence of which is more likely in damaged BU-DNA than in T-DNA and act.DNA.

  3. Loss of Urokinase Receptor Sensitizes Cells to DNA Damage and Delays DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Pavan B.; Hodjat, Mahshid; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna; Kiyan, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage induced by numerous exogenous or endogenous factors may have irreversible consequences on the cell leading to cell cycle arrest, senescence and cell death. The DNA damage response (DDR) is powerful signaling machinery triggered in response to DNA damage, to provide DNA damage recognition, signaling and repair. Most anticancer drugs induce DNA damage, and DNA repair in turn attenuates therapeutic efficiency of those drugs. Approaches delaying DNA repair are often used to increase efficiency of treatment. Recent data show that ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for signaling and repair of DNA damage. However, mechanisms providing regulation of proteasome intracellular localization, activity, and recruitment to DNA damage sites are elusive. Even less investigated are the roles of extranuclear signaling proteins in these processes. In this study, we report the involvement of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in DDR-associated regulation of proteasome. We show that in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) uPAR activates DNA single strand break repair signaling pathway. We provide evidence that uPAR is essential for functional assembly of the 26S proteasome. We further demonstrate that uPAR mediates DNA damage-induced phosphorylation, nuclear import, and recruitment of the regulatory subunit PSMD6 to proteasome. We found that deficiency of uPAR and PSMD6 delays DNA repair and leads to decreased cell survival. These data may offer new therapeutic approaches for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24987841

  4. DNA mismatch repair: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Peggy

    2012-09-14

    In this issue, Peña-Diaz et al. (2012) describe a pathway for somatic mutation in nonlymphoid cells termed noncanonical DNA mismatch repair, whereby the error-prone translesion polymerase Pol-η substitutes for high-fidelity replicative polymerases to resynthesize excised regions opposite DNA damage. PMID:22980456

  5. Exploiting DNA repair defects for novel cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    van Gent, Dik C.; Kanaar, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Most human tumors accumulate a multitude of genetic changes due to defects in the DNA damage response. Recently, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed that target cells with specific DNA repair defects, providing hope for precision treatment of such tumors. Here we discuss the rationale behind these therapies and how an important bottleneck—patient selection—can be approached. PMID:27418635

  6. Interplay of DNA repair with transcription: from structures to mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Deaconescu, Alexandra M.; Artsimovitch, Irina; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Many DNA transactions are crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and faithful transfer of genetic information but remain poorly understood. An example is the interplay between nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription, also known as transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). Discovered decades ago, the mechanisms for TCR have remained elusive, not in small part due to the scarcity of structural studies of key players. Here we summarize recent structural information on NER/TCR factors, focusing on bacterial systems, and integrate it with existing genetic, biochemical, and biophysical data to delineate the mechanisms at play. We also review emerging, alternative modalities for recruitment of NER proteins to DNA lesions. PMID:23084398

  7. DNA repair in murine embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, Elisia D. Stambrook, Peter J.

    2008-06-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are rapidly proliferating, self-renewing cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers to form the embryo proper. Since these cells are critical for embryo formation, they must have robust prophylactic mechanisms to ensure that their genomic integrity is preserved. Indeed, several studies have suggested that ES cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and readily undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells from the population. Other evidence suggests that DNA damage can cause premature differentiation in these cells. Several laboratories have also begun to investigate the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of ES cell genomic integrity. It does appear that ES cells differ in their capacity to repair damaged DNA compared to differentiated cells. This minireview focuses on repair mechanisms ES cells may use to help preserve genomic integrity and compares available data regarding these mechanisms with those utilized by differentiated cells.

  8. Electron Transfer Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer.

  9. Hsp90: A New Player in DNA Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Rosa; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an evolutionary conserved molecular chaperone that, together with Hsp70 and co-chaperones makes up the Hsp90 chaperone machinery, stabilizing and activating more than 200 proteins, involved in protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that include: (i) cell cycle arrest; (ii) transcriptional and post-translational activation of a subset of genes, including those associated with DNA repair; and (iii) triggering of programmed cell death. The efficacy of the DDR pathways is influenced by the nuclear levels of DNA repair proteins, which are regulated by balancing between protein synthesis and degradation as well as by nuclear import and export. The inability to respond properly to either DNA damage or to DNA repair leads to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance the rate of cancer development. Multiple components of the DNA double strand breaks repair machinery, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK1, DNA-PKcs, FANCA, and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, have been described to be client proteins of Hsp90, which acts as a regulator of the diverse DDR pathways. Inhibition of Hsp90 actions leads to the altered localization and stabilization of DDR proteins after DNA damage and may represent a cell-specific and tumor-selective radiosensibilizer. Here, the role of Hsp90-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in cancer onset and in the maintenance of the genome integrity is discussed and highlighted. PMID:26501335

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise after anatomic repair of atrioventricular discordance with abnormal ventriculoarterial connection.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideo; Ono, Yasuo; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Echigo, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in patients with atrioventricular discordance (AVD) and abnormal ventriculoarterial connection after anatomic repair. Cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise testing with gas measurement was done 62 times in 19 patients with AVD who had undergone anatomic repair at the National Cardiovascular Center. Exercise duration, oxygen uptake (V(O2)) and heart rate at anaerobic threshold and peak, and oxygen pulse during exercise were significantly lower in patients with AVD after anatomic repair than in controls. Carbon dioxide ventilatory equivalent during exercise was worse in patients with AVD after anatomic repair than in controls. Percentage peak V(O2) significantly correlated positively with percentage peak oxygen pulse and tended to correlate positively with the heart rate increments. Patients with AVD after anatomic repair exhibit impaired responses of heart rate and oxygen pulse with lower exercise capacity. Careful attention should be paid to patients with AVD after anatomic repair in terms of their functional capacity as well as other postoperative complications.

  11. Repair of mismatched basepairs in mammalian DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Hare, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    We have concentrated on three specific areas of our research plan. Our greatest emphasis is on the role of single strand nicks in influencing template strand selection in mismatch repair. We have found, that the ability of a nick in one strand to influence which strand is repaired is not a simple function of distance from the mismatched site but rather that an hot spot where a nick is more likely to have an influence can exist. The second line was production of single-genotype heteroduplexes in order to examine independently the repair of T/G and A/C mispairs within the same sequence context as in our mixed mispair preparations. We have shown preparations of supercoiled heteroduplex can be prepared that were exclusively T/G or exclusively A/C at the mispair site. The third effort has been to understand the difference in repair bias of different cell lines or different transfection conditions as it may relate to different repair systems in the cell. We have identified some of the sources of variation, including cell cycle position. We hope to continue this work to more precisely identify the phase of the cell cycle.

  12. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  13. DNA damage and repair in plants – from models to crops

    PubMed Central

    Manova, Vasilissa; Gruszka, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The genomic integrity of every organism is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors. Mutagenic agents cause reduced stability of plant genome and have a deleterious effect on development, and in the case of crop species lead to yield reduction. It is crucial for all organisms, including plants, to develop efficient mechanisms for maintenance of the genome integrity. DNA repair processes have been characterized in bacterial, fungal, and mammalian model systems. The description of these processes in plants, in contrast, was initiated relatively recently and has been focused largely on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Consequently, our knowledge about DNA repair in plant genomes - particularly in the genomes of crop plants - is by far more limited. However, the relatively small size of the Arabidopsis genome, its rapid life cycle and availability of various transformation methods make this species an attractive model for the study of eukaryotic DNA repair mechanisms and mutagenesis. Moreover, abnormalities in DNA repair which proved to be lethal for animal models are tolerated in plant genomes, although sensitivity to DNA damaging agents is retained. Due to the high conservation of DNA repair processes and factors mediating them among eukaryotes, genes and proteins that have been identified in model species may serve to identify homologous sequences in other species, including crop plants, in which these mechanisms are poorly understood. Crop breeding programs have provided remarkable advances in food quality and yield over the last century. Although the human population is predicted to “peak” by 2050, further advances in yield will be required to feed this population. Breeding requires genetic diversity. The biological impact of any mutagenic agent used for the creation of genetic diversity depends on the chemical nature of the induced lesions and on the efficiency and accuracy of their repair. More recent targeted mutagenesis

  14. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Base Excision Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    David, Sheila S.; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Kundu, Sucharita

    2010-01-01

    Base excision repair plays an important role in preventing mutations associated with the common product of oxidative damage, 8-oxoguanine. Recent structural studies have shown that 8-oxoguanine glycosylases use an intricate series of steps to efficiently search and locate 8-oxoguanine lesions within the multitude of undamaged bases. The importance of prevention of mutations associated with 8-oxoguanine has also been illustrated by direct connections between defects in the BER glycosylase MUTYH and colorectal cancer. In addition, the properties of other guanine oxidation products and the BER glycosylases that remove them are being uncovered. This work is providing surprising and intriguing new insights into the process of base excision repair. PMID:17581577

  16. Modifying the function of DNA repair nanomachines for therapeutic benefit.

    PubMed

    Dynan, William S; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Li, Shuyi

    2006-06-01

    This article, which is based on a presentation at the First Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine, is divided into three parts. First, we describe naturally occurring DNA repair nanomachines, using as an example the nanomachine that executes the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) reaction for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Second, we discuss therapeutic benefits that may be derived from the ability to modify the behavior of naturally occurring nanomachines, using as an example the concept of delaying DSB repair in rapidly dividing cancer cells to increase their natural sensitivity to radiation therapy. Third, we discuss similarities in the overall size, shape, and design of different nanomachines that manipulate DNA and RNA, and the possibility of developing nanomachines with new specificities not found in nature.

  17. Error-Prone Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Kasey; McVey, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Preserving the integrity of the DNA double helix is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability. Therefore, DNA double-strand breaks represent a serious threat to cells. In this review, we describe the two major strategies used to repair double strand breaks: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination, emphasizing the mutagenic aspects of each. We focus on emerging evidence that homologous recombination, long thought to be an error-free repair process, can in fact be highly mutagenic, particularly in contexts requiring large amounts of DNA synthesis. Recent investigations have begun to illuminate the molecular mechanisms by which error-prone double-strand break repair can create major genomic changes, such as translocations and complex chromosome rearrangements. We highlight these studies and discuss proposed models that may explain some of the more extreme genetic changes observed in human cancers and congenital disorders.

  18. Stress and DNA repair biology of the Fanconi anemia pathway

    PubMed Central

    Longerich, Simonne; Li, Jian; Xiong, Yong; Sung, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) represents a paradigm of rare genetic diseases, where the quest for cause and cure has led to seminal discoveries in cancer biology. Although a total of 16 FA genes have been identified thus far, the biochemical function of many of the FA proteins remains to be elucidated. FA is rare, yet the fact that 5 FA genes are in fact familial breast cancer genes and FA gene mutations are found frequently in sporadic cancers suggest wider applicability in hematopoiesis and oncology. Establishing the interaction network involving the FA proteins and their associated partners has revealed an intersection of FA with several DNA repair pathways, including homologous recombination, DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and translesion DNA synthesis. Importantly, recent studies have shown a major involvement of the FA pathway in the tolerance of reactive aldehydes. Moreover, despite improved outcomes in stem cell transplantation in the treatment of FA, many challenges remain in patient care. PMID:25237197

  19. Metabolism, genomics, and DNA repair in the mouse aging liver.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, hormones, and metabolic waste products, thereby maintaining body homeostasis. The liver undergoes substantial changes in structure and function within old age. Such changes are associated with significant impairment of many hepatic metabolic and detoxification activities, with implications for systemic aging and age-related disease. It has become clear, using rodent models as biological tools, that genetic instability in the form of gross DNA rearrangements or point mutations accumulate in the liver with age. DNA lesions, such as oxidized bases or persistent breaks, increase with age and correlate well with the presence of senescent hepatocytes. The level of DNA damage and/or mutation can be affected by changes in carcinogen activation, decreased ability to repair DNA, or a combination of these factors. This paper covers some of the DNA repair pathways affecting liver homeostasis with age using rodents as model systems.

  20. An interplay of the base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Grin, Inga; Ishchenko, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation (ADDM) in mammals occurs via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by TET and/or deamination by AID/APOBEC family enzymes. The resulting 5mC derivatives are removed through the base excision repair (BER) pathway. At present, it is unclear how the cell manages to eliminate closely spaced 5mC residues whilst avoiding generation of toxic BER intermediates and whether alternative DNA repair pathways participate in ADDM. It has been shown that non-canonical DNA mismatch repair (ncMMR) can remove both alkylated and oxidized nucleotides from DNA. Here, a phagemid DNA containing oxidative base lesions and methylated sites are used to examine the involvement of various DNA repair pathways in ADDM in murine and human cell-free extracts. We demonstrate that, in addition to short-patch BER, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and uracil mispaired with guanine can be processed by ncMMR and long-patch BER with concomitant removal of distant 5mC residues. Furthermore, the presence of multiple mispairs in the same MMR nick/mismatch recognition region together with BER-mediated nick formation promotes proficient ncMMR resulting in the reactivation of an epigenetically silenced reporter gene in murine cells. These findings suggest cooperation between BER and ncMMR in the removal of multiple mismatches that might occur in mammalian cells during ADDM. PMID:26843430

  1. DNA damage repair and genetic polymorphisms: Assessment of individual sensitivity and repair capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Cornetta, Tommaso; Festa, Fabiola; Testa, Antonella; Cozzi, Renata Prof. . E-mail: cozzi@uniroma3.it

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To study the repair capacity after X-ray irradiation in human peripheral blood cells of healthy subjects, in relation to their genotypes. Methods and Materials: The peripheral blood of 50 healthy subjects was irradiated in vitro with 2 Gy of X rays and the induced DNA damage was measured by Comet assay immediately after irradiation. DNA repair was detected by analyzing the cells at defined time intervals after the exposure. Furthermore, all subjects were genotyped for XRCC1, OGG1, and XPC genes. Results: After X-ray irradiation, persons bearing XRCC1 homozygous variant (codon 399) genotype exhibited significantly lower Tail DNA values than those bearing wild-type and heterozygous genotypes. These results are also confirmed at 30 and 60 min after irradiation. Furthermore, XPC heterozygous subjects (variant codon 939) showed lower residual DNA damage 60 min after irradiation compared with wild-type and homozygous genotypes. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could influence individual DNA repair capacity.

  2. DNA damage and repair in telomeres: relation to aging.

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, P A; Rampino, N J; Bohr, V A

    1995-01-01

    We have established a method for the detection of DNA damage and its repair in human telomeres, the natural ends of chromosomes which are necessary for replication and critical for chromosomal stability. We find that ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in telomeric DNA are repaired less efficiently than endogenous genes but more efficiently than inactive, noncoding regions. We have also measured telomeric length, telomeric DNA damage, and its repair in relation to the progression of aging. Telomeres are shorter in fibroblasts from an old donor compared to fibroblasts from a young donor, shortest in cells from a patient with the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome, and relatively long in fibroblasts from a patient with Alzheimer disease. Telomeric DNA repair efficiency is lower in cells from an old donor than in cells from a young donor, normal in Alzheimer cells, and slightly lower in Werner cells. It is possible that this decline in telomeric repair with aging is of functional significance to an age-related decline in genomic stability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7816828

  3. Both genetic and dietary factors underlie individual differences in DNA damage levels and DNA repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Slyskova, Jana; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Karlsen, Anette; Carlsen, Monica H; Novosadova, Vendula; Blomhoff, Rune; Vodicka, Pavel; Collins, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    The interplay between dietary habits and individual genetic make-up is assumed to influence risk of cancer, via modulation of DNA integrity. Our aim was to characterize internal and external factors that underlie inter-individual variability in DNA damage and repair and to identify dietary habits beneficial for maintaining DNA integrity. Habitual diet was estimated in 340 healthy individuals using a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers of antioxidant status were quantified in fasting blood samples. Markers of DNA integrity were represented by DNA strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines and a sum of all three as total DNA damage. DNA repair was characterized by genetic variants and functional activities of base and nucleotide excision repair pathways. Sex, fruit-based food consumption and XPG genotype were factors significantly associated with the level of DNA damage. DNA damage was higher in women (p=0.035). Fruit consumption was negatively associated with the number of all measured DNA lesions, and this effect was mediated mostly by β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol (p<0.05). XPG 1104His homozygotes appeared more vulnerable to DNA damage accumulation (p=0.001). Sex and individual antioxidants were also associated with DNA repair capacity; both the base and nucleotide excision repairs were lower in women and the latter increased with higher plasma levels of ascorbic acid and α-carotene (p<0.05). We have determined genetic and dietary factors that modulate DNA integrity. We propose that the positive health effect of fruit intake is partially mediated via DNA damage suppression and a simultaneous increase in DNA repair capacity. PMID:24674629

  4. SPOC1 modulates DNA repair by regulating key determinants of chromatin compaction and DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Mund, Andreas; Schubert, Tobias; Staege, Hannah; Kinkley, Sarah; Reumann, Kerstin; Kriegs, Malte; Fritsch, Lauriane; Battisti, Valentine; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Hoffbeck, Anne-Sophie; Soutoglou, Evi; Will, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Survival time-associated plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein in Ovarian Cancer 1 (SPOC1, also known as PHF13) is known to modulate chromatin structure and is essential for testicular stem-cell differentiation. Here we show that SPOC1 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in an ATM-dependent manner. Moreover, SPOC1 localizes at endogenous repair foci, including OPT domains and accumulates at large DSB repair foci characteristic for delayed repair at heterochromatic sites. SPOC1 depletion enhances the kinetics of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) formation after γ-irradiation (γ-IR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair activity, and cellular radioresistance, but impairs homologous recombination (HR) repair. Conversely, SPOC1 overexpression delays IRIF formation and γH2AX expansion, reduces NHEJ repair activity and enhances cellular radiosensitivity. SPOC1 mediates dose-dependent changes in chromatin association of DNA compaction factors KAP-1, HP1-α and H3K9 methyltransferases (KMT) GLP, G9A and SETDB1. In addition, SPOC1 interacts with KAP-1 and H3K9 KMTs, inhibits KAP-1 phosphorylation and enhances H3K9 trimethylation. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of SPOC1 in DNA damage response (DDR) and repair. SPOC1 acts as a modulator of repair kinetics and choice of pathways. This involves its dose-dependent effects on DNA damage sensors, repair mediators and key regulators of chromatin structure. PMID:23034801

  5. Eukaryotic damaged DNA-binding proteins: DNA repair proteins or transcription factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Protic, M.

    1994-12-31

    Recognition and removal of structural defects in the genome, caused by diverse physical and chemical agents, are among the most important cell functions. Proteins that recognize and bind to modified DNA, and thereby initiate damage-induced recovery processes, have been identified in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Damaged DNA-binding (DDB) proteins from prokaryotes are either DNA repair enzymes or noncatalytic subunits of larger DNA repair complexes that participate in excision repair, or in recombinational repair and SOS-mutagenesis. Although the methods employed may not have allowed detection of all eukaryotic DDB proteins and identification of their functions, it appears that during evolution cells have developed a wide array of DDB proteins that can discriminate among the diversity of DNA conformations found in the eukaryotic nucleus, as well as a gene-sharing feature found in DDB proteins that also act as transcription factors.

  6. Cyclin A2 promotes DNA repair in the brain during both development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gygli, Patrick E.; Chang, Joshua C.; Gokozan, Hamza N.; Catacutan, Fay P.; Schmidt, Theresa A.; Kaya, Behiye; Goksel, Mustafa; Baig, Faisal S.; Chen, Shannon; Griveau, Amelie; Michowski, Wojciech; Wong, Michael; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Sicinski, Piotr; Nelson, Randy J.; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, José J.

    2016-01-01

    Various stem cell niches of the brain have differential requirements for Cyclin A2. Cyclin A2 loss results in marked cerebellar dysmorphia, whereas forebrain growth is retarded during early embryonic development yet achieves normal size at birth. To understand the differential requirements of distinct brain regions for Cyclin A2, we utilized neuroanatomical, transgenic mouse, and mathematical modeling techniques to generate testable hypotheses that provide insight into how Cyclin A2 loss results in compensatory forebrain growth during late embryonic development. Using unbiased measurements of the forebrain stem cell niche, we parameterized a mathematical model whereby logistic growth instructs progenitor cells as to the cell-types of their progeny. Our data was consistent with prior findings that progenitors proliferate along an auto-inhibitory growth curve. The growth retardation in CCNA2-null brains corresponded to cell cycle lengthening, imposing a developmental delay. We hypothesized that Cyclin A2 regulates DNA repair and that CCNA2-null progenitors thus experienced lengthened cell cycle. We demonstrate that CCNA2-null progenitors suffer abnormal DNA repair, and implicate Cyclin A2 in double-strand break repair. Cyclin A2's DNA repair functions are conserved among cell lines, neural progenitors, and hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that neuronal CCNA2 ablation results in learning and memory deficits in aged mice. PMID:27425845

  7. A nonsense mutation in the DNA repair factor Hebo causes mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Pondarre, Corinne; Pennarun, Gaelle; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Vera, Gabriella; France, Benoit; Chansel, Marie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Revy, Patrick; Lopez, Bernard; Soulier, Jean; Bertrand, Pascale; Callebaut, Isabelle; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-30

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are human conditions in which one or several cell lineages of the hemopoietic system are affected. They are present at birth or may develop progressively. They are sometimes accompanied by other developmental anomalies. Three main molecular causes have been recognized to result in bone marrow failure syndromes: (1) defects in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway, (2) defects in telomere maintenance, and (3) abnormal ribosome biogenesis. We analyzed a patient with mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly who did not present with the typical FA phenotype. Cells from this patient showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiations and phleomycin, attesting to a probable DNA double strand break (dsb) repair defect. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ERCC6L2 gene. We identified a new ERCC6L2 alternative transcript encoding the DNA repair factor Hebo, which is critical for complementation of the patient's DNAdsb repair defect. Sequence analysis revealed three structured regions within Hebo: a TUDOR domain, an adenosine triphosphatase domain, and a new domain, HEBO, specifically present in Hebo direct orthologues. Hebo is ubiquitously expressed, localized in the nucleus, and rapidly recruited to DNAdsb's in an NBS1-dependent manner.

  8. Response of base excision repair enzymes to complex DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinfeld, M; Rasouli-Nia, A; Chaudhry, M A; Britten, R A

    2001-11-01

    There is now increasing evidence that ionizing radiation generates complex DNA damage, i.e. two or more lesions--single-strand breaks or modified nucleosides--located within one to two helical turns on the same strand or on opposite strands. Double-strand breaks are the most readily recognizable clustered lesions, but they may constitute a relatively minor fraction of the total. It is anticipated that clustered lesions may play a significant role in cellular response to ionizing radiation since they may present a major challenge to the DNA repair machinery. The degree of lesion complexity increases with increasing LET. This has potential implications for space travel because of exposure to high-LET cosmic radiation. It is therefore critical that we begin to understand the consequences of such damaged sites, including their influence on DNA repair enzymes. This paper presents a short review of our current knowledge of the action of purified DNA repair enzymes belonging to the base excision repair pathway, including DNA glycosylases and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, on model complex lesions.

  9. Rad51 Regulates Reprogramming Efficiency through DNA Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Keun Pil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Rad51 is a key component of homologous recombination (HR) to repair DNA double-strand breaks and it forms Rad51 recombinase filaments of broken single-stranded DNA to promote HR. In addition to its role in DNA repair and cell cycle progression, Rad51 contributes to the reprogramming process during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. In light of this, we performed reprogramming experiments to examine the effect of co-expression of Rad51 and four reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, on the reprogramming efficiency. Co-expression of Rad51 significantly increased the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies and embryonic stem cell-like colonies during the process of reprogramming. Co-expression ofRad51 significantly increased the expression of epithelial markers at an early stage of reprogramming compared with control cells. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), which initiates the DNA double-strand break repair system, was highly accumulated in reprogramming intermediates upon co-expression of Rad51. This study identified a novel role of Rad51 in enhancing the reprogramming efficiency, possibly by facilitating mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and by regulating a DNA damage repair pathway during the early phase of the reprogramming process. PMID:27660832

  10. Rad51 Regulates Reprogramming Efficiency through DNA Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Keun Pil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-06-01

    Rad51 is a key component of homologous recombination (HR) to repair DNA double-strand breaks and it forms Rad51 recombinase filaments of broken single-stranded DNA to promote HR. In addition to its role in DNA repair and cell cycle progression, Rad51 contributes to the reprogramming process during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. In light of this, we performed reprogramming experiments to examine the effect of co-expression of Rad51 and four reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, on the reprogramming efficiency. Co-expression of Rad51 significantly increased the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies and embryonic stem cell-like colonies during the process of reprogramming. Co-expression ofRad51 significantly increased the expression of epithelial markers at an early stage of reprogramming compared with control cells. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), which initiates the DNA double-strand break repair system, was highly accumulated in reprogramming intermediates upon co-expression of Rad51. This study identified a novel role of Rad51 in enhancing the reprogramming efficiency, possibly by facilitating mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and by regulating a DNA damage repair pathway during the early phase of the reprogramming process. PMID:27660832

  11. Circadian Modulation of 8-Oxoguanine DNA Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Manzella, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Strafella, Elisabetta; Staffolani, Sara; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Tomasetti, Marco; Stevens, Richard G.; Santarelli, Lory

    2015-01-01

    The DNA base excision repair pathway is the main system involved in the removal of oxidative damage to DNA such as 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) primarily via the 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). Our goal was to investigate whether the repair of 8-oxoG DNA damage follow a circadian rhythm. In a group of 15 healthy volunteers, we found a daily variation of Ogg1 expression and activity with higher levels in the morning compared to the evening hours. Consistent with this, we also found lower levels of 8-oxoG in morning hours compared to those in the evening hours. Lymphocytes exposed to oxidative damage to DNA at 8:00 AM display lower accumulation of 8-oxoG than lymphocytes exposed at 8:00 PM. Furthermore, altered levels of Ogg1 expression were also observed in a group of shift workers experiencing a deregulation of circadian clock genes compared to a control group. Moreover, BMAL1 knockdown fibroblasts with a deregulated molecular clock showed an abolishment of circadian variation of Ogg1 expression and an increase of OGG1 activity. Our results suggest that the circadian modulation of 8-oxoG DNA damage repair, according to a variation of Ogg1 expression, could render humans less susceptible to accumulate 8-oxoG DNA damage in the morning hours. PMID:26337123

  12. DNA Polymerases λ and β: The Double-Edged Swords of DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Mentegari, Elisa; Kissova, Miroslava; Bavagnoli, Laura; Maga, Giovanni; Crespan, Emmanuele

    2016-01-01

    DNA is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous damages. More than 10,000 DNA modifications are induced every day in each cell's genome. Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is accomplished by several DNA repair systems. The core enzymes for these pathways are the DNA polymerases. Out of 17 DNA polymerases present in a mammalian cell, at least 13 are specifically devoted to DNA repair and are often acting in different pathways. DNA polymerases β and λ are involved in base excision repair of modified DNA bases and translesion synthesis past DNA lesions. Polymerase λ also participates in non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. However, recent data have revealed that, depending on their relative levels, the cell cycle phase, the ratio between deoxy- and ribo-nucleotide pools and the interaction with particular auxiliary proteins, the repair reactions carried out by these enzymes can be an important source of genetic instability, owing to repair mistakes. This review summarizes the most recent results on the ambivalent properties of these enzymes in limiting or promoting genetic instability in mammalian cells, as well as their potential use as targets for anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:27589807

  13. DNA Polymerases λ and β: The Double-Edged Swords of DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mentegari, Elisa; Kissova, Miroslava; Bavagnoli, Laura; Maga, Giovanni; Crespan, Emmanuele

    2016-01-01

    DNA is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous damages. More than 10,000 DNA modifications are induced every day in each cell’s genome. Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is accomplished by several DNA repair systems. The core enzymes for these pathways are the DNA polymerases. Out of 17 DNA polymerases present in a mammalian cell, at least 13 are specifically devoted to DNA repair and are often acting in different pathways. DNA polymerases β and λ are involved in base excision repair of modified DNA bases and translesion synthesis past DNA lesions. Polymerase λ also participates in non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. However, recent data have revealed that, depending on their relative levels, the cell cycle phase, the ratio between deoxy- and ribo-nucleotide pools and the interaction with particular auxiliary proteins, the repair reactions carried out by these enzymes can be an important source of genetic instability, owing to repair mistakes. This review summarizes the most recent results on the ambivalent properties of these enzymes in limiting or promoting genetic instability in mammalian cells, as well as their potential use as targets for anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:27589807

  14. Breaking bad: The mutagenic effect of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Furano, Anthony V

    2015-08-01

    Species survival depends on the faithful replication of genetic information, which is continually monitored and maintained by DNA repair pathways that correct replication errors and the thousands of lesions that arise daily from the inherent chemical lability of DNA and the effects of genotoxic agents. Nonetheless, neutrally evolving DNA (not under purifying selection) accumulates base substitutions with time (the neutral mutation rate). Thus, repair processes are not 100% efficient. The neutral mutation rate varies both between and within chromosomes. For example it is 10-50 fold higher at CpGs than at non-CpG positions. Interestingly, the neutral mutation rate at non-CpG sites is positively correlated with CpG content. Although the basis of this correlation was not immediately apparent, some bioinformatic results were consistent with the induction of non-CpG mutations by DNA repair at flanking CpG sites. Recent studies with a model system showed that in vivo repair of preformed lesions (mismatches, abasic sites, single stranded nicks) can in fact induce mutations in flanking DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) is an essential component for repair-induced mutations, which can occur as distant as 5 kb from the introduced lesions. Most, but not all, mutations involved the C of TpCpN (G of NpGpA) which is the target sequence of the C-preferring single-stranded DNA specific APOBEC deaminases. APOBEC-mediated mutations are not limited to our model system: Recent studies by others showed that some tumors harbor mutations with the same signature, as can intermediates in RNA-guided endonuclease-mediated genome editing. APOBEC deaminases participate in normal physiological functions such as generating mutations that inactivate viruses or endogenous retrotransposons, or that enhance immunoglobulin diversity in B cells. The recruitment of normally physiological error-prone processes during DNA repair would have important implications for disease, aging and evolution. This perspective

  15. Breaking bad: The mutagenic effect of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Furano, Anthony V

    2015-08-01

    Species survival depends on the faithful replication of genetic information, which is continually monitored and maintained by DNA repair pathways that correct replication errors and the thousands of lesions that arise daily from the inherent chemical lability of DNA and the effects of genotoxic agents. Nonetheless, neutrally evolving DNA (not under purifying selection) accumulates base substitutions with time (the neutral mutation rate). Thus, repair processes are not 100% efficient. The neutral mutation rate varies both between and within chromosomes. For example it is 10-50 fold higher at CpGs than at non-CpG positions. Interestingly, the neutral mutation rate at non-CpG sites is positively correlated with CpG content. Although the basis of this correlation was not immediately apparent, some bioinformatic results were consistent with the induction of non-CpG mutations by DNA repair at flanking CpG sites. Recent studies with a model system showed that in vivo repair of preformed lesions (mismatches, abasic sites, single stranded nicks) can in fact induce mutations in flanking DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) is an essential component for repair-induced mutations, which can occur as distant as 5 kb from the introduced lesions. Most, but not all, mutations involved the C of TpCpN (G of NpGpA) which is the target sequence of the C-preferring single-stranded DNA specific APOBEC deaminases. APOBEC-mediated mutations are not limited to our model system: Recent studies by others showed that some tumors harbor mutations with the same signature, as can intermediates in RNA-guided endonuclease-mediated genome editing. APOBEC deaminases participate in normal physiological functions such as generating mutations that inactivate viruses or endogenous retrotransposons, or that enhance immunoglobulin diversity in B cells. The recruitment of normally physiological error-prone processes during DNA repair would have important implications for disease, aging and evolution. This perspective

  16. Xeroderma pigmentosum and the role of DNA repair in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, F

    1978-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic information on xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) has been briefly reviewed. This indicates that 80 to 90 percent of all XP patients are defective in the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers and are unable to perform the first step of this process as shown, for example, by their inability to undergo the DNA superhelical changes which accompany the initiation of excision repair in normal cells. However, in spite of its apparent biochemical homogeneity, XP is genetically heterogeneous and many genes appear to be responsible for the function of the factor defective in XP. Ten to 20 percent of all XP patients (called XP-variants) are capable of "dimer excision repair" but have difficulties in replicating UV-damaged DNA. The defects of XP and XP-variant affect also the repair of DNA damage caused by a number of chemical mutagens and carcinogens. This has important theoretical and practical implications since it indicates, for example, that the repair systems defective in XP must have broad specificity and that even XP cells not exposed to the harmful effect of light may suffer from poor repair of DNA damage. With regard to cancer, two questions have been considered. Namely, does XP provide a valid general model for UV-carcinogenesis in man and does it show how DNA damage leads to malignant transformation? The first question was answered in the affirmative in view of some clinical but, mainly, of cell biological data indicating that normal and excision defective XP cells differ, more quantitatively than qualitatively, in their response to UV-light. With regard to the second question XP seems to provide some support for various theories on carcinogenesis and, DNA repair defects may favour actinic carcinogenesis in a complex, non-univocous manner. Possibly the most important lesson imparted by XP is that, in man, the stability of the genetic material is dependent on the function of repair systems whose failure may predispose to cancer. In addition, the

  17. DNA repair in reduced genome: the Mycoplasma model.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Fonseca, Marbella Maria; Batistuzzo De Medeiros, Sílvia; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2005-11-01

    The occurrence of bacteria with a reduced genome, such as that found in Mycoplasmas, raises the question as to which genes should be enough to guarantee the genomic stability indispensable for the maintenance of life. The aim of this work was to compare nine Mycoplasma genomes in regard to DNA repair genes. An in silico analysis was done using six Mycoplasma species, whose genomes are accessible at GenBank, and M. synoviae, and two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, whose genomes were recently sequenced by The Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium and Southern Genome Investigation Program (Brazil) respectively. Considering this reduced genome model, our comparative analysis suggests that the DNA integrity necessary for life can be primarily maintained by nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is the only complete repair pathway. Furthermore, some enzymes involved with base excision repair (BER) and recombination are also present and can complement the NER activity. The absence of RecR and RecO-like ORFs was observed only in M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae, which can be involved with the conservation of gene order observed between these two species. We also obtained phylogenetic evidence for the recent acquisition of the ogt gene in M. pulmonis and M. penetrans by a lateral transference event. In general, the presence or nonexistence of repair genes is shared by all species analyzed, suggesting that the loss of the majority of repair genes was an ancestral event, which occurred before the divergence of the Mycoplasma species. PMID:16153783

  18. DNA damage and repair in Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliata, Protozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Ammermann, D.

    1988-05-01

    Irradiation with X rays, UV irradiation after incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BU) into the DNA, and cis-platinum (cis-Pt) treatment each cause the loss of micronuclei of Stylonychia lemnae while the macronuclei are not severely affected. The abilities of both nuclei to repair DNA were investigated. Unscheduled DNA synthesis could not be demonstrated after X-ray irradiation, but it was found after treatment with BU/UV and cis-Pt in macro- and micronuclei. The extent of the repair process in the micro- and macronuclei was alike, as indicated by grain counts of (6-/sup 3/H)thymidine-treated cells. One reason for the different sensitivity of both nuclei to DNA-damaging treatment may be the different number of gene copies in the macro- and micronuclei.

  19. DNA Repair at Telomeres: Keeping the Ends Intact

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher J.; Wu, Yun; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular era of telomere biology began with the discovery that telomeres usually consist of G-rich simple repeats and end with 3′ single-stranded tails. Enormous progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms that maintain and replenish telomeric DNA and the proteins that protect them from degradation, fusions, and checkpoint activation. Although telomeres in different organisms (or even in the same organism under different conditions) are maintained by different mechanisms, the disparate processes have the common goals of repairing defects caused by semiconservative replication through G-rich DNA, countering the shortening caused by incomplete replication, and postreplication regeneration of G tails. In addition, standard DNA repair mechanisms must be suppressed or modified at telomeres to prevent their being recognized and processed as DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we discuss the players and processes that maintain and regenerate telomere structure. PMID:23732473

  20. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-coupled DNA Repair Abrogate the Impact of DNA Damage on Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Aditi; Burns, John A.; Gandolfi, Alberto; Chowdhury, Moinuddin A.; Cartularo, Laura; Berens, Christian; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Scicchitano, David A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]Ph) impede replication and transcription, resulting in aberrant cell division and gene expression. Global nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) are among the DNA repair pathways that evolved to maintain genome integrity by removing DNA damage. The interplay between global NER and TCR in repairing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-derived DNA adducts (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA, which is subject to NER and blocks transcription in vitro, and (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N6-dA, which is a poor substrate for NER but also blocks transcription in vitro, was tested. The results show that both adducts inhibit transcription in human cells that lack both NER and TCR. The (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA lesion exhibited no detectable effect on transcription in cells proficient in NER but lacking TCR, indicating that NER can remove the lesion in the absence of TCR, which is consistent with in vitro data. In primary human cells lacking NER, (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA exhibited a deleterious effect on transcription that was less severe than in cells lacking both pathways, suggesting that TCR can repair the adduct but not as effectively as global NER. In contrast, (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N6-dA dramatically reduces transcript production in cells proficient in global NER but lacking TCR, indicating that TCR is necessary for the removal of this adduct, which is consistent with in vitro data showing that it is a poor substrate for NER. Hence, both global NER and TCR enhance the recovery of gene expression following DNA damage, and TCR plays an important role in removing DNA damage that is refractory to NER. PMID:26559971

  1. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-coupled DNA Repair Abrogate the Impact of DNA Damage on Transcription.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Aditi; Burns, John A; Gandolfi, Alberto; Chowdhury, Moinuddin A; Cartularo, Laura; Berens, Christian; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Scicchitano, David A

    2016-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]Ph) impede replication and transcription, resulting in aberrant cell division and gene expression. Global nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) are among the DNA repair pathways that evolved to maintain genome integrity by removing DNA damage. The interplay between global NER and TCR in repairing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-derived DNA adducts (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA, which is subject to NER and blocks transcription in vitro, and (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N(6)-dA, which is a poor substrate for NER but also blocks transcription in vitro, was tested. The results show that both adducts inhibit transcription in human cells that lack both NER and TCR. The (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA lesion exhibited no detectable effect on transcription in cells proficient in NER but lacking TCR, indicating that NER can remove the lesion in the absence of TCR, which is consistent with in vitro data. In primary human cells lacking NER, (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA exhibited a deleterious effect on transcription that was less severe than in cells lacking both pathways, suggesting that TCR can repair the adduct but not as effectively as global NER. In contrast, (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N(6)-dA dramatically reduces transcript production in cells proficient in global NER but lacking TCR, indicating that TCR is necessary for the removal of this adduct, which is consistent with in vitro data showing that it is a poor substrate for NER. Hence, both global NER and TCR enhance the recovery of gene expression following DNA damage, and TCR plays an important role in removing DNA damage that is refractory to NER.

  2. Repair of DNA lesions in chromosomal DNA impact of chromatin structure and Cockayne syndrome proteins.

    PubMed

    Fousteri, Maria; van Hoffen, Anneke; Vargova, Hana; Mullenders, Leon H F

    2005-07-28

    Decondensation of chromatin is essential to facilitate access to DNA metabolizing processes such as transcription and DNA repair. Disruption of histone-DNA contacts by histone modification or by ATP dependent chromatin remodelling allows DNA-binding proteins to compete with histones for DNA. The efficiency of global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGR) that removes a variety of helix distorting DNA lesions is known to be affected by chromatin structure most notably demonstrated by the slow repair of heterochromatin. In addition, the efficiency of GGR to repair lesions in transcriptionally active genes requires functional CSA and B proteins. We found that repair of UV-photolesions in both strands of the active adenosine deaminase gene was delayed in CS cells when compared to normal human fibroblasts. We suggest that the lack of transcription recovery characteristic for CS cells exposed to DNA damaging agents, might lead to changes in the chromatin structure of active genes, causing less efficient repair of lesions in these genes when compared to normal cells. PMID:15961352

  3. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in teratogenesis and neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G; McCallum, Gordon P; Lam, Kyla C H; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Ondovcik, Stephanie L

    2010-06-01

    Several teratogenic agents, including ionizing radiation and xenobiotics such as phenytoin, benzo[a]pyrene, thalidomide, and methamphetamine, can initiate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules including DNA. Oxidative DNA damage, and particularly the most prevalent 8-oxoguanine lesion, may adversely affect development, likely via alterations in gene transcription rather than via a mutational mechanism. Contributions from oxidative DNA damage do not exclude roles for alternative mechanisms of initiation like receptor-mediated processes or the formation of covalent xenobiotic-macromolecular adducts, damage to other macromolecular targets like proteins and lipids, and other effects of ROS like altered signal transduction. Even in the absence of teratogen exposure, endogenous developmental oxidative stress can have embryopathic consequences in the absence of key pathways for detoxifying ROS or repairing DNA damage. Critical proteins in pathways for DNA damage detection/repair signaling, like p53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated, and DNA repair itself, like oxoguanine glycosylase 1 and Cockayne syndrome B, can often, but not always, protect the embryo from ROS-initiating teratogens. Protection may be variably dependent upon such factors as the nature of the teratogen and its concentration within the embryo, the stage of development, the species, strain, gender, target tissue and cell type, among other factors.

  4. The Excitatory Neurotransmitter Glutamate Stimulates DNA Repair to Increase Neuronal Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Sykora, Peter; Wilson, David M.; Mattson, Mark P.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nerve system and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory. Activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors promptly triggers membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, resulting in the activation of several different protein kinases and transcription factors. For example, glutamate-mediated Ca2+ influx activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, protein kinase C, and mitogen activated protein kinases resulting in activation of transcription factors such as cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Abnormally prolonged exposure to glutamate causes neuronal injury, and such “excitotoxicity” has been implicated in many acute and chronic diseases including ischemic stroke, hypoglycemia, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Interestingly, although glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx can cause DNA damage by a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism, the Ca2+ simultaneously activates CREB, resulting in up-regulation of the DNA repair and redox protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. Here, we review connections between physiological or aberrant glutamate receptor activation, Ca2+-mediated signaling, oxidative DNA damage and repair efficiency, and neuronal vulnerability. We conclude that glutamate signaling involves an adaptive cellular stress response pathway that enhances DNA repair capability, thereby protecting neurons against injury and disease. PMID:21729715

  5. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  6. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  7. DNA Repair-Protein Relocalization After Heavy Ion Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metting, N. F.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is good at making DNA double strand breaks, and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as heavy ion particles are particularly efficient. For this reason, the proteins belonging to repair systems that deal with double strand breaks are of particular interest. One such protein is Ku, a component in the non-homologous recombination repair system. The Ku protein is an abundant, heterodimeric DNA end-binding complex, composed of one 70 and one 86 kDa subunit. Ku protein binds to DNA ends, nicks, gaps, and regions of transition between single and double-stranded structure. These binding properties suggest an important role in DNA repair. The Ku antigen is important in this study because it is present in relatively large copy numbers and it is part of a double-strand-break repair system. More importantly, we consistently measure an apparent upregulation in situ that is not verified by whole-cell-lysate immunoblot measurements. This apparent upregulation is triggered by very low doses of radiation, thus showing a potentially useful high sensitivity. However, elucidation of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still to be done.

  8. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53Δ31, a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  9. Base excision repair in Archaea: back to the future in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Stefano; Tell, Gianluca

    2014-09-01

    Together with Bacteria and Eukarya, Archaea represents one of the three domain of life. In contrast with the morphological difference existing between Archaea and Eukarya, these two domains are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses confirm this evolutionary relationship showing that most of the proteins involved in DNA transcription and replication are highly conserved. On the contrary, information is scanty about DNA repair pathways and their mechanisms. In the present review the most important proteins involved in base excision repair, namely glycosylases, AP lyases, AP endonucleases, polymerases, sliding clamps, flap endonucleases, and ligases, will be discussed and compared with bacterial and eukaryotic ones. Finally, possible applications and future perspectives derived from studies on Archaea and their repair pathways, will be taken into account.

  10. CC3/TIP30 affects DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pro-apoptotic protein CC3/TIP30 has an unusual cellular function as an inhibitor of nucleocytoplasmic transport. This function is likely to be activated under conditions of stress. A number of studies support the notion that CC3 acts as a tumor and metastasis suppressor in various types of cancer. The yeast homolog of CC3 is likely to be involved in responses to DNA damage. Here we examined the potential role of CC3 in regulation of cellular responses to genotoxic stress. Results We found that forced expression of CC3 in CC3-negative cells strongly delays the repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Exogenously introduced CC3 negatively affects expression levels of DDB2/XPE and p21CIP1, and inhibits induction of c-FOS after UV exposure. In addition, exogenous CC3 prevents the nuclear accumulation of P21CIP in response to UV. These changes in the levels/localization of relevant proteins resulting from the enforced expression of CC3 are likely to contribute to the observed delay in DNA damage repair. Silencing of CC3 in CC3-positive cells has a modest delaying effect on repair of the UV induced damage, but has a much more significant negative affect on the translesion DNA synthesis after UV exposure. This could be related to the higher expression levels and increased nuclear localization of p21CIP1 in cells where expression of CC3 is silenced. Expression of CC3 also inhibits repair of oxidative DNA damage and leads to a decrease in levels of nucleoredoxin, that could contribute to the reduced viability of CC3 expressing cells after oxidative insult. Conclusions Manipulation of the cellular levels of CC3 alters expression levels and/or subcellular localization of proteins that exhibit nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This results in altered responses to genotoxic stress and adversely affects DNA damage repair by affecting the recruitment of adequate amounts of required proteins to proper cellular compartments. Excess of cellular CC3 has a significant negative

  11. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second

  12. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  13. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium.

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of DNA repair using charged particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Tobias, F; Durante, M; Taucher-Scholz, G; Jakob, B

    2010-01-01

    Approaches to visualise the dynamics of the DNA lesion processing substantially contributes to the understanding of the hierarchical organisation of the DNA damage response pathways. Charged particle irradiation has recently emerged as a tool to generate discrete sites of subnuclear damage by its means of extremely localised dose deposition at low energies, thus facilitating the spatiotemporal analysis of repair events. In addition, they are of high interest for risk estimations of human space exploration (e.g. mars mission) in the high energy regime (HZE). In this short review we will give examples for the application of charged particle irradiation to study spatiotemporal aspects of DNA damage recognition and repair in the context of recent achievements in this field. Beamline microscopy allows determining the exact kinetics of repair-related proteins after irradiation with different charged particles that induce different lesion densities. The classification into fast recruited proteins like DNA-PK or XRCC1 or slower recruited ones like 53BP1 or MDC1 helps to establish the hierarchical organisation of damage recognition and subsequent repair events. Additionally, motional analysis of DNA lesions induced by traversing particles proved information about the mobility of DSBs. Increased mobility or the absence of large scale motion has direct consequences on the formation of chromosomal translocations and, thus, on mechanisms of cancer formation. Charged particle microbeams offer the interesting perspective of precise nuclear or subnuclear targeting with a defined number of ions, avoiding the Poisson distribution of traversals inherent to broad beam experiments. With the help of the microbeam, geometrical patterns of traversing ions can be applied facilitating the analysis of spatial organisation of repair. PMID:19944777

  15. GADD45α inhibition of DNMT1 dependent DNA methylation during homology directed DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongyong; Morano, Annalisa; Porcellini, Antonio; Muller, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by the DNA damage inducible protein, GADD45α. We used a system to induce homologous recombination (HR) at a unique double-strand DNA break in a GFP reporter in mammalian cells. After HR, the repaired DNA is hypermethylated in recombinant clones showing low GFP expression (HR-L expressor class), while in high expressor recombinants (HR-H clones) previous methylation patterns are erased. GADD45α, which is transiently induced by double-strand breaks, binds to chromatin undergoing HR repair. Ectopic overexpression of GADD45α during repair increases the HR-H fraction of cells (hypomethylated repaired DNA), without altering the recombination frequency. Conversely, silencing of GADD45α increases methylation of the recombined segment and amplifies the HR-L expressor (hypermethylated) population. GADD45α specifically interacts with the catalytic site of DNMT1 and inhibits methylation activity in vitro. We propose that double-strand DNA damage and the resulting HR process involves precise, strand selected DNA methylation by DNMT1 that is regulated by GADD45α. Since GADD45α binds with high avidity to hemimethylated DNA intermediates, it may also provide a barrier to spreading of methylation during or after HR repair. PMID:22135303

  16. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways.

  17. DNA repair in spermatocytes and spermatids of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    When male mice are exposed to chemical agents that reach the germ cells several outcomes are possible in terms of the germ cell unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) response and removal of DNA adducts. It is possible that: the chemical binds to the DNA and induces a UDS response with concomittant removal of DNA adducts; the chemical binds to the DNA but no UDS response is induced; or the chemical does not bind to DNA and no UDS is induced. Many mutagens have been shown to induce a UDS response in postgonial germ cell stages of the male mouse up through midspermatids, but the relationship between this UDS and the repair of genetic damage within the germ cells is still unknown. While some mutagens appear to have an effect only in germ-cell stages where no UDS occurs, others are able to induce genetic damage in stages where UDS has been induced.

  18. Molecular Understanding of Efficient DNA Repair Machinery of Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2012-06-01

    Photolyases repair the UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in damage DNA with high efficiency, through a cylic light-driven electron transfer radical mechanism. We report here our systematic studies of the repair dynamics in E. coli photolyase with mutation of five active-site residues. The significant loss of repair efficiency by the mutation indicates that those active-site residues play an important role in the DNA repair by photolyase. To understand how the active-site residues modulate the efficiency, we mapped out the entire evolution of each elementary step during the repair in those photolyase mutants with femtosecond resolution. We completely analyzed the electron transfer dynamics using the Sumi-Marcus model. The results suggest that photolyase controls the critical electron transfer and the ring-splitting of pyrimidine dimer through modulation of the redox potentials and reorganization energies, and stabilization of the anionic intermediates, maintaining the dedicated balance of all the reaction steps and achieving the maximum function activity.

  19. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner in the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  20. Interplay between p53-family, their regulators, and PARPs in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Emami, S

    2011-02-01

    Abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are among the most frequent molecular events in human neoplasia. p53 is consequently one of the most studied proteins, and is the subject of over 55,500 scientific papers. In this review, attention is focused on the functions of p53 in DNA repair. We highlight the recent progress in the analysis of protein signals to p53, including PARPs, and ubiquitination cascade proteins MDM2, CRM1, USP10 and 14-3-3σ.

  1. Breaking bad: The mutagenic effect of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species survival depends on the faithful replication of genetic information, which is continually monitored and maintained by DNA repair pathways thatcorrect replication errors and the thousands of lesions that arise daily from the inherent chemical lability of DNA and the effects of genotoxic agents. Nonetheless,neutrally evolving DNA (not under purifying selection) accumulates base substitutions with time (the neutral mutation rate). Thus, repair processes are not 100% efficient. The neutral mutation rate varies both between and within chromosomes. For example it is 10 – 50 fold higher at CpGsthan at non-CpG positions. Interestingly, the neutral mutation rate at non-CpG sites is positively correlated with CpG content. Althoughthe basis of this correlation was not immediately apparent,some bioinformatic results were consistent with the induction of non-CpGmutations byDNA repairat flanking CpG sites. Recent studies with a model system showed that in vivo repair of preformed lesions (mismatches, abasic sites, single stranded nicks) can in factinduce mutations in flanking DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) is an essential component for repair-induced mutations, which can occur as distant as 5 kb from the introduced lesions. Most, but not all, mutations involved the C of TpCpN (G of NpGpA) which is the target sequence of the C-preferringsingle-stranded DNA specific APOBEC deaminases. APOBEC-mediated mutations are not limited to our model system: Recent studies by others showed that some tumors harbor mutations with the same signature, as can intermediates in RNA-guided endonuclease-mediated genome editing. APOBEC deaminases participate in normal physiological functions such as generating mutations that inactivate viruses or endogenous retrotransposons, or that enhance immunoglobulin diversity in B cells. The recruitment of normally physiological errorprone processes during DNA repairwould have important implications for disease, aging and evolution. This perspective briefly

  2. Histone modifications and DNA double-strand break repair after exposure to ionizing radiations.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Clayton R; Ramnarain, Deepti; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Iyengar, Puneeth; Pandita, Raj K; Shay, Jerry W; Pandita, Tej K

    2013-04-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure induces highly lethal DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all phases of the cell cycle. After DSBs are detected by the cellular machinery, these breaks are repaired by either of two mechanisms: (1) nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which re-ligates the broken ends of the DNA and (2) homologous recombination (HR), that makes use of an undamaged identical DNA sequence as a template to maintain the fidelity of DNA repair. DNA DSB repair must occur within the context of the natural cellular DNA structure. Among the major factors influencing DNA organization are specific histone and nonhistone proteins that form chromatin. The overall chromatin structure regulates DNA damage responses since chromatin status can impede DNA damage site access by repair proteins. During the process of DNA DSB repair, several chromatin alterations are required to sense damage and facilitate accessibility of the repair machinery. The DNA DSB response is also facilitated by hierarchical signaling networks that orchestrate chromatin structural changes that may coordinate cell-cycle checkpoints involving multiple enzymatic activities to repair broken DNA ends. During DNA damage sensing and repair, histones undergo posttranslational modifications (PTMs) including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation. Such histone modifications represent a histone code that directs the recruitment of proteins involved in DNA damage sensing and repair processes. In this review, we summarize histone modifications that occur during DNA DSB repair processes.

  3. DNA damage and repair after high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis; Anderson, Jennifer

    Predictions from biophysical models of interactions of radiation tracks with cellular DNA indicate that clustered DNA damage sites, defined as two or more lesions formed within one or two helical turns of the DNA by passage of a single radiation track, are formed in mammalian cells. These complex DNA damage sites are regarded as a signature of ionizing radiation exposure particularly as the likelihood of clustered damage sites arising endogenously is low. For instance, it was predicted from biophysical modelling that 30-40% of low LET-induced double strand breaks (DSB), a form of clustered damage, are complex with the yield increasing to >90% for high LET radiation, consistent with the reduced reparability of DSB with increasing ionization density of the radiation. The question arises whether the increased biological effects such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and lethality is in part related to DNA damage complexity and/or spatial distribution of the damage sites, which may lead to small DNA fragments. With particle radiation it is also important to consider not only delta-rays which may cause clustered damaged sites and may be highly mutagenic but the non-random spatial distribution of DSB which may lead to deletions. In this overview I will concentrate on the molecular aspects of the variation of the complexity of DNA damage on radiation quality and the challenges this complexity presents the DNA damage repair pathways. I will draw on data from micro-irradiations which indicate that the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining is highly regulated with pathway choice and kinetics of repair dependent on the chemical complexity of the DSB. In summary the aim is to emphasis the link between the spatial distribution of energy deposition events related to the track, the molecular products formed and the consequence of damage complexity contributing to biological effects and to present some of the outstanding molecular challenges with particle radiation.

  4. The Mechanism of Double-Strand DNA Break Repair by the Nonhomologous DNA End Joining Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Double-strand DNA breaks are common events in eukaryotic cells, and there are two major pathways for repairing them: homologous recombination and nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). The diverse causes of DSBs result in a diverse chemistry of DNA ends that must be repaired. Across NHEJ evolution, the enzymes of the NHEJ pathway exhibit a remarkable degree of structural tolerance in the range of DNA end substrate configurations upon which they can act. In vertebrate cells, the nuclease, polymerases and ligase of NHEJ are the most mechanistically flexible and multifunctional enzymes in each of their classes. Unlike repair pathways for more defined lesions, NHEJ repair enzymes act iteratively, act in any order, and can function independently of one another at each of the two DNA ends being joined. NHEJ is critical not only for the repair of pathologic DSBs as in chromosomal translocations, but also for the repair of physiologic DSBs created during V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination. Therefore, patients lacking normal NHEJ are not only sensitive to ionizing radiation, but also severely immunodeficient. PMID:20192759

  5. Effects of hyperthermia on DNA repair pathways: one treatment to inhibit them all.

    PubMed

    Oei, Arlene L; Vriend, Lianne E M; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A P; Krawczyk, Przemek M

    2015-01-01

    The currently available arsenal of anticancer modalities includes many DNA damaging agents that can kill malignant cells. However, efficient DNA repair mechanisms protect both healthy and cancer cells against the effects of treatment and contribute to the development of drug resistance. Therefore, anti-cancer treatments based on inflicting DNA damage can benefit from inhibition of DNA repair. Hyperthermia - treatment at elevated temperature - considerably affects DNA repair, among other cellular processes, and can thus sensitize (cancer) cells to DNA damaging agents. This effect has been known and clinically applied for many decades, but how heat inhibits DNA repair and which pathways are targeted has not been fully elucidated. In this review we attempt to summarize the known effects of hyperthermia on DNA repair pathways relevant in clinical treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we outline the relationships between the effects of heat on DNA repair and sensitization of cells to various DNA damaging agents. PMID:26245485

  6. Small Molecules, Inhibitors of DNA-PK, Targeting DNA Repair, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Panasci, Lawrence; Aloyz, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Many current chemotherapies function by damaging genomic DNA in rapidly dividing cells ultimately leading to cell death. This therapeutic approach differentially targets cancer cells that generally display rapid cell division compared to normal tissue cells. However, although these treatments are initially effective in arresting tumor growth and reducing tumor burden, resistance and disease progression eventually occur. A major mechanism underlying this resistance is increased levels of cellular DNA repair. Most cells have complex mechanisms in place to repair DNA damage that occurs due to environmental exposures or normal metabolic processes. These systems, initially overwhelmed when faced with chemotherapy induced DNA damage, become more efficient under constant selective pressure and as a result chemotherapies become less effective. Thus, inhibiting DNA repair pathways using target specific small molecule inhibitors may overcome cellular resistance to DNA damaging chemotherapies. Non-homologous end joining a major mechanism for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSB) in DNA is regulated in part by the serine/threonine kinase, DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The DNA-PK holoenzyme acts as a scaffold protein tethering broken DNA ends and recruiting other repair molecules. It also has enzymatic activity that may be involved in DNA damage signaling. Because of its’ central role in repair of DSBs, DNA-PK has been the focus of a number of small molecule studies. In these studies specific DNA-PK inhibitors have shown efficacy in synergizing chemotherapies in vitro. However, compounds currently known to specifically inhibit DNA-PK are limited by poor pharmacokinetics: these compounds have poor solubility and have high metabolic lability in vivo leading to short serum half-lives. Future improvement in DNA-PK inhibition will likely be achieved by designing new molecules based on the recently reported crystallographic structure of DNA-PK. Computer based drug

  7. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells.

  8. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging1

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. PMID:26224004

  9. Pathophysiology of Bronchoconstriction: Role of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bacsi, Attila; Pan, Lang; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview on the present understanding of roles of oxidative DNA damage repair in cell signaling underlying bronchoconstriction common to, but not restricted to various forms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Recent findings Bronchoconstriction is a tightening of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles with consequent wheezing and shortness of breath. Key stimuli include air pollutants, viral infections, allergens, thermal and osmotic changes, and shear stress of mucosal epithelium, triggering a wide range of cellular, vascular and neural events. Although activation of nerve fibers, the role of G-proteins, protein kinases and Ca++, and molecular interaction within contracting filaments of muscle are well defined, the overarching mechanisms by which a wide range of stimuli initiate these events are not fully understood. Many, if not all, stimuli increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are signaling and oxidatively modifying macromolecules, including DNA. The primary ROS target in DNA is guanine, and 8-oxoguanine is one of the most abundant base lesions. It is repaired by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1) during base excision repair processes. The product, free 8-oxoG base, is bound by OGG1 with high affinity, and the complex then functions as an activator of small GTPases, triggering pathways for inducing gene expression and contraction of intracellular filaments in mast and smooth muscle cells. Summary Oxidative DNA damage repair-mediated cell activation signaling result in gene expression that “primes” the mucosal epithelium and submucosal tissues to generate mediators of airway smooth muscle contractions. PMID:26694039

  10. DNA repair mechanisms in eukaryotes: Special focus in Entamoeba histolytica and related protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    López-Camarillo, César; Lopez-Casamichana, Mavil; Weber, Christian; Guillen, Nancy; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2009-12-01

    Eukaryotic cell viability highly relies on genome stability and DNA integrity maintenance. The cellular response to DNA damage mainly consists of six biological conserved pathways known as homologous recombination repair (HRR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and methyltransferase repair that operate in a concerted way to minimize genetic information loss due to a DNA lesion. Particularly, protozoan parasites survival depends on DNA repair mechanisms that constantly supervise chromosomes to correct damaged nucleotides generated by cytotoxic agents, host immune pressure or cellular processes. Here we reviewed the current knowledge about DNA repair mechanisms in the most relevant human protozoan pathogens. Additionally, we described the recent advances to understand DNA repair mechanisms in Entamoeba histolytica with special emphasis in the use of genomic approaches based on bioinformatic analysis of parasite genome sequence and microarrays technology.

  11. DNA damage and Repair Modify DNA methylation and Chromatin Domain of the Targeted Locus: Mechanism of allele methylation polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Morano, Annalisa; Zuchegna, Candida; Romano, Antonella; Muller, Mark T.; Gottesman, Max E.; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V.

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the changes in chromatin structure, DNA methylation and transcription during and after homologous DNA repair (HR). We find that HR modifies the DNA methylation pattern of the repaired segment. HR also alters local histone H3 methylation as well chromatin structure by inducing DNA-chromatin loops connecting the 5′ and 3′ ends of the repaired gene. During a two-week period after repair, transcription-associated demethylation promoted by Base Excision Repair enzymes further modifies methylation of the repaired DNA. Subsequently, the repaired genes display stable but diverse methylation profiles. These profiles govern the levels of expression in each clone. Our data argue that DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling induced by HR may be a source of permanent variation of gene expression in somatic cells. PMID:27629060

  12. DNA damage and Repair Modify DNA methylation and Chromatin Domain of the Targeted Locus: Mechanism of allele methylation polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Morano, Annalisa; Zuchegna, Candida; Romano, Antonella; Muller, Mark T; Gottesman, Max E; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the changes in chromatin structure, DNA methylation and transcription during and after homologous DNA repair (HR). We find that HR modifies the DNA methylation pattern of the repaired segment. HR also alters local histone H3 methylation as well chromatin structure by inducing DNA-chromatin loops connecting the 5' and 3' ends of the repaired gene. During a two-week period after repair, transcription-associated demethylation promoted by Base Excision Repair enzymes further modifies methylation of the repaired DNA. Subsequently, the repaired genes display stable but diverse methylation profiles. These profiles govern the levels of expression in each clone. Our data argue that DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling induced by HR may be a source of permanent variation of gene expression in somatic cells. PMID:27629060

  13. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%-80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genes RAD51 and BRCA1 were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels of RAD51 and BRCA1 in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression of RAD51 and BRCA1 by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  14. β2-spectrin depletion impairs DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pandita, Raj K.; Mujoo, Kalpana; Hambarde, Shashank; Sharma, Dharmendra; Mattoo, Abid R.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Charaka, Vijaya; Hunt, Clayton R.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2016-01-01

    β2-Spectrin (β2SP/SPTBN1, gene SPTBN1) is a key TGF-β/SMAD3/4 adaptor and transcriptional cofactor that regulates TGF-β signaling and can contribute to liver cancer development. Here we report that cells deficient in β2-Spectrin (β2SP) are moderately sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) and extremely sensitive to agents that cause interstrand cross-links (ICLs) or replication stress. In response to treatment with IR or ICL agents (formaldehyde, cisplatin, camptothecin, mitomycin), β2SP deficient cells displayed a higher frequency of cells with delayed γ-H2AX removal and a higher frequency of residual chromosome aberrations. Following hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stress, β2SP-deficient cells displayed delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci along with defective repair factor recruitment (MRE11, CtIP, RAD51, RPA, and FANCD2) as well as defective restart of stalled replication forks. Repair factor recruitment is a prerequisite for initiation of DNA damage repair by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, which was also defective in β2SP deficient cells. We propose that β2SP is required for maintaining genomic stability following replication fork stalling, whether induced by either ICL damage or replicative stress, by facilitating fork regression as well as DNA damage repair by homologous recombination. PMID:27248179

  15. DNA repair activity in fish and interest in ecotoxicology: a review.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2013-06-15

    The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O⁶-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities

  16. DNA mismatch repair: molecular mechanisms and biological function.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Mark J; Hsieh, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) guards the integrity of the genome in virtually all cells. It contributes about 1000-fold to the overall fidelity of replication and targets mispaired bases that arise through replication errors, during homologous recombination, and as a result of DNA damage. Cells deficient in MMR have a mutator phenotype in which the rate of spontaneous mutation is greatly elevated, and they frequently exhibit microsatellite instability at mono- and dinucleotide repeats. The importance of MMR in mutation avoidance is highlighted by the finding that defects in MMR predispose individuals to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. In addition to its role in postreplication repair, the MMR machinery serves to police homologous recombination events and acts as a barrier to genetic exchange between species. PMID:14527292

  17. A novel cell permeable DNA replication and repair marker

    PubMed Central

    Herce, Henry D; Rajan, Malini; Lättig-Tünnemann, Gisela; Fillies, Marion; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a key protein in DNA replication and repair. The dynamics of replication and repair in live cells is usually studied introducing translational fusions of PCNA. To obviate the need for transfection and bypass the problem of difficult to transfect and/or short lived cells, we have now developed a cell permeable replication and/or repair marker. The design of this marker has three essential molecular components: (1) an optimized artificial PCNA binding peptide; (2) a cell-penetrating peptide, derived from the HIV-1 Trans Activator of Transcription (TAT); (3) an in vivo cleavable linker, linking the two peptides. The resulting construct was taken up by human, hamster and mouse cells within minutes of addition to the media. Inside the cells, the cargo separated from the vector peptide and bound PCNA effectively. Both replication and repair sites could be directly labeled in live cells making it the first in vivo cell permeable peptide marker for these two fundamental cellular processes. Concurrently, we also introduced a quick peptide based PCNA staining method as an alternative to PCNA antibodies for immunofluorescence applications. In summary, we present here a versatile tool to instantaneously label repair and replication processes in fixed and live cells. PMID:25484186

  18. Genome-wide Transcriptome Profiling of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Guang; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Mo, Wei; Dai, Hui; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, Soo-Mi; Peng, Yang; Mo, Qianxing; Siwko, Stefan; Hu, Ruozhen; Lee, Ju-Seog; Hennessy, Bryan; Hanash, Samir; Mills, Gordon B.; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repair deficiency predisposes to cancer development, but also sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damage-inducing therapeutics. Here we identify an HR-defect (HRD) gene signature, which can be used to functionally assess HR repair status without interrogating individual genetic alterations in cells. By using this HRD gene signature as a functional network analysis tool, we discover that simultaneous loss of two major tumor suppressors BRCA1 and PTEN extensively rewire the HR repair-deficient phenotype, which is found in cells with defects in either BRCA1 or PTEN alone. Moreover, the HRD gene signature serves as an effective drug discovery platform to identify agents targeting HR repair as potential chemo/radio-sensitizers. More importantly, this HRD gene signature is able to predict clinical outcomes across multiple cancer lineages. Our findings, therefore, provide a molecular profile of HR repair to assess its status at a functional network level, which can provide both biological insights and have clinical implications in cancer. PMID:24553445

  19. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  20. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  1. The Dynamics of DNA Damage Repair and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Niraj M.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have led to several systems to study transcription from defined loci in living cells. It has now become possible to address long-standing questions regarding the interplay between the processes of DNA damage repair and transcription—two disparate processes that can occur on the same stretch of chromatin and which both lead to extensive chromatin change. Here we describe the development of a system to create enzymatically induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a site of inducible transcription and methods to study the interplay between these processes. PMID:23980011

  2. Meiotic interstrand DNA damage escapes paternal repair and causes chromosomal aberrations in the zygote by maternal misrepair

    DOE PAGES

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Gingerich, John; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2015-01-08

    De novo point mutations and chromosomal structural aberrations (CSA) detected in offspring of unaffected parents show a preferential paternal origin with higher risk for older fathers. Studies in rodents suggest that heritable mutations transmitted from the father can arise from either paternal or maternal misrepair of damaged paternal DNA, and that the entire spermatogenic cycle can be at risk after mutagenic exposure. Understanding the susceptibility and mechanisms of transmission of paternal mutations is important in family planning after chemotherapy and donor selection for assisted reproduction. We report that treatment of male mice with melphalan (MLP), a bifunctional alkylating agent widelymore » used in chemotherapy, induces DNA lesions during male mouse meiosis that persist unrepaired as germ cells progress through DNA repair-competent phases of spermatogenic development. After fertilization, unrepaired sperm DNA lesions are mis-repaired into CSA by the egg's DNA repair machinery producing chromosomally abnormal offspring. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of both pre- and post-fertilization DNA repair in assuring the genomic integrity of the conceptus.« less

  3. Meiotic interstrand DNA damage escapes paternal repair and causes chromosomal aberrations in the zygote by maternal misrepair

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Gingerich, John; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2015-01-08

    De novo point mutations and chromosomal structural aberrations (CSA) detected in offspring of unaffected parents show a preferential paternal origin with higher risk for older fathers. Studies in rodents suggest that heritable mutations transmitted from the father can arise from either paternal or maternal misrepair of damaged paternal DNA, and that the entire spermatogenic cycle can be at risk after mutagenic exposure. Understanding the susceptibility and mechanisms of transmission of paternal mutations is important in family planning after chemotherapy and donor selection for assisted reproduction. We report that treatment of male mice with melphalan (MLP), a bifunctional alkylating agent widely used in chemotherapy, induces DNA lesions during male mouse meiosis that persist unrepaired as germ cells progress through DNA repair-competent phases of spermatogenic development. After fertilization, unrepaired sperm DNA lesions are mis-repaired into CSA by the egg's DNA repair machinery producing chromosomally abnormal offspring. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of both pre- and post-fertilization DNA repair in assuring the genomic integrity of the conceptus.

  4. Meiotic interstrand DNA damage escapes paternal repair and causes chromosomal aberrations in the zygote by maternal misrepair

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Gingerich, John; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    De novo point mutations and chromosomal structural aberrations (CSA) detected in offspring of unaffected parents show a preferential paternal origin with higher risk for older fathers. Studies in rodents suggest that heritable mutations transmitted from the father can arise from either paternal or maternal misrepair of damaged paternal DNA, and that the entire spermatogenic cycle can be at risk after mutagenic exposure. Understanding the susceptibility and mechanisms of transmission of paternal mutations is important in family planning after chemotherapy and donor selection for assisted reproduction. We report that treatment of male mice with melphalan (MLP), a bifunctional alkylating agent widely used in chemotherapy, induces DNA lesions during male mouse meiosis that persist unrepaired as germ cells progress through DNA repair-competent phases of spermatogenic development. After fertilization, unrepaired sperm DNA lesions are mis-repaired into CSA by the egg's DNA repair machinery producing chromosomally abnormal offspring. These findings highlight the importance of both pre- and post-fertilization DNA repair in assuring the genomic integrity of the conceptus. PMID:25567288

  5. Genomic landscape of DNA repair genes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Kwang; Anker, Jonathan F; Carneiro, Benedito A; Chandra, Sunandana; Kaplan, Jason; Kalyan, Aparna; Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Platanias, Leonidas C; Giles, Francis J

    2016-04-26

    DNA repair genes are frequently mutated in cancer, yet limited data exist regarding the overall genomic landscape and functional implications of these alterations in their entirety. We created comprehensive lists of DNA repair genes and indirect caretakers. Mutation, copy number variation (CNV), and expression frequencies of these genes were analyzed in COSMIC. Mutation co-occurrence, clinical outcomes, and mutation burden were analyzed in TCGA. We report the 20 genes most frequently with mutations (n > 19,689 tumor samples for each gene), CNVs (n > 1,556), or up- or down-regulated (n = 7,998). Mutual exclusivity was observed as no genes displayed both high CNV gain and loss or high up- and down-regulation, and CNV gain and loss positively correlated with up- and down-regulation, respectively. Co-occurrence of mutations differed between cancers, and mutations in many DNA repair genes were associated with higher total mutation burden. Mutation and CNV frequencies offer insights into which genes may play tumor suppressive or oncogenic roles, such as NEIL2 and RRM2B, respectively. Mutual exclusivities within CNV and expression frequencies, and correlations between CNV and expression, support the functionality of these genomic alterations. This study provides comprehensive lists of candidate genes as potential biomarkers for genomic instability, novel therapeutic targets, or predictors of immunotherapy efficacy.

  6. Genomic landscape of DNA repair genes in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Benedito A.; Chandra, Sunandana; Kaplan, Jason; Kalyan, Aparna; Santa-Maria, Cesar A.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Giles, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes are frequently mutated in cancer, yet limited data exist regarding the overall genomic landscape and functional implications of these alterations in their entirety.  We created comprehensive lists of DNA repair genes and indirect caretakers.  Mutation, copy number variation (CNV), and expression frequencies of these genes were analyzed in COSMIC. Mutation co-occurrence, clinical outcomes, and mutation burden were analyzed in TCGA. We report the 20 genes most frequently with mutations (n > 19,689 tumor samples for each gene), CNVs (n > 1,556), or up- or down-regulated (n = 7,998).  Mutual exclusivity was observed as no genes displayed both high CNV gain and loss or high up- and down-regulation, and CNV gain and loss positively correlated with up- and down-regulation, respectively. Co-occurrence of mutations differed between cancers, and mutations in many DNA repair genes were associated with higher total mutation burden. Mutation and CNV frequencies offer insights into which genes may play tumor suppressive or oncogenic roles, such as NEIL2 and RRM2B, respectively.  Mutual exclusivities within CNV and expression frequencies, and correlations between CNV and expression, support the functionality of these genomic alterations. This study provides comprehensive lists of candidate genes as potential biomarkers for genomic instability, novel therapeutic targets, or predictors of immunotherapy efficacy. PMID:27004405

  7. DNA repair inhibition by UVA photoactivated fluoroquinolones and vemurafenib

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Matthew; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Karran, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous photosensitization is a common side effect of drug treatment and can be associated with an increased skin cancer risk. The immunosuppressant azathioprine, the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and vemurafenib—a BRAF inhibitor used to treat metastatic melanoma—are all recognized clinical photosensitizers. We have compared the effects of UVA radiation on cultured human cells treated with 6-thioguanine (6-TG, a DNA-embedded azathioprine surrogate), the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and vemurafenib. Despite widely different structures and modes of action, each of these drugs potentiated UVA cytotoxicity. UVA photoactivation of 6-TG, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was associated with the generation of singlet oxygen that caused extensive protein oxidation. In particular, these treatments were associated with damage to DNA repair proteins that reduced the efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. Although vemurafenib was also highly phototoxic to cultured cells, its effects were less dependent on singlet oxygen. Highly toxic combinations of vemurafenib and UVA caused little protein carbonylation but were nevertheless inhibitory to nucleotide excision repair. Thus, for three different classes of drugs, photosensitization by at least two distinct mechanisms is associated with reduced protection against potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic DNA damage. PMID:25414333

  8. Clinical Radiation Sensitivity With DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-08-01

    Adverse reactions to radiotherapy represent a confounding phenomenon in radiation oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen Breakage syndrome. A paucity of published data is available detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi anemia was associated with more than one-half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an ataxia-telangiectasia patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this report had complicated illnesses, in addition to cancer, and the radiotherapy administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation doses dangerous. Our findings support previous wisdom that radiotherapy should either be avoided or the doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes, which must be recognized by their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable, and functional assays of DNA repair become available.

  9. Clinical Radiation Sensitivity with DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Adverse reactions to radiation therapy represent a confounding phenomenon in Radiation Oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). There is a paucity of literature detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi Anemia was associated with over half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an A-T patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this paper had complicated illnesses in addition to cancer, and the radiation therapy that administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation therapy doses dangerous. Our review supports prior wisdom that radiation therapy should either be avoided, or doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes which must be recognized with their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable and functional assays of DNA repair become available. PMID:19616740

  10. The redox/DNA repair protein, Ref-1, is essential for early embryonic development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Xanthoudakis, S; Smeyne, R J; Wallace, J D; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of AP-1 proteins is modulated, in vitro, by a posttranslational mechanism involving reduction oxidation. This mode of regulation has been proposed to control both the transcriptional activity and the oncogenic potential of Fos and Jun. Previous studies revealed that reduction of oxidized Fos and Jun by a cellular protein, Ref-1, stimulates sequence-specific AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Ref-1, a bifunctional protein, is also capable of initiating the repair of apurinic/apyrymidinic sites in damaged DNA. The relationship between the redox and DNA repair activities of Ref-1 is intriguing; both activities have been suggested to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. To investigate the physiological function of Ref-1, we used a gene targeting strategy to generate mice lacking a functional ref-1 gene. We report here that heterozygous mutant mice develop into adulthood without any apparent abnormalities. In contrast, homozygous mutant mice, lacking a functional ref-1 gene, die during embryonic development. Detailed analysis indicates that death occurs following blastocyst formation, shortly after the time of implantation. Degeneration of the mutant embryos is clearly evident at embryonic day 5.5. These findings demonstrate that Ref-1 is essential for early embryonic development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8799128

  11. A hormone-DNA repair circuit governs the response to genotoxic insult

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Dean, Jeffry L.; Schrecengost, Randy S.; de Leeuw, Renee; Han, Sumin; Ma, Teng; Den, Robert B.; Dicker, Adam P.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in DNA repair promote tumor development, but the impact on tumor progression is poorly understood. Here, discovery of a biochemical circuit linking hormone signaling to DNA repair and therapeutic resistance is reported. Findings demonstrate that androgen receptor (AR) activity is induced by DNA damage, and promotes expression and activation of a gene expression program governing DNA repair. Subsequent investigation revealed that activated AR promotes resolution of double-strand breaks and resistance to DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, DNAPKcs was identified as a key target of AR after damage, controlling AR-mediated DNA repair and cell survival after genotoxic insult. Finally, DNAPKcs was shown to potentiate AR function, consistent with a dual role in both DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Combined, these studies identify the AR-DNAPKcs circuit as a major effector of DNA repair and therapeutic resistance, and establish a new node for therapeutic intervention in advanced disease. PMID:24027197

  12. Understanding the molecular mechanism of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslink repair

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde induces DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in several experimental in vitro and in vivo test systems, as well as in exposed human workers. DPCs are repaired by several DNA repair pathways in different species, but the molecular understanding of DPC repair in human tissues...

  13. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-09-22

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  14. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  15. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maxwell W; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M; Huck, John D; Surtees, Jennifer A; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2-Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2-Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2-Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2-Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2-Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  16. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  17. Melatonin enhances DNA repair capacity possibly by affecting genes involved in DNA damage responsive pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melatonin, a hormone-like substance involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm, has been demonstrated to protect cells against oxidative DNA damage and to inhibit tumorigenesis. Results In the current study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on DNA strand breaks using the alkaline DNA comet assay in breast cancer (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HCT-15) cell lines. Our results demonstrated that cells pretreated with melatonin had significantly shorter Olive tail moments compared to non-melatonin treated cells upon mutagen (methyl methanesulfonate, MMS) exposure, indicating an increased DNA repair capacity after melatonin treatment. We further examined the genome-wide gene expression in melatonin pretreated MCF-7 cells upon carcinogen exposure and detected altered expression of many genes involved in multiple DNA damage responsive pathways. Genes exhibiting altered expression were further analyzed for functional interrelatedness using network- and pathway-based bioinformatics analysis. The top functional network was defined as having relevance for “DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair, Gene Expression, [and] Cancer”. Conclusions These findings suggest that melatonin may enhance DNA repair capacity by affecting several key genes involved in DNA damage responsive pathways. PMID:23294620

  18. Redox activation of Fos-Jun DNA binding activity is mediated by a DNA repair enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Xanthoudakis, S; Miao, G; Wang, F; Pan, Y C; Curran, T

    1992-01-01

    The DNA binding activity of Fos and Jun is regulated in vitro by a post-translational mechanism involving reduction-oxidation. Redox regulation occurs through a conserved cysteine residue located in the DNA binding domain of Fos and Jun. Reduction of this residue by chemical reducing agents or by a ubiquitous nuclear redox factor (Ref-1) recently purified from Hela cells, stimulates AP-1 DNA binding activity in vitro, whereas oxidation or chemical modification of the cysteine has an inhibitory effect on DNA binding activity. Here we demonstrate that the protein product of the ref-1 gene stimulates the DNA binding activity of Fos-Jun heterodimers, Jun-Jun homodimers and Hela cell AP-1 proteins as well as that of several other transcription factors including NF-kappa B, Myb and members of the ATF/CREB family. Furthermore, immunodepletion analysis indicates that Ref-1 is the major AP-1 redox activity in Hela nuclear extracts. Interestingly, Ref-1 is a bifunctional protein; it also possesses an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease DNA repair activity. However, the redox and DNA repair activities of Ref-1 can, in part, be distinguished biochemically. This study suggests a novel link between transcription factor regulation, oxidative signalling and DNA repair processes in higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:1380454

  19. DNA repair by the cryptic endonuclease activity of Mu transposase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonyoung; Harshey, Rasika M

    2010-06-01

    Phage Mu transposes by two distinct pathways depending on the specific stage of its life cycle. A common strand transfer intermediate is resolved differentially in the two pathways. During lytic growth, the intermediate is resolved by replication of Mu initiated within the flanking target DNA; during integration of infecting Mu, it is resolved without replication, by removal and repair of DNA from a previous host that is still attached to the ends of the incoming Mu genome. We have discovered that the cryptic endonuclease activity reported for the isolated C-terminal domain of the transposase MuA [Wu Z, Chaconas G (1995) A novel DNA binding and nuclease activity in domain III of Mu transposase: Evidence for a catalytic region involved in donor cleavage. EMBO J 14:3835-3843], which is not observed in the full-length protein or in the assembled transpososome in vitro, is required in vivo for removal of the attached host DNA or "5'flap" after the infecting Mu genome has integrated into the E. coli chromosome. Efficient flap removal also requires the host protein ClpX, which is known to interact with the C-terminus of MuA to remodel the transpososome for replication. We hypothesize that ClpX constitutes part of a highly regulated mechanism that unmasks the cryptic nuclease activity of MuA specifically in the repair pathway. PMID:20167799

  20. DNA excision repair: where do all the dimers go?

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael G; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-08-15

    Exposure of cells to UV light from the sun causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA that have the potential to lead to mutation and cancer. In humans, pyrimidine dimers are removed from the genome in the form of ~30 nt-long oligomers by concerted dual incisions. Though nearly 50 y of excision repair research has uncovered many details of UV photoproduct damage recognition and removal, the fate of the excised oligonucleotides and, in particular, the ultimate fate of the chemically very stable pyrimidine dimers remain unknown. Physiologically relevant UV doses introduce hundreds of thousands of pyrimidine dimers in diploid human cells, which are excised from the genome within ~24 h. Once removed from the genome, "where do all the dimers go?" In a recent study we addressed this question. Although our study did not determine the fate of the dimer itself, it revealed that the excised ~30-mer is released from the duplex in a tight complex with the transcription/repair factor TFIIH. This finding combined with recent reports that base and oligonucleotide products of the base and double-strand break repair pathways also make stable complexes with the cognate repair enzymes, and that these complexes activate the MAP kinase and checkpoint signaling pathways, respectively, raises the possibility that TFIIH-30-mer excision complexes may play a role in signaling reactions in response to UV damage.

  1. Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to numerous noxious physical, chemical and environmental agents. Some of these agents directly or indirectly adversely affect the skin. Cutaneous overexposure to environmental solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-400 nm) has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Therefore, there is a need to develop measures or strategies, and nutritional components are increasingly being explored for this purpose. The polyphenols present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including protection from UV carcinogenesis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea. In this review article, we have discussed the most recent investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis. The oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment. New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis.

  2. Topical liposomal DNA-repair enzymes in polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Angelika; Legat, Franz J; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Quehenberger, Franz; Wolf, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a very frequent photodermatosis in Europe whose pathogenesis may involve resistance to UV-induced immune suppression and simultaneous immune reactions against skin photoneoantigens. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intra-individual half-body trial to investigate the protective effect of an after-sun (AS) lotion containing DNA-repair enzymes (photolyase from Anacystis nidulans and Micrococcus luteus extract with endonuclease activity). Fourteen PLE patients were exposed to suberythemal doses of solar-simulated UV radiation on 4 consecutive days at 4 symmetrically located PLE-prone test fields per patient. The test fields were treated with (i) active AS lotion or (ii) a placebo lotion immediately after each UV exposure, or (iii) an SPF30 sunscreen before UV exposure or left untreated. All test fields were exposed to photoactivating blue light 1 h after each UV exposure. As shown by a newly established specific PLE test score (AA + SI + 0.4P [range, 0-12], where AA is affected area score [range, 0-4], SI is skin infiltration score [range, 0-4], and P is pruritus score on a visual analogue scale [range, 0-10]), PLE symptoms were significantly fewer on test sites treated with active AS lotion than on untreated (P = 0.00049) or placebo-treated test sites (P = 0.024). At 144 h after first UV exposure (the time point of maximal PLE symptoms), the mean test scores for untreated, active AS lotion-treated, and placebo-treated test fields were 4.39, 1.73 (61% reduction; 95% confidence interval (CI), 36% to 85%), and 3.20 (27% reduction; 95% CI, 3% to 51%), respectively. Pretreatment with SPF30 sunscreen completely prevented PLE symptoms in all patients. The present results indicate that DNA damage may trigger PLE and that the application of topical liposomes containing DNA repair enzymes to increase DNA repair may effectively prevent PLE.

  3. DNA Damage Response and DNA Repair in Skeletal Myocytes From a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    We studied DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair capacities of skeletal muscle cells from a mouse model of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by loss-of-function mutation of survival of motor neuron (Smn). Primary myocyte cultures derived from skeletal muscle satellite cells of neonatal control and mutant SMN mice had similar myotube length, myonuclei, satellite cell marker Pax7 and differentiated myotube marker myosin, and acetylcholine receptor clustering. DNA damage was induced in differentiated skeletal myotubes by γ-irradiation, etoposide, and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Unexposed control and SMA myotubes had stable genome integrity. After γ-irradiation and etoposide, myotubes repaired most DNA damage equally. Control and mutant myotubes exposed to MMS exhibited equivalent DNA damage without repair. Control and SMA myotube nuclei contained DDR proteins phospho-p53 and phospho-H2AX foci that, with DNA damage, dispersed and then re-formed similarly after recovery. We conclude that mouse primary satellite cell-derived myotubes effectively respond to and repair DNA strand-breaks, while DNA alkylation repair is underrepresented. Morphological differentiation, genome stability, genome sensor, and DNA strand-break repair potential are preserved in mouse SMA myocytes; thus, reduced SMN does not interfere with myocyte differentiation, genome integrity, and DNA repair, and faulty DNA repair is unlikely pathogenic in SMA. PMID:27452406

  4. SUMO-mediated regulation of DNA damage repair and responses

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Prabha; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Sumoylation plays important roles during DNA damage repair and responses. Recent broad-scope and substrate-based studies have shed light on the regulation and significance of sumoylation during these processes. An emerging paradigm is that sumoylation of many DNA metabolism proteins is controlled by DNA engagement. Such “on-site modification” can explain low substrate modification levels and has important implications in sumoylation mechanisms and effects. New studies also suggest that sumoylation can regulate a process through an ensemble effect or via major substrates. Additionally, we describe new trends in the functional effects of sumoylation, such as bi-directional changes in biomolecule binding and multi-level coordination with other modifications. These emerging themes and models will stimulate our thinking and research in sumoylation and genome maintenance. PMID:25778614

  5. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  6. Involvement of pelvic inflammation-related mismatch repair abnormalities and microsatellite instability in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fuseya, Chiho; Horiuchi, Akiko; Hayashi, Akiko; Suzuki, Akihisa; Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuma; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation in the ovary, including ovulation and pelvic inflammatory disease, has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Endometriotic lesions trigger a local inflammatory reaction and have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis are still to be elucidated. To clarify the involvement of mismatch repair (MMR) abnormalities in the inflammation-associated malignant transformation of endometriosis, the immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins (human mutL homolog 1 [hMLH1] and human mutS homolog 2 [hMSH2]) was examined in 27 cases of ovarian endometriosis, 25 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and 39 cases of solitary ovarian carcinoma. In addition, the relationship between mismatch repair abnormalities including the microsatellite instability, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) mutation, and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. The expression of mismatch repair proteins was stepwisely decreased in endometriosis, ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and ovarian carcinoma. Tumors harboring multiple microsatellite instability (high-frequency microsatellite instability [MSI-H]) were detected in 4 (14.8%) of 27 cases of endometriosis and 7 (30.4%) of 23 cases of ovarian carcinomas. The frequency of PTEN mutations was higher in MSI-H cases than in microsatellite instability-stable (MSI-S) cases. In 2 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, the decreased expression of mismatch repair proteins and MSI-H was observed in both the endometriosis and carcinoma lesions. Clinicopathologically, the MSI-H cases were associated with elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein and higher white blood cell counts. These findings suggest that mismatch repair abnormalities might be involved in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis and that

  7. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens.

  8. DNA bending propensity in the presence of base mismatches: implications for DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Predeus, Alexander V; Mukherjee, Shayantani; Feig, Michael

    2013-05-23

    DNA bending is believed to facilitate the initial recognition of the mismatched base for repair. The repair efficiencies are dependent on both the mismatch type and neighboring nucleotide sequence. We have studied bending of several DNA duplexes containing canonical matches: A:T and G:C; various mismatches: A:A, A:C, G:A, G:G, G:T, C:C, C:T, and T:T; and a bis-abasic site: X:X. Free-energy profiles were generated for DNA bending using umbrella sampling. The highest energetic cost associated with DNA bending is observed for canonical matches while bending free energies are lower in the presence of mismatches, with the lowest value for the abasic site. In all of the sequences, DNA duplexes bend toward the major groove with widening of the minor groove. For homoduplexes, DNA bending is observed to occur via smooth deformations, whereas for heteroduplexes, kinks are observed at the mismatch site during strong bending. In general, pyrimidine:pyrimidine mismatches are the most destabilizing, while purine:purine mismatches lead to intermediate destabilization, and purine:pyrimidine mismatches are the least destabilizing. The ease of bending is partially correlated with the binding affinity of MutS to the mismatch pairs and subsequent repair efficiencies, indicating that intrinsic DNA bending propensities are a key factor of mismatch recognition.

  9. Pulmonary abnormalities and serum immunoglobulins in facsimile machine repair technicians exposed to butyl methacrylate fume.

    PubMed

    Raymond, L W

    1996-04-01

    Seven repair technicians (RT, site A) repeatedly exposed to facsimile machine fume developed recurring sore throat, fever, lymphadenopathy, chest tightness, dry cough, and dyspnea. The fume concentration was low (0.6 mg/m3 of breathing-zone air) but it contained butyl methacrylate (BMA), a known skin sensitizer. Although chest radiographs were normal, three of the seven RT-A had lung crackles and spirometric abnormalities, and increased serum levels of immunoglobulins IgE or IgM. Symptoms and most other abnormalities improved when exposure to BMA was stopped. We later evaluated workers in two other sites (B and C). Six RT-B had daily contact with BMA fume (0.14 to 0.40 mg/m3 of air) at a field repair depot. Six administrative and six sales staff members (AS-B, SS-B) without regular fume exposure served as controls. All RT-B had elevated serum IgE levels (202+/-69 U/mL [SEM]; normal <41 U/mL). IgE and fume levels were positively correlated (r=0.83). four RT-B had lung crackles, but few symptoms and normal results of spirometry. The crackles cleared 8 weeks after substitution of a BMA-free paper, but IgE levels remained high (201+/-69). The nonexposed AS-B and SS-B had no crackles. Their IgE levels were normal (19+/-4 U/mL [SEM]; p<0.01). The crackles suggest BMA fume might have caused inflammation in terminal airways units. The significance of the IgE elevations is also uncertain since this class of antibodies is usually associated with asthma, not pneumonitis. In view of these uncertainties, BMA was eliminated from the facsimile transceiver process. Follow-up of group C workers (n=32) found no symptoms, lung crackles, or abnormal results of spirometry. However, IgE concentrations were elevated in 15 and remained so for 21 months, perhaps because of continuing exposure to residual low levels of BMA. These findings suggest that BMA-bearing facsimile fume caused increased IgE levels in RT at sites A, B, and C, and might have resulted in permanent lung injury if such

  10. Interactions between branched DNAs and peptide inhibitors of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kepple, Kevin V; Patel, Namita; Salamon, Peter; Segall, Anca M

    2008-09-01

    The RecG helicase of Escherichia coli unwinds both Holliday junction (HJ) and replication fork DNA substrates. Our lab previously identified and characterized peptides (WRWYCR and KWWCRW) that block the activity of RecG on these substrates. We determined that the peptides bind HJ DNA and prevent the binding of RecG. Herein, we present further evidence that the peptides are competitive inhibitors of RecG binding to its substrates. We have generated structural models of interactions between WRWYCR and a junction substrate. Using the fluorescent probe 2-aminopurine, we show that inhibitors interact with highest affinity with HJs (K(d) = 14 nM) and approximately 4- to 9-fold more weakly with replication fork substrates. The fluorescence assay results agree with the structural model, and predict the molecular basis for interactions between HJ-trapping peptides and branched DNA molecules. Specifically, aromatic amino acids in the peptides stack with bases at the center of the DNA substrates. These interactions are stabilized by hydrogen bonds to the DNA and by intrapeptide interactions. These peptides inhibit several proteins involved in DNA repair in addition to RecG, have been useful as tools to dissect recombination, and possess antibiotic activity. Greater understanding of the peptides' mechanism of action will further increase their utility.

  11. Functions of single-strand DNA-binding proteins in DNA replication, recombination, and repair.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Aimee H

    2012-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) DNA contains all of the necessary genetic information, although practical use of this information requires unwinding of the duplex DNA. DNA unwinding creates single-stranded (ss) DNA intermediates that serve as templates for myriad cellular functions. Exposure of ssDNA presents several problems to the cell. First, ssDNA is thermodynamically less stable than dsDNA, which leads to spontaneous formation of duplex secondary structures that impede genome maintenance processes. Second, relative to dsDNA, ssDNA is hypersensitive to chemical and nucleolytic attacks that can cause damage to the genome. Cells deal with these potential problems by encoding specialized ssDNA-binding proteins (SSBs) that bind to and stabilize ssDNA structures required for essential genomic processes. SSBs are essential proteins found in all domains of life. SSBs bind ssDNA with high affinity and in a sequence-independent manner and, in doing so, SSBs help to form the central nucleoprotein complex substrate for DNA replication, recombination, and repair processes. While SSBs are found in every organism, the proteins themselves share surprisingly little sequence similarity, subunit composition, and oligomerization states. All SSB proteins contain at least one DNA-binding oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold, which consists minimally of a five stranded beta-sheet arranged as a beta barrel capped by a single alpha helix. The OB fold is responsible for both ssDNA binding and oligomerization (for SSBs that operate as oligomers). The overall organization of OB folds varies between bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. As part of SSB/ssDNA cellular structures, SSBs play direct roles in the DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In many cases, SSBs have been found to form specific complexes with diverse genome maintenance proteins, often helping to recruit SSB/ssDNA-processing enzymes to the proper cellular sites of action. This clustering of genome maintenance

  12. Unscheduled DNA Synthesis: The Clinical and Functional Assay for Global Genomic DNA Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Jean J.; Kelly, Crystal M.

    2016-01-01

    The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay measures the ability of a cell to perform global genomic nucleotide excision repair (NER). This chapter provides instructions for the application of this technique by creating 6-4 photoproducts and pyrimidine dimers using UV-C irradiation. This procedure is designed specifically for quantification of the 6-4 photoproducts. Repair is quantified by the amount of radioactive thymidine incorporated during repair synthesis after this insult, and radioactivity is evaluated by grain counting after autoradiography. The results are used to clinically diagnose human DNA repair deficiency disorders and provide a basis for investigation of repair deficiency in human tissues or tumors. No other functional assay is available that directly measures the capacity to perform NER on the entire genome without the use of specific antibodies. Since live cells are required for this assay, explant culture techniques must be previously established. Host cell reactivation (HCR), as discussed in Chapter 37, is not an equivalent technique, as it measures only transcription-coupled repair (TCR) at active genes, a small subset of total NER. PMID:24623250

  13. Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, K.D.; Holman, M.A.; Mitchell, D.

    1997-02-18

    The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlated with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Malloy, K D; Holman, M A; Mitchell, D; Detrich, H W

    1997-02-18

    The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlate with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. PMID:9037040

  15. Antibiotic persistence: the role of spontaneous DNA repair response.

    PubMed

    Debbia, E A; Roveta, S; Schito, A M; Gualco, L; Marchese, A

    2001-01-01

    Persisters are a small proportion of a bacterial population that exists in a physiological state permitting survival despite the lethal activity of antibiotics. To explain this phenomenon, it has been suggested that persisters are bacteria repairing spontaneous errors of DNA synthesis. To verify this assumption, Escherichia coli AB1157 and its lexA3 derivative were exposed to a dose 6x MIC of various antibiotics representative of different molecular mechanisms of action (ampicillin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin). Bacterial cell counts, after 24 hr of exposure to the antimicrobials, revealed a reduction of about 90% of viable organisms in the lexA3 strains in comparison to the lexA+. In several cases, the number of colony-forming units decreased below the limit of assay. This behavior was noted with all antibiotics used, alone or in combination (amikacin plus ceftriaxone and amikacin plus ciprofloxacin). The same experiments were repeated using E. coli AB1157 cultured in the presence of mitomycin C (0.25x MIC), and the number of survivors exceeded by about 90% the values found in the nonexposed control. In contrast, in the sulA background, mitomycin C reacted synergically with all the antibiotics tested causing a strong reduction of the survivors in comparison with the control. The addition of chloramphenicol (0.125x MIC), on the contrary, caused a reduction of the number of survivors of about 90%. These findings indicate that, when DNA repair is active (a mechanism known to block cell division), the number of survivors is greater than that observed with lexA3. Thus, in addition to other possible explanations, persisters might be a fraction of bacteria that during antibiotic treatment are not growing because they are repairing spontaneous errors of DNA synthesis.

  16. Integrating Multi-omics Data to Dissect Mechanisms of DNA repair Dysregulation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Rohart, Florian; Simpson, Peter T.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Ragan, Mark A.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes and pathways that are transcriptionally dysregulated in cancer provide the first line of evidence for the altered DNA repair status in tumours, and hence have been explored intensively as a source for biomarker discovery. The molecular mechanisms underlying DNA repair dysregulation, however, have not been systematically investigated in any cancer type. In this study, we performed a statistical analysis to dissect the roles of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), DNA methylation (DM) at gene promoter regions and the expression changes of transcription factors (TFs) in the differential expression of individual DNA repair genes in normal versus tumour breast samples. These gene-level results were summarised at pathway level to assess whether different DNA repair pathways are affected in distinct manners. Our results suggest that CNA and expression changes of TFs are major causes of DNA repair dysregulation in breast cancer, and that a subset of the identified TFs may exert global impacts on the dysregulation of multiple repair pathways. Our work hence provides novel insights into DNA repair dysregulation in breast cancer. These insights improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the DNA repair biomarkers identified thus far, and have potential to inform future biomarker discovery. PMID:27666291

  17. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin C; Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide is a safe, widely available vitamin that reduces the immune suppressive effects of UV, enhances DNA repair in keratinocytes and has shown promise in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Here, we report the effect of nicotinamide on DNA damage and repair in primary human melanocytes. Nicotinamide significantly enhanced the repair of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV exposure. It also enhanced the repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by the culture conditions in unirradiated melanocytes. A significant increase in the percentage of melanocytes undergoing unscheduled but not scheduled DNA synthesis was observed, confirming that nicotinamide enhances DNA repair in human melanocytes. In summary, nicotinamide, by enhancing DNA repair in melanocytes, is a potential agent for the chemoprevention of cutaneous melanoma.

  18. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin C; Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide is a safe, widely available vitamin that reduces the immune suppressive effects of UV, enhances DNA repair in keratinocytes and has shown promise in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Here, we report the effect of nicotinamide on DNA damage and repair in primary human melanocytes. Nicotinamide significantly enhanced the repair of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV exposure. It also enhanced the repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by the culture conditions in unirradiated melanocytes. A significant increase in the percentage of melanocytes undergoing unscheduled but not scheduled DNA synthesis was observed, confirming that nicotinamide enhances DNA repair in human melanocytes. In summary, nicotinamide, by enhancing DNA repair in melanocytes, is a potential agent for the chemoprevention of cutaneous melanoma. PMID:24798949

  19. The ups and downs of DNA repair biomarkers for PARP inhibitor therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoZhe; Weaver, David T

    2011-01-01

    PARP inhibitors are emerging as a valuable new drug class in the treatment of cancer. Recent discoveries make a compelling case for the complexity of DNA repair biomarker evaluation and underscore the need to examine at multiple biomarkers in a relational manner. This review updates the current trends in DNA repair biomarker strategies in use for the PARP inhibitors and describes the impact of many DNA repair biomarkers on PARP inhibitor benefit in the cancer clinic. PMID:21968427

  20. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2016-02-01

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:26746812

  1. The RASSF1A Tumor Suppressor Regulates XPA-Mediated DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Donninger, Howard; Clark, Jennifer; Rinaldo, Francesca; Nelson, Nicholas; Barnoud, Thibaut; Schmidt, M. Lee; Hobbing, Katharine R.; Vos, Michele D.; Sils, Brian

    2014-01-01

    RASSF1A may be the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor identified in human cancer so far. It is a proapoptotic Ras effector and plays an important role in the apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR). We now show that in addition to DDR regulation, RASSF1A also plays a key role in the DNA repair process itself. We show that RASSF1A forms a DNA damage-regulated complex with the key DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA). XPA requires RASSF1A to exert full repair activity, and RASSF1A-deficient cells exhibit an impaired ability to repair DNA. Moreover, a cancer-associated RASSF1A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant exhibits differential XPA binding and inhibits DNA repair. The interaction of XPA with other components of the repair complex, such as replication protein A (RPA), is controlled in part by a dynamic acetylation/deacetylation cycle. We found that RASSF1A and its SNP variant differentially regulate XPA protein acetylation, and the SNP variant hyperstabilizes the XPA-RPA70 complex. Thus, we identify two novel functions for RASSF1A in the control of DNA repair and protein acetylation. As RASSF1A modulates both apoptotic DDR and DNA repair, it may play an important and unanticipated role in coordinating the balance between repair and death after DNA damage. PMID:25368379

  2. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and DNA Repair in Female Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, Annemarie; Guggenberger, Bianca; Eichberger, Lukas; Pöppelmeyer, Christina; Gschaider, Michaela; Tosevska, Anela; Mare, George; Briskey, David; Brath, Helmut; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is associated with oxidative stress which in turn can lead to DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to analyze oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in regard to hyperglycemic state and diabetes duration. Methods Female T2DM patients (n = 146) were enrolled in the MIKRODIAB study and allocated in two groups regarding their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (HbA1c≤7.5%, n = 74; HbA1c>7.5%, n = 72). In addition, tertiles according to diabetes duration (DD) were created (DDI = 6.94±3.1 y, n = 49; DDII = 13.35±1.1 y, n = 48; DDIII = 22.90±7.3 y, n = 49). Oxidative stress parameters, including ferric reducing ability potential, malondialdehyde, oxidized and reduced glutathione, reduced thiols, oxidized LDL and F2-Isoprostane as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Damage to DNA was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and whole blood with single cell gel electrophoresis. DNA base excision repair capacity was tested with the modified comet repair assay. Additionally, mRNA expressions of nine genes related to base excision repair were analyzed in a subset of 46 matched individuals. Results No significant differences in oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to DNA and base excision repair capacity, neither between a HbA1c cut off />7.5%, nor between diabetes duration was found. A significant up-regulation in mRNA expression was found for APEX1, LIG3 and XRCC1 in patients with >7.5% HbA1c. Additionally, we observed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, Framingham risk score, systolic blood pressure, BMI and lower HDL-cholesterol in the hyperglycemic group. Conclusion BMI, blood pressure and blood lipid status were worse in hyperglycemic individuals. However, no major disparities regarding oxidative stress, damage to DNA and DNA repair were present which

  3. Investigating the effects of the presence of foreign DNA on DNA methylation and DNA repair events in cultured eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, J; van der Westhuizen, F H; Pretorius, P J

    2013-01-01

    Methylation of DNA in eukaryotic cells, global as well as gene-specific, is affected by endogenous and endogenous factors. In this paper, it is reported that deviations in DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle are affected in 143B cultured cells containing an expression vector. Global DNA methylation analysis with cytosine-extension assay revealed a decreased global DNA methylation in the presence of the expression vector. Less promoter-specific methylation, as measured by bisulfite-MS PCR, was observed for MGMT and p16INK4a in vector-containing cells. Comet assay investigations revealed a negative effect on the DNA repair capacity of both BER and NER in Complex III compromised cells. This was reflected in the down-regulation of hOGG1 and ERCC1 expression. The results presented in this paper support the existence of a strong relationship between impaired mitochondrial function and deviations in DNA methylation and extend this relationship to impaired DNA repair.

  4. DNA-PK is involved in repairing a transient surge of DNA breaks induced by deceleration of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Martin, Melvenia; Torres, Michael J.; Gu, Cory; Pluth, Janice M; DeBernardi, Maria; McDonald, Jeoffrey S.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Cells that suffer substantial inhibition of DNA replication halt their cell cycle via a checkpoint response mediated by the PI3 kinases ATM and ATR. It is unclear how cells cope with milder replication insults, which are under the threshold for ATM and ATR activation. A third PI3 kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), is also activated following replication inhibition, but the role DNA-PK might play in response to perturbed replication is unclear since this kinase does not activate the signaling cascades involved in the S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that mild, transient drug-induced perturbation of DNA replication rapidly induced DNA breaks that promptly disappeared in cells that contained a functional DNA-PK whereas such breaks persisted in cells that were deficient in DNA-PK activity. After the initial transient burst of DNA breaks, cells with a functional DNA-PK did not halt replication and continued to synthesize DNA at a slow pace in the presence of replication inhibitors. In contrast, DNA-PK deficient cells subject to low levels of replication inhibition halted cell cycle progression via an ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The ATM kinase was dispensable for the induction of the initial DNA breaks. These observations suggest that DNA-PK is involved in setting a high threshold for the ATR-Chk1-mediated S-phase checkpoint by promptly repairing DNA breaks that appear immediately following inhibition of DNA replication. PMID:17280685

  5. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JB; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several functionally unconfirmed

  6. Tetrameric Ctp1 coordinates DNA binding and bridging in DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Sara N.; Appel, C. Denise; Westmoreland, Jim; Williams, Jessica S.; Nguyen, Yvonne; Robertson, Patrick D.; Resnick, Michael A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Ctp1 (aka CtIP or Sae2) collaborates with Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 to initiate repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), but its function(s) remain enigmatic. We report that tetrameric Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ctp1 harbors multivalent DNA-binding and bridging activities. Through structural and biophysical analyses of the Ctp1 tetramer we define the salient features of Ctp1 architecture: an N-terminal interlocking tetrameric helical dimer-of-dimers (THDD) domain and a central intrinsically disordered region (IDR) linked to C-terminal “RHR” DNA interaction motifs. The THDD, IDR and RHR are required for Ctp1 DNA bridging activity in vitro and both the THDD and RHR are required for efficient DSB repair in S. pombe. Our results establish non-nucleolytic roles for Ctp1 in binding and coordination of DSB repair intermediates and suggest that ablation of human CtIP DNA binding by truncating mutations underlie the CTIP-linked Seckel and Jawad syndromes. PMID:25580577

  7. DNA damage, repair and photoadaptation in a Xiphophorus fish hybrid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David L; Paniker, Lakshmi; Douki, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to sunlight is responsible for most cutaneous malignant melanomas in the human population. It is very likely that DNA damage is an initial event in melanomagenesis, however, the role played by this damage is an open question. To this end, we used a hemipigmented F(1) hybrid of the fish genus Xiphophorus and HPLC tandem mass spectrometry to examine the effects of melanin on the induction and repair of the predominant UV-induced photoproducts formed in skin cell DNA. We found that heavily pigmented skin cells had about half the damage of nonpigmented cells and the relative induction of the major photoproducts was independent of the degree of pigmentation. The efficiency of photoenzymatic repair was the same in nonpigmented and pigmented areas of the fish. We found no evidence of residual damage at 10 days after the last exposure. Most striking was that repeated exposure to multiple doses of UVB caused a very significant photoadaptive response. Rather than an accumulation of damage after five doses of UVB we saw a significant reduction in the amount of damage induced after the final dose compared with the initial dose. The relevance of these observations is discussed in the context of melanoma susceptibility and UVB thresholds.

  8. Cerebellar neurodegeneration in human hereditary DNA repair disorders.

    PubMed

    Kohji, T; Hayashi, M; Shioda, K; Minagawa, M; Morimatsu, Y; Tamagawa, K; Oda, M

    1998-02-27

    Recent findings have focused attention on the role of apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases, however, the apoptotic process in child-onset brain disorders has been little investigated. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are hereditary disorders characterized by impaired DNA repair and neurodegeneration. We investigated apoptotic cell death in the cerebellum of five cases of XP group A (XPA), four cases of CS, and twelve controls, using TdT-mediated DIG-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemical staining for bcl-2, bcl-x, p53, bax, BDNF and Trk B. The TUNEL-positive cells were found in the granule cells of the cerebellar cortex of two patients with XPA and two patients with CS, whereas such cells were not detected in the cerebellar cortex in controls. Upregulation of bcl-2 or BDNF was not observed, and bcl-x expression was not altered. Some patients showed nuclear expression of p53 in the granule cells and/or molecular layer, bax-positive glial cells in the cerebellar white matter, and a few Trk B-positive cells in the granular layer. These findings suggest that apoptotic cell death can be involved in the cerebellar degeneration in patients with hereditary defects in DNA repair mechanisms.

  9. [DNA repair--a fundamental factor in ageing and development of cancer].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Stevnsner, Tinna; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2006-06-12

    Advanced age and increased incidence of many illnesses such as cancer are closely linked. The reasons for such a link are numerous but one important factor is DNA repair. DNA repair pathways in both nuclei and mitochondria ensure that genomic instability is minimised, thus preventing transformation and premature cellular decay. However, overall cellular DNA repair capacity decreases with age; moreover, some individuals are born with defects in repair systems. The resulting lower capacity for repair of DNA damage increases mutation load and changes normal cellular functions such as transcription, thereby contributing to the ageing process as well to the onset of various cancers. DNA repair capacity is an important cellular marker that should be considered as a standard clinical test.

  10. DNA Repair Profiling Reveals Nonrandom Outcomes at Cas9-Mediated Breaks.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Megan; Capurso, Daniel; Carter, Matthew M; Thompson, Matthew S; Frias, Elizabeth; Russ, Carsten; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Nye, Christopher; Gradia, Scott; Vidal, Bastien; Zheng, Jiashun; Hoffman, Gregory R; Fuller, Christopher K; May, Andrew P

    2016-08-18

    The repair outcomes at site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by the RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 determine how gene function is altered. Despite the widespread adoption of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to induce DSBs for genome engineering, the resulting repair products have not been examined in depth. Here, the DNA repair profiles of 223 sites in the human genome demonstrate that the pattern of DNA repair following Cas9 cutting at each site is nonrandom and consistent across experimental replicates, cell lines, and reagent delivery methods. Furthermore, the repair outcomes are determined by the protospacer sequence rather than genomic context, indicating that DNA repair profiling in cell lines can be used to anticipate repair outcomes in primary cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PK enabled dissection of the DNA repair profiles into contributions from c-NHEJ and MMEJ. Finally, this work elucidates a strategy for using "error-prone" DNA-repair machinery to generate precise edits. PMID:27499295

  11. The ATPase domain but not the acidic region of Cockayne syndrome group B gene product is essential for DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Brosh, R M; Balajee, A S; Selzer, R R; Sunesen, M; Proietti De Santis, L; Bohr, V A

    1999-11-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human genetic disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, developmental abnormalities, and premature aging. Two of the genes involved, CSA and CSB, are required for transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that removes certain lesions rapidly and efficiently from the transcribed strand of active genes. CS proteins have also been implicated in the recovery of transcription after certain types of DNA damage such as those lesions induced by UV light. In this study, site-directed mutations have been introduced to the human CSB gene to investigate the functional significance of the conserved ATPase domain and of a highly acidic region of the protein. The CSB mutant alleles were tested for genetic complementation of UV-sensitive phenotypes in the human CS-B homologue of hamster UV61. In addition, the CSB mutant alleles were tested for their ability to complement the sensitivity of UV61 cells to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), which introduces bulky DNA adducts repaired by global genome repair. Point mutation of a highly conserved glutamic acid residue in ATPase motif II abolished the ability of CSB protein to complement the UV-sensitive phenotypes of survival, RNA synthesis recovery, and gene-specific repair. These data indicate that the integrity of the ATPase domain is critical for CSB function in vivo. Likewise, the CSB ATPase point mutant failed to confer cellular resistance to 4-NQO, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis is required for CSB function in a TCR-independent pathway. On the contrary, a large deletion of the acidic region of CSB protein did not impair the genetic function in the processing of either UV- or 4-NQO-induced DNA damage. Thus the acidic region of CSB is likely to be dispensable for DNA repair, whereas the ATPase domain is essential for CSB function in both TCR-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:10564257

  12. Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase and Excision Nuclease (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Sancar, Aziz

    2016-07-18

    Ultraviolet light damages DNA by converting two adjacent thymines into a thymine dimer which is potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, or lethal to the organism. This damage is repaired by photolyase and the nucleotide excision repair system in E. coli by nucleotide excision repair in humans. The work leading to these results is presented by Aziz Sancar in his Nobel Lecture. PMID:27337655

  13. Repair of uv damaged DNA: Genes and proteins of yeast and human

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1992-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, and to study the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins progress is described.

  14. Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase and Excision Nuclease (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Sancar, Aziz

    2016-07-18

    Ultraviolet light damages DNA by converting two adjacent thymines into a thymine dimer which is potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, or lethal to the organism. This damage is repaired by photolyase and the nucleotide excision repair system in E. coli by nucleotide excision repair in humans. The work leading to these results is presented by Aziz Sancar in his Nobel Lecture.

  15. Photoprotection by topical DNA repair enzymes: molecular correlates of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, D B; O'Connor, A; Alas, L; Potten, C; Wolf, P

    1999-02-01

    A new approach to photoprotection is to repair DNA damage after UV exposure. This can be accomplished by delivery of a DNA repair enzyme with specificity to UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers into skin by means of specially engineered liposomes. Treatment of DNA-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients or skin cancer patients with T4N5 liposome lotion containing such DNA repair liposomes increases the removal of DNA damage in the first few hours after treatment. In these studies, a DNA repair effect was observed in some patients treated with heat-inactivated enzyme. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that the heat-inactivated T4 endonuclease V enzyme refolds and recovers enzymatic activity. These studies demonstrate that measurements of molecular changes induced by biological drugs are useful adjuvants to clinical studies.

  16. A novel bisindole-PBD conjugate causes DNA damage induced apoptosis via inhibition of DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pranjal; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Kamal, Ahmed; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) that includes cell cycle check points, DNA repair, apoptosis, and senescence is intimately linked with cancer. It shields an organism against cancer development when genomic integrity fails. DNA repair pathways protect the cells from tumor progression caused as a result of DNA damage induced by irradiation or due to chemotherapeutic treatment. Many promising anticancer agents have been identified that target specific DNA repair pathways in response to DNA damage thereby leading to apoptosis. Here we identified a novel bisindole-PBD conjugate that possess potent anticancer activity in breast cancer cells. Further studies aimed at understanding the mechanism of action of the molecule showed its role in DNA damage induced apoptosis via inhibition of DNA repair pathway. Trypan blue and BrdU assay exhibited a dose-dependent effect. Single-stranded DNA damage was observed by COMET assay. In addition DNA damage induced ROS generation with simultaneous activation of ATM and ATR upon compound treatment was observed. Further downregulation of Bcl-XL and activation of Bax showed DNA damage induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cells. In conclusion, it can be summarized that bisindole-PBD conjugate induces DNA damage in a dose dependent (2, 4, and 8 μM) manner by inhibiting the DNA repair genes. PMID:25010292

  17. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Gebhard, Daniel; Bergemann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell reactivation assay to an application with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we used this reliable and reproducible assay to research the influence of a special kind of calorie reduction, namely F. X. Mayr therapy, on DNA repair capacity. We found a positive effect in all persons with low pre-existing DNA repair capacity. In individuals with normal pre-existing DNA repair capacity, no effect on DNA repair capacity was detectable. Decline of DNA repair, accumulation of oxidative DNA damages, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening as well as caloric intake are widely thought to contribute to aging. With regard to that, our results can be considered as a strong indication that calorie reduction may support DNA repair processes and thus contribute to a healthier aging.

  18. The Impact of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway on DNA Repair Mechanisms in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Hanna, Ann; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.

    2015-01-01

    Defined cellular mechanisms have evolved that recognize and repair DNA to protect the integrity of its structure and sequence when encountering assaults from endogenous and exogenous sources. There are five major DNA repair pathways: mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, direct repair, base excision repair and DNA double strand break repair (including non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination repair). Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a feature of many cancer types. The Hh pathway has been documented to be indispensable for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis, cancer stemness, and chemoresistance. The functional transcription activators of the Hh pathway include the GLI proteins. Inhibition of the activity of GLI can interfere with almost all DNA repair types in human cancer, indicating that Hh/GLI functions may play an important role in enabling tumor cells to survive lethal types of DNA damage induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, Hh signaling presents an important therapeutic target to overcome DNA repair-enabled multi-drug resistance and consequently increase chemotherapeutic response in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26197339

  19. Role of metabolic rate and DNA-repair in Drosophila aging Implications for the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Binnard, R.; Fleming, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The notion that injury to mitochondrial DNA is a cause of intrinsic aging was tested by correlating the different respiration rates of several wild strains of Drosophila melanogaster with the life-spans. Respiration rate and aging in a mutant of D. melanogaster deficient in postreplication repair were also investigated. In agreement with the rate of living theory, there was an inverse relation between oxygen consumption and median life-span in flies having normal DNA repair. The mutant showed an abnormally low life-span as compared to the controls and also exhibited significant deficiency in mating fitness and a depressed metabolic rate. Therefore, the short life-span of the mutant may be due to the congenital condition rather than to accelerated aging.

  20. DNA repair defects and genome instability in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2015-06-01

    The integrity of the nuclear lamina has emerged as an important factor in the maintenance of genome stability. In particular, mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins (lamin A/C), alter nuclear morphology and function, and cause genomic instability. LMNA gene mutations are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases and devastating premature aging syndromes such as Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) and Restrictive Dermopathy (RD). HGPS is a severe laminopathy, with patients dying in their teens from myocardial infarction or stroke. HGPS patient-derived cells exhibit nuclear shape abnormalities, changes in epigenetic regulation and gene expression, telomere shortening, genome instability, and premature senescence. This review highlights recent advances in identifying molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathophysiology of HGPS, with a special emphasis on DNA repair defects and genome instability.

  1. Transcription bypass of DNA lesions enhances cell survival but attenuates transcription coupled DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Selvam, Kathiresan; Ko, Tengyu; Li, Shisheng

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) dedicated to rapid removal of DNA lesions in the transcribed strand of actively transcribed genes. The precise nature of the TCR signal and how the repair machinery gains access to lesions imbedded in stalled RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) complexes in eukaryotic cells are still enigmatic. RNAP II has an intrinsic capacity for transcription bypass of DNA lesions by incorporation or misincorporation of nucleotides across the lesions. It has been suggested that transcription bypass of lesions, which exposes the lesions, may be required for TCR. Here, we show that E1103G mutation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNAP II, which promotes transcription bypass of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), increases survival of UV irradiated yeast cells but attenuates TCR. The increased cell survival is independent of any NER subpathways. In contrast, G730D mutation of Rpb1, which impairs transcription bypass of CPDs, enhances TCR. Our results suggest that transcription bypass of lesions attenuates TCR but enhances cell tolerance to DNA lesions. Efficient stalling of RNAP II is essential for efficient TCR. PMID:25389266

  2. Longevity and resistance to stress correlate with DNA repair capacity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Moonjung; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Kyungjin; May, Alfred; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Ahn, Byungchan

    2008-03-01

    DNA repair is an important mechanism by which cells maintain genomic integrity. Decline in DNA repair capacity or defects in repair factors are thought to contribute to premature aging in mammals. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model for studying longevity and DNA repair because of key advances in understanding the genetics of aging in this organism. Long-lived C. elegans mutants have been identified and shown to be resistant to oxidizing agents and UV irradiation, suggesting a genetically determined correlation between DNA repair capacity and life span. In this report, gene-specific DNA repair is compared in wild-type C. elegans and stress-resistant C. elegans mutants for the first time. DNA repair capacity is higher in long-lived C. elegans mutants than in wild-type animals. In addition, RNAi knockdown of the nucleotide excision repair gene xpa-1 increased sensitivity to UV and reduced the life span of long-lived C. elegans mutants. These findings support that DNA repair capacity correlates with longevity in C. elegans.

  3. How SUMOylation Fine-Tunes the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Kate E; Huang, Tony T

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition, primarily due to a deficiency in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). ICL repair through the FA DNA repair pathway is a complicated multi-step process, involving at least 19 FANC proteins and coordination of multiple DNA repair activities, including homologous recombination, nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis (TLS). SUMOylation is a critical regulator of several DNA repair pathways, however, the role of this modification in controlling the FA pathway is poorly understood. Here, we summarize recent advances in the fine-tuning of the FA pathway by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) and other SUMO-related interactions, and discuss the implications of these findings in the design of novel therapeutics for alleviating FA-associated condition, including cancer. PMID:27148358

  4. DNA repair of a single UV photoproduct in a designed nucleosome

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmoskil, Joseph V.; Ackerman, Eric J. ); Smerdon, Michael J.

    2001-08-28

    Eukaryotic DNA repair enzymes must interact with the architectural hierarchy of chromatin. The challenge of finding damaged DNA complexed with histone proteins in nucleosomes is complicated by the need to maintain local chromatin structures involved in regulating other DNA processing events. The heterogeneity of lesions induced by DNA-damaging agents has led us to design homogeneously damaged substrates to directly compare repair of naked DNA with that of nucleosomes. Here we report that nucleotide excision repair in Xenopus nuclear extracts can effectively repair a single UV radiation photoproduct located 5 bases from the dyad center of a positioned nucleosome, although the nucleosome is repaired at about half the rate at which the naked DNA fragment is. Extract repair within the nucleosome is > 50-fold more rapid than either enzymatic photoreversal or endonuclease cleavage of the lesion in vitro. Furthermore, nucleosome formation occurs (after repair) only on damaged naked DNA ( 165-bp fragments) during a 1-h incubation in these extracts, even in the presence of a large excess of undamaged DNA. This is an example of selective nucleosome assembly by Xenopus nuclear extracts on a short linear DNA fragment containing a DNA lesion.

  5. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen L; Dashner, Erica J; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye; Hudson, Laurie G

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10 μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations.

  6. Targeting the DNA Repair Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Goshorn, Ross; Bradley, Cori; Griffiths, Lyra M.; Benavente, Claudia; Twarog, Nathaniel R.; Miller, Gregory M.; Caufield, William; Freeman, Burgess B.; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Wu, Jianrong; Loh, Amos; Karlström, Åsa; Calabrese, Chris; Gordon, Brittney; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.; Snyder, Scott; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Sablauer, Andras; Shelat, Anang A.; Dyer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumor of the bone and soft-tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using 3 different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice. PMID:25437539

  7. Emerging models for DNA repair: Dictyostelium discoideum as a model for nonhomologous end-joining.

    PubMed

    Pears, Catherine J; Lakin, Nicholas D

    2014-05-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are a particularly cytotoxic variety of DNA lesion that can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). HR utilises sequences homologous to the damage DNA template to facilitate repair. In contrast, NHEJ does not require homologous sequences for repair but instead functions by directly re-joining DNA ends. These pathways are critical to resolve DSBs generated intentionally during processes such as meiotic and site-specific recombination. However, they are also utilised to resolve potentially pathological DSBs generated by mutagens and errors during DNA replication. The importance of DSB repair is underscored by the findings that defects in these pathways results in chromosome instability that contributes to a variety of disease states including malignancy. The general principles of NHEJ are conserved in eukaryotes. As such, relatively simple model organisms have been instrumental in identifying components of these pathways and providing a mechanistic understanding of repair that has subsequently been applied to vertebrates. However, certain components of the NHEJ pathway are absent or show limited conservation in the most commonly used invertebrate models exploited to study DNA repair. Recently, however, it has become apparent that vertebrate DNA repair pathway components, including those involved in NHEJ, are unusually conserved in the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Traditionally, this genetically tractable organism has been exploited to study the molecular basis of cell type specification, cell motility and chemotaxis. Here we discuss the use of this organism as an additional model to study DNA repair, with specific reference to NHEJ.

  8. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  9. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  10. Low-fidelity compensatory backup alternative DNA repair pathways may unify current carcinogenesis theories.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaxi; Starr, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The somatic mutation carcinogenesis theory has dominated for decades. The alternative theory, tissue organization field theory, argues that the development of cancer is determined by the surrounding microenvironment. However, neither theory can explain all features of cancer. As cancers share the features of uncontrolled proliferation and genomic instability, they are likely to have the same pathogenesis. It has been found that various DNA repair pathways within a cell crosstalk with one another, forming a DNA repair network. When one DNA repair pathways is defective, the others may work as compensatory backups. The latter pathways are explored for synthetic lethal anticancer therapy. In this article, we extend the concept of compensatory alternative DNA repair to unify the theories. We propose that the microenvironmental stress can activate low-fidelity compensatory alternative DNA repair, causing mutations. If the mutation occurs to a DNA repair gene, this secondarily mutated gene can lead to even more mutated genes, including those related to other DNA repair pathways, eventually destabilizing the genome. Therefore, the low-fidelity compensatory alternative DNA repair may mediate microenvironment-dependent carcinogenesis. The proposal seems consistent with the view of evolution: the environmental stress causes mutations to adapt to the changing environment.

  11. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  12. DNA-Damage Foci to Detect and Characterize DNA Repair Alterations in Children Treated for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mareike; Betten, Dominik; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Rübe, Christian; Graf, Norbert; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA) suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. Methods and Materials In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. Results Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. Conclusions Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies. PMID:24637877

  13. BRCA1-CtIP interaction in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Tomas; Gautier, Jean

    2016-07-01

    DNA termini at double-strand breaks are often chemically heterogeneous and require processing before initiation of repair. In a recent report, we demonstrated that CtIP and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) nuclease complex cooperate with BRCA1 to specifically repair topoisomerase II-DNA adducted breaks. In contrast, BRCA1 is dispensable for repair of restriction endonuclease-generated double-strand breaks. PMID:27652321

  14. BRCA1-CtIP interaction in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Tomas; Gautier, Jean

    2016-07-01

    DNA termini at double-strand breaks are often chemically heterogeneous and require processing before initiation of repair. In a recent report, we demonstrated that CtIP and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) nuclease complex cooperate with BRCA1 to specifically repair topoisomerase II-DNA adducted breaks. In contrast, BRCA1 is dispensable for repair of restriction endonuclease-generated double-strand breaks.

  15. A matter of life or death: modeling DNA damage and repair in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karschau, Jens; de Almeida, Camila; Richard, Morgiane C; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2011-02-16

    DNA damage is a hazard all cells must face, and evolution has created a number of mechanisms to repair damaged bases in the chromosome. Paradoxically, many of these repair mechanisms can create double-strand breaks in the DNA molecule which are fatal to the cell. This indicates that the connection between DNA repair and death is far from straightforward, and suggests that the repair mechanisms can be a double-edged sword. In this report, we formulate a mathematical model of the dynamics of DNA damage and repair, and we obtain analytical expressions for the death rate. We predict a counterintuitive relationship between survival and repair. We can discriminate between two phases: below a critical threshold in the number of repair enzymes, the half-life decreases with the number of repair enzymes, but becomes independent of the number of repair enzymes above the threshold. We are able to predict quantitatively the dependence of the death rate on the damage rate and other relevant parameters. We verify our analytical results by simulating the stochastic dynamics of DNA damage and repair. Finally, we also perform an experiment with Escherichia coli cells to test one of the predictions of our model. PMID:21320424

  16. UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Thiel, T.

    1987-09-01

    Strains of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. were capable of very efficient photoreactivation of UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA. Cells were resistant to several hundred joules of UV irradiation per square meter under conditions that allowed photoreactivation, and they also photoreactivated UV-damaged cyanophage efficiently. Reactivation of UV-irradiated cyanophage (Weigle reactivation) also occurred; UV irradiation of host cells greatly enhanced the plaque-forming ability of irradiated phage under nonphotoreactivating conditions. Postirradiation incubation of the host cells under conditions that allowed photoreactivation abolished the ability of the cells to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1. Mitomycin C also induced Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1, but nalidixic acid did not. The inducible repair system (defined as the ability to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophages) was relatively slow and inefficient compared with photoreactivation.

  17. Abnormal DNA content in oral epithelial dysplasia is associated with increased risk of progression to carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G; Odell, E W; Raphael, S; Ho, J; Le, L W; Benchimol, S; Kamel-Reid, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a histologically detectable lesion that may progress to carcinoma but there are no accurate markers that predict progression. This study examined the development of carcinoma from oral dysplastic lesions, and the association between abnormal DNA content and progression to carcinoma. Methods: Epithelial dysplasias from the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service were matched against the Ontario Cancer Registry database to identify cases that progressed to carcinoma. A case–control study was conducted to compare DNA image cytometry of dysplasias that progressed with those that have not progressed. For a subset of the progressed dysplasias, DNA content of the carcinoma was also analysed. Results: A total of 8% of epithelial dysplasias progressed to carcinoma after 6–131 months. In all, 28 of 99 dysplasias showed abnormal DNA content by image cytometry. In multivariate analysis of time to progression, abnormal DNA content was a significant predictor with hazard ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–7.4) corrected for site and grade of dysplasia. Analysis of sequential samples of dysplasia and carcinoma suggested that epithelial cell populations with grossly abnormal DNA content were transient intermediates during oral cancer development. Conclusions: Abnormal DNA content is a significant biomarker of a subset of OED that progress to carcinoma. PMID:20859287

  18. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  19. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent Protein Kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Ronald A.; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao; Berber, Elisabeth; Boxer, Lisa D.; Kusumoto, Rika; Guan, Shenheng; Shi, Xiaobing; Gozani, Or; Burlingame, Alma L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Chua, Katrin F.

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor with chromatin impacts on the efficiency of repair, and establish a link between chromatin regulation, DNA repair, and a mammalian Sir2 factor. PMID:20157594

  20. Crystal Structures of DNA-Whirly Complexes and Their Role in Arabidopsis Organelle Genome Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Maréchal, Alexandre; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Lepage, Étienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2010-09-07

    DNA double-strand breaks are highly detrimental to all organisms and need to be quickly and accurately repaired. Although several proteins are known to maintain plastid and mitochondrial genome stability in plants, little is known about the mechanisms of DNA repair in these organelles and the roles of specific proteins. Here, using ciprofloxacin as a DNA damaging agent specific to the organelles, we show that plastids and mitochondria can repair DNA double-strand breaks through an error-prone pathway similar to the microhomology-mediated break-induced replication observed in humans, yeast, and bacteria. This pathway is negatively regulated by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins from the Whirly family, thus indicating that these proteins could contribute to the accurate repair of plant organelle genomes. To understand the role of Whirly proteins in this process, we solved the crystal structures of several Whirly-DNA complexes. These reveal a nonsequence-specific ssDNA binding mechanism in which DNA is stabilized between domains of adjacent subunits and rendered unavailable for duplex formation and/or protein interactions. Our results suggest a model in which the binding of Whirly proteins to ssDNA would favor accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks over an error-prone microhomology-mediated break-induced replication repair pathway.

  1. The impact of base excision DNA repair in age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Giovana S; Sykora, Peter; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-06-01

    The aging process and several age-related neurodegenerative disorders have been linked to elevated levels of DNA damage induced by ROS and deficiency in DNA repair mechanisms. DNA damage induced by ROS is a byproduct of cellular respiration and accumulation of damage over time, is a fundamental aspect of a main theory of aging. Mitochondria have a pivotal role in generating cellular oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with several diseases. DNA base excision repair is considered the major pathway for repair of oxidized bases in DNA both in the nuclei and in mitochondria, and in neurons this mechanism is particularly important because non-diving cells have limited back-up DNA repair mechanisms. An association between elevated oxidative stress and a decrease in BER is strongly related to the aging process and has special relevance in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the role of DNA repair in aging, focusing on the implications of the DNA base excision repair pathways and how alterations in expression of these DNA repair proteins are related to the aging process and to age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  3. BRCA1/FANCD2/BRG1-Driven DNA Repair Stabilizes the Differentiation State of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Bierie, Brian; Li, Andrew G; Pathania, Shailja; Toomire, Kimberly; Dimitrov, Stoil D; Liu, Ben; Gelman, Rebecca; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Feunteun, Jean; Polyak, Kornelia; Livingston, David M

    2016-07-21

    An abnormal differentiation state is common in BRCA1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a convergence between DNA repair and normal, cultured human mammary epithelial (HME) cell differentiation. Surprisingly, depleting BRCA1 or FANCD2 (Fanconi anemia [FA] proteins) or BRG1, a mSWI/SNF subunit, caused HME cells to undergo spontaneous epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and aberrant differentiation. This also occurred when wild-type HMEs were exposed to chemicals that generate DNA interstrand crosslinks (repaired by FA proteins), but not in response to double-strand breaks. Suppressed expression of ΔNP63 also occurred in each of these settings, an effect that links DNA damage to the aberrant differentiation outcome. Taken together with somatic breast cancer genome data, these results point to a breakdown in a BRCA/FA-mSWI/SNF-ΔNP63-mediated DNA repair and differentiation maintenance process in mammary epithelial cells that may contribute to sporadic breast cancer development. PMID:27373334

  4. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-11-24

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer. PMID:26554006

  5. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-11-24

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer.

  6. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A.; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q.; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer. PMID:26554006

  7. The effects of 1-nitropyrene on oxidative DNA damage and expression of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Ko, Young-Jun; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kim, Heon

    2005-05-01

    Nitropyrenes (NPs) present in diesel and gasoline emissions are mutagenic and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Nitro-reduction of 1-NP causes oxidative stress. It is unclear whether 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) is produced from 1-NP and whether it contributes to the carcinogenic activity of 1-NP. In this study, we measured the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured human lung epithelial cells after exposure to 1-NP and the intracellular level of 8-OH-dG and expression level of the 8-OH-dG repair enzymes. As results, 1-NP induced the generation of 8-OH-dG via ROS, but 8-OH-dG repair enzymes prevented an increase of 8-OH-dG formation in cellular DNA of the A549 cell line below 250 microM of 1-NP. These data suggest that 1-NP can induce oxidative DNA damage by generation of ROS, which may play a role in the carcinogenesis induced by 1-NP. These data also suggest that individuals with impaired DNA repair enzymes might be more susceptible to lung cancer induced by 1-NP. PMID:15953848

  8. Involvement of oxidatively damaged DNA and repair in cancer development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Tudek, Barbara; Winczura, Alicja; Janik, Justyna; Siomek, Agnieszka; Foksinski, Marek; Oliński, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage and DNA repair may mediate several cellular processes, like replication and transcription, mutagenesis and apoptosis and thus may be important factors in the development and pathology of an organism, including cancer. DNA is constantly damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) directly and also by products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which form exocyclic adducts to DNA bases. A wide variety of oxidatively-generated DNA lesions are present in living cells. 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) is one of the best known DNA lesions due to its mutagenic properties. Among LPO-derived DNA base modifications the most intensively studied are ethenoadenine and ethenocytosine, highly miscoding DNA lesions considered as markers of oxidative stress and promutagenic DNA damage. Although at present it is impossible to directly answer the question concerning involvement of oxidatively damaged DNA in cancer etiology, it is likely that oxidatively modified DNA bases may serve as a source of mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and are involved in aging (i.e. they may be causal factors responsible for these processes). To counteract the deleterious effect of oxidatively damaged DNA, all organisms have developed several DNA repair mechanisms. The efficiency of oxidatively damaged DNA repair was frequently found to be decreased in cancer patients. The present work reviews the basis for the biological significance of DNA damage, particularly effects of 8-oxoGua and ethenoadduct occurrence in DNA in the aspect of cancer development, drawing attention to the multiplicity of proteins with repair activities. PMID:20589166

  9. Inhibition of DNA replication and repair by anthralin or danthron in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-07-01

    The comparative effects of the tumor promoter anthralin and its analog, danthron, on semiconservative DNA replication and DNA repair synthesis were studied in cultured human cells. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as density label together with /sup 3/H-thymidine to distinguish replication from repair synthesis in isopycnic CsCl gradients. Anthralin at 1.1 microgram inhibited replication in T98G cells by 50%. In cells treated with 0.4 or 1.3 microM anthralin and additive effect was observed on the inhibition of replication by ultraviolet light (254 nm). In cells irradiated with 20 J/m2, 2.3 microM anthralin was required to inhibit repair synthesis by 50%. Thus there was no selective inhibitory effect of anthralin on repair synthesis. Danthron exhibited no detectable effect on either semiconservative replication or repair synthesis at concentrations below about 5.0 microM. Neither compound stimulated repair synthesis in the absence of ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, anthralin and danthron do not appear to react with DNA to form adducts that are subject to excision repair. Although both compounds appear to intercalate into supercoiled DNA in vitro to a limited extent, the degree of unwinding introduced by the respective drugs does not correlate with their relative effects on DNA synthesis in vivo. Therefore the inhibitory effect of anthralin on DNA replication and repair synthesis in T98G cells does not appear to result from the direct interaction of the drug with DNA.

  10. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E protein (XPE/DDB2): purification of various complexes of XPE and analyses of their damaged DNA binding and putative DNA repair properties.

    PubMed

    Kulaksiz, Gülnihal; Reardon, Joyce T; Sancar, Aziz

    2005-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by increased sensitivity of the affected individuals to sunlight and light-induced skin cancers and, in some cases, to neurological abnormalities. The disease is caused by a mutation in genes XPA through XPG and the XP variant (XPV) gene. The proteins encoded by the XPA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G genes are required for nucleotide excision repair, and the XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which carries out translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, the mechanism by which the XPE gene product prevents sunlight-induced cancers is not known. The gene (XPE/DDB2) encodes the small subunit of a heterodimeric DNA binding protein with high affinity to UV-damaged DNA (UV-damaged DNA binding protein [UV-DDB]). The DDB2 protein exists in at least four forms in the cell: monomeric DDB2, DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer (UV-DDB), and as a protein associated with both the Cullin 4A (CUL4A) complex and the COP9 signalosome. To better define the role of DDB2 in the cellular response to DNA damage, we purified all four forms of DDB2 and analyzed their DNA binding properties and their effects on mammalian nucleotide excision repair. We find that DDB2 has an intrinsic damaged DNA binding activity and that under our assay conditions neither DDB2 nor complexes that contain DDB2 (UV-DDB, CUL4A, and COP9) participate in nucleotide excision repair carried out by the six-factor human excision nuclease. PMID:16260596

  11. SMCHD1 accumulates at DNA damage sites and facilitates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Heather; Brockdorff, Neil

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT SMCHD1 is a structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family protein involved in epigenetic gene silencing and chromosome organisation on the female inactive X chromosome and at a limited number of autosomal loci. Here, we demonstrate that SMCHD1 also has a role in DNA repair of double-strand breaks; SMCHD1 is recruited to sites of laser micro-irradiated damage along with other DNA repair factors, including Ku80 (also known as XRCC5 in mammals) and RAD51. Cells deficient in SMCHD1 show evidence of decreased efficiency of repair and cell viability after DNA damage. We suggest that SMCHD1 responds to DNA double-strand breaks in a manner that is likely to involve its ability to alter chromatin states to facilitate DNA repair. PMID:24790221

  12. TAT-mediated delivery of a DNA repair enzyme to skin cells rapidly initiates repair of UV-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jodi L.; Lowell, Brian C.; Ryabinina, Olga P.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; McCullough, Amanda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light causes DNA damage in skin cells, leading to more than one million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosed annually in the United States. Although human cells possess a mechanism (Nucleotide Excision Repair, NER) to repair UV-induced DNA damage, mutagenesis still occurs when DNA is replicated prior to repair of these photoproducts. While human cells have all the enzymes necessary to complete an alternate repair pathway, Base Excision Repair (BER), they lack a DNA glycosylase that can initiate BER of dipyrimidine photoproducts. Certain prokaryotes and viruses produce pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA glycosylases (pdgs) that initiate BER of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the predominant UV-induced lesions. Such a pdg was identified in the Chlorella virus PBCV-1 and termed Cv-pdg. The Cv-pdg protein was engineered to contain a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and a membrane permeabilization peptide (TAT). Here, we demonstrate that the Cv-pdg-NLS-TAT protein was delivered to repair-proficient keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and to a human skin model, where it rapidly initiated removal of CPDs. These data suggest a potential strategy for prevention of human skin cancer. PMID:20927123

  13. The comet assay, DNA damage, DNA repair and cytotoxicity: hedgehogs are not always dead.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Yolanda; Costa, Solange; Collins, Andrew R; Azqueta, Amaya

    2013-07-01

    DNA damage is commonly measured at the level of individual cells using the so-called comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). As the frequency of DNA breaks increases, so does the fraction of the DNA extending towards the anode, forming the comet tail. Comets with almost all DNA in the tail are often referred to as 'hedgehog' comets and are widely assumed to represent apoptotic cells. We review the literature and present theoretical and empirical arguments against this interpretation. The level of DNA damage in these comets is far less than the massive fragmentation that occurs in apoptosis. 'Hedgehog' comets are formed after moderate exposure of cells to, for example, H2O2, but if the cells are incubated for a short period, 'hedgehogs' are no longer seen. We confirm that this is not because DNA has degraded further and been lost from the gel, but because the DNA is repaired. The comet assay may detect the earliest stages of apoptosis, but as it proceeds, comets disappear in a smear of unattached DNA. It is clear that 'hedgehogs' can correspond to one level on a continuum of genotoxic damage, are not diagnostic of apoptosis and should not be regarded as an indicator of cytotoxicity. PMID:23630247

  14. DNA repair in bacterial cultures and plasmid DNA exposed to infrared laser for treatment of pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Marciano, R. S.; Guimarães, O. R.; Polignano, G. A. C.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2013-06-01

    Biostimulation of tissues by low intensity lasers has been described on a photobiological basis and clinical protocols are recommended for treatment of various diseases, but their effects on DNA are controversial. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of low intensity infrared laser exposure on survival and bacterial filamentation in Escherichia coli cultures, and induction of DNA lesions in bacterial plasmids. In E. coli cultures and plasmids exposed to an infrared laser at fluences used to treat pain, bacterial survival and filamentation and DNA lesions in plasmids were evaluated by electrophoretic profile. Data indicate that the infrared laser (i) increases survival of E. coli wild type in 24 h of stationary growth phase, (ii) induces bacterial filamentation, (iii) does not alter topological forms of plasmids and (iv) does not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with exonuclease III or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. A low intensity infrared laser at the therapeutic fluences used to treat pain can alter survival of E. coli wild type, induce filamentation in bacterial cells, depending on physiologic conditions and DNA repair, and induce DNA lesions other than single or double DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites, which are not targeted by exonuclease III or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase.

  15. Stochastic and reversible assembly of a multiprotein DNA repair complex ensures accurate target site recognition and efficient repair

    PubMed Central

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; von Bornstaedt, Gesa; Gourdin, Audrey M.; Politi, Antonio Z.; Moné, Martijn J.; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Goedhart, Joachim; Vermeulen, Wim

    2010-01-01

    To understand how multiprotein complexes assemble and function on chromatin, we combined quantitative analysis of the mammalian nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) machinery in living cells with computational modeling. We found that individual NER components exchange within tens of seconds between the bound state in repair complexes and the diffusive state in the nucleoplasm, whereas their net accumulation at repair sites evolves over several hours. Based on these in vivo data, we developed a predictive kinetic model for the assembly and function of repair complexes. DNA repair is orchestrated by the interplay of reversible protein-binding events and progressive enzymatic modifications of the chromatin substrate. We demonstrate that faithful recognition of DNA lesions is time consuming, whereas subsequently, repair complexes form rapidly through random and reversible assembly of NER proteins. Our kinetic analysis of the NER system reveals a fundamental conflict between specificity and efficiency of chromatin-associated protein machineries and shows how a trade off is negotiated through reversibility of protein binding. PMID:20439997

  16. Stochastic and reversible assembly of a multiprotein DNA repair complex ensures accurate target site recognition and efficient repair.

    PubMed

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S; von Bornstaedt, Gesa; Gourdin, Audrey M; Politi, Antonio Z; Moné, Martijn J; Warmerdam, Daniël O; Goedhart, Joachim; Vermeulen, Wim; van Driel, Roel; Höfer, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    To understand how multiprotein complexes assemble and function on chromatin, we combined quantitative analysis of the mammalian nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) machinery in living cells with computational modeling. We found that individual NER components exchange within tens of seconds between the bound state in repair complexes and the diffusive state in the nucleoplasm, whereas their net accumulation at repair sites evolves over several hours. Based on these in vivo data, we developed a predictive kinetic model for the assembly and function of repair complexes. DNA repair is orchestrated by the interplay of reversible protein-binding events and progressive enzymatic modifications of the chromatin substrate. We demonstrate that faithful recognition of DNA lesions is time consuming, whereas subsequently, repair complexes form rapidly through random and reversible assembly of NER proteins. Our kinetic analysis of the NER system reveals a fundamental conflict between specificity and efficiency of chromatin-associated protein machineries and shows how a trade off is negotiated through reversibility of protein binding. PMID:20439997

  17. Excision repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, P.S.; Hevelone, J.; Dwarakanath, V.; Mitchell, D.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Radioimmunoassays were used to monitor the removal of antibody-binding sites associated with the two major UV radiation-induced DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts). Unlike with cultured human cells, where (6-4) photoproducts are removed more rapidly than cyclobutane dimers, the kinetics of repair were similar for both lesions. Repair capacity in wild type diminished throughout development. The radioimmunoassays were also employed to confirm the absence of photoreactivation in C. elegans. In addition, three radiation-sensitive mutants (rad-1, rad-2, rad-7) displayed normal repair capacities. An excision defect was much more pronounced in larvae than embryos in the fourth mutant tested (rad-3). This correlates with the hypersensitivity pattern of this mutant and suggests that DNA repair may be developmentally regulated in C. elegans. The mechanism of DNA repair in C. elegans as well as the relationship between the repair of specific photoproducts and UV radiation sensitivity during development are discussed.

  18. Different repair kinetics for short and long DNA double-strand gaps in Saccharomyces cervisiae.

    PubMed

    Glasunov, A V; Frankenberg-Schwager, M; Frankenberg, D

    1995-10-01

    The kinetics of recombinational repair of plasmid DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) and gaps (dsg) of different sizes and ends were studied. For this purpose we used the mutant rad54-3 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is temperature dependent with respect to genetic recombination and rejoining of dsb/dsg, allowing us to stop these processes by shifting cells to the restrictive temperature. We found that the kinetics of repair of cohesive-ended dsb and small gaps (up to 400 bp) are similar and characterized by two phases separated by a plateau. In contrast, large gap (1.4 kbp) repair proceeds with different kinetics exhibiting only the second phase. We also investigated the repair kinetics of 400 bp gaps introduced into plasmid DNA with and without homology to chromosomal DNA allowing recombinational repair and non-recombinational repair (ligation), respectively. We found that gaps introduced in plasmid sequences homologous to chromosomal DNA are rapidly repaired by recombination. In contrast, recircularization of the gapped plasmid by ligation is as slow and inefficient as ligation of a cohesive-ended dsb. The kinetics of repair of gapped plasmids may be explained by assuming a constitutive level of enzymes responsible for the first phase of recombinational repair, while inducible enzymes, which become available at the end of the plateau, carry out the second phase of repair. PMID:7594968

  19. Epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Carvalho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima

    2015-08-14

    Although thousands of DNA damaging events occur in each cell every day, efficient DNA repair pathways have evolved to counteract them. The DNA repair machinery plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability by avoiding the maintenance of mutations. The DNA repair enzymes continuously monitor the chromosomes to correct any damage that is caused by exogenous and endogenous mutagens. If DNA damage in proliferating cells is not repaired because of an inadequate expression of DNA repair genes, it might increase the risk of cancer. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes has been associated with carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer represents the second highest cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The disease develops from the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic changes during the lifetime. Among the risk factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered the main driving factor to gastric cancer development. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of H. pylori infection on the epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in gastric carcinogenesis.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juliana Carvalho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of DNA damaging events occur in each cell every day, efficient DNA repair pathways have evolved to counteract them. The DNA repair machinery plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability by avoiding the maintenance of mutations. The DNA repair enzymes continuously monitor the chromosomes to correct any damage that is caused by exogenous and endogenous mutagens. If DNA damage in proliferating cells is not repaired because of an inadequate expression of DNA repair genes, it might increase the risk of cancer. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes has been associated with carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer represents the second highest cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The disease develops from the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic changes during the lifetime. Among the risk factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered the main driving factor to gastric cancer development. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of H. pylori infection on the epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26290630

  1. Temporal activation of XRCC1-mediated DNA repair is essential for muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalaf, Mohammad H; Blake, Leanne E; Larsen, Brian D; Bell, Ryan A; Brunette, Steve; Parks, Robin J; Rudnicki, Michael A; McKinnon, Peter J; Jeffrey Dilworth, F; Megeney, Lynn A

    2016-01-01

    Transient DNA strand break formation has been identified as an effective means to enhance gene expression in living cells. In the muscle lineage, cell differentiation is contingent upon the induction of caspase-mediated DNA strand breaks, which act to establish the terminal gene expression program. This coordinated DNA nicking is rapidly resolved, suggesting that myoblasts may deploy DNA repair machinery to stabilize the genome and entrench the differentiated phenotype. Here, we identify the base excision repair pathway component XRCC1 as an indispensable mediator of muscle differentiation. Caspase-triggered XRCC1 repair foci form rapidly within differentiating myonuclei, and then dissipate as the maturation program proceeds. Skeletal myoblast deletion of Xrcc1 does not have an impact on cell growth, yet leads to perinatal lethality, with sustained DNA damage and impaired myofiber development. Together, these results demonstrate that XRCC1 manages a temporally responsive DNA repair process to advance the muscle differentiation program. PMID:27462438

  2. Understanding DNA Repair in Hyperthermophilic Archaea: Persistent Gaps and Other Reasons to Focus on the Fork.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Dennis W

    2015-01-01

    Although hyperthermophilic archaea arguably have a great need for efficient DNA repair, they lack members of several DNA repair protein families broadly conserved among bacteria and eukaryotes. Conversely, the putative DNA repair genes that do occur in these archaea often do not generate the expected phenotype when deleted. The prospect that hyperthermophilic archaea have some unique strategies for coping with DNA damage and replication errors has intellectual and technological appeal, but resolving this question will require alternative coping mechanisms to be proposed and tested experimentally. This review evaluates a combination of four enigmatic properties that distinguishes the hyperthermophilic archaea from all other organisms: DNA polymerase stalling at dU, apparent lack of conventional NER, lack of MutSL homologs, and apparent essentiality of homologous recombination proteins. Hypothetical damage-coping strategies that could explain this set of properties may provide new starting points for efforts to define how archaea differ from conventional models of DNA repair and replication fidelity.

  3. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND TOLERANCE PATHWAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Radiation can damage cellular components, including DNA. Organisms have developed a panoply of means of dealing with DNA damage. Some repair paths have rather narrow substrate specificity (e.g. photolyases), which act on specific pyrimidine photoproducts in a specific type (e.g., DNA) and conformation (double-stranded B conformation) of nucleic acid. Others, for example, nucleotide excision repair, deal with larger classes of damages, in this case bulky adducts in DNA. A detailed discussion of DNA repair mechanisms is beyond the scope of this article, but one can be found in the excellent book of Friedberg et al. [1] for further detail. However, some DNA damages and paths for repair of those damages important for photobiology will be outlined below as a basis for the specific examples of genetic and molecular analysis that will be presented below.

  4. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  5. DNA damage in Fabry patients: An investigation of oxidative damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Manini, Paula Regina; Faverzani, Jéssica Lamberty; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Deon, Marion; Giugliani, Roberto; Saffi, Jenifer; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of α-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in Fabry patients were previously reported. However, DNA damage by oxidative species in FD has not yet been studied. We investigated basal DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair capacity, and reactive species generation in Fabry patients and controls. To measure oxidative damage to purines and pyrimidines, the alkaline version of the comet assay was used with two endonucleases, formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). To evaluate DNA repair, a challenge assay with hydrogen peroxide was performed. Patients presented significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage and oxidative damage to purines. Oxidative DNA damage was induced in both DNA bases by H2O2 in patients. Fabry patients presented efficient DNA repair in both assays (with and without endonucleases) as well as significantly higher levels of oxidative species (measured by dichlorofluorescein content). Even if DNA repair be induced in Fabry patients (as a consequence of continuous exposure to oxidative species), the repair is not sufficient to reduce DNA damage to control levels. PMID:26046974

  6. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a convenient model system for the study of DNA repair in photoautotrophic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Vlcek, Daniel; Sevcovicová, Andrea; Sviezená, Barbara; Gálová, Eliska; Miadoková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a convenient model organism for the study of basic biological processes, including DNA repair investigations. This review is focused on the studies of DNA repair pathways in C. reinhardtii. Emphasis is given to the connection of DNA repair with other cellular functions, namely the regulation of the cell cycle. Comparison with the results of repair investigations that are already available revealed the presence of all basic repair pathways in C. reinhardtii as well as special features characteristic of this alga. Among others, the involvement of UVSE1 gene in recombinational repair and uniparental inheritance of chloroplast genome, the specific role of TRXH1 gene in strand break repair, the requirement of PHR1 gene for full activity of PHR2 gene, or encoding of two excision repair proteins by the single REX1 gene. Contrary to yeast, mammals and higher plants, C. reinhardtii does not appear to contain the ortholog of RAD6 gene, which plays an important role in DNA translesion synthesis and mutagenesis. Completed genome sequences will be a basis for molecular analyses allowing to explain the differences that have been observed in DNA repair of this alga in comparison with other model organisms.

  7. Mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA intermediates of extrachromosomal recombination in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, W P; Nickoloff, J A

    1994-01-01

    Previous work indicated that extrachromosomal recombination in mammalian cells could be explained by the single-strand annealing (SSA) model. This model predicts that extrachromosomal recombination leads to nonconservative crossover products and that heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) is formed by annealing of complementary single strands. Mismatched bases in hDNA may subsequently be repaired to wild-type or mutant sequences, or they may remain unrepaired and segregate following DNA replication. We describe a system to examine the formation and mismatch repair of hDNA in recombination intermediates. Our results are consistent with extrachromosomal recombination occurring via SSA and producing crossover recombinant products. As predicted by the SSA model, hDNA was present in double-strand break-induced recombination intermediates. By placing either silent or frameshift mutations in the predicted hDNA region, we have shown that mismatches are efficiently repaired prior to DNA replication. Images PMID:8264607

  8. Sufficient Amounts of Functional HOP2/MND1 Complex Promote Interhomolog DNA Repair but Are Dispensable for Intersister DNA Repair during Meiosis in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Uanschou, Clemens; Ronceret, Arnaud; Von Harder, Mona; De Muyt, Arnaud; Vezon, Daniel; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Kobayashi, Wataru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Schlögelhofer, Peter; Grelon, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous recombination (HR) is essential to repair programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and a dedicated protein machinery ensures that the homologous chromosome is favored over the nearby sister chromatid as a repair template. The HOMOLOGOUS-PAIRING PROTEIN2/MEIOTIC NUCLEAR DIVISION PROTEIN1 (HOP2/MND1) protein complex has been identified as a crucial factor of meiotic HR in Arabidopsis thaliana, since loss of either MND1 or HOP2 results in failure of DNA repair. We isolated two mutant alleles of HOP2 (hop2-2 and hop2-3) that retained the capacity to repair meiotic DSBs via the sister chromatid but failed to use the homologous chromosome. We show that in these alleles, the recombinases RADIATION SENSITIVE51 (RAD51) and DISRUPTED MEIOTIC cDNA1 (DMC1) are loaded, but only the intersister DNA repair pathway is activated. The hop2-2 phenotype is correlated with a decrease in HOP2/MND1 complex abundance. In hop2-3, a truncated HOP2 protein is produced that retains its ability to bind to DMC1 and DNA but forms less stable complexes with MND1 and fails to efficiently stimulate DMC1-driven D-loop formation. Genetic analyses demonstrated that in the absence of DMC1, HOP2/MND1 is dispensable for RAD51-mediated intersister DNA repair, while in the presence of DMC1, a minimal amount of functional HOP2/MND1 is essential to drive intersister DNA repair. PMID:24363313

  9. Formaldehyde catabolism is essential in cells deficient for the Fanconi anemia DNA-repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Ivan V; Langevin, Frédéric; Crossan, Gerry P; Takata, Minoru; Patel, Ketan J

    2011-11-13

    Metabolism is predicted to generate formaldehyde, a toxic, simple, reactive aldehyde that can damage DNA. Here we report a synthetic lethal interaction in avian cells between ADH5, encoding the main formaldehyde-detoxifying enzyme, and the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA-repair pathway. These results define a fundamental role for the combined action of formaldehyde catabolism and DNA cross-link repair in vertebrate cell survival.

  10. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-12

    This Conference will examine DNA repair as the key component in genomic surveillance that is so crucial to the overall integrity and function of mammalian cells. Recent discoveries have catapulted the field of DNA repair into a pivotal position for fundamental investigations into oncology, aging, environmental health, and developmental biology. We hope to highlight the most promising and exciting avenues of research in robust discussions at this conference. This Mammalian DNA Repair Gordon Conference differs from the past conferences in this series, in which the programs were broader in scope, with respect to topics and biological systems covered. A conference sponsored by the Genetics Society in April 1998 emphasized recombinational mechanisms for double-strand break repair and the role of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer. These topics will therefore receive somewhat less emphasis in the upcoming Conference. In view of the recent mechanistic advances in mammalian DNA repair, an upcoming comprehensive DNA repair meeting next autumn at Hilton Head; and the limited enrollment for Gordon Conferences we have decided to focus session-by-session on particular areas of controversy and/or new developments specifically in mammalian systems. Thus, the principal presentations will draw upon results from other cellular systems only to the extent that they impact our understanding of mammalian DNA repair.

  11. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer.

  12. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer. PMID:27183258

  13. The DNA repair complex Ku70/86 modulates Apaf1 expression upon DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    De Zio, D; Bordi, M; Tino, E; Lanzuolo, C; Ferraro, E; Mora, E; Ciccosanti, F; Fimia, G M; Orlando, V; Cecconi, F

    2011-01-01

    Apaf1 is a key regulator of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, as it activates executioner caspases by forming the apoptotic machinery apoptosome. Its genetic regulation and its post-translational modification are crucial under the various conditions where apoptosis occurs. Here we describe Ku70/86, a mediator of non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair, as a novel regulator of Apaf1 transcription. Through analysing different Apaf1 promoter mutants, we identified an element repressing the Apaf1 promoter. We demonstrated that Ku70/86 is a nuclear factor able to bind this repressing element and downregulating Apaf1 transcription. We also found that Ku70/86 interaction with Apaf1 promoter is dynamically modulated upon DNA damage. The effect of this binding is a downregulation of Apaf1 expression immediately following the damage to DNA; conversely, we observed Apaf1 upregulation and apoptosis activation when Ku70/86 unleashes the Apaf1-repressing element. Therefore, besides regulating DNA repair, our results suggest that Ku70/86 binds to the Apaf1 promoter and represses its activity. This may help to inhibit the apoptosome pathway of cell death and contribute to regulate cell survival. PMID:20966962

  14. RECQL4 Promotes DNA End Resection in Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiming; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Keijzers, Guido; Anand, Roopesh; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Cejka, Petr; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2016-06-28

    The RecQ helicase RECQL4, mutated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, regulates genome stability, aging, and cancer. Here, we identify a crucial role for RECQL4 in DNA end resection, which is the initial and an essential step of homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Depletion of RECQL4 severely reduces HR-mediated repair and 5' end resection in vivo. RECQL4 physically interacts with MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), which senses DSBs and initiates DNA end resection with CtIP. The MRE11 exonuclease regulates the retention of RECQL4 at laser-induced DSBs. RECQL4 also directly interacts with CtIP via its N-terminal domain and promotes CtIP recruitment to the MRN complex at DSBs. Moreover, inactivation of RECQL4's helicase activity impairs DNA end processing and HR-dependent DSBR without affecting its interaction with MRE11 and CtIP, suggesting an important role for RECQL4's unwinding activity in the process. Thus, we report that RECQL4 is an important participant in HR-dependent DSBR.

  15. Structural and Functional Interaction Between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Meesala, S; Dauvillier, S; Modesti, M; Andres, S; Huang, Y; Sekiguchi, J; Calsou, P; Salles, B; Junop, M

    2009-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

  16. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase IV: possible involvement in double strand break DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Leem, S H; Ropp, P A; Sugino, A

    1994-08-11

    We identified and purified a new DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase IV), which is similar to mammalian DNA polymerase beta, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggested that it is encoded by YCR14C (POLX) on chromosome III. Here, we provided a direct evidence that the purified DNA polymerase IV is indeed encoded by POLX. Strains harboring a pol4 deletion mutation exhibit neither mitotic growth defect nor a meiosis defect, suggesting that DNA polymerase IV participates in nonessential functions in DNA metabolism. The deletion strains did not exhibit UV-sensitivity. However, they did show weak sensitivity to MMS-treatment and exhibited a hyper-recombination phenotype when intragenic recombination was measured during meiosis. Furthermore, MAT alpha pol4 delta segregants had a higher frequency of illegitimate mating with a MAT alpha tester strain than that of wild-type cells. These results suggest that DNA polymerase IV participates in a double-strand break repair pathway. A 3.2kb of the POL4 transcript was weakly expressed in mitotically growing cells. During meiosis, a 2.2 kb POL4 transcript was greatly induced, while the 3.2 kb transcript stayed at constant levels. This induction was delayed in a swi4 delta strain during meiosis, while no effect was observed in a swi6 delta strain.

  17. Repair of DNA double strand breaks: in vivo biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Neal; Haber, James E

    2006-01-01

    Double strand breaks (DSBs) can cause damage to the genomic integrity of a cell as well as initiate genetic recombination processes. The HO and I-SceI endonucleases from budding yeast have provided a way to study these events by inducing a unique DSB in vivo under the control of a galactose-inducible promoter. The GAL::HO construct has been used extensively to study processes such as nonhomologous end joining, intra- and interchromosomal gene conversion, single strand annealing and break-induced recombination. Synchronously induced DSBs have also been important in the study of the DNA damage checkpoint, adaptation, and recovery pathways of yeast. This chapter describes methods of using GAL::HO to physically monitor the progression of events following a DSB, specifically the events leading to the switching of mating type by gene conversion of MAT using the silent donors at HML and HMR. Southern blot analysis can be used to follow the overall events in this process such as the formation of the DSB and product. Denaturing alkaline gels and slot blot techniques can be employed to follow the 5' to 3' resection of DNA starting at the DSB. After resection, the 3' tail initiates a homology search and then strand invades its homologous sequence at the donor cassette. Polymerase chain reaction is an important means to assay strand invasion and the priming of new DNA synthesis as well as the completion of gene conversion. Methods such as chromatin immunoprecipitation have provided a means to study many proteins that associate with a DSB, including not only recombination proteins, but also proteins involved in nonhomologous end joining, cell cycle arrest, chromatin remodeling, cohesin function, and mismatch repair.

  18. Chromatin structure following UV-induced DNA damage-repair or death?

    PubMed

    Farrell, Andrew W; Halliday, Gary M; Lyons, James Guy

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA is compacted into a complex structure known as chromatin. The unravelling of DNA is a crucial step in DNA repair, replication, transcription and recombination as this allows access to DNA for these processes. Failure to package DNA into the nucleosome, the individual unit of chromatin, can lead to genomic instability, driving a cell into apoptosis, senescence, or cellular proliferation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage causes destabilisation of chromatin integrity. UV irradiation induces DNA damage such as photolesions and subjects the chromatin to substantial rearrangements, causing the arrest of transcription forks and cell cycle arrest. Highly conserved processes known as nucleotide and base excision repair (NER and BER) then begin to repair these lesions. However, if DNA repair fails, the cell may be forced into apoptosis. The modification of various histones as well as nucleosome remodelling via ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are required not only to repair these UV-induced DNA lesions, but also for apoptosis signalling. Histone modifications and nucleosome remodelling in response to UV also lead to the recruitment of various repair and pro-apoptotic proteins. Thus, the way in which a cell responds to UV irradiation via these modifications is important in determining its fate. Failure of these DNA damage response steps can lead to cellular proliferation and oncogenic development, causing skin cancer, hence these chromatin changes are critical for a proper response to UV-induced injury.

  19. FEN1 participates in repair of the 5'-phosphotyrosyl terminus of DNA single-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yukiko; Takahata, Chiaki; Narita, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug and a DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) inhibitor. Etoposide produces Top2-attached single-strand breaks (Top2-SSB complex) and double-strand breaks (Top2-DSB complex) that are thought to induce cell death in tumor cells. The Top2-SSB complex is more abundant than the Top2-DSB complex. Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is required for efficient repair of Top2-DSB complexes. However, the identities of the proteins involved in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes are unknown, although yeast genetic data indicate that 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease activity is required for alternative repair of Top2 DNA damage. In this study, we purified a flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) in the 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease family and synthesized single-strand break DNA substrates containing a 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond, mimicking the Top2-SSB complex. We found that FEN1 and XPG did not remove the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing DSB substrates but removed the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates. Under DNA repair conditions, FEN1 efficiently repaired the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates in the presence of DNA ligase and DNA polymerase. Therefore, FEN1 may play an important role in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes in etoposide-treated cells.

  20. Water extracts of tree Hypericum sps. protect DNA from oxidative and alkylating damage and enhance DNA repair in colon cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alice A; Marques, Filipe; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Diet may induce colon carcinogenesis through oxidative or alkylating DNA damage. However, diet may also contain anticarcinogenic compounds that contribute to cancer prevention. DNA damage prevention and/or induction of repair are two important mechanisms involved in cancer chemoprevention by dietary compounds. Hypericum sps. are widely used in traditional medicine to prepare infusions due to their beneficial digestive and neurologic effects. In this study, we investigated the potential of water extracts from three Hypericum sps. and some of their main phenolic compounds to prevent and repair oxidative and alkylating DNA damage in colon cells. The results showed that water extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum androsaemum, Hypericum undulatum, quercetin and rutin have protective effect against oxidative DNA damage in HT29 cells. Protective effect was also observed against alkylating DNA damage induced by methyl-methanesulfonate, except for H. androsaemum. With regard to alkylating damage repair H. perforatum, H. androsaemum and chlorogenic acid increased repair of alkylating DNA damage by base excision repair pathway. No effect was observed on nucleotide excision repair pathway. Antigenotoxic effects of Hypericum sps. may contribute to colon cancer prevention and the high amount of phenolic compounds present in Hypericum sps. play an important role in DNA protective effects.

  1. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina: decrease in mitochondrial DNA repair activity during ageing.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis; Werner, Alexandra; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2009-08-01

    The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P. anserina genome revealed high homology. We report for the first time the presence of BER activities in P. anserina mitochondrial extracts. DNA glycosylase activities decrease with age, suggesting that the increased mtDNA instability with age may be caused by decreased ability to repair mtDNA damage and hence contribute to ageing and lifespan control in this ageing model. Additionally, we find low DNA glycosylase activities in the long-lived mutants grisea and DeltaPaCox17::ble, which are characterized by low mitochondrial ROS generation. Overall, our data identify a potential role of mtDNA repair in controlling ageing and life span in P. anserina, a mechanism possibly regulated in response to ROS levels.

  2. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  3. Protein oxidation and DNA repair inhibition by 6-thioguanine and UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Gueranger, Quentin; Li, Feng; Peacock, Matthew; Larnicol-Fery, Annabel; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Egly, Jean-Marc; Karran, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Damage to skin DNA by solar UV is largely unavoidable, and an optimal cellular response to it requires the coordinated operation of proteins in numerous pathways. A fully functional DNA repair proteome for removing harmful DNA lesions is a prerequisite for an appropriate DNA damage response. Genetically determined failure to repair UV-induced DNA damage is associated with skin photosensitivity and increased skin cancer risk. Patients treated with immunosuppressant/anti-inflammatory thiopurines are also photosensitive and have high rates of sun-related skin cancer. Their DNA contains the base analog 6-thioguanine (6-TG), which acts as a UVA photosensitizer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), predominantly singlet oxygen ((1)O2). ROS damage both DNA and proteins. Here we show that UVA irradiation of cultured human cells containing DNA 6-TG causes significant protein oxidation and damages components of the DNA repair proteome, including the Ku, OGG-1, MYH, and RPA proteins. Assays of DNA repair in intact cells or in cell extracts indicate that this protein damage compromises DNA break rejoining and base and nucleotide excision repair. As these experimental conditions simulate those in the skin of patients taking thiopurines, our findings suggest a mechanism whereby UVA in sunlight may contribute to skin carcinogenesis in immunosuppressed patients.

  4. DNA damage action spectroscopy and DNA repair in intact organisms: Alfalfa seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Understanding the effects of UV, and increased levels of UV, on DNA in living organisms requires knowledge of both the frequency of damages induced by the quantities and quality (wavelength composition) of the damaging radiation, and of the capacity of the organisms to carry out efficient and accurate repair. The major levels of uncertainty in understanding the responses of intact organisms, both plant and animal, to UV indicates that we cannot assess accurately the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion without major increases in knowledge of DNA damage and repair. What repair paths does alfalfa use for dealing with UV damages? The rate of pyrimidine dimers induced at a low exposure of 280 nm radiation to alfalfa seedlings, was observed to be about 8 dimers/million bases. After UV exposure, the seedlings were kept in the dark or exposed to blue light filtered by a yellow. filter which excluded wavelengths shorter than about 405 nm. Seedlings so exposed carry out photorepair, but do not seem to remove dimers by excision.

  5. Mutational analysis of the Drosophila DNA repair and recombination gene mei-9.

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Kearney, Hutton; Kramer, Benjamin C; Sekelsky, Jeff J

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila mei-9 is essential for several DNA repair and recombination pathways, including nucleotide excision repair (NER), interstrand crosslink repair, and meiotic recombination. To better understand the role of MEI-9 in these processes, we characterized 10 unique mutant alleles of mei-9. These include a P-element insertion that disrupts repair functions but not the meiotic function; three nonsense mutations, one of which has nearly wild-type levels of protein; three missense mutations, one of which disrupts the meiotic function but not repair functions; two small in-frame deletions; and one frameshift. PMID:15166153

  6. Usefulness of screening cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to detect aortic abnormalities after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shane F; Trivedi, Mira; Boettner, Bethany; Daniels, Curt J

    2011-01-15

    Guidelines recommend screening cardiovascular magnetic resonance (Sc-CMR) imaging for all patients after coarctation of the aorta repair, although there are limited data verifying its clinical utility. Therefore, we sought to assess the value of Sc-CMR in detecting aortic complications and at-risk abnormalities after coarctation of the aorta repair and to identify significant risk factors. We reviewed 76 patients (mean age 31 ± 10 years), including 40 with symptomatically indicated CMR (Sx-CMR) and 36 with Sc-CMR studies. CMR angiograms were evaluated for aortic abnormalities. Recoarctation was defined as residual narrowing/descending aorta at the diaphragm ≤0.5 (at risk ≤0.75), ascending aorta aneurysm as maximum ascending cross-sectional area/height ≥10 (at risk ≥5), and descending aorta aneurysm as maximum descending diameter/descending aorta at the diaphragm ≥1.5 (at risk ≥1.25). Aortic complications or abnormalities were found in 45 patients (59%). No patient met criteria for recoarctation (at risk 10 Sx-CMR vs 5 Sc-CMR). Significant risk factors included heart failure symptoms and female gender (p <0.05). One patient (Sc-CMR) had ascending aneurysm (at risk 17 Sx-CMR vs 8 Sc-CMR). Time from repair was a significant predictor (p <0.05). There were 10 patients (6 Sx-CMR vs 4 Sc-CMR) with descending aneurysm (at risk 8 Sx-CMR vs 7 Sc-CMR). Cardiovascular symptoms, hypertension, and echocardiogram were not predictive. In conclusion, >50% of patients undergoing Sc-CMR had aortic abnormalities, which was not significantly different from those undergoing Sx-CMR. In particular, Sc-CMR identified descending aorta aneurysms that were not predicted by clinical parameters or echocardiogram.

  7. Molecular targets, DNA breakage, DNA repair: Their roles in mutation induction in mammalian germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Variability in genetic sensitivity among different germ-cell stages in the mammal to various mutagens could be the result of how much chemical reaches the different stages, what molecular targets may be affected in the different stages and whether or not repair of lesions occurs. Several chemicals have been found to bind very strongly to protamine in late-spermatid and early-spermatozoa stages in the mouse. The chemicals also produce their greatest genetic damage in these same germ-cell stages. While chemical binding to DNA has not been correlated with the level of induced genetic damage, DNA breakage in the sensitive stages has been shown to increase. This DNA breakage is believed to indirectly result from chemical binding to sulfhydryl groups in protamine which prevents normal chromatin condensation within the sperm nucleus. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  8. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  9. Bone marrow cell transcripts from Fanconi anaemia patients reveal in vivo alterations in mitochondrial, redox and DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Talamanca, Annarita Aiello; Castello, Giuseppe; d'Ischia, Marco; Pallardó, Federico V; Petrović, Sandra; Porto, Beatriz; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2013-08-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genetic cancer predisposition disorder associated with cytogenetic instability, bone marrow failure and a pleiotropic cellular phenotype, including low thresholds of responses to oxidative stress, cross-linking agents and selected cytokines. This study was aimed at defining the scope of abnormalities in gene expression using the publicly available FA Transcriptome Consortium (FTC) database (Gene Expression Omnibus, 2009 and publicly available as GSE16334). We evaluated the data set that included transcriptomal analyses on RNA obtained from low-density bone marrow cells (BMC) from 20 patients with FA and 11 healthy volunteers, by seeking to identify changes in expression of over 22,000 genes, including a set of genes involved in: (i) bioenergetic pathways; (ii) antioxidant activities; (iii) response to stress and metal-chelating proteins; (iv) inflammation-related cytokines and (v) DNA repair. Ontological analysis of genes expressed at magnitudes of 1.5-fold or greater demonstrated significant suppression of genes in the categories of (i) energy metabolism; (ii) antioxidant activities; and (iii) stress and chelating proteins. Enhanced expression was found for 16 of 26 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines. A set of 20 of 21 transcripts for DNA repair activities were down-regulated; four of these transcripts related to type II topoisomerase. The data provide evidence for alterations in gene regulation of bioenergetic activities, redox-related activities, stress and metal-chelating proteins, and of some selected DNA repair activities in patients with FA.

  10. Thermodynamics of the DNA Damage Repair Steps of Human 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Vorobjev, Yuri N.; Krasnoperov, Lev N.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2014-01-01

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) is a key enzyme responsible for initiating the base excision repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine (oxoG). In this study a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of hOGG1 with specific and non-specific DNA-substrates is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. The standard Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of specific stages of the repair process were determined via kinetic measurements over a temperature range using the van’t Hoff approach. The three steps which are accompanied with changes in the DNA conformations were detected via 2-aminopurine fluorescence in the process of binding and recognition of damaged oxoG base by hOGG1. The thermodynamic analysis has demonstrated that the initial step of the DNA substrates binding is mainly governed by energy due to favorable interactions in the process of formation of the recognition contacts, which results in negative enthalpy change, as well as due to partial desolvation of the surface between the DNA and enzyme, which results in positive entropy change. Discrimination of non-specific G base versus specific oxoG base is occurring in the second step of the oxoG-substrate binding. This step requires energy consumption which is compensated by the positive entropy contribution. The third binding step is the final adjustment of the enzyme/substrate complex to achieve the catalytically competent state which is characterized by large endothermicity compensated by a significant increase of entropy originated from the dehydration of the DNA grooves. PMID:24911585

  11. Targeting DNA repair, DNA metabolism and replication stress as anti-cancer strategies.

    PubMed

    Puigvert, Jordi Carreras; Sanjiv, Kumar; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer therapies targeting and damaging the DNA have been extensively used in the last 50 years since the discovery of nitrogen mustards, antimetabolites and platin agents. The use of these drugs is often limited by dose-limiting side effects related to their poor specificity. In recent years, much effort has been put on the discovery and development of compounds that would exploit defects in DNA repair in cancer cells such as Wee1, Chk1 or PARP1 inhibitors. However, not all cancers respond to these inhibitors. Recently, new developments towards specifically targeting broader characteristics of cancer such as replication stress (RS) and lost redox homeostasis have emerged. Oncogenes induce proliferation signals, which also result in replication-associated DNA damage, i.e. RS. Our knowledge into overall causes of RS, lesions produced and how these are signalled in cells to activate cell cycle checkpoints is evolving. Inhibition of ATR, which would normally keep non-deleterious levels of RS, induces intolerable RS levels for cancer cells. Interestingly, links between replication and transcription appear to underlie RS along with a reduction of the dNTP pool. Remarkably, sanitization of the dNTP pool by MutT homologue 1, impeding incorporation of oxidized dNTPs into the DNA, seems to be crucial for cancer cell survival. In this minireview we present an overview of current and novel strategies to target DNA repair and exploit DNA damage to treat cancer. We present the current models for cancer-associated RS as well as cancer phenotypic lethality. Both strategies are poised to better target cancer cells and reduce side effects. PMID:26507796

  12. Thermodynamics of the DNA damage repair steps of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Vorobjev, Yuri N; Krasnoperov, Lev N; Fedorova, Olga S

    2014-01-01

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) is a key enzyme responsible for initiating the base excision repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine (oxoG). In this study a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of hOGG1 with specific and non-specific DNA-substrates is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. The standard Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of specific stages of the repair process were determined via kinetic measurements over a temperature range using the van't Hoff approach. The three steps which are accompanied with changes in the DNA conformations were detected via 2-aminopurine fluorescence in the process of binding and recognition of damaged oxoG base by hOGG1. The thermodynamic analysis has demonstrated that the initial step of the DNA substrates binding is mainly governed by energy due to favorable interactions in the process of formation of the recognition contacts, which results in negative enthalpy change, as well as due to partial desolvation of the surface between the DNA and enzyme, which results in positive entropy change. Discrimination of non-specific G base versus specific oxoG base is occurring in the second step of the oxoG-substrate binding. This step requires energy consumption which is compensated by the positive entropy contribution. The third binding step is the final adjustment of the enzyme/substrate complex to achieve the catalytically competent state which is characterized by large endothermicity compensated by a significant increase of entropy originated from the dehydration of the DNA grooves. PMID:24911585

  13. Polyphenolic compounds from Salvia species protect cellular DNA from oxidation and stimulate DNA repair in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alice A; Azqueta, Amaya; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Collins, Andrew R

    2010-06-23

    DNA damage can lead to carcinogenesis if replication proceeds without proper repair. This study evaluated the effects of the water extracts of three Salvia sp., Salvia officinalis (SO), Salvia fruticosa (SF), and Salvia lavandulifolia (SL), and of the major phenolic constituents, rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L-7-G), on DNA protection in Caco-2 and HeLa cells exposed to oxidative agents and on DNA repair in Caco-2 cells. The comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and repair capacity. The final concentration of each sage extract was 50 microg/mL, and concentrations of RA and L-7-G were 50 and 20 microM, respectively. After a short incubation (2 h), L-7-G protected DNA in Caco-2 cells from damage induced by H(2)O(2) (75 microM); also, after a long incubation (24 h), SF, RA, and L-7-G had protective effects in Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, SO, SF, and RA protected against damage induced by H(2)O(2) after 24 h of incubation. Assays of DNA repair show that SO, SF, and L-7-G increased the rate of DNA repair (rejoining of strand breaks) in Caco-2 cells treated with H(2)O(2). The incision activity of a Caco-2 cell extract on a DNA substrate containing specific damage (8-oxoGua) was also measured to evaluate effects on base excision repair (BER) activity. Preincubation for 24 h with SO and L-7-G had a BER inductive effect, increasing incision activity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, SO, SF, and the isolated compounds (RA and L-7-G) demonstrated chemopreventive activity by protecting cells against oxidative DNA damage and stimulating DNA repair (SO, SF, and L-7-G).

  14. Polyphenolic compounds from Salvia species protect cellular DNA from oxidation and stimulate DNA repair in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alice A; Azqueta, Amaya; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Collins, Andrew R

    2010-06-23

    DNA damage can lead to carcinogenesis if replication proceeds without proper repair. This study evaluated the effects of the water extracts of three Salvia sp., Salvia officinalis (SO), Salvia fruticosa (SF), and Salvia lavandulifolia (SL), and of the major phenolic constituents, rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L-7-G), on DNA protection in Caco-2 and HeLa cells exposed to oxidative agents and on DNA repair in Caco-2 cells. The comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and repair capacity. The final concentration of each sage extract was 50 microg/mL, and concentrations of RA and L-7-G were 50 and 20 microM, respectively. After a short incubation (2 h), L-7-G protected DNA in Caco-2 cells from damage induced by H(2)O(2) (75 microM); also, after a long incubation (24 h), SF, RA, and L-7-G had protective effects in Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, SO, SF, and RA protected against damage induced by H(2)O(2) after 24 h of incubation. Assays of DNA repair show that SO, SF, and L-7-G increased the rate of DNA repair (rejoining of strand breaks) in Caco-2 cells treated with H(2)O(2). The incision activity of a Caco-2 cell extract on a DNA substrate containing specific damage (8-oxoGua) was also measured to evaluate effects on base excision repair (BER) activity. Preincubation for 24 h with SO and L-7-G had a BER inductive effect, increasing incision activity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, SO, SF, and the isolated compounds (RA and L-7-G) demonstrated chemopreventive activity by protecting cells against oxidative DNA damage and stimulating DNA repair (SO, SF, and L-7-G). PMID:20486687

  15. Cdc14A and Cdc14B Redundantly Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Ha, Kyungsoo; Lu, Guojun; Fang, Xiao; Cheng, Ranran; Zuo, Qiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Cdc14 is a phosphatase that controls mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast. In mammals, the two Cdc14 homologues, Cdc14A and Cdc14B, have been proposed to regulate DNA damage repair, whereas the mitotic exit and cytokinesis rely on another phosphatase, PP2A-B55α. It is unclear if the two Cdc14s work redundantly in DNA repair and which repair pathways they participate in. More importantly, their target(s) in DNA repair remains elusive. Here we report that Cdc14B knockout (Cdc14B−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed defects in repairing ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which occurred only at late passages when Cdc14A levels were low. This repair defect could occur at early passages if Cdc14A levels were also compromised. These results indicate redundancy between Cdc14B and Cdc14A in DSB repair. Further, we found that Cdc14B deficiency impaired both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), the two major DSB repair pathways. We also provide evidence that Cdh1 is a downstream target of Cdc14B in DSB repair. PMID:26283732

  16. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883

  17. Mutagenic roles of DNA "repair" proteins in antibody diversity and disease-associated trinucleotide repeat instability.

    PubMed

    Slean, Meghan M; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Ranum, Laura P; Pearson, Christopher E

    2008-07-01

    While DNA repair proteins are generally thought to maintain the integrity of the whole genome by correctly repairing mutagenic DNA intermediates, there are cases where DNA "repair" proteins are involved in causing mutations instead. For instance, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) require the contribution of various DNA repair proteins, including UNG, MSH2 and MSH6 to mutate certain regions of immunoglobulin genes in order to generate antibodies of increased antigen affinity and altered effector functions. Another instance where "repair" proteins drive mutations is the instability of gene-specific trinucleotide repeats (TNR), the causative mutations of numerous diseases including Fragile X mental retardation syndrome (FRAXA), Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy (DM1) and several spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) all of which arise via various modes of pathogenesis. These healthy and deleterious mutations that are induced by repair proteins are distinct from the genome-wide mutations that arise in the absence of repair proteins: they occur at specific loci, are sensitive to cis-elements (sequence context and/or epigenetic marks) and transcription, occur in specific tissues during distinct developmental windows, and are age-dependent. Here we review and compare the mutagenic role of DNA "repair" proteins in the processes of SHM, CSR and TNR instability.

  18. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

    1986-04-02

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. DNA Damage Signalling and Repair Inhibitors: The Long-Sought-After Achilles’ Heel of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Velic, Denis; Couturier, Anthony M.; Ferreira, Maria Tedim; Rodrigue, Amélie; Poirier, Guy G.; Fleury, Fabrice; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    For decades, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were the two only approaches exploiting DNA repair processes to fight against cancer. Nowadays, cancer therapeutics can be a major challenge when it comes to seeking personalized targeted medicine that is both effective and selective to the malignancy. Over the last decade, the discovery of new targeted therapies against DNA damage signalling and repair has offered the possibility of therapeutic improvements in oncology. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of DNA damage signalling and repair inhibitors, their molecular and cellular effects, and future therapeutic use. PMID:26610585

  20. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  1. Terminally differentiated astrocytes lack DNA damage response signaling and are radioresistant but retain DNA repair proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L; Fumagalli, M; d'Adda di Fagagna, F

    2012-01-01

    The impact and consequences of damage generation into genomic DNA, especially in the form of DNA double-strand breaks, and of the DNA-damage response (DDR) pathways that are promptly activated, have been elucidated in great detail. Most of this research, however, has been performed on proliferating, often cancerous, cell lines. In a mammalian body, the majority of cells are terminally differentiated (TD), and derives from a small pool of self-renewing somatic stem cells. Here, we comparatively studied DDR signaling and radiosensitivity in neural stem cells (NSC) and their TD-descendants, astrocytes – the predominant cells in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes have important roles in brain physiology, development and plasticity. We discovered that NSC activate canonical DDR upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Strikingly, astrocytes proved radioresistant, lacked functional DDR signaling, with key DDR genes such as ATM being repressed at the transcriptional level. Nevertheless, astrocytes retain the expression of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes and indeed they are DNA repair proficient. Unlike in NSC, in astrocytes DNA-PK seems to be the PI3K-like protein kinase responsible for γH2AX signal generation upon DNA damage. We also demonstrate the lack of functional DDR signaling activation in vivo in astrocytes of irradiated adult mouse brains, although adjacent neurons activate the DDR. PMID:21979466

  2. Mutations in two Ku homologs define a DNA end-joining repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, G T; Jin, S; Shannon, K B; Weaver, D T

    1996-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells is dependent on the Ku DNA binding protein complex. However, the mechanism of Ku-mediated repair is not understood. We discovered a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (KU80) that is structurally similar to the 80-kDa mammalian Ku subunit. Ku8O associates with the product of the HDF1 gene, forming the major DNA end-binding complex of yeast cells. DNA end binding was absent in ku80delta, hdf1delta, or ku80delta hdf1delta strains. Antisera specific for epitope tags on Ku80 and Hdf1 were used in supershift and immunodepletion experiments to show that both proteins are directly involved in DNA end binding. In vivo, the efficiency of two DNA end-joining processes were reduced >10-fold in ku8Odelta, hdfldelta, or ku80delta hdf1delta strains: repair of linear plasmid DNA and repair of an HO endonuclease-induced chromosomal DSB. These DNA-joining defects correlated with DNA damage sensitivity, because ku80delta and hdf1delta strains were also sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). Ku-dependent repair is distinct from homologous recombination, because deletion of KU80 and HDF1 increased the MMS sensitivity of rad52delta. Interestingly, rad5Odelta, also shown here to be defective in end joining, was epistatic with Ku mutations for MMS repair and end joining. Therefore, Ku and Rad50 participate in an end-joining pathway that is distinct from homologous recombinational repair. Yeast DNA end joining is functionally analogous to DSB repair and V(D)J recombination in mammalian cells. PMID:8754818

  3. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C. D.; Ray, G. J.; Bray, N. L.; Corn, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9–sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  4. Non-homologous DNA increases gene disruption efficiency by altering DNA repair outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C D; Ray, G J; Bray, N L; Corn, J E

    2016-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease can be targeted to genomic sequences by programming the sequence of an associated single guide RNA (sgRNA). For unknown reasons, the activity of these Cas9-sgRNA combinations varies widely at different genomic loci and in different cell types. Thus, disrupting genes in polyploid cell lines or when using poorly performing sgRNAs can require extensive downstream screening to identify homozygous clones. Here we find that non-homologous single-stranded DNA greatly stimulates Cas9-mediated gene disruption in the absence of homology-directed repair. This stimulation increases the frequency of clones with homozygous gene disruptions and rescues otherwise ineffective sgRNAs. The molecular outcome of enhanced gene disruption depends upon cellular context, stimulating deletion of genomic sequence or insertion of non-homologous DNA at the edited locus in a cell line specific manner. Non-homologous DNA appears to divert cells towards error-prone instead of error-free repair pathways, dramatically increasing the frequency of gene disruption. PMID:27530320

  5. Evolutionary patterns of DNA base composition and correlation to polymorphisms in DNA repair systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianran; Scanlon, Michael J.; Yu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    DNA base composition is a fundamental genome feature. However, the evolutionary pattern of base composition and its potential causes have not been well understood. Here, we report findings from comparative analysis of base composition at the whole-genome level across 2210 species, the polymorphic-site level across eight population comparison sets, and the mutation-site level in 12 mutation-tracking experiments. We first demonstrate that base composition follows the individual-strand base equality rule at the genome, chromosome and polymorphic-site levels. More intriguingly, clear separation of base-composition values calculated across polymorphic sites was consistently observed between basal and derived groups, suggesting common underlying mechanisms. Individuals in the derived groups show an A&T-increase/G&C-decrease pattern compared with the basal groups. Spontaneous and induced mutation experiments indicated these patterns of base composition change can emerge across mutation sites. With base-composition across polymorphic sites as a genome phenotype, genome scans with human 1000 Genomes and HapMap3 data identified a set of significant genomic regions enriched with Gene Ontology terms for DNA repair. For three DNA repair genes (BRIP1, PMS2P3 and TTDN), ENCODE data provided evidence for interaction between genomic regions containing these genes and regions containing the significant SNPs. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of genome evolution. PMID:25765652

  6. Decreased DNA repair gene expression among individuals exposed to arsenic in United States drinking water.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Karagas, Margaret R; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2003-04-10

    Arsenic is well established as a human carcinogen, but its precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Arsenic does not directly damage DNA, but may act as a carcinogen through inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms, leading indirectly to increased mutations from other DNA damaging agents. The molecular mechanism underlying arsenic inhibition of nucleotide excision repair after UV irradiation (Hartwig et al., Carcinogenesis 1997;18:399-405) is unknown, but could be due to decreased expression of critical genes involved in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing expression of repair genes and arsenic exposure in a subset of 16 individuals enrolled in a population based case-control study investigating arsenic exposure and cancer risk in New Hampshire. Toenail arsenic levels were inversely correlated with expression of critical members of the nucleotide excision repair complex, ERCC1 (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001), XPF (r(2) = 0.56, p < 0.002), and XPB (r(2) = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The internal dose marker, toenail arsenic level, was more strongly associated with changes in expression of these genes than drinking water arsenic concentration. Our findings, based on human exposure to arsenic in a US population, show an association between biomarkers of arsenic exposure and expression of DNA repair genes. Although our findings need verification in a larger study group, they are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of DNA repair capacity is a potential mechanism for the co-carcinogenic activity of arsenic.

  7. Novel DNA mismatch repair activity involving YB-1 in human mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Mason, Penelope A.; Hashiguchi, Kazunari; Weissman, Lior; Tian, Jingyan; Guay, David; Lebel, Michel; Stevnsner, Tinna V.; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is essential for proper cellular function. The accumulation of damage and mutations in the mtDNA leads to diseases, cancer, and aging. Mammalian mitochondria have proficient base excision repair, but the existence of other DNA repair pathways is still unclear. Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), which corrects base mismatches and small loops, are associated with DNA microsatellite instability, accumulation of mutations, and cancer. MMR proteins have been identified in yeast and coral mitochondria; however, MMR proteins and function have not yet been detected in human mitochondria. Here we show that human mitochondria have a robust mismatch-repair activity, which is distinct from nuclear MMR. Key nuclear MMR factors were not detected in mitochondria, and similar mismatch-binding activity was observed in mitochondrial extracts from cells lacking MSH2, suggesting distinctive pathways for nuclear and mitochondrial MMR. We identified the repair factor YB-1 as a key candidate for a mitochondrial mismatch-binding protein. This protein localizes to mitochondria in human cells, and contributes significantly to the mismatch-binding and mismatch-repair activity detected in HeLa mitochondrial extracts, which are significantly decreased when the intracellular levels of YB-1 are diminished. Moreover, YB-1 depletion in cells increases mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis. Our results show that human mitochondria contain a functional MMR repair pathway in which YB-1 participates, likely in the mismatch binding and recognition steps. PMID:19272840

  8. The Friedreich's ataxia protein frataxin modulates DNA base excision repair in prokaryotes and mammals.

    PubMed

    Thierbach, René; Drewes, Gunnar; Fusser, Markus; Voigt, Anja; Kuhlow, Doreen; Blume, Urte; Schulz, Tim J; Reiche, Carina; Glatt, Hansruedi; Epe, Bernd; Steinberg, Pablo; Ristow, Michael

    2010-11-15

    DNA-repair mechanisms enable cells to maintain their genetic information by protecting it from mutations that may cause malignant growth. Recent evidence suggests that specific DNA-repair enzymes contain ISCs (iron-sulfur clusters). The nuclearencoded protein frataxin is essential for the mitochondrial biosynthesis of ISCs. Frataxin deficiency causes a neurodegenerative disorder named Friedreich's ataxia in humans. Various types of cancer occurring at young age are associated with this disease, and hence with frataxin deficiency. Mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific disruption of the frataxin gene develop multiple liver tumours for unresolved reasons. In the present study, we show that frataxin deficiency in murine liver is associated with increased basal levels of oxidative DNA base damage. Accordingly, eukaryotic V79 fibroblasts overexpressing human frataxin show decreased basal levels of these modifications, while prokaryotic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium TA104 strains transformed with human frataxin show decreased mutation rates. The repair rates of oxidative DNA base modifications in V79 cells overexpressing frataxin were significantly higher than in control cells. Lastly, cleavage activity related to the ISC-independent repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase was found to be unaltered by frataxin overexpression. These findings indicate that frataxin modulates DNA-repair mechanisms probably due to its impact on ISC-dependent repair proteins, linking mitochondrial dysfunction to DNA repair and tumour initiation.

  9. DNA Polymerase POLN Participates in Cross-Link Repair and Homologous Recombination ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, George-Lucian; Madhavan, Mahesh V.; Mirchandani, Kanchan D.; McCaffrey, Ryan M.; Vinciguerra, Patrizia; D'Andrea, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    All cells rely on DNA polymerases to duplicate their genetic material and to repair or bypass DNA lesions. In humans, 16 polymerases have been identified, and each bears specific functions in genome maintenance. We identified here the recently discovered polymerase POLN to be involved in repair of DNA cross-links. Such DNA lesions are highly toxic and are believed to be repaired by the sequential activity of nucleotide excision repair, translesion synthesis, and homologous recombination mechanisms. By functionally assaying its role in these processes, we unraveled an unexpected involvement of POLN in homologous recombination. Moreover, we obtained evidence for physical and functional interaction of POLN with factors belonging to the Fanconi anemia pathway, a master regulator of cross-link repair. Finally, we show that POLN interacts and cooperates in DNA repair with the helicase HEL308, which shares a common origin with POLN in the Drosophila mus308 gene. Our data indicate that this novel polymerase-helicase complex participates in homologous recombination repair and is essential for cellular protection against DNA cross-links. PMID:19995904

  10. In situ analysis of repair processes for oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Oohata, Yoshitsugu; Takao, Masashi; Okano, Satoshi; Masutani, Mitsuko; Wilson, Samuel H.; Yasui, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Oxidative DNA damage causes blocks and errors in transcription and replication, leading to cell death and genomic instability. Although repair mechanisms of the damage have been extensively analyzed in vitro, the actual in vivo repair processes remain largely unknown. Here, by irradiation with an UVA laser through a microscope lens, we have conditionally produced single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage at restricted nuclear regions of mammalian cells. We showed, in real time after irradiation by using antibodies and GFP-tagged proteins, rapid and ordered DNA repair processes of oxidative DNA damage in human cells. Furthermore, we characterized repair pathways by using repair-defective mammalian cells and found that DNA polymerase accumulated at single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage by means of its 31- and 8-kDa domains, respectively, and that XRCC1 is essential for both polymerase -dependent and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair pathways of single-strand breaks. Thus, the repair of oxidative DNA damage is based on temporal and functional interactions among various proteins operating at the site of DNA damage in living cells.

  11. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  12. Divergent Requirement for a DNA Repair Enzyme during Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Sonia; Nguyen, Joseph H. C.; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus, commandeer the functions of host cell proteins to aid in the replication of their small viral genomic RNAs during infection. One of these host proteins is a cellular DNA repair enzyme known as 5′ tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2). TDP2 was previously demonstrated to mediate the cleavage of a unique covalent linkage between a viral protein (VPg) and the 5′ end of picornavirus RNAs. Although VPg is absent from actively translating poliovirus mRNAs, the removal of VPg is not required for the in vitro translation and replication of the RNA. However, TDP2 appears to be excluded from replication and encapsidation sites during peak times of poliovirus infection of HeLa cells, suggesting a role for TDP2 during the viral replication cycle. Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line lacking TDP2, we found that TDP2 is differentially required among enteroviruses. Our single-cycle viral growth analysis shows that CVB3 replication has a greater dependency on TDP2 than does poliovirus or human rhinovirus replication. During infection, CVB3 protein accumulation is undetectable (by Western blot analysis) in the absence of TDP2, whereas poliovirus protein accumulation is reduced but still detectable. Using an infectious CVB3 RNA with a reporter, CVB3 RNA could still be replicated in the absence of TDP2 following transfection, albeit at reduced levels. Overall, these results indicate that TDP2 potentiates viral replication during enterovirus infections of cultured cells, making TDP2 a potential target for antiviral development for picornavirus infections. PMID:26715620

  13. Understanding the Molecular Mechanism(s) of Formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein Crosslink Repair

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although formaldehyde has been shown to induce many kinds of DNA damage both in in vitro and in vivo assay systems, initial DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) formation might play a major role in FA-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Several DNA repair pathways, such as base excisi...

  14. DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A NATURAL BIO-DEFENSE MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A natural bio-defense mechanism
    Anuradha Mudipalli.

    Maintenance of genetic information, including the correct sequence of nucleotides in DNA, is essential for replication, gene expression, and protein synthesis. DNA lesions onto...

  15. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H.; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA–DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  16. Mutational analysis of ERCC3, which is involved in DNA repair and transcription initiation: identification of domains essential for the DNA repair function.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Westbroek, A; Jochemsen, A G; Weeda, G; Bosch, A; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H; van der Eb, A J

    1994-06-01

    The human ERCC3 gene, which corrects specifically the nucleotide excision repair defect in human xeroderma pigmentosum group B and cross-complements the repair deficiency in rodent UV-sensitive mutants of group 3, encodes a presumed DNA helicase that is identical to the p89 subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH/BTF2. To examine the significance of the postulated functional domains in ERCC3, we have introduced mutations in the ERCC3 cDNA by means of site-specific mutagenesis and have determined the repair capacity of each mutant to complement the UV-sensitive phenotype of rodent group 3 cells. A conservative substitution of arginine for the invariant lysine residue in the ATPase motif (helicase domain I), six deletion mutations in the other helicase domains, and a deletion in the potential helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif fail to complement the ERCC3 excision repair defect of rodent group 3 mutants, which implies that the helicase domains as well as the potential DNA-binding motif are required for the repair function of ERCC3. Analysis of carboxy-terminal deletions suggests that the carboxy-terminal exon may comprise a distinct determinant for the DNA repair function. In addition, we show that a functional epitope-tagged version of ERCC3 accumulates in the nucleus. Deletion of the putative nuclear location signal impairs neither the nuclear location nor the repair function, indicating that other sequences may (also) be involved in translocation of ERCC3 to the nucleus. PMID:8196650

  17. The RSC and INO80 chromatin-remodeling complexes in DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Anna L; Downs, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin and is therefore relatively inaccessible to DNA repair enzymes. In order to perform efficient DNA repair, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes are required to alter the chromatin structure near the site of damage to facilitate processing and allow access to repair enzymes. Two of the best-studied remodeling complexes involved in repair are RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) and INO80 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are both conserved in higher eukaryotes. RSC is very rapidly recruited to breaks and mobilizes nucleosomes to promote phosphorylation of H2A S129 and resection. INO80 enrichment at a break occurs later and is dependent on phospho-S129 H2A. INO80 activity at the break site also facilitates resection. Consequently, both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining are defective in rsc mutants, while subsets of these repair pathways are affected in ino80 mutants.

  18. Triple Negative Breast Cancers Have a Reduced Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533

  19. The barley EST DNA Replication and Repair Database (bEST-DRRD) as a tool for the identification of the genes involved in DNA replication and repair

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high level of conservation of genes that regulate DNA replication and repair indicates that they may serve as a source of information on the origin and evolution of the species and makes them a reliable system for the identification of cross-species homologs. Studies that had been conducted to date shed light on the processes of DNA replication and repair in bacteria, yeast and mammals. However, there is still much to be learned about the process of DNA damage repair in plants. Description These studies, which were conducted mainly using bioinformatics tools, enabled the list of genes that participate in various pathways of DNA repair in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh to be outlined; however, information regarding these mechanisms in crop plants is still very limited. A similar, functional approach is particularly difficult for a species whose complete genomic sequences are still unavailable. One of the solutions is to apply ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) as the basis for gene identification. For the construction of the barley EST DNA Replication and Repair Database (bEST-DRRD), presented here, the Arabidopsis nucleotide and protein sequences involved in DNA replication and repair were used to browse for and retrieve the deposited sequences, derived from four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sequence databases, including the “Barley Genome version 0.05” database (encompassing ca. 90% of barley coding sequences) and from two databases covering the complete genomes of two monocot models: Oryza sativa L. and Brachypodium distachyon L. in order to identify homologous genes. Sequences of the categorised Arabidopsis queries are used for browsing the repositories, which are located on the ViroBLAST platform. The bEST-DRRD is currently used in our project during the identification and validation of the barley genes involved in DNA repair. Conclusions The presented database provides information about the Arabidopsis genes involved in DNA replication and

  20. Influence of functional polymorphisms in DNA repair genes of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Howard Lopes; Soares Maia, Allan Rodrigo; Costa, Marília Braga; Farias, Izabelle Rocha; de Paula Borges, Daniela; de Oliveira, Roberta Taiane Germano; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; Magalhães, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2016-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) malignances characterized by peripheral cytopenias and predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Several studies show that the MDS pathogenesis is a complex and heterogeneous process that involves multiple steps through a sequence of genetic lesions in the DNA which lead to functional changes in the cell and the emergence and subsequent evolution of pre-malignant clone. Double strand breaks (DSB) lesions are the most severe type of DNA damage in HSCs, which, if not properly repaired, might contribute to the development of chromosomal abnormalities, which in turn may lead to leukemia development. We assessed the mRNA expression levels of ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, XRCC5, XRCC6 and LIG4 genes in bone marrow samples of 47 MDS patients in order to evaluate the association with functional polymorphisms rs228593, rs4793191, rs9567623, rs1801320, rs3835, rs2267437 and rs1805388, respectively, and try to detect clinical associations. We found that the rs228593, rs2267437 and rs1805388 functional polymorphisms probably alter the level of expression of the ATM, XRCC6 and LIG4 genes, respectively, being important in the maintenance of genomic instability in MDS. PMID:27497341

  1. Quantification of DNA repair protein kinetics after γ-irradiation using number and brightness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisalaam, Salim; Poudel, Milan; Chen, David J.; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-03-01

    The kinetics of most proteins involved in DNA damage sensing, signaling and repair following ionizing radiation exposure cannot be quantified by current live cell fluorescence microscopy methods. This is because most of these proteins, with only few notable exceptions, do not attach in large numbers at DNA damage sites to form easily detectable foci in microscopy images. As a result a high fluorescence background from freely moving and immobile fluorescent proteins in the nucleus masks the aggregation of proteins at sparse DNA damage sites. Currently, the kinetics of these repair proteins are studied by laser-induced damage and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching that rely on the detectability of high fluorescence intensity spots of clustered DNA damage. We report on the use of Number and Brightness (N&B) analysis methods as a means to monitor kinetics of DNA repair proteins during sparse DNA damage created by γ-irradiation, which is more relevant to cancer treatment than laser-induced clustered damage. We use two key double strand break repair proteins, namely Ku 70/80 and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS), as specific examples to showcase the feasibility of the proposed methods to quantify dose-dependent kinetics for DNA repair proteins after exposure to γ-rays.

  2. The Yin and Yang of Repair Mechanisms in DNA Structure-induced Genetic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Karen M.; Wang, Guliang

    2013-01-01

    DNA can adopt a variety of secondary structures that deviate from the canonical Watson-Crick B-DNA form. More than 10 types of non-canonical or non-B DNA secondary structures have been characterized, and the sequences that have the capacity to adopt such structures are very abundant in the human genome. Non-B DNA structures have been implicated in many important biological processes and can serve as sources of genetic instability, implicating them in disease and evolution. Non-B DNA conformations interact with a wide variety of proteins involved in replication, transcription, DNA repair, and chromatin architectural regulation. In this review, we will focus on the interactions of DNA repair proteins with non-B DNA and their roles in genetic instability, as the proteins and DNA involved in such interactions may represent plausible targets for selective therapeutic intervention. PMID:23219604

  3. Repair of UV damaged DNA, genes and proteins of yeast and human

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1991-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, as well as studying the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins. In addition to its single-stranded DNA-dependent A TPase and DNA helicase activities, we have found that RAD3 protein also possesses DNA-RNA helicase activity, and that like RAD3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD3 homolog, rhp3{sup +}, is an essential gene. We have overexpressed the human RAD3 homolog, ERCC2, in yeast to facilitate its purification. The RAD10 protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to bind DNA. ERCC3y, the yeast homolog of the human ERCC-3/XP-B gene, has been sequenced and shown to be essential for viability. The Drosophila and human homologs of RAD6, required for postreplication repair and UV induced mutagenesis, were shown to complement the rad6 {Delta} mutation of yeast. Since defective DNA repair and enhanced neoplasia characterize several human genetic diseases, and repair proteins are highly conserved between yeast and man, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DNA repir in yeast should provide a better understanding of the causes of carcinogenesis.

  4. Fine-mapping of DNA damage and repair in specific genomic segments.

    PubMed Central

    Govan, H L; Valles-Ayoub, Y; Braun, J

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of various genomic regions to DNA damage and repair is heterogeneous. While this can be related to factors such as primary sequence, physical conformation, and functional status, the exact mechanisms involved remain unclear. To more precisely define the key features of a genomic region targeted for these processes, a useful tool would be a method for fine-mapping gene-specific DNA damage and repair in vivo. Here, a polymerase chain reaction-based assay is described for measuring DNA damage and repair in small (less than 500 bp) genomic segments of three transcriptionally active but functionally distinct loci (rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region [Ig VDJ], low-density lipoprotein receptor gene, and N-ras proto-oncogene) in human tonsillar B lymphocytes. Analysis of ultraviolet (254 nm)-induced DNA damage revealed single-hit kinetics and a similar level of sensitivity (D50% approximately 6000 joule/m2) in all three regions, indicating that a single photoproduct was sufficient to fully block PCR amplification. A similar time period per unit length was required for repair of this DNA damage (average t1/2 per fragment length = 23.5 seconds per bp). DNA damage and repair was also detectable with the base adducting agent, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. However, in this case IgVDJ differed from segments within the other two loci by its relative inaccessibility to alkylation. This assay thus permits high-resolution mapping of DNA damage and repair activity. Images PMID:2115669

  5. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N -nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O 6more » -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.« less

  6. Prevention of UV radiation-induced immunosuppression by IL-12 is dependent on DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Agatha; Maeda, Akira; Kernebeck, Kerstin; van Steeg, Harry; Beissert, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas

    2005-01-17

    The immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12 is able to antagonize immunosuppression induced by solar/ultraviolet (UV) radiation via yet unknown mechanisms. IL-12 was recently found to induce deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. UV-induced DNA damage is an important molecular trigger for UV-mediated immunosuppression. Thus, we initiated studies into immune restoration by IL-12 to discern whether its effects are linked to DNA repair. IL-12 prevented both UV-induced suppression of the induction of contact hypersensitivity and the depletion of Langerhans cells, the primary APC of the skin, in wild-type but not in DNA repair-deficient mice. IL-12 did not prevent the development of UV-induced regulatory T cells in DNA repair-deficient mice. In contrast, IL-12 was able to break established UV-induced tolerance and inhibited the activity of regulatory T cells independent of DNA repair. These data identify a new mechanism by which IL-12 can restore immune responses and also demonstrate a link between DNA repair and the prevention of UV-induced immunosuppression by IL-12.

  7. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:21234336

  8. Nucleotide excision repair DNA synthesis by excess DNA polymerase beta: a potential source of genetic instability in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Canitrot, Y; Hoffmann, J S; Calsou, P; Hayakawa, H; Salles, B; Cazaux, C

    2000-09-01

    The nucleotide excision repair pathway contributes to genetic stability by removing a wide range of DNA damage through an error-free reaction. When the lesion is located, the altered strand is incised on both sides of the lesion and a damaged oligonucleotide excised. A repair patch is then synthesized and the repaired strand is ligated. It is assumed that only DNA polymerases delta and/or epsilon participate to the repair DNA synthesis step. Using UV and cisplatin-modified DNA templates, we measured in vitro that extracts from cells overexpressing the error-prone DNA polymerase beta exhibited a five- to sixfold increase of the ultimate DNA synthesis activity compared with control extracts and demonstrated the specific involvement of Pol beta in this step. By using a 28 nt gapped, double-stranded DNA substrate mimicking the product of the incision step, we showed that Pol beta is able to catalyze strand displacement downstream of the gap. We discuss these data within the scope of a hypothesis previously presented proposing that excess error-prone Pol beta in cancer cells could perturb the well-defined specific functions of DNA polymerases during error-free DNA transactions. PMID:10973926

  9. DNA Repair in Human Cells Exposed to Combinations of Carcinogenic Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R. B.; Ahmed, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Normal human and XP2 fibroblasts were treated with UV plus UV-mimetic chemicals. The UV dose used was sufficient to saturate the UV excision repair system. Excision repair after combined treatments was estimated by unscheduled DNA synthesis, BrdUrd photolysis, and the loss of sites sensitive to a UV specific endonuclease. Since the repair of damage from UV and its mimetics is coordinately controlled we expected that there would be similar rate-limiting steps in the repair of UV and chemical damage and that after a combined treatment the total amount of repair would be the same as from UV or the chemicals separately. The expectation was not fulfilled. In normal cells repair after a combined treatment was additive whereas in XP cells repair after a combined treatment was usually less than after either agent separately. The chemicals tested were AAAF, DMBA-epoxide, 4NQO, and ICR-170.

  10. Repair of plasmid and genomic DNA in a rad7 delta mutant of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, J P; Smerdon, M J

    1995-01-01

    Repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) was examined in a yeast plasmid of known chromatin structure and in genomic DNA in a radiation-sensitive deletion mutant of yeast, rad7 delta, and its isogenic wild-type strain. A whole plasmid repair assay revealed that only approximately 50% of the CPDs in plasmid DNA are repaired after 6 h in this mutant, compared with almost 90% repaired in wild-type. Using a site-specific repair assay on 44 individual CPD sites within the plasmid we found that repair in the rad7 delta mutant occurred primarily in the transcribed regions of each strand of the plasmid, however, the rate of repair at nearly all sites measured was less than in the wild-type. There was no apparent correlation between repair rate and nucleosome position. In addition, approximately 55% of the CPDs in genomic DNA of the mutant are repaired during the 6 h period, compared with > 80% in the wild-type. Images PMID:7567456

  11. Cell resistance to the Cytolethal Distending Toxin involves an association of DNA repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bezine, Elisabeth; Malaisé, Yann; Loeuillet, Aurore; Chevalier, Marianne; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Salles, Bernard; Mirey, Gladys; Vignard, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT), produced by many bacteria, has been associated with various diseases including cancer. CDT induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to cell death or mutagenesis if misrepaired. At low doses of CDT, other DNA lesions precede replication-dependent DSB formation, implying that non-DSB repair mechanisms may contribute to CDT cell resistance. To address this question, we developed a proliferation assay using human cell lines specifically depleted in each of the main DNA repair pathways. Here, we validate the involvement of the two major DSB repair mechanisms, Homologous Recombination and Non Homologous End Joining, in the management of CDT-induced lesions. We show that impairment of single-strand break repair (SSBR), but not nucleotide excision repair, sensitizes cells to CDT, and we explore the interplay of SSBR with the DSB repair mechanisms. Finally, we document the role of the replicative stress response and demonstrate the involvement of the Fanconi Anemia repair pathway in response to CDT. In conclusion, our work indicates that cellular survival to CDT-induced DNA damage involves different repair pathways, in particular SSBR. This reinforces a model where CDT-related genotoxicity primarily involves SSBs rather than DSBs, underlining the importance of cell proliferation during CDT intoxication and pathogenicity. PMID:27775089

  12. MRN, CtIP, and BRCA1 mediate repair of topoisomerase II–DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Tomas; Baer, Richard; Gottesman, Max

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with complex ends poses a special challenge, as additional processing is required before DNA ligation. For example, protein–DNA adducts must be removed to allow repair by either nonhomologous end joining or homology-directed repair. Here, we investigated the processing of topoisomerase II (Top2)–DNA adducts induced by treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide. Through biochemical analysis in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, we establish that the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex, CtIP, and BRCA1 are required for both the removal of Top2–DNA adducts and the subsequent resection of Top2-adducted DSB ends. Moreover, the interaction between CtIP and BRCA1, although dispensable for resection of endonuclease-generated DSB ends, is required for resection of Top2-adducted DSBs, as well as for cellular resistance to etoposide during genomic DNA replication. PMID:26880199

  13. Impact of ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerases β and λ on oxidative base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Crespan, Emmanuele; Furrer, Antonia; Rösinger, Marcel; Bertoletti, Federica; Mentegari, Elisa; Chiapparini, Giulia; Imhof, Ralph; Ziegler, Nathalie; Sturla, Shana J.; Hübscher, Ulrich; van Loon, Barbara; Maga, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a very frequent source of DNA damage. Many cellular DNA polymerases (Pols) can incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) during DNA synthesis. However, whether oxidative stress-triggered DNA repair synthesis contributes to genomic rNMPs incorporation is so far not fully understood. Human specialized Pols β and λ are the important enzymes involved in the oxidative stress tolerance, acting both in base excision repair and in translesion synthesis past the very frequent oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G). We found that Pol β, to a greater extent than Pol λ can incorporate rNMPs opposite normal bases or 8-oxo-G, and with a different fidelity. Further, the incorporation of rNMPs opposite 8-oxo-G delays repair by DNA glycosylases. Studies in Pol β- and λ-deficient cell extracts suggest that Pol β levels can greatly affect rNMP incorporation opposite oxidative DNA lesions. PMID:26917111

  14. [Non-mutagenic and mutagenic post-replicative DNA repair in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Zhestianikov, V D

    2000-01-01

    The review is devoted to mechanisms of repair gaps in DNA daughter strand, formed during the stall of moving replication forks and restart of replication in cells after the action of DNA damaging agents (predominantly--UV light). The repair of daughter DNA, or postreplication DNA repair (PRR), is realized by error-free (non-mutagenic) and error-prone (mutagenic) pathways. The former is a recombination repair, or recombination between two sister duplexes. By this way the major part of postreplication gaps is eliminated. The second way is related with the induction of SOS-response. In Escherichia coli cells mutagenic SOS-response is realized by proteins RecA, UmuD, UmuC, DNA-polymerase III holoenzyme and others. In E. coli some mutagenic enzymes--DNA-polymerase IV (the product of dinB gene) and DNA-polymerase V (the product of umuDC genes) have been recently discovered. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells postreplicative translesion synthesis is realized by newly discovered enzymes deoxycytidilmonophosphatetransferase (encoded by REV1 gene), DNA-polymerase zeta (encoded by REV3 gene), DNA-polymerase eta (encoded by RAD30 gene). All the three enzymes share a great homology with UmuC enzyme of E. coli. DNA polymerase eta correctly inserts adenine residues in the daughter strand opposite noncoded thymine residues in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Based on RAD6 gene of S. cerevisiae, human cells hREV1, hREV3 and hRAD30A have been obtained to encode, respectively, deoxycytidiltransferase, DNA-polymerase zeta and DNA-polymerase eta. It has been shown that the defect of PRR DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum variant is associated with DNA-polymerase eta deficiency. This defect is corrected by the extract of intact HeLa cells. The importance of newly discovered enzymes in the system of mechanisms of DNA repair and replication is discussed.

  15. DNA repair and induction of plasminogen activator in human fetal cells treated with ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ishai, R.; Sharon, R.; Rothman, M.; Miskin, R.

    1984-03-01

    We have tested human fetal fibroblasts for development associated changes in DNA repair by utilizing nucleoid sedimentation as an assay for excision repair. Among skin fibroblasts the rate of excision repair was significantly higher in non-fetal cells than in fibroblasts derived from an 8 week fetus; this was evident by a delay in both the relaxation and the restoration of DNA supercoiling in nucleoids after irradiation. Skin fibroblasts derived at 12 week gestation were more repair proficient than those derived at 8 week gestation. However, they exhibited a somewhat lower rate of repair than non-fetal cells. The same fetal and non-fetal cells were also tested for induction of the protease plasminogen activator (PA) after u.v. irradiation. Enhancement of PA was higher in skin fibroblasts derived at 8 week than in those derived at 12 week gestation and was absent in non-fetal skin fibroblasts. These results are consistent with our previous findings that in human cells u.v. light-induced PA synthesis is correlated with reduced DNA repair capacity. Excision repair and PA inducibility were found to depend on tissue of origin in addition to gestational stage, as shown for skin and lung fibroblasts from the same 12 week fetus. Lung compared to skin fibroblasts exhibited lower repair rates and produced higher levels of PA after irradiation. The sedimentation velocity of nucleoids, prepared from unirradiated fibroblasts, in neutral sucrose gradients with or without ethidium bromide, indicated the presence of DNA strand breaks in fetal cells. It is proposed that reduced DNA repair in fetal cells may result from alterations in DNA supercoiling, and that persistent DNA strand breaks enhance transcription of PA gene(s).

  16. Regulation of DNA cross-link repair by the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungjin; D'Andrea, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of genome stability is critical for survival, and its failure is often associated with tumorigenesis. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is essential for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), and a germline defect in the pathway results in FA, a cancer predisposition syndrome driven by genome instability. Central to this pathway is the monoubiquitination of FANCD2, which coordinates multiple DNA repair activities required for the resolution of ICLs. Recent studies have demonstrated how the FA pathway coordinates three critical DNA repair processes, including nucleolytic incision, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), and homologous recombination (HR). Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the downstream ICL repair steps initiated by ubiquitin-mediated FA pathway activation. PMID:22751496

  17. The Role of the COP9 Signalosome and Neddylation in DNA Damage Signaling and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dudley; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity is an important process in organisms as failure to sense and repair damaged DNA can result in a variety of diseases. Eukaryotic cells have developed complex DNA repair response (DDR) mechanisms to accurately sense and repair damaged DNA. Post-translational modifications by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, such as SUMO and NEDD8, have roles in coordinating the progression of DDR. Proteins in the neddylation pathway have also been linked to regulating DDR. Of interest is the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a multi-subunit metalloprotease present in eukaryotes that removes NEDD8 from cullins and regulates the activity of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). This in turn regulates the stability and turnover of a host of CRL-targeted proteins, some of which have established roles in DDR. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the role of the CSN and neddylation in DNA repair. PMID:26437438

  18. Mutation of DNA Polymerase β R137Q Results in Retarded Embryo Development Due to Impaired DNA Base Excision Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Ting; Kuang, Zhihui; Dai, Huifang; Wu, Huan; Sun, Hongfang; Zhou, Xiaolong; Wu, Xuping; Hu, Zhigang; He, Lingfeng; Shen, Binghui; Guo, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase β (Pol β), a key enzyme in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway, is pivotal in maintaining the integrity and stability of genomes. One Pol β mutation that has been identified in tumors, R137Q (arginine to glutamine substitution), has been shown to lower polymerase activity, and impair its DNA repair capacity. However, the exact functional deficiency associated with this polymorphism in living organisms is still unknown. Here, we constructed Pol β R137Q knock-in mice, and found that homozygous knock-in mouse embryos were typically small in size and had a high mortality rate (21%). These embryonic abnormalities were caused by slow cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In R137Q knock-in mouse embryos, the BER efficiency was severely impaired, which subsequently resulted in double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal aberrations. Furthermore, R137Q mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were more sensitive to DNA-damaging reagents, such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2. They displayed a higher percentage of DSBs, and were more likely to undergo apoptosis. Our results indicate that R137 is a key amino acid site that is essential for proper Pol β functioning in maintaining genomic stability and embryo development. PMID:27358192

  19. Repair synthesis by human cell extracts in DNA damaged by cis- and trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II).

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, J; Wood, R D

    1989-01-01

    DNA damage was induced in closed circular plasmid DNA by treatment with cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). These plasmids were used as substrates in reactions to give quantitative measurements of DNA repair synthesis mediated by cell free extracts from human lymphoid cell lines. Adducts induced by both drugs stimulated repair synthesis in a dose dependent manner by an ATP-requiring process. Measurements by an isopycnic gradient sedimentation method gave an upper limit for the average patch sizes in this in vitro system of around 140 nucleotides. It was estimated that up to 3% of the drug adducts induce the synthesis of a repair patch. The repair synthesis is due to repair of a small fraction of frequent drug adducts, rather than extensive repair of a rare subclass of lesions. Nonspecific DNA synthesis in undamaged plasmids, caused by exonucleolytic degradation and resynthesis, was reduced by repeated purification of intact circular forms. An extract made from cells belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A was deficient in repair synthesis in response to the presence of cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adducts in DNA. Images PMID:2554251

  20. Splicing controls the ubiquitin response during DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Pederiva, C; Böhm, S; Julner, A; Farnebo, M

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence that splicing regulates DNA repair is accumulating, the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Here, we report that short-term inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing by spliceosomal inhibitors impairs cellular repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Indeed, interference with splicing as little as 1 h prior to irradiation reduced ubiquitylation of damaged chromatin and impaired recruitment of the repair factors WRAP53β, RNF168, 53BP1, BRCA1 and RAD51 to sites of DNA damage. Consequently, splicing-deficient cells exhibited significant numbers of residual γH2AX foci, as would be expected if DNA repair is defective. Furthermore, we show that this is due to downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 and that re-introduction of this protein into splicing-deficient cells restores ubiquitylation at sites of DNA damage, accumulation of downstream factors and subsequent repair. Moreover, downregulation of RNF8 explains the defective repair associated with knockdown of various splicing factors in recent genome-wide siRNA screens and, significantly, overexpression of RNF8 counteracts this defect. These discoveries reveal a mechanism that may not only explain how splicing regulates repair of double-strand breaks, but also may underlie various diseases caused by deregulation of splicing factors, including cancer. PMID:27315300

  1. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E

    2016-05-15

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair.

  2. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E

    2016-05-15

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair. PMID:27222517

  3. Radiation-Induced Survivin Nuclear Accumulation is Linked to DNA Damage Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Increased expression of survivin has been identified as a negative prognostic marker in a variety of human cancers. We have previously shown that survivin is a radiation-resistance factor and that the therapeutic effect of survivin knock-down might result from an impaired DNA repair capacity. In this study, we aimed to elucidate an interrelationship between survivin's cellular localization and DNA double-strand break repair. Methods and Materials: Survivin's cellular distribution and nuclear complex formation were assayed by Western blotting of subcellular fractions, by immunofluorescence staining, and co-immunoprecipitation in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. DNA repair capacity was analyzed by kinetics of gamma-H2AX foci formation, and by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) assays in the presence of survivin-specific or nonspecific control siRNA. Results: Following irradiation, we observed a rapid nuclear accumulation of survivin and subsequent phosphorylation of the protein in the nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses from nuclear extracts revealed an interaction among survivin, Ku70, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, and DNA-PKcs that was confirmed by immunofluorescence co-localization in nuclear foci. Survivin knock down by siRNA resulted in an impaired DNA double strand break repair, as demonstrated by an increased detection of gamma-H2AX foci/nucleus at 60 min and a higher amount of residual gamma-H2AX foci at 24 hr postirradiation. Furthermore, we detected in survivin-depleted cells a hampered S2056 autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and a significantly decreased DNA-PKcs kinase activity. Conclusion: These data indicate that nuclear survivin is linked to DNA double-strand break repair by interaction with members of the DNA double-strand breaks repair machinery, thus regulating DNA-PKcs activity.

  4. Mechanistic Modelling of DNA Repair and Cellular Survival Following Radiation-Induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald; Prise, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterising and predicting the effects of ionising radiation on cells remains challenging, with the lack of robust models of the underlying mechanism of radiation responses providing a significant limitation to the development of personalised radiotherapy. In this paper we present a mechanistic model of cellular response to radiation that incorporates the kinetics of different DNA repair processes, the spatial distribution of double strand breaks and the resulting probability and severity of misrepair. This model enables predictions to be made of a range of key biological endpoints (DNA repair kinetics, chromosome aberration and mutation formation, survival) across a range of cell types based on a set of 11 mechanistic fitting parameters that are common across all cells. Applying this model to cellular survival showed its capacity to stratify the radiosensitivity of cells based on aspects of their phenotype and experimental conditions such as cell cycle phase and plating delay (correlation between modelled and observed Mean Inactivation Doses R2 > 0.9). By explicitly incorporating underlying mechanistic factors, this model can integrate knowledge from a wide range of biological studies to provide robust predictions and may act as a foundation for future calculations of individualised radiosensitivity. PMID:27624453

  5. Mechanistic Modelling of DNA Repair and Cellular Survival Following Radiation-Induced DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Stephen J; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald; Prise, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Characterising and predicting the effects of ionising radiation on cells remains challenging, with the lack of robust models of the underlying mechanism of radiation responses providing a significant limitation to the development of personalised radiotherapy. In this paper we present a mechanistic model of cellular response to radiation that incorporates the kinetics of different DNA repair processes, the spatial distribution of double strand breaks and the resulting probability and severity of misrepair. This model enables predictions to be made of a range of key biological endpoints (DNA repair kinetics, chromosome aberration and mutation formation, survival) across a range of cell types based on a set of 11 mechanistic fitting parameters that are common across all cells. Applying this model to cellular survival showed its capacity to stratify the radiosensitivity of cells based on aspects of their phenotype and experimental conditions such as cell cycle phase and plating delay (correlation between modelled and observed Mean Inactivation Doses R(2) > 0.9). By explicitly incorporating underlying mechanistic factors, this model can integrate knowledge from a wide range of biological studies to provide robust predictions and may act as a foundation for future calculations of individualised radiosensitivity. PMID:27624453

  6. DNA damage and gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum, a human DNA repair-deficient disease.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Aurélie; Sarasin, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultra-violet and a very high risk of skin cancer induction on exposed body sites. This syndrome is caused by germinal mutations on nucleotide excision repair genes. No cure is available for these patients except a complete protection from all types of UV radiations. We reviewed the various techniques to complement or to correct the genetic defect in XP cells. We, particularly, developed the correction of XP-C skin cells using the fidelity of the homologous recombination pathway during repair of double-strand break (DSB) in the presence of XPC wild type sequences. We used engineered nucleases (meganuclease or TALE nuclease) to induce a DSB located at 90 bp of the mutation to be corrected. Expression of specific TALE nuclease in the presence of a repair matrix containing a long stretch of homologous wild type XPC sequences allowed us a successful gene correction of the original TG deletion found in numerous North African XP patients. Some engineered nucleases are sensitive to epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation. In case of methylated sequences to be corrected, modified nucleases or demethylation of the whole genome should be envisaged. Overall, we showed that specifically-designed TALE-nuclease allowed us to correct a 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene leading to patient's cells proficient for DNA repair and showing normal UV-sensitivity. The corrected gene is still in the same position in the human genome and under the regulation of its physiological promoter. This result is a first step toward gene therapy in XP patients. PMID:26255934

  7. DNA damage and gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum, a human DNA repair-deficient disease.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Aurélie; Sarasin, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultra-violet and a very high risk of skin cancer induction on exposed body sites. This syndrome is caused by germinal mutations on nucleotide excision repair genes. No cure is available for these patients except a complete protection from all types of UV radiations. We reviewed the various techniques to complement or to correct the genetic defect in XP cells. We, particularly, developed the correction of XP-C skin cells using the fidelity of the homologous recombination pathway during repair of double-strand break (DSB) in the presence of XPC wild type sequences. We used engineered nucleases (meganuclease or TALE nuclease) to induce a DSB located at 90 bp of the mutation to be corrected. Expression of specific TALE nuclease in the presence of a repair matrix containing a long stretch of homologous wild type XPC sequences allowed us a successful gene correction of the original TG deletion found in numerous North African XP patients. Some engineered nucleases are sensitive to epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation. In case of methylated sequences to be corrected, modified nucleases or demethylation of the whole genome should be envisaged. Overall, we showed that specifically-designed TALE-nuclease allowed us to correct a 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene leading to patient's cells proficient for DNA repair and showing normal UV-sensitivity. The corrected gene is still in the same position in the human genome and under the regulation of its physiological promoter. This result is a first step toward gene therapy in XP patients.

  8. Preventing Damage Limitation: Targeting DNA-PKcs and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathways for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dungl, Daniela A.; Maginn, Elaina N.; Stronach, Euan A.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer treatment, and its efficacy is dependent on the generation of DNA damage, with subsequent induction of apoptosis. Inappropriate or aberrant activation of the DNA damage response network is associated with resistance to platinum, and defects in DNA repair pathways play critical roles in determining patient response to chemotherapy. In ovarian cancer, tumor cell defects in homologous recombination – a repair pathway activated in response to double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) – are most commonly associated with platinum-sensitive disease. However, despite initial sensitivity, the emergence of resistance is frequent. Here, we review strategies for directly interfering with DNA repair pathways, with particular focus on direct inhibition of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), another DSB repair pathway. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a core component of NHEJ and it has shown considerable promise as a chemosensitization target in numerous cancer types, including ovarian cancer where it functions to promote platinum-induced survival signaling, via AKT activation. The development of pharmacological inhibitors of DNA-PKcs is on-going, and clinic-ready agents offer real hope to patients with chemoresistant disease. PMID:26579492

  9. Homogenous repair of singlet oxygen-induced DNA damage in differentially transcribed regions and strands of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Anson, R M; Croteau, D L; Stierum, R H; Filburn, C; Parsell, R; Bohr, V A

    1998-01-01

    Photoactivated methylene blue was used to damage purified DNA and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of human fibroblasts in culture. The primary product of this reaction is the DNA lesion 7-hydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). The DNA damage was quantitated using Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) in a gene-specific damage and repair assay. Assay conditions were refined to give incision at all enzyme-sensitive sites with minimal non-specific cutting. Cultured fibroblasts were exposed to photoactivated methylene blue under conditions that would produce an average of three oxidative lesions per double-stranded mitochondrial genome. Within 9 h, 47% of this damage had been removed by the cells. This removal was due to repair rather than to replication, cell loss or degradation of damaged genomes. The rate of repair was measured in both DNA strands of the frequently transcribed ribosomal region of the mitochondrial genome and in both strands of the non-ribosomal region. Fpg-sensitive alkali-resistant oxidative base damage was efficiently removed from human mtDNA with no differences in the rate of repair between strands or between two different regions of the genome that differ substantially with regard to transcriptional activity. PMID:9421531

  10. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy.

  11. Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2000-04-01

    The non-nutritive sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose were tested for DNA damaging activity in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay. Using hepatocytes from F344 and Sprague-Dawley male rats, all were inactive despite strong responses for the positive control, 2-aminofluorene.

  12. Mouse HORMAD1 is a meiosis i checkpoint protein that modulates DNA double- strand break repair during female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; McGuire, Megan M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    Oocytes in embryonic ovaries enter meiosis I and arrest in the diplonema stage. Perturbations in meiosis I, such as abnormal double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair, adversely affect oocyte survival. We previously discovered that HORMAD1 is a critical component of the synaptonemal complex but not essential for oocyte survival. No significant differences were observed in the number of primordial, primary, secondary, and developing follicles between wild-type and Hormad1(−/−)newborn, 8-day, and 80-day ovaries. Meiosis I progression in Hormad1(−/−) embryonic ovaries was normal through the zygotene stage and in oocytes arrested in diplonema; however, we did not visualize oocytes with completely synapsed chromosomes. We investigated effects of HORMAD1 deficiency on the kinetics of DNA DSB formation and repair in the mouse ovary. We irradiated Embryonic Day 16.5 wild-type and Hormad1(−/−) ovaries and monitored DSB repair using gammaH2AX, RAD51, and DMC1 immunofluorescence. Our results showed a significant drop in unrepaired DSBs in the irradiated Hormad1(−/−) zygotene oocytes as compared to the wild-type oocytes. Moreover, Hormad1 deficiency rescued Dmc1(−/−) oocytes. These results indicate that Hormad1 deficiency promotes DMC1-independent DSB repairs, which in turn helps asynaptic Hormad1(−/−) oocytes resist perinatal loss. PMID:23759310

  13. Enzymatic MPG DNA repair assays for two different oxidative DNA lesions reveal associations with increased lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Leitner-Dagan, Yael; Sevilya, Ziv; Pinchev, Mila; Kremer, Ran; Elinger, Dalia; Rennert, Hedy S; Schechtman, Edna; Freedman, Laurence; Rennert, Gad; Livneh, Zvi; Paz-Elizur, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    DNA repair is a major mechanism for minimizing mutations and reducing cancer risk. Here, we present the development of reproducible and specific enzymatic assays for methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) repairing the oxidative lesions 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA) and hypoxanthine (Hx) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells protein extracts. Association of these DNA repair activities with lung cancer was determined using conditional logistic regression with specimens from a population-based case-control study with 96 lung cancer cases and 96 matched control subjects. The mean MPG-εA in case patients was 15.8 units/μg protein (95% CI 15.3-16.3), significantly higher than in control subjects-15.1 (14.6-15.5), *P = 0.011. The adjusted odds ratio for lung cancer associated with a one SD increase in MPG-εA activity (2.48 units) was significantly bigger than 1 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; *P = 0.013). When activity of OGG1, a different DNA repair enzyme for oxidative damage, was included in the model, the estimated odds ratio/SD for a combined MPG-εA-OGG1 score was 2.6 (95% CI 1.6-4.2) *P = 0.0001, higher than the odds ratio for each single assay. The MPG enzyme activity assays described provide robust functional risk biomarkers, with increased MPG-εA activity being associated with increased lung cancer risk, similar to the behavior of MPG-Hx. This underscores the notion that imbalances in DNA repair, including high DNA repair, usually perceived as beneficial, can cause cancer risk. Such DNA repair risk biomarkers may be useful for risk assessment of lung cancer and perhaps other cancer types, and for early detection techniques such as low-dose CT.

  14. Real-time observation of DNA repair: 2-aminopurine as a molecular probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rajagopal; Butcher, Christina E.; Oh, Dennis H.

    2008-02-01

    Triplex forming oligos (TFOs) that target psoralen photoadducts to specific DNA sequences have generated interest as a potential agent in gene therapy. TFOs also offer an opportunity to study the mechanism of DNA repair in detail. In an effort to understand the mechanism of DNA repair at a specific DNA sequence in real-time, we have designed a plasmid containing a psoralen reaction site adjacent to a TFO binding site corresponding to a sequence within the human interstitial collagenase gene. Two 2-aminopurine residues incorporated into the purine-rich strand of the TFO binding site and located within six nucleotides of the psoralen reaction site serve as molecular probes for excision repair events involving the psoralen photoadducts on that DNA strand. In duplex DNA, the 2-aminopurine fluorescence is quenched. However, upon thermal or formamide-induced denaturation of duplex DNA to single stranded DNA, the 2-aminopurine fluorescence increases by eight fold. These results suggest that monitoring 2-aminopurine fluorescence from plasmids damaged by psoralen TFOs may be a method for measuring excision of single-stranded damaged DNA from the plasmid in cells. A fluorescence-based molecular probe to the plasmid may significantly simplify the real-time observation of DNA repair in both populations of cells as well as single cells.

  15. Reconstruction of DNA repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum skin in vitro: a model to study hypersensitivity to UV light.

    PubMed

    Bernerd, Françoise; Asselineau, Daniel; Frechet, Mathilde; Sarasin, Alain; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, recessive, photosensitive and cancer-prone syndrome, the biochemical hallmark of which is a defect in nucleotide excision repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutagenic lesions. After isolation and amplification of several strains of XP-C keratinocytes and fibroblasts, a three-dimensional skin model in vitro comprising both epidermis and a dermal equivalent could be obtained. XP dermal tissues and XP epidermis displayed specific morphological and biochemical characteristics compared with tissues obtained with normal cells. One of the major features was the formation of epidermal invaginations into the dermal equivalent. After UV-B exposure, and contrary to repair of DNA lesions in normal cells, the XP model displayed repair deficiency with long-lasting persistence of UV-induced DNA damage and p53 positive nuclei. Recent data obtained after genetic correction leading to functional XPC gene in keratinocytes and fibroblasts revealed that several abnormal features could be normalized. In conclusion, reconstruction of XP skin in vitro provides a very promising system to study genetic hyperphotosensitivity and opens a rational perspective to XP tissue therapy. PMID:15369409

  16. STRUCTURE OF THE DNA REPAIR HELICASE HEL308 REVEALS DNA BINDING AND AUTOINHIBITORY DOMAINS

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jodi; Johnson, Ken; Liu, Huanting; Oke, Stephen McMahon. Muse; Carter, Lester; Naismith, James H; White, Malcolm F

    2012-01-01

    Hel308 is a superfamily 2 helicase conserved in eukaryotes and archaea. It is thought to function in the early stages of recombination following replication fork arrest, and has a specificity for removal of the lagging strand in model replication forks. A homologous helicase constitutes the N-terminal domain of human DNA polymerase Q. The Drosophila homologue mus301 is implicated in double strand break repair and meiotic recombination. We have solved the high-resolution crystal structure of Hel308 from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, revealing a five-domain structure with a central pore lined with essential DNA binding residues. The fifth domain is shown to act as a molecular brake, clamping the ssDNA extruded through the central pore of the helicase structure to limit the enzyme’s helicase activity. This provides an elegant mechanism to tune the enzyme’s processivity to its functional role. Hel308 can displace streptavidin from a biotinylated DNA molecule, suggesting that one function of the enzyme may be in the removal of bound proteins at stalled replication forks and recombination intermediates. PMID:18056710

  17. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zdżalik, Daria; Domańska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno (ε)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ε-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ε-adducts, 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA), 3,N4-ethenocytosine (εC) and 1,N2-ethenoguanine (1,N2-εG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ε-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed εA and εC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N2-εG. SC-1A repaired only εA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ε-adducts in dsDNA, while only εA and εC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only εC in ssDNA Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N2-εG and that ALKBH3 removes only εC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. PMID:25797601

  18. Genetic characterization of cells of homocystinuria patients with disrupted DNA repair system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinel'shchikova, T.A.; L'vova, G.N.; Shoniya, N.N.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1986-08-01

    Fibroblasts obtained from biopsy material and lymphocytes of patients with homocystinuria were investigated for repair activity according to the following criteria: rejoined DNA breaks, induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and ..gamma..-radiation; indices of reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine virus treated with these mutagens. In lymphocytes a defect of DNA repair was observed according to all criteria investigated. During passage of fibroblast cultures, inhibition of repair activity of cells was preserved according to ..gamma..-type. Increase in the number of spontaneous and ..gamma..-induced mutations of virus was noted according to degree of passage of fibroblasts.

  19. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N.; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the U.S. Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in 7 isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

  20. The molecular origin of high DNA-repair efficiency by photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-06-01

    The primary dynamics in photomachinery such as charge separation in photosynthesis and bond isomerization in sensory photoreceptor are typically ultrafast to accelerate functional dynamics and avoid energy dissipation. The same is also true for the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase. However, it is not known how the photoinduced step is optimized in photolyase to attain maximum efficiency. Here, we analyse the primary reaction steps of repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA by photolyase using femtosecond spectroscopy. With systematic mutations of the amino acids involved in binding of the flavin cofactor and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer substrate, we report our direct deconvolution of the catalytic dynamics with three electron-transfer and two bond-breaking elementary steps and thus the fine tuning of the biological repair function for optimal efficiency. We found that the maximum repair efficiency is not enhanced by the ultrafast photoinduced process but achieved by the synergistic optimization of all steps in the complex repair reaction.

  1. The molecular origin of high DNA-repair efficiency by photolyase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-01-01

    The primary dynamics in photomachinery such as charge separation in photosynthesis and bond isomerization in sensory photoreceptor are typically ultrafast to accelerate functional dynamics and avoid energy dissipation. The same is also true for the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase. However, it is not known how the photoinduced step is optimized in photolyase to attain maximum efficiency. Here, we analyse the primary reaction steps of repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA by photolyase using femtosecond spectroscopy. With systematic mutations of the amino acids involved in binding of the flavin cofactor and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer substrate, we report our direct deconvolution of the catalytic dynamics with three electron-transfer and two bond-breaking elementary steps and thus the fine tuning of the biological repair function for optimal efficiency. We found that the maximum repair efficiency is not enhanced by the ultrafast photoinduced process but achieved by the synergistic optimization of all steps in the complex repair reaction. PMID:26065359

  2. A rare polymorphic variant of NBS1 reduces DNA repair activity and elevates chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Miyamoto, Mamiko; Tatsuda, Daisuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Satoh, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Ohta, Tsutomu

    2014-07-15

    Failure to expeditiously repair DNA at sites of double-strand breaks (DSB) ultimately is an important etiologic factor in cancer development. NBS1 plays an important role in the cellular response to DSB damage. A rare polymorphic variant of NBS1 that resulted in an isoleucine to valine substitution at amino acid position 171 (I171V) was first identified in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This polymorphic variant is located in the N-terminal region that interacts with other DNA repair factors. In earlier work, we had identified a remarkable number of structural chromosomal aberrations in a patient with pediatric aplastic anemia with a homozygous polymorphic variant of NBS1-I171V; however, it was unclear whether this variant affected DSB repair activity or chromosomal instability. In this report, we demonstrate that NBS1-I171V reduces DSB repair activity through a loss of association with the DNA repair factor MDC1. Furthermore, we found that heterozygosity in this polymorphic variant was associated with breast cancer risk. Finally, we showed that this variant exerted a dominant-negative effect on wild-type NBS1, attenuating DSB repair efficiency and elevating chromosomal instability. Our findings offer evidence that the failure of DNA repair leading to chromosomal instability has a causal impact on the risk of breast cancer development.

  3. DNA Damage and Repair in Schizophrenia and Autism: Implications for Cancer Comorbidity and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Markkanen, Enni; Meyer, Urs; Dianov, Grigory L.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are multi-factorial and multi-symptomatic psychiatric disorders, each affecting 0.5%–1% of the population worldwide. Both are characterized by impairments in cognitive functions, emotions and behaviour, and they undermine basic human processes of perception and judgment. Despite decades of extensive research, the aetiologies of schizophrenia and ASD are still poorly understood and remain a significant challenge to clinicians and scientists alike. Adding to this unsatisfactory situation, patients with schizophrenia or ASD often develop a variety of peripheral and systemic disturbances, one prominent example of which is cancer, which shows a direct (but sometimes inverse) comorbidity in people affected with schizophrenia and ASD. Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells, the molecular origin of which derives from mutations of a cell’s DNA sequence. To counteract such mutations and repair damaged DNA, cells are equipped with intricate DNA repair pathways. Oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and deficient repair of oxidative DNA lesions repair have been proposed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia and ASD. In this article, we summarize the current evidence of cancer comorbidity in these brain disorders and discuss the putative roles of oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in the aetiopathology of schizophrenia and ASD. PMID:27258260

  4. Types, Causes, Detection and Repair of DNA Fragmentation in Animal and Human Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Marín, Clara; Gosálvez, Jaime; Roy, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Concentration, motility and morphology are parameters commonly used to determine the fertilization potential of an ejaculate. These parameters give a general view on the quality of sperm but do not provide information about one of the most important components of the reproductive outcome: DNA. Either single or double DNA strand breaks can set the difference between fertile and infertile males. Sperm DNA fragmentation can be caused by intrinsic factors like abortive apoptosis, deficiencies in recombination, protamine imbalances or oxidative stress. Damage can also occur due to extrinsic factors such as storage temperatures, extenders, handling conditions, time after ejaculation, infections and reaction to medicines or post-testicular oxidative stress, among others. Two singular characteristics differentiate sperm from somatic cells: Protamination and absence of DNA repair. DNA repair in sperm is terminated as transcription and translation stops post-spermiogenesis, so these cells have no mechanism to repair the damage occurred during their transit through the epididymis and post-ejaculation. Oocytes and early embryos have been shown to repair sperm DNA damage, so the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation depends on the combined effects of sperm chromatin damage and the capacity of the oocyte to repair it. In this contribution we review some of these issues. PMID:23203048

  5. Repair of ultraviolet B and singlet oxygen-induced DNA damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

    PubMed

    Rünger, T M; Epe, B; Möller, K

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) (290-320 nm) is capable of damaging the DNA molecule directly by generating predominantly pyrimidine dimers. UVA (320-400 nm) does not alter the DNA molecule directly. However, when it is absorbed by cellular photosensitizers, it can damage the DNA molecule indirectly, e.g., by mediation of singlet oxygen, generating predominantly 8-hydroxyguanine. These indirect effects have been implicated in the mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of UVA. To study the processing of directly and indirectly UV-induced DNA damage in intact, DNA-repair-proficient and -deficient human cells, we used the replicating plasmid pRSVcat, either irradiated with up to 10 kJ/m2 UVB or treated with the photosensitizer methylene blue plus visible light (which generates singlet oxygen). These treated plasmids were introduced into lymphoblast lines from normal donors or from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups A, C, D, E, and variant. DNA repair was assessed by measuring activity of reactivated chloramphenicol-acetyl-transferase enzyme, encoded by the plasmid's cat gene, in cell extracts after 3 d. As expected, the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage was reduced in all XP cell lines, and the degree varied with the complementation group. XP-A, -D, -E, and -variant cells were normally efficient in the repair of singlet oxygen-induced DNA damage. Only three of four XP-C cell lines showed a markedly reduced repair of these lesions. This indicates differential DNA-repair pathways for directly and indirectly UV-induced DNA damage in human cells and suggests that both may be affected in XP-C. PMID:7798643

  6. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Long, Xi-Dai

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (including rs25487, rs861539, rs7003908, rs28383151, rs13181, and rs2228001) in DNA repair genes (XPC, XRCC4, XRCC1, XRCC4, XPD, XRCC7, and XRCC3) interacted with AFB1, and the gene-environmental interactive role in the risk of HCC using hospital-based case-control study (including 1486 HCC cases and 1996 controls). Genotypes of DNA repair genes were tested using TaqMan-PCR technique. Higher AFB1 exposure was observed among HCC patients versus the control group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.08 for medium AFB1 exposure level and OR = 6.52 for high AFB1 exposure level]. Increasing risk of HCC was also observed in these with the mutants of DNA repair genes (risk values were from 1.57 to 5.86). Furthermore, these risk roles would be more noticeable under the conditions of two variables, and positive interactive effects were proved in the followed multiplicative interaction analysis. These results suggested that DNA repair risk genotypes might interact with AFB1 in the risk of HCC. PMID:25337275

  7. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  8. Expression profiles of DNA repair-related genes in rat target organs under subchronic cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Lei, Y X; Lu, Q; Shao, C; He, C C; Lei, Z N; Lian, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to different cadmium (Cd) doses in rats and expression profiles of DNA repair-related genes. The model rats were exposed to different concentrations of CdCl2 for 3 months, and 5 DNA repair-related genes - hMSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, hOGG1, ERCC1 - were cloned in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, heart, and lung. Accumulated amounts of Cd were detected in the tissues. Gene and protein detections were conducted via fluorescence quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Methylated sequences of the 5 DNA repair-related gene promoters were used to investigate whether the low expression levels of the genes were related to methylation of the promoter. In the Cd-exposed group, 3 DNA repair genes (i.e., XRCC1, hOGG1, and ERCC1) significantly decreased in the rat liver, kidney, heart, and lung according to the β-actin internal standard (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated the same trend for the different tissues. Each of the DNA repair genes had special characteristics; for example, hOGG1 gene expression decreased by 75% in the kidney, and XRCC1 gene expression decreased by 5% in the liver and heart when compared to the control group (P < 0.01). A negative correlation between the DNA repair gene expression levels and the cumulative levels of Cd was also suggested by malignancy pathology. The expression levels of 3 DNA repair genes (i.e., ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1) played an important role in the rat response to Cd exposure but not DNA methylated protection. PMID:25729986

  9. The effect of acute dose charge particle radiation on expression of DNA repair genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Soedipe, Ayodotun; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Shishodia, Shishir; Gridley, Daila S; Pourmand, Nader; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2011-03-01

    The space radiation environment consists of trapped particle radiation, solar particle radiation, and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), in which protons are the most abundant particle type. During missions to the moon or to Mars, the constant exposure to GCR and occasional exposure to particles emitted from solar particle events (SPE) are major health concerns for astronauts. Therefore, in order to determine health risks during space missions, an understanding of cellular responses to proton exposure is of primary importance. The expression of DNA repair genes in response to ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma rays) has been studied, but data on DNA repair in response to protons is lacking. Using qPCR analysis, we investigated changes in gene expression induced by positively charged particles (protons) in four categories (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy) in nine different DNA repair genes isolated from the testes of irradiated mice. DNA repair genes were selected on the basis of their known functions. These genes include ERCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), ERCC2/NER (opening DNA around the damage, Nucleotide Excision Repair), XRCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), XRCC3 (DNA break and cross-link repair), XPA (binds damaged DNA in preincision complex), XPC (damage recognition), ATA or ATM (activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks), MLH1 (post-replicative DNA mismatch repair), and PARP1 (base excision repair). Our results demonstrate that ERCC1, PARP1, and XPA genes showed no change at 0.1 Gy radiation, up-regulation at 1.0 Gy radiation (1.09 fold, 7.32 fold, 0.75 fold, respectively), and a remarkable increase in gene expression at 2.0 Gy radiation (4.83 fold, 57.58 fold and 87.58 fold, respectively). Expression of other genes, including ATM and XRCC3, was unchanged at 0.1 and 1.0 Gy radiation but showed up-regulation at 2.0 Gy radiation (2.64 fold and 2.86 fold, respectively). We were unable to detect gene expression for the

  10. Loss of DNA repair capacity during successive subcultures of primary rat fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Cultures of fibroblasts from newborn rats and successive subcultures of these cells were treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide to induce DNA repair. DNA from the cultures was examined by velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients immediately after drug treatment and after a post-treatment incubation period of 3 h. Early passage cells were able to repair the damage that appeared as single strand breaks, however, by the seventh subculture this activity was not apparent. Measurements of repair synthesis showed a partial loss of this capacity with successive subculture. The results fit a model in which 4NQO causes two kinds of DNA modification, one of which is alkali labile and appears as a single- strand break. Both modifications are subject to excision repair, but each is recognized initially by a specific endonuclease. In the late passage cells, the endonuclease specific for the alkali labile modification is absent. PMID:407232

  11. Germline Mutations in FAN1 Cause Hereditary Colorectal Cancer by Impairing DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Seguí, Nuria; Mina, Leonardo B; Lázaro, Conxi; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Pons, Tirso; Navarro, Matilde; Bellido, Fernando; López-Doriga, Adriana; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Pineda, Marta; Guinó, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Soto, José Luís; Caldés, Trinidad; Durán, Mercedes; Urioste, Miguel; Rueda, Daniel; Brunet, Joan; Balbín, Milagros; Blay, Pilar; Iglesias, Silvia; Garré, Pilar; Lastra, Enrique; Sánchez-Heras, Ana Beatriz; Valencia, Alfonso; Moreno, Victor; Pujana, Miguel Ángel; Villanueva, Alberto; Blanco, Ignacio; Capellá, Gabriel; Surrallés, Jordi; Puente, Xose S; Valle, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Identification of genes associated with hereditary cancers facilitates management of patients with family histories of cancer. We performed exome sequencing of DNA from 3 individuals from a family with colorectal cancer who met the Amsterdam criteria for risk of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. These individuals had mismatch repair-proficient tumors and each carried nonsense variant in the FANCD2/FANCI-associated nuclease 1 gene (FAN1), which encodes a nuclease involved in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair. We sequenced FAN1 in 176 additional families with histories of colorectal cancer and performed in vitro functional analyses of the mutant forms of FAN1 identified. We detected FAN1 mutations in approximately 3% of families who met the Amsterdam criteria and had mismatch repair-proficient cancers with no previously associated mutations. These findings link colorectal cancer predisposition to the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway, supporting the connection between genome integrity and cancer risk.

  12. Cell transcriptional state alters genomic patterns of DNA double-strand break repair in human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yong, Raymund L; Yang, Chunzhang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Huaien; Schlaff, Cody D; Tandle, Anita; Graves, Christian A; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R

    2014-01-01

    The misrepair of DNA double-strand breaks in close spatial proximity within the nucleus can result in chromosomal rearrangements that are important in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic and solid malignancies. It is unknown why certain epigenetic states, such as those found in stem or progenitor cells, appear to facilitate neoplastic transformation. Here we show that altering the transcriptional state of human astrocytes alters patterns of DNA damage repair from ionizing radiation at a gene locus-specific and genome-wide level. Astrocytes induced into a reactive state exhibit increased DNA repair, compared with non-reactive cells, in actively transcribed chromatin after irradiation. In mapping these repair sites, we identify misrepair events and repair hotspots that are unique to each state. The precise characterization of genomic regions susceptible to mutation in specific transcriptional states provides new opportunities for addressing clonal evolution in solid cancers, in particular those where double-strand break induction is a cornerstone of clinical intervention. PMID:25517576

  13. Vitamin D/Vitamin D Receptor Axis Regulates DNA Repair During Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Simona; Johnston, Rachel; Deng, Ou; Zhang, Junran; Gonzalo, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras expression is associated with activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, as evidenced by elevated DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and activation of DNA damage checkpoints, which in primary human cells leads to entry into senescence. DDR activation is viewed as a physiological barrier against uncontrolled proliferation in oncogenic Ras-expressing cells, and arises in response to genotoxic stress due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage DNA, and to hyper-replication stress. Although oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered a tumor suppressor mechanism, the accumulation of DNA damage in senescent cells is thought to cause genomic instability, eventually allowing secondary hits in the genome that promote tumorigenesis. To date, the molecular mechanisms behind DNA repair defects during OIS remain poorly understood. Here, we show that oncogenic Ras expression in human primary cells results in down-regulation of BRCA1 and 53BP1, two key factors in DNA DSBs repair by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), respectively. As a consequence, Ras-induced senescent cells are hindered in their ability to recruit BRCA1 and 53BP1 to DNA damage sites. While BRCA1 is down-regulated at transcripts levels, 53BP1 loss is caused by activation of cathepsin L (CTSL)-mediated degradation of 53BP1 protein. Moreover, we discovered a marked down-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) during OIS, and a role for the vitamin D/VDR axis regulating the levels of these DNA repair factors during OIS. This study reveals a new functional relationship between the oncogene Ras, the vitamin D/VDR axis, and the expression of DNA repair factors, in the context of OIS. The observed deficiencies in DNA repair factors in senescent cells could contribute to the genomic instability that allows senescence bypass and tumorigenesis. PMID:27041576

  14. A network of enzymes involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwen; Pelicic, Vladimir; Freemont, Paul S.; Baldwin, Geoff S.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2013-01-01

    Although oxidative stress is a key aspect of innate immunity, little is known about how host-restricted pathogens successfully repair DNA damage. Base excision repair (BER) is responsible for correcting nucleobases damaged by oxidative stress, and is essential for bloodstream infection caused by the human pathogen, Neisseria meningitidis. We have characterised meningococcal BER enzymes involved in the recognition and removal of damaged nucleobases, and incision of the DNA backbone. We demonstrate that the bi-functional glycosylase/lyases Nth and MutM share several overlapping activities and functional redundancy. However MutM and other members of the GO system, which deal with 8-oxoG, a common lesion of oxidative damage, are not required for survival of N. meningitidis under oxidative stress. Instead, the mismatch repair pathway provides back-up for the GO system, while the lyase activity of Nth can substitute for the meningococcal AP endonuclease, NApe. Our genetic and biochemical evidence show that DNA repair is achieved through a robust network of enzymes that provides a flexible system of DNA repair. This network is likely to reflect successful adaptation to the human nasopharynx, and might provide a paradigm for DNA repair in other prokaryotes. PMID:22296581

  15. Molecular inhibitors of DNA repair: searching for the ultimate tumor killing weapon.

    PubMed

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Georgakilas, Alexandros G

    2015-08-01

    DNA repair (DR) inhibitors are small molecules that interact with DR proteins in order to disrupt their function and induce a 'strike' to the high fidelity of the mammalian DNA repair systems. Many anticancer therapies aim to harm the DNA of the usually highly proliferative cancer cell, causing it to undergo apoptosis. In response to this, cancer cells attempt to fix the induced lesion and reconstitute its genomic integrity, in turn reducing the efficacy of treatment. To overcome this, DR inhibitors suppress DNA repair proteins' function, increasing the potency and tumor killing effect of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this review, we discuss clinically applied novel inhibitors under translational investigation and we apply bioinformatic tools in order to identify repair proteins implicated in more than two phenomenically distinct DNA repair pathways (e.g., base excision repair and nonhomologous end joining), that is, the concept of 'synthetic lethality'. Our study can aid towards the optimization of this therapeutic strategy and, therefore, maximizing treatment effectiveness like in the case of radiation therapy.

  16. Coexistence of Different Electron-Transfer Mechanisms in the DNA Repair Process by Photolyase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Kodali, Goutham; Stanley, Robert J; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-08-01

    DNA photolyase has been the topic of extensive studies due to its important role of repairing photodamaged DNA, and its unique feature of using light as an energy source. A crucial step in the repair by DNA photolyase is the forward electron transfer from its cofactor (FADH(-) ) to the damaged DNA, and the detailed mechanism of this process has been controversial. In the present study, we examine the forward electron transfer in DNA photolyase by carrying out high-level ab initio calculations in combination with a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach, and by measuring fluorescence emission spectra at low temperature. On the basis of these computational and experimental results, we demonstrate that multiple decay pathways exist in DNA photolyase depending on the wavelength at excitation and the subsequent transition. This implies that the forward electron transfer in DNA photolyase occurs not only by superexchange mechanism but also by sequential electron transfer. PMID:27362906

  17. Repair of rDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: RAD4-independent strand-specific nucleotide excision repair of RNA polymerase I transcribed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Verhage, R A; Van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1996-01-01

    Removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the individual strands of the rDNA locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. Yeast rDNA, that is transcribed by RNA polymerase I(RNA pol I), is repaired efficiently, slightly strand-specific and independently of RAD26, which has been implicated in transcription-coupled repair of the RNA pol II transcribed RPB2 gene. No repair of rDNA is observed in rad1,2,3 and 14 mutants, demonstrating that dimer removal from this highly repetitive DNA is accomplished by nucleotide excision repair (NER). In rad7 and rad16 mutants, which are specifically deficient in repair of non-transcribed DNA, there is a clear preferential repair of the transcribed strand of rDNA, indicating that strand-specific and therefore probably transcription-coupled repair of RNA pol I transcribed genes does exist in yeast. Unexpectedly, the transcribed but not the non-transcribed strand of rDNA can be repaired in rad4 mutants, which seem otherwise completely NER-deficient. PMID:8604332

  18. Characterization of DNA binding and pairing activities associated with the native SFPQ•NONO DNA repair protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Durga; Dynan, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks. We have previously shown that a complex of SFPQ (PSF) and NONO (p54nrb) cooperates with Ku protein at an early step of NHEJ, forming a committed preligation complex and stimulating end-joining activity by 10-fold or more. SFPQ and NONO show no resemblance to other repair factors, and their mechanism of action is uncertain. Here, we use an optimized microwell-based assay to characterize the in vitro DNA binding behavior of the native SFPQ•NONO complex purified from human (HeLa) cells. SFPQ•NONO and Ku protein bind independently to DNA, with little evidence of cooperativity and only slight mutual interference at high concentration. Whereas Ku protein requires free DNA ends for binding, SFPQ•NONO does not. Both Ku and SFPQ•NONO have pairing activity, as measured by the ability of DNA-bound protein to capture a second DNA fragment in a microwell-based assay. Additionally, SFPQ•NONO stimulates DNA-dependent protein kinase autophosphorylation, consistent with the ability to promote formation of a synaptic complex formation without occluding the DNA termini proper. These findings suggest that SFPQ•NONO promotes end joining by binding to internal DNA sequences and cooperating with other repair proteins to stabilize a synaptic pre-ligation complex. PMID:25998385

  19. FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 contributes to gene-specific DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Katherine A.; Yasseen, Akeel A.; McKerr, George; Downes, C. S.; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a salvage enzyme that phosphorylates thymidine, imported from surrounding fluids, to create dTMP, which is further phosphorylated to the DNA precursor dTTP. TK1 deficiency has for a long time been known to cause increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damage. We have examined preferential strand break repair of DNA domains in TK1+ and TK1- clones of the Raji cell line, by the Comet-FISH technique, in bulk DNA and in the actively transcribed tumor suppressor (TP53) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene regions, over 1 h after 5Gy γ-irradiation. Results showed that repair of the TP53 and hTERT gene regions was more efficient in TK1+ compared to TK1- cells, a trend also reflected to a lesser degree in genomic DNA repair between the cell-lines. The targeted gene-specific repair in TK+ cells occurred rapidly, mainly over the first 15 min repair-period. Therefore, TK1 is needed for preferential repair of actively transcribed regions, through a previously unsuspected mechanism. In principle, TK1 could exert its protective effects through supply of a supplementary dTTP pool for accurate repair of damaged genes; but Raji TK1+ cells in thymidine free media still show preferential repair of transcribed regions. TK1 therefore does not exert its protective effects through dTTP pools, but through another unidentified mechanism, which affects sensitivity to and mutagenicity by DNA damaging agents. PMID:25152750

  20. FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 contributes to gene-specific DNA repair.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Katherine A; Yasseen, Akeel A; McKerr, George; Downes, C S; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a salvage enzyme that phosphorylates thymidine, imported from surrounding fluids, to create dTMP, which is further phosphorylated to the DNA precursor dTTP. TK1 deficiency has for a long time been known to cause increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damage. We have examined preferential strand break repair of DNA domains in TK1(+) and TK1(-) clones of the Raji cell line, by the Comet-FISH technique, in bulk DNA and in the actively transcribed tumor suppressor (TP53) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene regions, over 1 h after 5Gy γ-irradiation. Results showed that repair of the TP53 and hTERT gene regions was more efficient in TK1(+) compared to TK1(-) cells, a trend also reflected to a lesser degree in genomic DNA repair between the cell-lines. The targeted gene-specific repair in TK(+) cells occurred rapidly, mainly over the first 15 min repair-period. Therefore, TK1 is needed for preferential repair of actively transcribed regions, through a previously unsuspected mechanism. In principle, TK1 could exert its protective effects through supply of a supplementary dTTP pool for accurate repair of damaged genes; but Raji TK1(+) cells in thymidine free media still show preferential repair of transcribed regions. TK1 therefore does not exert its protective effects through dTTP pools, but through another unidentified mechanism, which affects sensitivity to and mutagenicity by DNA damaging agents. PMID:25152750

  1. Genomic survey and expression analysis of DNA repair genes in the genus Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Schons-Fonseca, Luciane; da Silva, Josefa B; Domingos, Renan H; Momo, Leonardo Hiroyuki Santos; Simões, Ana Carolina Quirino; Ho, Paulo Lee; da Costa, Renata M A

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with important economic and public health consequences and is caused by pathogenic leptospires. The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and comprises saprophytic (L. biflexa), pathogenic (L. interrogans) and host-dependent (L. borgpetersenii) members. Here, we present an in silico search for DNA repair pathways in Leptospira spp. The relevance of such DNA repair pathways was assessed through the identification of mRNA levels of some genes during infection in animal model and after exposition to spleen cells. The search was performed by comparison of available Leptospira spp. genomes in public databases with known DNA repair-related genes. Leptospires exhibit some distinct and unexpected characteristics, for instance the existence of a redundant mechanism for repairing a chemically diverse spectrum of alkylated nucleobases, a new mutS-like gene and a new shorter version of uvrD. Leptospira spp. shares some characteristics from Gram-positive, as the presence of PcrA, two RecQ paralogs and two SSB proteins; the latter is considered a feature shared by naturally competent bacteria. We did not find a significant reduction in the number of DNA repair-related genes in both pathogenic and host-dependent species. Pathogenic leptospires were enriched for genes dedicated to base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Their evolutionary history reveals a remarkable importance of lateral gene transfer events for the evolution of the genus. Up-regulation of specific DNA repair genes, including components of SOS regulon, during infection in animal model validates the critical role of DNA repair mechanisms for the complex interplay between host/pathogen.

  2. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  3. The DNA base excision repair protein Ape1/Ref-1 as a therapeutic and chemopreventive target.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Melissa L; Kelley, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    With our growing understanding of the pathways involved in cell proliferation and signaling, targeted therapies, in the treatment of cancer are entering the clinical arena. New and emerging targets are proteins involved in DNA repair pathways. Inhibition of various proteins in the DNA repair pathways sensitizes cancer cells to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and/or radiation. We study the apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) and believe that its crucial function in DNA repair and reduction-oxidation or redox signaling make it an excellent target for sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Ape1/Ref-1 is an essential enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, Ape1/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. Ape1/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NFkappaB, HIF-1alpha, CREB, p53 and others. We will discuss what is known regarding the pharmacological targeting of the DNA repair activity, as well as the redox activity of Ape1/Ref-1, and explore the budding clinical utility of inhibition of either of these functions in cancer treatment. A brief discussion of the effect of polymorphisms in its DNA sequence is included because of Ape1/Ref-1's importance to maintenance and integrity of the genome. Experimental modification of Ape1/Ref-1 activity changes the response of cells and of organisms to DNA damaging agents, suggesting that Ape1/Ref-1 may also be a productive target of chemoprevention. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ape1/Ref-1's activities and explore the potential of this protein as a target in cancer treatment as well as its role in chemoprevention.

  4. Structural Basis for Avoidance of Promutagenic DNA Repair by MutY Adenine DNA Glycosylase*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Lee, Seung-Joo; Verdine, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly mutagenic A:oxoG (8-oxoguanine) base pair in DNA most frequently arises by aberrant replication of the primary oxidative lesion C:oxoG. This lesion is particularly insidious because neither of its constituent nucleobases faithfully transmit genetic information from the original C:G base pair. Repair of A:oxoG is initiated by adenine DNA glycosylase, which catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the aberrant A nucleobase from the DNA backbone. These enzymes, MutY in bacteria and MUTYH in humans, scrupulously avoid processing of C:oxoG because cleavage of the C residue in C:oxoG would actually promote mutagenic conversion to A:oxoG. Here we analyze the structural basis for rejection of C:oxoG by MutY, using a synthetic crystallography approach to capture the enzyme in the process of inspecting the C:oxoG anti-substrate, with which it ordinarily binds only fleetingly. We find that MutY uses two distinct strategies to avoid presentation of C to the enzyme active site. Firstly, MutY possesses an exo-site that serves as a decoy for C, and secondly, repulsive forces with a key active site residue prevent stable insertion of C into the nucleobase recognition pocket within the enzyme active site. PMID:25995449

  5. Structural Basis for Avoidance of Promutagenic DNA Repair by MutY Adenine DNA Glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Lee, Seung-Joo; Verdine, Gregory L

    2015-07-10

    The highly mutagenic A:oxoG (8-oxoguanine) base pair in DNA most frequently arises by aberrant replication of the primary oxidative lesion C:oxoG. This lesion is particularly insidious because neither of its constituent nucleobases faithfully transmit genetic information from the original C:G base pair. Repair of A:oxoG is initiated by adenine DNA glycosylase, which catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the aberrant A nucleobase from the DNA backbone. These enzymes, MutY in bacteria and MUTYH in humans, scrupulously avoid processing of C:oxoG because cleavage of the C residue in C:oxoG would actually promote mutagenic conversion to A:oxoG. Here we analyze the structural basis for rejection of C:oxoG by MutY, using a synthetic crystallography approach to capture the enzyme in the process of inspecting the C:oxoG anti-substrate, with which it ordinarily binds only fleetingly. We find that MutY uses two distinct strategies to avoid presentation of C to the enzyme active site. Firstly, MutY possesses an exo-site that serves as a decoy for C, and secondly, repulsive forces with a key active site residue prevent stable insertion of C into the nucleobase recognition pocket within the enzyme active site. PMID:25995449

  6. The comet assay for DNA damage and repair: principles, applications, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew R

    2004-03-01

    The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Cells embedded in agarose on a microscope slide are lysed with detergent and high salt to form nucleoids containing supercoiled loops of DNA linked to the nuclear matrix. Electrophoresis at high pH results in structures resembling comets, observed by fluorescence microscopy; the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. The likely basis for this is that loops containing a break lose their supercoiling and become free to extend toward the anode. The assay has applications in testing novel chemicals for genotoxicity, monitoring environmental contamination with genotoxins, human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology, and fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay are greatly enhanced if the nucleoids are incubated with bacterial repair endonucleases that recognize specific kinds of damage in the DNA and convert lesions to DNA breaks, increasing the amount of DNA in the comet tail. DNA repair can be monitored by incubating cells after treatment with damaging agent and measuring the damage remaining at intervals. Alternatively, the repair activity in a cell extract can be measured by incubating it with nucleoids containing specific damage. PMID:15004294

  7. Having a direct look: Analysis of DNA damage and repair mechanisms by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Bettina; Gartner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Genetic information is under constant attack from endogenous and exogenous sources, and the use of model organisms has provided important frameworks to understand how genome stability is maintained and how various DNA lesions are repaired. The advance of high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) provides new inroads for investigating mechanisms needed for genome maintenance. These emerging studies, which aim to link genetic toxicology and mechanistic analyses of DNA repair processes in vivo, rely on defining mutational signatures caused by faulty replication, endogenous DNA damaging metabolites, or exogenously applied genotoxins; the analysis of their nature, their frequency and distribution. In contrast to classical studies, where DNA repair deficiency is assessed by reduced cellular survival, the localization of DNA repair factors and their interdependence as well as limited analysis of single locus reporter assays, NGS based approaches reveal the direct, quantal imprint of mutagenesis genome-wide, at the DNA sequence level. As we will show, such investigations require the analysis of DNA derived from single genotoxin treated cells, or DNA from cell populations regularly passaged through single cell bottlenecks when naturally occurring mutation accumulation is investigated. We will argue that the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, its genetic malleability combined with whole genome sequencing provides an exciting model system to conduct such analysis. PMID:25131498

  8. Conserved and nonconserved proteins for meiotic DNA breakage and repair in yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer A; Hyppa, Randy W; Smith, Gerald R

    2004-01-01

    During meiosis DNA double-strand breaks initiate recombination in the distantly related budding and fission yeasts and perhaps in most eukaryotes. Repair of broken meiotic DNA is essential for formation of viable gametes. We report here distinct but overlapping sets of proteins in these yeasts required for formation and repair of double-strand breaks. Meiotic DNA breakage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe did not require Rad50 or Rad32, although the homologs Rad50 and Mre11 are required in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; these proteins are required for meiotic DNA break repair in both yeasts. DNA breakage required the S. pombe midmeiosis transcription factor Mei4, but the structurally unrelated midmeiosis transcription factor Ndt80 is not required for breakage in S. cerevisiae. Rhp51, Swi5, and Rad22 + Rti1 were required for full levels of DNA repair in S. pombe, as are the related S. cerevisiae proteins Rad51, Sae3, and Rad52. Dmc1 was not required for repair in S. pombe, but its homolog Dmc1 is required in the well-studied strain SK1 of S. cerevisiae. Additional proteins required in one yeast have no obvious homologs in the other yeast. The occurrence of conserved and nonconserved proteins indicates potential diversity in the mechanism of meiotic recombination and divergence of the machinery during the evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:15238514

  9. Surveying the repair of ancient DNA from bones via high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mouttham, Nathalie; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Fourney, Ron; Poinar, Hendrik

    2015-07-01

    DNA damage in the form of abasic sites, chemically altered nucleotides, and strand fragmentation is the foremost limitation in obtaining genetic information from many ancient samples. Upon cell death, DNA continues to endure various chemical attacks such as hydrolysis and oxidation, but repair pathways found in vivo no longer operate. By incubating degraded DNA with specific enzyme combinations adopted from these pathways, it is possible to reverse some of the post-mortem nucleic acid damage prior to downstream analyses such as library preparation, targeted enrichment, and high-throughput sequencing. Here, we evaluate the performance of two available repair protocols on previously characterized DNA extracts from four mammoths. Both methods use endonucleases and glycosylases along with a DNA polymerase-ligase combination. PreCR Repair Mix increases the number of molecules converted to sequencing libraries, leading to an increase in endogenous content and a decrease in cytosine-to-thymine transitions due to cytosine deamination. However, the effects of Nelson Repair Mix on repair of DNA damage remain inconclusive. PMID:26156780

  10. Surveying the repair of ancient DNA from bones via high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mouttham, Nathalie; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Fourney, Ron; Poinar, Hendrik

    2015-07-01

    DNA damage in the form of abasic sites, chemically altered nucleotides, and strand fragmentation is the foremost limitation in obtaining genetic information from many ancient samples. Upon cell death, DNA continues to endure various chemical attacks such as hydrolysis and oxidation, but repair pathways found in vivo no longer operate. By incubating degraded DNA with specific enzyme combinations adopted from these pathways, it is possible to reverse some of the post-mortem nucleic acid damage prior to downstream analyses such as library preparation, targeted enrichment, and high-throughput sequencing. Here, we evaluate the performance of two available repair protocols on previously characterized DNA extracts from four mammoths. Both methods use endonucleases and glycosylases along with a DNA polymerase-ligase combination. PreCR Repair Mix increases the number of molecules converted to sequencing libraries, leading to an increase in endogenous content and a decrease in cytosine-to-thymine transitions due to cytosine deamination. However, the effects of Nelson Repair Mix on repair of DNA damage remain inconclusive.

  11. DNA damage and repair in mouse embryos following treatment transplacentally with methylnitrosourea and methylmethanesulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Jirakulsomchok, S.; Yielding, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Mouse embryos were labeled in vivo at 10 1/2-12 1/2 days of gestation with (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and subjected to DNA damage using x-ray, methylmethanesulfonate, or methylnitrosourea. DNA damage and its repair were assessed in specific cell preparations from embryos isolated at intervals thereafter using the highly sensitive method of nucleoid sedimentation, which evaluates the supercoiled state of the DNA. Repair of x-ray damage was demonstrated using trypsin-dispersed cells from whole embryos and from homogenized embryonic liver to show the validity of the analytical approach. The effects of the highly teratogenic methylnitrosourea and the much less teratogenic methylmethanesulfonate were compared in the targeted limb buds using equitoxic doses of the two alkylating agents. DNA supercoiling was fully restored after 24 hr in limb bud cells damaged with methylmethanesulfonate, while as much as 48 hr were required for full repair of methylnitrosourea damage. These results demonstrated the feasibility of studying DNA repair in embryonic tissues after damage in vivo and suggest that the potency of methylnitrosourea as a teratogen may be correlated with a prolonged period required for complete repair of DNA.

  12. DNA repair defects sensitize cells to anticodon nuclease yeast killer toxins.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Roland; Wemhoff, Sabrina; Krause, Jens; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2011-03-01

    Killer toxins from Kluyveromyces lactis (zymocin) and Pichia acaciae (PaT) were found to disable translation in target cells by virtue of anticodon nuclease (ACNase) activities on tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln), respectively. Surprisingly, however, ACNase exposure does not only impair translation, but also affects genome integrity and concomitantly DNA damage occurs. Previously, it was shown that homologous recombination protects cells from ACNase toxicity. Here, we have analyzed whether other DNA repair pathways are functional in conferring ACNase resistance as well. In addition to HR, base excision repair (BER) and postreplication repair (PRR) promote clear resistance to either, PaT and zymocin. Comparative toxin sensitivity analysis of BER mutants revealed that its ACNase protective function is due to the endonucleases acting on apurinic (AP) sites, whereas none of the known DNA glycosylases is involved. Because PaT and zymocin require the presence of the ELP3/TRM9-dependent wobble uridine modification 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl (mcm(5)) for tRNA cleavage, we analyzed toxin response in DNA repair mutants additionally lacking such tRNA modifications. ACNase resistance caused by elp3 or trm9 mutations was found to rescue hypersensitivity of DNA repair defects, consistent with DNA damage to occur as a consequence of tRNA cleavage. The obtained genetic evidence promises to reveal new aspects into the mechanism linking translational fidelity and genome surveillance. PMID:21188417

  13. ZRF1 mediates remodeling of E3 ligases at DNA lesion sites during nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Gracheva, Ekaterina; Chitale, Shalaka; Wilhelm, Thomas; Rapp, Alexander; Byrne, Jonathan; Stadler, Jens; Medina, Rebeca; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Faithful DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation elicits both the recruitment of DNA repair factors and the deposition of histone marks such as monoubiquitylation of histone H2A at lesion sites. Here, we report how a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex specific to DNA repair is remodeled at lesion sites in the global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway. Monoubiquitylation of histone H2A (H2A-ubiquitin) is catalyzed predominantly by a novel E3 ligase complex consisting of DDB2, DDB1, CUL4B, and RING1B (UV–RING1B complex) that acts early during lesion recognition. The H2A-ubiquitin binding protein ZRF1 mediates remodeling of this E3 ligase complex directly at the DNA lesion site, causing the assembly of the UV–DDB–CUL4A E3 ligase complex (DDB1–DDB2–CUL4A-RBX1). ZRF1 is an essential factor in GG-NER, and its function at damaged chromatin sites is linked to damage recognition factor XPC. Overall, the results shed light on the interplay between epigenetic and DNA repair recognition factors at DNA lesion sites. PMID:27091446

  14. ACL repair might induce further abnormality of gamma loop in the intact side of the quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y U

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surgery on the gamma-loop in the quadriceps of patients with ACL injuries. We compared the response to vibration stimulation in subjects with ACL repair, subjects with ACL rupture, and normal subjects, by measuring the maximal strength and integrated electromyography (I-EMG) of the quadriceps. Pre-vibration data were obtained from each subject by measuring the MVC of the knee extension and the I-EMG from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris. Vibration stimulation was applied to the infrapatellar tendon, followed immediately by repeating maximal strength and I-EMG recording. The results of this study indicated that alpha motor neuron activity of the intact side of the vastus lateralis in response to prolonged vibration stimulation was altered by surgery, but no effect was detected in the injured side. The results could suggest that abnormality of the gamma-loop existed even in the quadriceps of patients with ACL rupture since the vibration stimulus failed to elicit changes in ACL-rupture group as compared with those of normal subjects. In comparison, abnormality of the gamma-loop in the intact side of the QF was probably induced by the rupture, and further abnormality of gamma-loop was induced by surgery.

  15. Single-cell microarray enables high-throughput evaluation of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Weingeist, David M.; Ge, Jing; Wood, David K.; Mutamba, James T.; Huang, Qiuying; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Floyd, Scott; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2013-01-01

    A key modality of non-surgical cancer management is DNA damaging therapy that causes DNA double-strand breaks that are preferentially toxic to rapidly dividing cancer cells. Double-strand break repair capacity is recognized as an important mechanism in drug resistance and is therefore a potential target for adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, spontaneous and environmentally induced DSBs are known to promote cancer, making DSB evaluation important as a tool in epidemiology, clinical evaluation and in the development of novel pharmaceuticals. Currently available assays to detect double-strand breaks are limited in throughput and specificity and offer minimal information concerning the kinetics of repair. Here, we present the CometChip, a 96-well platform that enables assessment of double-strand break levels and repair capacity of multiple cell types and conditions in parallel and integrates with standard high-throughput screening and analysis technologies. We demonstrate the ability to detect multiple genetic deficiencies in double-strand break repair and evaluate a set of clinically relevant chemical inhibitors of one of the major double-strand break repair pathways, non-homologous end-joining. While other high-throughput repair assays measure residual damage or indirect markers of damage, the CometChip detects physical double-strand breaks, providing direct measurement of damage induction and repair capacity, which may be useful in developing and implementing treatment strategies with reduced side effects. PMID:23422001

  16. DNA ligase III acts as a DNA strand break sensor in the cellular orchestration of DNA strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Ismail; Poirier, Guy G.; Hendzel, Michael J.; Weinfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the current model of DNA SSBR, PARP1 is regarded as the sensor of single-strand breaks (SSBs). However, biochemical studies have implicated LIG3 as another possible SSB sensor. Using a laser micro-irradiation protocol that predominantly generates SSBs, we were able to demonstrate that PARP1 is dispensable for the accumulation of different single-strand break repair (SSBR) proteins at sites of DNA damage in live cells. Furthermore, we show in live cells for the first time that LIG3 plays a role in mediating the accumulation of the SSBR proteins XRCC1 and PNKP at sites of DNA damage. Importantly, the accumulation of LIG3 at sites of DNA damage did not require the BRCT domain-mediated interaction with XRCC1. We were able to show that the N-terminal ZnF domain of LIG3 plays a key role in the enzyme's SSB sensing function. Finally, we provide cellular evidence that LIG3 and not PARP1 acts as the sensor for DNA damage caused by the topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan. Our results support the existence of a second damage-sensing mechanism in SSBR involving the detection of nicks in the genome by LIG3. PMID:25539916

  17. Differential roles of homologous recombination pathways in Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin antigenic variation, DNA transformation and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Mehr, I J; Seifert, H S

    1998-11-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) pili undergo antigenic variation when the amino acid sequence of the pilin protein is changed, aiding in immune avoidance and altering pilus expression. Pilin antigenic variation occurs by RecA-dependent unidirectional transfer of DNA sequences from a silent pilin locus to the expressed pilin gene through high-frequency recombination events that occur at limited regions of homology. We show that the Gc recQ and recO genes are essential for pilin antigenic and phase variation and DNA repair but are not involved in natural DNA transformation. This suggests that a RecF-like pathway of recombination exists in Gc. In addition, mutations in the Gc recB, recC or recD genes revealed that a Gc RecBCD pathway also exists and is involved in DNA transformation and DNA repair but not in pilin antigenic variation. PMID:10094619

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: Implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, R. A.

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation.

  19. Dictyostelium discoideum, a lower eukaryote model for the study of DNA repair: implications for the role of DNA-damaging chemicals in the evolution of repair proficient cells.

    PubMed

    Deering, R A

    1994-10-01

    The evolution of the ability of living cells to cope with stress is crucial for the maintenance of their genetic integrity. Yet low levels of mutation must remain to allow adaptation to environmental changes. The cellular slime mold D. discoideum is a good system for studying molecular aspects of the repair of lethal and mutagenic damage to DNA by radiation and chemicals. The wild-type strains of this soil microorganism are extremely resistant to DNA damaging agents. In nature the amoeboid cells in their replicative stage feed on soil bacteria and are exposed to numerous DNA-damaging chemicals produced by various soil microorganisms. It is probable that the evolution of repair systems in this organism and perhaps in others is a consequence of the necessity to cope with chemical damage which also confers resistance to radiation. PMID:11539974

  20. Writers, Readers, and Erasers of Histone Ubiquitylation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Smeenk, Godelieve; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose faulty repair may alter the content and organization of cellular genomes. To counteract this threat, numerous signaling and repair proteins are recruited hierarchically to the chromatin areas surrounding DSBs to facilitate accurate lesion repair and restoration of genome integrity. In vertebrate cells, ubiquitin-dependent modifications of histones adjacent to DSBs by RNF8, RNF168, and other ubiquitin ligases have a key role in promoting the assembly of repair protein complexes, serving as direct recruitment platforms for a range of genome caretaker proteins and their associated factors. These DNA damage-induced chromatin ubiquitylation marks provide an essential component of a histone code for DSB repair that is controlled by multifaceted regulatory circuits, underscoring its importance for genome stability maintenance. In this review, we provide a comprehensive account of how DSB-induced histone ubiquitylation is sensed, decoded and modulated by an elaborate array of repair factors and regulators. We discuss how these mechanisms impact DSB repair pathway choice and functionality for optimal protection of genome integrity, as well as cell and organismal fitness. PMID:27446204