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Sample records for abnormal eating behaviour

  1. Topiramate for Abnormal Eating Behaviour in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Singam, Colin; Walterfang, Mark; Mocellin, Ramon; Evans, Andrew; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant that is associated with anorexia and weight loss and has been used to treat binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. This report describes a man with frontotemporal dementia, behavioural variant, associated with abnormal eating behaviour which appeared to respond to topiramate. We review the physiological basis of abnormal eating behaviour in frontotemporal dementia and explore possible mechanisms of action by which topiramate may modify eating behaviour in this condition. PMID:23548883

  2. Managing abnormal eating behaviours in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with topiramate.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Tsuno, Norifumi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal eating behaviours are specific to frontotemporal lobar degeneration and increase caregiver burden. Topiramate, an anticonvulsant, suppresses cravings for alcohol and other substances and is a potential treatment for binge eating. However, there are few reports on topiramate efficacy for abnormal eating behaviours in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. We present three Japanese frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with abnormal eating behaviours. Topiramate was effective, especially for compulsive eating, in cases with distinct lobar atrophy, but not for all abnormal eating behaviours. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder increases the risk of having abnormal eating behaviours in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Docet, M F; Larrañaga, A; Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V

    2012-06-01

    To determine the rate of abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. This case-control study includes: obese adult patients defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m², screening positive in the adult ADHD self-report scale-V1.1. (ASRS-V1.1), attending the Nutrition Section, as cases; and obese adult patients screening negative, as controls. Weight, height and BMI were determined in all the participants. The rate of abnormal eating behaviours was determined using an eating pattern questionnaire. Forty-five out of 51 (88.2%) cases vs 127 out of 179 (70.9%) controls had abnormal eating behaviours (p=0.01). Eating between-meal snacks was found in 39 (76.5%) cases vs 107 (59.8%) controls (p=0.03), going on binge eating episodes in 28 (54.9%) vs 42 (23.5%) (p=0.00), waking up at night to eat in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), eating large amounts of food in 13 (25.5%) vs 38 (21.2%) (p=0.52), and eating in secret in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), respectively. This is the first study that determines the rate of these abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with ADHD in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. A high rate of abnormal eating behaviours was observed in obese patients with ADHD. Our results suggest that ADHD is a risk factor for the development of these abnormal eating behaviours, which may be contributing factors of obesity and the unsuccessful treatment of obese patients.

  4. Abnormal eating behaviour in people with a specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia).

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Costa, Ana; Murphy, Philip; Ellison, Nell

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the eating behaviour in people with a specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV), and whether those identified as restricting their food had a greater degree of psychopathology and impairment than those who do not restrict their food. We recruited 94 participants with SPOV. They were divided into those who reported restricting their food (SPOV-R) (n = 32) because of fear of vomiting and those who did not restrict their food (SPOV-NR) (n = 62). People with SPOV frequently have abnormal eating behaviours to reduce the perceived risk of vomiting. Only 3.7% had a body mass index (BMI) of less than 17.5, and 8.5% had a BMI of less than 18.5. The SPOV-R group had significantly higher frequency of psychopathology and abnormal eating behaviours than the SPOV-NR group. Abnormal eating behaviour, BMI, and the degree of food restriction are important factors in the assessment of SPOV. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Teasing as a risk factor for abnormal eating behaviours: A prospective study in an adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; Barberá, María; Ruiz, Elías; Conesa, Llanos; Rojo-Bofill, Luis Miguel; Livianos, Lorenzo; Rojo, Luis

    2017-08-14

    There are discrepancies in the literature about the role of teasing in the onset of eating pathology. This article aims to establish the influence of teasing in abnormal eating behaviors and attitudes in the adolescent population. This is a two-year prospective study conducted in 7,167 adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In a first assessment, teasing about weight and teasing about abilities were measured by means of the POTS.questionnaire. Its association with eating psychopathology after two years was analyzed controlling nutritional status (BMI), body dissatisfaction, drive to thinness, perfectionism (EDI), emotional symptoms and hyperactivity (SDQ) which had also been measured in the first assessment. The analysis was carried out independently for both genders. The multivariant analysis found no significant or independent effect of teasing about weight or teasing about abilities in the onset of later eating psychopathology. The obtained models were similar for both genders although in girls, but not in boys, controlling BMI was enough to make any effect of teasing disappear. Teasing about weight or abilities has no direct effect, neither in boys nor in girls of 13 to 15 years old, in the development of eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours and perceived parental control: a study of white British and British-Asian school girls.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Adam-Saib, S

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings, comparing British-Asian schoolgirls to White schoolgirls and consider 'intra-Asian' differences on the same measures, including factor scores. Participants completed three questionnaires: EAT-26, PBI and BSS (Body Satisfaction Scale). There were 168 participants: 46 White, 40 Indian, 44 Pakistani and 38 Bengali. Previous findings were supported; the Asian scores were significantly higher than the White scores on the EAT-26 and PBI, but not the BSS. The Bengali sample had significantly higher EAT-26 total and 'oral control' scores than the other groups. There were no intra-Asian differences for the overprotection scores. PBI scores were not associated with EAT-26 scores. The BSS score was the only significant predictor of EAT scores, when entered into a regression along with PBI scores and the body mass index. Results demonstrated sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders. The results suggest that there are important psychological differences between second-generation migrants from different countries on the Indian subcontinent. In line with previous studies, significant differences were found between the four ethnic groups, parenting styles, but these did not relate to actual eating disorders.

  7. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How abnormal is the desire for slimness? A survey of eating attitudes and behaviour among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, S

    1993-05-01

    Using the 40-item Eating Attitudes Test and other self-report questions, a two-stage screening survey of 1020 (F 646, M 374) Chinese bilingual university students in Hong Kong showed that although female students were 'underweight' by Western standard, the majority of them and nearly all female students above a body mass index of 20.5 kg/m2 were cognitively inclined to diet and weigh less, albeit without being driven to actual weight control behaviour. In contrast, most male students and a minority of constitutionally thin female students clearly wished to gain weight. While a number of items were culturally inappropriate, factor analysis supported the overall cross-cultural conceptual validity of the EAT. The principal factor, reflecting dieting concerns, correlated positively with the current body mass index. Among the high scorers, only three female students with partial syndrome bulimia nervosa were identified, yielding a low prevalence of 0.46% for the spectrum of eating disorders. It is argued that the desire for slimness is widespread but its intensity and pathogenic potentiality vary across cultures. In the relative absence of obesity, it may not lead to more eating disorder.

  9. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  10. [Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight.

  11. Eating behaviours among young women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, S F; Mira, M; Beumont, P J; Sowerbutts, T D; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1983-09-03

    Disordered eating and weight-control behaviour is becoming increasingly common among adolescent girls. We studied four groups of young women aged between 15 and 27 years (106 school and university students, 50 ballet school students, 22 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and 44 patients with bulimia). Our results suggest that most young women diet at some time and lose more than three kg in weight; that they may experience episodes of binge eating and "picking" behaviour; and that they wish to be thinner irrespective of their current body weight. Twenty per cent of young women may fulfil the criteria for an eating disorder (bulimia or anorexia nervosa) at some stage, however briefly, and about 7% abuse laxatives or diuretics in order to achieve a fashionably slim figure. We suggest that most young women may pass through a phase of what is currently called disordered eating, and that this is part of normal development and may not necessarily require treatment. The incidence of disordered eating is greater in those young women who are under pressure to maintain a low body weight.

  12. Quantifying the eating abnormalities in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Irish, Muireann; Kam, Jonathan; van Keizerswaard, Jolanda; Bartley, Lauren; Samaras, Katherine; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Presence of eating abnormalities is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), yet their occurrence in other subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and effect on metabolic health is not known. To define and quantify patterns of eating behavior and energy, sugar, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake, as well as indices of metabolic health in patients with bvFTD and semantic dementia (SD) compared with patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy control participants. Prospective case-controlled study involving patient and caregiver completion of surveys. Seventy-five participants with dementia (21 with bvFTD, 26 with SD, and 28 with AD) and 18 age- and education-matched healthy controls were recruited from FRONTIER, the FTD research clinic at Neuroscience Research Australia in Sydney. Caregivers of patients with FTD and AD completed validated questionnaires on appetite, eating behaviors, energy consumption, and dietary macronutrient composition. All participants completed surveys on hunger and satiety. Body mass index and weight measurements were prospectively collected. The bvFTD group had significant abnormalities in the domains of appetite (U = 111.0, z = 2.7, P = .007), eating habits (U = 69.5, z = 3.8, P = .001), food preferences (U = 57.0, z = 4.1, P = .001), swallowing (U = 109.0, z = 3.0, P = .003), and other oral behaviors (U = 141.0, z = 2.6, P = .009) compared with the AD group. The bvFTD and SD groups tended to have increased energy consumption. Compared with controls, the bvFTD group had significantly increased carbohydrate intake (251 vs 170 g/d; P = .05) and the SD group had significantly increased sugar intake (114 vs 76 g/d; P = .049). No significant differences in total fat or protein intake between the groups were found. Despite similar energy intake, the SD group had lower hunger and satiety scores compared with the bvFTD group. In contrast, hunger and satiety scores did not differ

  13. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  14. Associations among ADHD, Abnormal Eating and Overweight in a non-clinical sample of Asian children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Huijing; Li, Xiaoru

    2017-06-06

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be comorbid with obesity in adults, but the association in children is uncertain. Because the underlying mechanism of comorbidity in children has not been researched sufficiently, this study aims to explore the associations among ADHD, abnormal eating, and body mass index (BMI), as well as the mediating effect of depression in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 785 primary students in China. The parent-report version of ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) were used to identify ADHD symptoms and abnormal eating. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was applied to assess depression. Structural Equation Modeling was carried out to clarify the associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, abnormal eating, and overweight of students. We found that ADHD positively contributed to emotional eating and Bulimia Nervosa symptoms. However, neither emotional eating nor Bulimia Nervosa symptoms was related to BMI in children. We also found that ADHD significantly contributed to depression, and depression directly predicted emotional eating. In conclusion, ADHD increased the risk of abnormal eating in children, while no significant relationship existed between ADHD and BMI. Comorbid depression raised the risk of emotional eating, rather than Bulimia Nervosa symptoms.

  15. Factors associated with abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Cross-sectional, school-based study. Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18 years, and the response rate was 97%. The dependent variable was scores on the Eating Attitudes Test-26, with scores > or = 20 indicating abnormal eating attitudes. Bivariate analysis included independent Student t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for the identification of the predictive factors, which were associated independently with abnormal eating attitudes. A 2-sided P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes was 16.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that females, urban residents, and those with a body mass index outside normal range, a perception of being overweight, body dissatisfaction, and a family member on a diet were independently related to abnormal eating attitudes. The results indicate that a proportion of Greek adolescents report abnormal eating attitudes and suggest that multiple factors contribute to the development of these attitudes. These findings are useful for further research into this topic and would be valuable in designing preventive interventions. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental antecedents of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Le Grange, Daniel; O'Connor, Meredith; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Macdonald, Jacqui; Little, Keriann; Olsson, Craig A

    2014-11-01

    This study capitalizes on developmental data from an Australian population-based birth cohort to identify developmental markers of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescence. The aims were twofold: (1) to develop a comprehensive path model identifying infant and childhood developmental correlates of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in adolescence, and (2) to explore potential gender differences. Data were drawn from a 30-year longitudinal study that has followed the health and development of a population based cohort across 15 waves of data collection from infancy since 1983: The Australian Temperament Project. Participants in this analysis were the 1,300 youth who completed the 11th survey at 15-16 years (1998) and who completed the eating disorder inventory at this time point. Developmental correlates of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in mid-adolescence were temperamental persistence, early gestational age, persistent high weight, teen depression, stronger peer relationships, maternal dieting behavior, and pubertal timing. Overall, these factors accounted for 28% of the variance in Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors at 15-16 years of age. Depressive symptoms, maternal dieting behavior, and early puberty were more important factors for girls. Late puberty was a more important factor for boys. Findings address an important gap in our understanding of the etiology of Abnormal Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in adolescence and suggest multiple targets for preventive intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P<0.05), although the correlations did not withstand further adjustments for age, gender and BMI (all P>0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  18. Eating behaviour and eating disorders in students of nutrition sciences.

    PubMed

    Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.

  19. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  20. Eating Behaviour and Weight in Children

    PubMed Central

    Webber, L; Hill, C; Saxton, J; Van Jaarsveld, CHM; Wardle, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that quantitative variation in eating behaviour traits shows a graded association with weight in children. Design: Cross-sectional design in a community setting. Subjects: Data were from 406 families participating in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) or the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Children were aged 7 to 9 years (PEACHES) and 9 to 12 years old (TEDS). Measurements: Weights and heights were measured by researchers. BMI SD-scores were used to categorise participants into healthy-weight, overweight and obese groups, with an additional division of the healthy-weight group into higher- and lower-healthy-weight at the 50th centile. Eating behaviour traits were assessed with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), completed by the parent on behalf of their child. Linear trend analyses compared CEBQ sub-scale scores across the five weight groups. Results: Satiety Responsiveness/Slowness in Eating and Food Fussiness showed a graded negative association with weight, while Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating and Desire to Drink were positively associated. All effects were maintained after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and sample. There was no systematic association with weight for Emotional Undereating. Conclusion: These results support the idea that approach-related and avoidance-related appetitive traits are systematically (and oppositely) related to adiposity, and not exclusively associated with obesity. Early assessment of these traits could be used as indicators of susceptibility to weight gain. PMID:19002146

  1. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  2. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  3. Parental modelling of eating behaviours: observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and eating behaviours in preadolescents: the mediating role of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75 years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.

  6. Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motivational dynamics underlying eating regulation in young and adult female dieters: relationships with healthy eating behaviours and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soetens, Barbara; Soenens, Bart

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether type of goals and motives underlying females' eating regulation are associated differentially with daily eating behaviours, dependent upon weight and age category. 99 late adolescent female dieters (Mage = 18.94) and 98 adult female dieters (Mage = 45.06), 23.6% of which were overweight, completed a questionnaire and a 7-day diary assessment. Descriptive analysis and path analysis were performed to investigate the research questions. Healthy eating behaviours (HEHS), drive for thinness and binge eating symptoms (EDI). Appearance-focused and controlled eating regulation were positively related to disordered eating symptoms throughout the week. In contrast, autonomous and health-focused eating regulation were associated positively with healthy eating behaviours and were either related negatively or unrelated to disordered eating symptoms. Mean level differences in motivation and eating behaviours emerged according to age and weight status. However, the examined structural model was similar for late adolescent and adult dieters and only few differences emerged between normal-weight and overweight dieters. Dieters' type of motivation helps to explain when eating regulation relates to healthy and disordered eating symptoms.

  8. Perceived eating norms and children's eating behaviour: An informational social influence account.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2017-06-01

    There is initial evidence that beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) can influence children's vegetable consumption, but little research has examined the mechanisms explaining this effect. In two studies we aimed to replicate the effect that perceived eating norms have on children's vegetable consumption, and to explore mechanisms which may underlie the influence of perceived eating norms on children's vegetable consumption. Study 1 investigated whether children follow perceived eating norms due to a desire to maintain personal feelings of social acceptance. Study 2 investigated whether perceived eating norms influence eating behaviour because eating norms provide information which can remove uncertainty about how to behave. Across both studies children were exposed to vegetable consumption information of other children and their vegetable consumption was examined. In both studies children were influenced by perceived eating norms, eating more when led to believe others had eaten a large amount compared to when led to believe others had eaten no vegetables. In Study 1, children were influenced by a perceived eating norm regardless of whether they felt sure or unsure that other children accepted them. In Study 2, children were most influenced by a perceived eating norm if they were eating in a novel context in which it may have been uncertain how to behave, as opposed to an eating context that children had already encountered. Perceived eating norms may influence children's eating behaviour by removing uncertainty about how to behave, otherwise known as informational social influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The eating disorders: 2. Behavioural and dental management.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Angela; Milosevic, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    The eating disorders are a group of related but distinct disturbances in eating behaviour with wide-ranging effects. The first part in this series described the scientific background, clinical features and impact upon oro-dental health. This second part discusses behavioural and dental management. Dentists should have knowledge of the behavioural management of eating disorders (ED), especially if their ED patients are seeing other healthcare professionals. Dentists with this understanding may better engage with an ED patient in order to provide successful dental management within an overall holistic approach to patient care.

  10. Alopecia in four kittens caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fanton, N; Michelazzi, M; Cornegliani, L

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal maternal behaviour has been reported in cats, but is generally not included among the causes of alopecia in kittens. A litter of four kittens, 2 months old, was referred for evaluation of facial alopecia of differing severity. The 2-year-old queen was unaffected. Dermatological examination of the kittens did not find any infectious cause. Trichograms showed broken hair shafts with longitudinal splitting. Congenital alopecia was unlikely based on the clinical presentation. A behavioural consultation revealed abnormal grooming behaviour by the mother, who chewed and removed the hair from the kittens. The kittens were separated from the queen and alopecia resolved within a few weeks. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of alopecia caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour. Abnormal maternal behaviour should be considered in cases of alopecia affecting a litter of kittens, when infectious and congenital causes have been ruled out. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. An exploratory survey of eating behaviour patterns in adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Arata, A; Battini, V; Chiorri, C; Masini, B

    2010-12-01

    Empirical research has always treated adolescents' eating habits from a variable-centered perspective, but this approach may miss the configurations of eating behaviours that uniquely describe discrete groups of individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate prototypical patterns of eating habits in a large sample of Italian adolescents and their behavioural and psychological correlates. Data were gathered from 1388 students (F=60%, mean age 14.90±1.34 yrs), who were asked to fill in an original questionnaire surveying dietary habits, body weight attitudes, body image, sport activities and sources of information about food. Perfectionism, self-esteem, self-efficacy and care for food were also assessed as well-known psychological risk factors for Eating Disorders. Five prototypical eating behaviour patterns were identified through cluster analysis. Cluster membership was associated (p<0.05) with gender, age and age- and gender-correct BMI percentile, perceived relevance of physical appearance in achieving success in life; one's weight and body image evaluation, dieting, physical activity, self-efficacy, self-esteem and care for food. Clusters did not differ in perfectionism score and in frequency of consulting different sources of information about food and weight, except in the case of dieticians. The identification of prototypical eating habits patterns revealed a large range of wrong eating attitudes and behaviours among Italian adolescents. Such data suggest the need to develop and implement adequate prevention programs.

  12. Psychosocial correlates, outcome, and stability of abnormal adolescent eating behavior in community samples of young people.

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Gavez, Silvia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2005-03-01

    The current study investigated psychosocial correlates of abnormal adolescent eating behavior at three times during adolescence and young adulthood and its association with psychiatric diagnosis in young adulthood in a community sample. Sixty-four (10.5%) high-risk subjects (mean age 15 years) with abnormal eating behavior were identified at Time 1, another 252 (16.9%) were identified at Time 2 (mean age 16.2 years), and 164 (16.9%) were identified at Time 3 (mean age 19.7 years) and compared with three control groups matched for age and gender. Dependent measures included emotional and behavioral problems, life events, coping capacities, self-related cognition, social network, and family functions. Outcome was measured additionally by structured psychiatric interviews, and stability of abnormal eating behavior was studied in a longitudinal sample of 330 subjects. Few subjects showed more than one of five criteria of abnormal eating behavior. High-risk subjects shared a very similar pattern at all three times. They were characterized by higher scores for emotional and behavioral problems, more life events including more negative impact, less active coping, lower self-esteem, and less family cohesion. Among 10 major psychiatric disorders, only clinical eating disorders at Time 3 shared a significant association with abnormal eating disorder at the same time whereas high-risk status at Times 1 and 2 did not predict any psychiatric disorder at Time 3. Stability of abnormal eating behavior across time was very low. Stability of abnormal eating behavior across time was very low. Abnormal eating behavior in adolescence and young adulthood is clearly associated with various indicators of psychosocial maladaption. In adolescence, it does not significantly predict any psychiatric disorder including eating disorder in young adulthood and it is predominantly a transient feature. (c) 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  14. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Paul A M; Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Spetter, Maartje S

    2012-11-01

    The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.

  16. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research.

    PubMed

    DeCosta, Patricia; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [DAILY AND ABNORMAL EATING BEHAVIORS IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF CHILEAN ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés Valle, Ana

    2015-08-01

    this research aimed to characterize the daily eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. 657 participants (437 women and 220 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean BMI was 25.50 kg/m2 (women 24.96 kg/m2, men 26.58 kg/m2), being significantly higher the mean of BMI in the men group, being the BMI mean of the total sample and that of the male group in the overweight range. participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), in contrast with normal-weight group, tended to do more frequently the following behaviors: skip meals, follow a diet, eat less homemade food, eat faster and in greater quantities, in addition to do a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds and to rate significantly higher in clinical scales that evaluated eating restraint and overeating. Men showed significantly more eating behaviors linked with overeating, and women performed more behaviors related with eating restraint and emotional eating. the results suggest that, besides "what" people eat, "how" people eat, in terms of specific behaviors, may contribute to the rapid increase of overweight in Chilean population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dietary behaviour modification on anthropometric indices and eating behaviour in obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Jamalfard, Mohammad Hoseein; Kargar, Marziye; Kaveh, Mohammad Hoseein; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to evaluate the effects of behaviour modification on anthropometric indices and to explore if behaviour modification could improve eating behaviour in adolescents. Obesity is currently the most important nutritional disease of children and adolescents. To date, several attempts to achieve weight loss in children have been made, but little is known about their effects on improving eating behaviours. Sixty obese adolescent girls participated in a behaviour modification program which was held for 16 weeks in 2007. The participants were randomly selected from two different schools and were assigned to an experimental and control group (30 participants each). Anthropometric indices and eating behaviours were assessed before and after the program. Eating behaviour was assessed using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. There were statistically significant differences in changes in body weight (-2.75 kg vs. 0.62 kg), body mass index (-1.07 kg/m(2) vs. 0.24 kg/m(2)) and arm circumference (-2.31 cm vs. 0.5 cm) in the experimental group in contrast to controls (P < 0.001). There were also statistically significant differences in scores for eating behaviour, emotional eating (0.63, 0.17), external eating (0.99, 0.05) and restrained eating (0.72, 0.03) in the experimental vs. the control group respectively (P < 0.001). Nurses, more than other healthcare professionals, can address obesity in adolescents and they should not concentrate solely on weight reduction, but also encourage children to acquire a healthy lifestyle.

  19. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Orthorexic eating behaviour as a coping strategy in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Barthels, Friederike; Meyer, Frank; Huber, Thomas; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic eating behaviour. Female anorexic patients with low (n = 29) and pronounced (n = 13) orthorexic eating behaviour as well as a matched control group composed of healthy females (n = 30) were compared with regard to several aspects of disordered eating, hypochondriacal traits, food consumption frequency and fulfilment of basic psychological needs in terms of eating. Orthorexic eating behaviour was assessed using the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala. Fulfilment of basic psychological needs with respect to autonomy and competence is higher in anorexic individuals with pronounced orthorexic eating behaviour compared to patients with low orthorexic eating behaviour. Furthermore, patients with pronounced orthorexic eating behaviour state eating healthy food regardless of calorie content more often. No difference was found for hypochondriacal traits and eating disordered symptoms in general. Orthorexic eating behaviour enhances self-perception of eating behaviour as autonomous and competent, indicating that it might serve as a coping strategy in anorexic individuals. Further research is needed to investigate if this tendency in food selection strategy leads to positive effects in the long term.

  1. Eating and rumination behaviour in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Tschoner, T; Hässig, M; Nuss, K

    2017-02-01

    Eating and rumination behaviour in 22 cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis was recorded after the start of treatment. Based on the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations, the cows were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 12 cows without an intramural or perforating foreign body and group B had 10 cows with an intramural or perforating foreign body. Cows of group A received amoxicillin, flunixin meglumine and a NaCl-glucose infusion, and cows of group B received the same treatment accompanied by foreign body removal via ruminotomy. All cows were fitted with a horse halter equipped with a pressure sensor integrated into the noseband, and eating and rumination activities were recorded continuously for 7 days. Additional 24-hour- recording periods occurred on days 14 and 30. Results obtained previously from 300 healthy cows were used for comparison. Median daily eating time in group A was 168 minutes (reference interval 211 to 319 min) on day 1 and increased to within the reference interval by day 3. Eating time on day 14 was 290 minutes and significantly longer than on day 1. Eating time was 294 minutes on day 30. Eating time in group B was comparable, and the patterns of normalisation for the number of chewing cycles related to eating, rumination time, the number of regurgitated cuds per day and the number of chewing cycles per cud were similar to that of group A: all variables were significantly reduced on day 1 and normalised within 3 to 5 days. The findings showed that eating and rumination are reduced in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and that successful treatment results in rapid normalisation. Monitoring eating and rumination behaviour using a pressure sensor integrated into a halter allows objective clinical assessment of cows recovering from traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

  2. Explaining the relationship between attachment anxiety, eating behaviour and BMI.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Rowe, Angela C; Robinson, Eric; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2018-05-05

    Previous research indicates that attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is predictive of overeating and higher body mass index (BMI). The current study explored the nature of the mechanisms underpinning this relationship. Study 1 assessed the relative contribution of 'emotional eating', 'susceptibility to hunger' and 'uncontrolled eating'. Study 2 assessed whether misperception of emotion and poor emotion management would mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and stress-induced eating (and then BMI). Two cross-sectional online questionnaire studies were conducted (Study 1 N = 665, & Study 2 N = 548), in UK and US-based samples, which assessed attachment orientation and BMI alongside the potential mediators. The relative contribution of emotional eating, susceptibility to hunger and uncontrolled eating (Study 1) and difficulties in emotion regulation and stress-induced eating (Study 2) as mediators of this relationship were examined. In Study 1, parallel multiple mediation analysis (PROCESS) showed that emotional eating and susceptibility to hunger (but not uncontrolled eating) were significant mediators of the relationship between attachment anxiety and BMI. In Study 2, serial mediation analysis showed that difficulties in 'engaging with goal directed behaviours when upset' and stress-induced eating operated in series to significantly mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and BMI. These findings suggest that attachment anxious individuals feel less capable in disengaging from negative emotions and go on to try to soothe themselves through eating which has a negative impact on their BMI. There was less support for an explanation of the relationship between attachment anxiety and BMI based around the misperception of emotion. Taken together, the findings highlight attachment anxiety and emotion regulation strategies as key targets for interventions that aim to reduce overeating and excess body weight. Copyright © 2018

  3. Association of eating behaviours with diurnal preference and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Kawano, Yukari; Noguchi, Osamu; Onishi, Junko; Teramoto, Reiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yuri; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Togo, Fumiharu

    2016-11-28

    Our study examines differences in eating behaviour between day workers and rotating shift workers, and considers whether diurnal preference could explain the differences. Japanese female nurses were studied (39 day workers and 123 rotating shift workers, aged 21-63 years) using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires assessed eating behaviours, diurnal preference and demographic characteristics. The questionnaire in the Guidelines for the management of obesity disease issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity was used to obtain scores for the levels of obesity-related eating behaviours, including cognition of constitution, motivation for eating, eating as a diversion, feeling of satiety, eating style, meal contents and temporal eating patterns. The Japanese version of the Morningness-Eveningness (ME) questionnaire was used to measure self-rated preference for the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening (ME). The scores for meal contents and temporal eating patterns in rotating shift workers were significantly higher than those in day workers. The ME score of rotating shift workers was significantly lower, indicating greater eveningness/less morningness among rotating shift workers. Multivariate linear regression revealed that the ME score was significantly negatively associated with temporal eating patterns and showed a negative association with the score for meal contents at a trend level, while current work shift was not significantly correlated with the scores. These results suggest that eating behaviours for rotating shift workers are associated with a more unbalanced diet and abnormal temporal eating patterns and that the associations may be explained by diurnal preference rather than by rotating shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Association of eating behaviours with diurnal preference and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Kawano, Yukari; Noguchi, Osamu; Onishi, Junko; Teramoto, Reiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yuri; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Togo, Fumiharu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study examines differences in eating behaviour between day workers and rotating shift workers, and considers whether diurnal preference could explain the differences. Methods Japanese female nurses were studied (39 day workers and 123 rotating shift workers, aged 21–63 years) using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires assessed eating behaviours, diurnal preference and demographic characteristics. The questionnaire in the Guidelines for the management of obesity disease issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity was used to obtain scores for the levels of obesity-related eating behaviours, including cognition of constitution, motivation for eating, eating as a diversion, feeling of satiety, eating style, meal contents and temporal eating patterns. The Japanese version of the Morningness–Eveningness (ME) questionnaire was used to measure self-rated preference for the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening (ME). Results The scores for meal contents and temporal eating patterns in rotating shift workers were significantly higher than those in day workers. The ME score of rotating shift workers was significantly lower, indicating greater eveningness/less morningness among rotating shift workers. Multivariate linear regression revealed that the ME score was significantly negatively associated with temporal eating patterns and showed a negative association with the score for meal contents at a trend level, while current work shift was not significantly correlated with the scores. Conclusions These results suggest that eating behaviours for rotating shift workers are associated with a more unbalanced diet and abnormal temporal eating patterns and that the associations may be explained by diurnal preference rather than by rotating shift work. PMID:27895063

  5. Sleep indices and eating behaviours in young adults: findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Rachel P; Lutsey, Pamela L; Widome, Rachel; Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    To test the associations between sleep indices and eating behaviours in young adults, a group vulnerable to suboptimal sleep. Cross-sectional analysis of survey measures of sleep (i.e. time in bed, variability, timing and quality) and dietary patterns (i.e. breakfast skipping, eating at fast-food restaurants, consumption of sports and energy drinks, and sugar-free, sugar-sweetened and caffeinated beverages). Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota (USA). A total of 1854 respondents (20-30 years, 55·6 % female) from the 2008-2009 survey conducted for the third wave of the population-based Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) study. After adjustment for demographic and behavioural covariates in linear regression models, those who went to bed after 00.30 hours consumed 0·3 more servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day, consumed 1·7 times more energy drinks, skipped breakfast 1·8 more times per week and consumed fast food 0·3 more times per week compared with those who went to bed before 22.30 hours. Reported sleep quality in the lowest (Q1) v. highest (Q3) tertile was associated with more intake of energy drinks (Q3 v. Q1, prevalence ratio, 95 % CI: 1·79, 1·24, 2·34), sports drinks (1·28, 1·00, 1·55) and breakfast skipping (adjusted mean, 95 % CI: Q1: 4·03, 3·81, 4·26; Q3: 3·43, 3·17, 3·69). Time in bed and sleep variability were associated with few eating behaviours. Some, but not all, sleep indices were related to problematic eating behaviours. Sleep habits may be important to address in interventions and policies that target improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes.

  6. The role of parenting in the relationship between childhood eating problems and broader behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Meyer, C; Haycraft, E

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has established that childhood feeding and eating problems are often related to other behavioural difficulties. Parenting practices have been implicated in both eating behaviour and broader behaviour problems. The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between eating and behaviour problems could be explained in part by parenting style and practices. Seventy-seven mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children completed measures of children's eating behaviours, behaviour problems, parenting style and feeding practices. Eating behaviours (food responsiveness, emotional under-eating, fussiness) and behaviour problems (conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties) were significantly correlated, but when parenting style and feeding practices were controlled for, significant associations disappeared. Although the findings are limited because of a relatively low response rate, in non-clinical groups, the perceived commonality between eating and behaviour problems may be explained by parenting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Personality correlates of obese eating behaviour: Swedish universities Scales of Personality and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K

    2005-12-01

    To study the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviour in obese patients. The participants were 45 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39 kg/m2. Eating behaviour was measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) also taking the subscales Flexible Control and Rigid Control into account, and Personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). In linear regression analyses the personality characteristic greater Lack of Assertiveness could explain 17% of Disinhibited eating and 13% of Hunger scores, whereas less Lack of Assertiveness could explain 12% of Flexible Control. BMI was negatively related to one of the personality characteristics, Adventure Seeking. A lacking ability to be socially self-assertive and confident characterized obese patients with more problematic eating behaviours that imply a risk for over consumption of food. A greater self-assertiveness was found in patients with a relatively more efficient eating strategy such as flexible control over eating.

  8. Examining the mediating roles of binge eating and emotional eating in the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Reuning-Scherer, Jonathan; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    To test whether binge eating and emotional eating mediate the relationships between self-reported stress, morning cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference. We also explored the moderators of gender and age. Data were from 249 adults (mean BMI = 26.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2; mean age = 28.3 ± 8.3 years; 54.2 % male; 69.5 % white) recruited from the community who were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel of psychological and physiological assessments including a morning blood draw for plasma cortisol. We found negative relationships between stress and morning cortisol (r = −0.15 to −0.21; p < 0.05), and cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference (r = −0.16, −0.25, respectively; p < 0.05). There was not statistical support for binge eating or emotional eating as mediators and no support for moderated mediation for either gender or age; however, gender moderated several paths in the model. These include the paths between perceived stress and emotional eating (B = 0.009, p < 0.001), perceived stress and binge eating (B = 0.01, p = 0.003), and binge eating and increased HOMA-IR (B = 0.149, p = 0.018), which were higher among females. Among women, perceived stress may be an important target to decrease binge and emotional eating. It remains to be determined what physiological and psychological mechanisms underlie the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26686376

  9. Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive-behavioural treatment for women who binge eat.

    PubMed

    Shelley-Ummenhofer, Jill; MacMillan, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    A dietitian-administered, shortened form of the Apple and Agras cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) method was evaluated in a group setting to determine its effect on improving obese women's self-esteem and reducing binge-eating behaviours, depression, and negative body image. Participants were recruited through newspaper and radio advertisements. Respondents who met study selection criteria were randomly assigned to either a CBT group (n=13) or a delayed group (D-CBT) (n=9). The treatment was administered over six weekly sessions to the CBT group, and then twice weekly over three weeks to the D-CBT group. Two measures of bingeing behaviour (severity and frequency), three measures of mood (depression, body image, and self-esteem), and body weight were assessed. The intervention did not result in any changes in body weight. There were statistically significant and clinically important changes after treatment (p<0.05) for all five measures. Binge-eating severity and frequency decreased, depression decreased, body image improved, and self-esteem improved. All changes were greater in the six-week treatment group. The dietitian-administered, group setting CBT program is effective for reducing binge eating and improving emotional state in obese women.

  11. Prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in adolescents in Mexico: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Córdoba-Villalobos, José Angel; Shamah, Teresa; Barquera, Simón; Rivera, Juan A; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in a population-based nationwide survey. A stratified, probabilistic, multistage design sampling process was used. The Brief Questionnaire for Risky Eating Behaviors was included in the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and administered to participants 10-19 years old (n= 25 166). The study had the power to describe nationwide characteristics by age, regions and urban/rural settings. A high risk for having an eating disorder was found in 0.8% of the total participants (0.4% male adolescents and 1.0% female). Inhabitants in large cities showed higher risk for having an abnormal eating behavior compared to subjects living in other settings. The highest prevalences were found in males > 15 years old and females > 13 years old for all evaluated behaviors. Results show less prevalence of risky eating behaviors among adolescents in comparison to other populations. The female/male ratio was 3:1, far different from the 9:1 shown in a previous study in Mexico City, but similar to results from the US national eating disorders screening.

  12. Eating behaviour of university students in Germany: Dietary intake, barriers to healthy eating and changes in eating behaviour since the time of matriculation.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Jennifer; Loerbroks, Adrian; Diehl, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in preventing obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is true for all age groups, including young adults. While unhealthy eating habits among young adults, in particular university students, have been identified in former studies, this group has been neglected in existing health promotion strategies. Our aim was to explore baseline dietary intake, common barriers to healthy eating, and changes in eating behaviour among university students since the time of matriculation. We used data from the quantitative part of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Study (NuPhA), a cross-sectional online survey (data collection: 2014/10/31-2015/01/15). Students were recruited from all over Germany. Overall, 689 university students (30.5% male; mean age: 22.69) from more than 40 universities across Germany participated. We found that there is room for improvement with regard to the consumption of specific food groups, for example, fruits and vegetables. The main barriers to healthy eating were lack of time due to studies, lack of healthy meals at the university canteen, and high prices of healthy foods. Cluster analysis revealed that barriers to healthy eating might affect only specific subgroups, for instance freshmen. Changes in eating behaviour since matriculation were found in the consumption of meat, fish, and regular meals. Future qualitative studies may help to explore why university students change their eating behaviour since the time of matriculation. Such knowledge is necessary to inform health promotion strategies in the university setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attachment representations in mothers with abnormal illness behaviour by proxy.

    PubMed

    Adshead, Gwen; Bluglass, Kerry

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal illness behaviour by proxy (also known as factitious illness by proxy or Munchhausen syndrome by proxy) is a type of child maltreatment, the origins of which are poorly understood. To describe attachment representations in a cohort of mothers demonstrating abnormal illness behaviour by proxy. Sixty-seven mothers who had shown this behaviour took part in a semistructured interview assessing their attachment representations. Only 12 mothers (18%) were rated secure in terms of their own childhood attachments. There was evidence of unresolved trauma or loss reactions in 40 mothers (60%). Eighteen mothers (27%) gave unusually disorganised and incoherent accounts of attachment relationships in their own childhoods. The frequency of these attachment categories is higher than in normal non-clinical samples. Insecure attachment is a risk factor for this type of child maltreatment. Therapeutic interventions could be offered in relation to unresolved traumatic stress or bereavement responses. Further study of similar groups, such as mothers with sick children or mothers with histories of traumatic experience, would be a useful next step.

  14. Eating behaviour among nutrition students and social desirability as a confounder.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dóris; Oliveira, Bruno Mpm; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Poínhos, Rui

    2017-06-01

    The study of eating behaviour should consider the presence of potential sources of bias, including social desirability. This is particularly relevant among students of Nutrition Sciences, since they have a higher risk of eating disorders. To analyse the effect of social desirability in the assessment of eating behaviour dimensions among nutrition students. In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 149 students of Nutrition Sciences. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions (emotional, external and binge eating, flexible and rigid control, and eating self-efficacy). Among males, social desirability had a negative association with binge eating, while among women it had a negative association with emotional, external and binge eating and a positive association with eating self-efficacy. In both subsamples, social desirability showed no significant association with any of the two types of dietary restraint (rigid and flexible control). Overall, the association between social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions among students of Nutrition Sciences occurs in the same direction as found in students from other areas. However, alongside these similarities, there is a stronger association between social desirability and binge eating among male students of Nutrition Sciences. We hypothesize that this may be related with the different knowledge of students from different areas, and the way they perceive and face the treatment of eating disorders. Our study shows that social desirability should be considered while assessing eating behaviour among nutrition students, particularly when studying external eating, binge eating and eating self-efficacy. Moreover, when tailoring interventions to reduce the possible effects of eating behaviour on nutritionists and dieticians' practice, we should consider the influence of social desirability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The processing of food stimuli in abnormal eating: a systematic review of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ketoacidosis due to a Low-carbohydrate Diet in an Elderly Woman with Dementia and Abnormal Eating Behavior.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hitoshi; Tsuzuki, Seiichiro; Iwata, Mitsunaga; Terasawa, Teruhiko

    2017-10-01

    Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits. Healthcare providers should know that abnormal eating behavior in demented people can lead to an extremely-low-carbohydrate diet and cause atypical ketoacidosis unexplained by diabetes, heavy alcohol intake, or starvation conditions.

  18. Behavioural and cognitive abnormalities in an imprinting centre deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Relkovic, Dinko; Doe, Christine M; Humby, Trevor; Johnstone, Karen A; Resnick, James L; Holland, Anthony J; Hagan, Jim J; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Isles, Anthony R

    2010-01-01

    The genes in the imprinted cluster on human chromosome 15q11-q13 are known to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism. Major disruptions of this interval leading to a lack of paternal allele expression give rise to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of a failure to thrive in infancy and, on emergence from infancy, learning disabilities and over-eating. Individuals with PWS also display a number of behavioural problems and an increased incidence of neuropsychiatric abnormalities, which recent work indicates involve aspects of frontal dysfunction. To begin to examine the contribution of genes in this interval to relevant psychological and behavioural phenotypes, we exploited the imprinting centre (IC) deletion mouse model for PWS (PWS-IC(+/-)) and the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), which is primarily an assay of visuospatial attention and response control that is highly sensitive to frontal manipulations. Locomotor activity, open-field behaviour and sensorimotor gating were also assessed. PWS-IC(+/-) mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, increased acoustic startle responses and decreased prepulse inhibition of startle responses. In the 5-CSRTT, the PWS-IC(+/-) mice showed deficits in discriminative response accuracy, increased correct reaction times and increased omissions. Task manipulations confirmed that these differences were likely to be due to impaired attention. Our data recapitulate several aspects of the PWS clinical condition, including findings consistent with frontal abnormalities, and may indicate novel contributions of the imprinted genes found in 15q11-q13 to behavioural and cognitive function generally.

  19. Regional grey matter volume abnormalities in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Eating behaviour among multi-ethnic adolescents in a middle-income country as measured by the self-reported Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with 'food fussiness' scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 ('dislike towards food') when adjusted for confounders. Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike

  2. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  3. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M

    2016-01-01

    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in vegans, vegetarians, and individuals on a diet.

    PubMed

    Barthels, Friederike; Meyer, Frank; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    Orthorexic eating behaviour, restrained eating, and veganism/vegetarianism are food selection strategies sharing several characteristics. Since there are no studies investigating their interrelationships, aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in (1) a sample of vegans and vegetarians and (2) a sample of individuals on a diet to lose weight. Division of samples according to pre-defined criteria in (1) vegans (n = 114), vegetarians (n = 63), individuals with rare meat consumption (n = 83) and individuals with frequent meat consumption (n = 91) and in (2) participants on a diet with dietary change (n = 104), without dietary change (n = 37) and a control group of individuals not on a diet (n = 258). Orthorexic eating behaviour was assessed with the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala and restrained eating was assessed with the Restraint Eating Scale. Vegans and vegetarians do not differ in orthorexic eating behaviour, but both groups score higher in orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals consuming red meat. There are no differences regarding restrained eating. Individuals on a diet with dietary change score higher in both orthorexic and restrained eating, than individuals without dietary change and individuals not on a diet. Individuals who restrict their eating behaviour, either predominantly due to ethical reasons or with the intention to lose weight, display more orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals not limiting their food consumption. Further research is needed to investigate whether veganism, vegetarianism, or frequent dieting behaviour serve as risk factors for orthorexia. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  6. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    PubMed

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  7. Adolescents' eating behaviour in general and in the peer context: testing the prototype-willingness model.

    PubMed

    Dohnke, Birte; Steinhilber, Amina; Fuchs, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prototype-willingness model (PWM) for eating behaviour in general and in the peer context in order to gain further evidence on the PWM and social-reactive processes in adolescents' eating behaviour. A longitudinal study was conducted. PWM variables for unhealthy and healthy eating were assessed at baseline in 356 adolescents (mean age 12.61 years). Eating behaviour was measured four weeks after baseline by two indicators: general eating pattern index (self-report) and consumption of unhealthy and healthy snacks in the peer context (behavioural observation). For both, structural equation models were conducted introducing PWM variables for either unhealthy or healthy eating. The PWM was mainly confirmed for the eating pattern index; intention, willingness and prototype perception had direct effects. Differences between unhealthy and healthy eating were found. Moreover, the PWM contributed to the prediction of healthy, but not unhealthy, snack consumption over and above current hunger; willingness had a direct effect. The PWM can be applied to predict and understand adolescents' eating behaviour. Social-reactive processes, namely willingness and prototype perception, are behavioural determinants that should be considered in theory and as novel targets in health promotion interventions.

  8. Abnormal eating behavior in video-recorded meals in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gianini, Loren; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy; Steinglass, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Eating behavior during meals in anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been noted to be abnormal, but little research has been done carefully characterizing these behaviors. These eating behaviors have been considered pathological, but are not well understood. The current study sought to quantify ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors during a laboratory lunch meal, compare them to the behaviors of healthy controls (HC), and examine their relationships with caloric intake and anxiety during the meal. A standardized lunch meal was video-recorded for 26 individuals with AN and 10 HC. Duration, frequency, and latency of 16 mealtime behaviors were coded using computer software. Caloric intake, dietary energy density (DEDS), and anxiety were also measured. Nine mealtime behaviors were identified that distinguished AN from HC: staring at food, tearing food, nibbling/picking, dissecting food, napkin use, inappropriate utensil use, hand fidgeting, eating latency, and nibbling/picking latency. Among AN, a subset of these behaviors was related to caloric intake and anxiety. These data demonstrate that the mealtime behaviors of patients with AN and HC differ significantly, and some of these behaviors may be associated with food intake and anxiety. These mealtime behaviors may be important treatment targets to improve eating behavior in individuals with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with eating behaviours in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Griffiths, Paula; Biddle, Stuart J H; Johnston, Julie P; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables and energy-dense snacks among adolescents. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 521, 48% boys) completed a paper-based questionnaire during class-time which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and energy-dense (ED) snacks, and items assessing habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating with parents, parenting practices, and home availability and accessibility of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that eating fruit and vegetables while watching TV and home availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables were positively associated with frequency of fruit consumption and vegetable consumption, while home accessibility of ED snack foods was negatively associated with frequency of fruit consumption. Habit for eating ED snack foods in front the TV, eating ED snack foods while watching TV, and home availability of ED snacks were positively associated with frequency of ED snack consumption. This study has highlighted the importance of a healthy home environment for promoting fruit and vegetable intake in early adolescents and also suggests that, if snacking while TV viewing occurs, this could be a good opportunity for promoting fruit and vegetable intake. These findings are likely to be useful for supporting the development of multi-faceted interventions and aid us in knowing what advice to give to parents to help them to help their young adolescents to develop and maintain healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Sibling eating behaviours and differential child feeding practices reported by parents.

    PubMed

    Farrow, C V; Galloway, A T; Fraser, K

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-familial relationships between parental reports of feeding practices used with siblings in the same family, and to evaluate whether differences in feeding practices are related to differences in siblings' eating behaviours. Eighty parents of two sibling children completed measures assessing their feeding practices and child eating behaviours. Parents reported using greater restrictive feeding practices with children who were fussier and desired to drink more than their sibling. Parents reported using more pressure to eat with siblings who were slower to eat, were fussier, emotionally under-ate, enjoyed food less, were less responsive to food, and were more responsive to internal satiety cues. Restriction and pressure to eat appear to be part of the non-shared environment which sibling children experience differently. These feeding practices may be used differently for children in the same family in response to child eating behaviours or other specific characteristics.

  11. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    PubMed

    Birkett, Lucy P; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2011-01-01

    Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications.

  12. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare

  13. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  14. Eating behaviour associated with differences in conflict adaptation for food pictures.

    PubMed

    Husted, Margaret; Banks, Adrian P; Seiss, Ellen

    2016-10-01

    The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples' experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures. A flanker task using food and non-food pictures was used to examine individual differences in conflict adaptation. Participants responded to target pictures whilst ignoring distracting flanking pictures. Individual differences in eating behaviour traits, attention towards target pictures, and ability to apply cognitive control through adaptation to conflicting picture trials were analysed. Increased levels of external and emotional eating were related to slower responses to food pictures indicating food target avoidance. All participants showed greater distraction by food compared to non-food pictures. Of particular significance, increased levels of emotional eating were associated with greater conflict adaptation for conflicting food pictures only. Emotional eaters demonstrate greater application of cognitive control for conflicting food pictures as part of a food avoidance strategy. This could represent an attempt to inhibit their eating enjoyment goal in order for their weight maintenance goal to dominate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Temporal Self-Regulation Theory to understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rachel; Norman, Paul; Webb, Thomas L

    2017-09-01

    The present research investigated whether Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) can be used to help understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour. A prospective design with two waves of data collection one week apart. An online survey measured the key components of TST (i.e., connectedness, timing and valence beliefs, intentions, past behaviour, habit strength, perceived environmental cues, and self-control) with respect to eating fruit and vegetables (F&V; N = 133) or unhealthy snacks (N = 125). Eating behaviour was assessed one week later. The components of TST explained significant amounts of the variance in intentions and behaviour for intake of F&Vs (22% and 64%, respectively) and unhealthy snacks (18% and 35%, respectively). Beliefs about positive and negative short-term outcomes significantly predicted intentions to perform both behaviours. Intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted consumption of F&Vs, and past behaviour moderated the relationship between intention and behaviour which became stronger as past behaviour increased. Past behaviour and habit strength significantly predicted unhealthy snacking. The findings suggest that TST may be a useful framework for understanding eating intentions and behaviour. However, research did not find support for all of the hypothesised relationships (e.g., self-regulatory capacity did not significantly predict eating behaviour and also failed to moderate the relationships between intentions and behaviour). Research using alternative measures of self-regulatory capacity, along with experimental manipulations of TST variables, may be needed to further understand eating intentions and behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among Maltese women.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Elaine; Dovey, Terence M

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the dimensional structure of the Maltese version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and evaluate the instrument's validity and reliability among Maltese women (N = 586). Exploratory factor analysis reflected the theoretical structure of three factors; emotional, restrained and external eating which was supported by a Confirmatory Factor analysis. Minor issues with specific items in the Emotional and External eating scale were identified and discussed. Criterion-related validity was ascertained through correlations with the EAT-26. The study also assessed the DEBQ's predictive value in differentiating between BMI groups and between dieters and weight maintainers. The results suggest that the Maltese DEBQ is a psychometrically valid and reliable instrument for assessing eating behaviours with women in the Maltese community. The study also highlights the critical role of Emotional and Restrained eating in dieting and overweight Maltese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of manipulating personal standards on eating attitudes and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Payne, Elizabeth; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high personal standards condition (n=18) or to a low personal standards condition for 24 h (n=23). Measures of personal standards, perfectionism, and eating attitudes and behaviour were taken before and after the experimental manipulation. The manipulation was successful. After the manipulation, participants in the high personal standards condition ate fewer high calorie foods, made more attempts to restrict the overall amount of food eaten, and had significantly more regret after eating than those in the low personal standards condition. Other variables remained unchanged. It is concluded that experimental analyses can be of value in elucidating causal connections between perfectionism and eating attitudes and behaviour. PMID:16257388

  18. Ketoacidosis due to a Low-carbohydrate Diet in an Elderly Woman with Dementia and Abnormal Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hitoshi; Tsuzuki, Seiichiro; Iwata, Mitsunaga; Terasawa, Teruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits. Healthcare providers should know that abnormal eating behavior in demented people can lead to an extremely-low-carbohydrate diet and cause atypical ketoacidosis unexplained by diabetes, heavy alcohol intake, or starvation conditions. PMID:28883241

  19. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  20. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine

    2013-08-06

    Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children's eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3-5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions.

  2. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  3. Body-related behaviours and cognitions: relationship to eating psychopathology in non-clinical women and men.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Caroline; McPartlan, Lauren; Rawlinson, Anthony; Bunting, Jo; Waller, Glenn

    2011-10-01

    Eating disturbances and poor body image are maintained by body-related safety behaviours and their associated cognitions. These include body checking, avoidance, comparison and display, which can be seen as safety behaviours, maintaining eating pathology and poor body image. It is not clear from the existing literature whether these behavioural and cognitive patterns are independently related to eating psychopathology. This study of a non-clinical group of women and men (N = 250) explored the association of eating attitudes and behaviours with these four elements of body-related behaviours and cognitions. It was found that each of the four elements had independent associations with eating attitudes and behaviours. Those associations were not explained by anxiety or depression levels. Whilst these findings require study within a clinical group, they suggest that all four elements of body-related behaviours and cognitions need to be considered as potential maintaining factors when formulating eating psychopathology and body image disturbance.

  4. Consistency of Eating Rate, Oral Processing Behaviours and Energy Intake across Meals

    PubMed Central

    McCrickerd, Keri; Forde, Ciaran G.

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding. Eating behaviours showed good to excellent consistency across the meals (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.76, p < 0.001) and participants who ate faster took larger bites (β ≥ 0.39, p < 0.001) and consistently consumed more energy, independent of meal palatability, sex, body composition and reported appetite (β ≥ 0.17, p ≤ 0.025). Importantly, eating faster at one meal predicted faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent meals (β > 0.20, p < 0.05). Faster eating is relatively consistent within individuals and is predictive of faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent similar meals consumed in a laboratory context, independent of individual differences in body composition. PMID:28817066

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow and abnormal eating behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Etsuro

    2013-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder and is generally regarded as a genetic model of obesity. Individuals with PWS exhibit behavioral symptoms including temper tantrums, rigid thinking, and compulsive behavior. The most striking feature of PWS is abnormal eating behavior, including hyperphagia, intense preoccupation with food, and incessant food seeking. To explore brain regions associated with the behavioral symptoms of PWS, we investigated differences in resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between individuals with PWS and healthy controls. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationship between rCBF and altered eating behavior in PWS individuals. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched controls underwent resting-state single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). The rCBF data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using SPM5 software. The results demonstrated that compared with controls, individuals with PWS had significantly lower rCBF in the right thalamus, left insular cortex, bilateral lingual gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. They had significantly higher rCBF in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior frontal gyrus (anterior and posterior clusters), and bilateral angular gyrus. Additionally, rCBF in the left insula, which was significantly lower in PWS individuals, was negatively correlated with the eating behavior severity score. These results suggest that specific brain regions, particularly the left insula, may be partly responsible for the behavioral symptoms in PWS. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating behaviours and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anne E; Burwell, Rebecca A; Gilman, Stephen E; Herzog, David B; Hamburg, Paul

    2002-06-01

    There are no published studies evaluating the impact of introduction of television on disordered eating in media-naïve populations. To assess the impact of novel, prolonged exposure to television on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls. A prospective, multi-wave cross-sectional design was used to compare two samples of Fijian schoolgirls before and after prolonged regional television exposure with a modified 26-item eating attitudes test, supplemented with a semi-structured interview to confirm self-reported symptoms. Narrative data from a subset of respondents from the exposed sample were analysed for content relating television exposure to body image concerns. Key indicators of disordered eating were significantly more prevalent following exposure. Narrative data revealed subjects' interest in weight loss as a means of modelling themselves after television characters. This naturalistic experiment suggests a negative impact of television upon disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in a media-naïve population.

  7. The link between negative emotions and eating disorder behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Espeset, Ester M S; Gulliksen, Kjersti S; Nordbø, Ragnfrid H S; Skårderud, Finn; Holte, Arne

    2012-11-01

    Several theoretical models suggest that deficits in emotional regulation are central in the maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Few studies have examined how patients view the relationship between negative affect and anorectic behaviour. We explored how patients with AN manage the aversive emotions sadness, anger, fear and disgust, and how they link these experiences to their eating disorder behaviours. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 women aged 19-39 years diagnosed with AN (DSM-IV). Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory methods. The participants tended to inhibit expression of sadness and anger in interpersonal situations and reported high levels of anger towards themselves, self-disgust and fear of becoming fat. Different emotions were managed by means of specific eating disorder behaviours. Sadness was particularly linked to body dissatisfaction and was managed through restrictive eating and purging. Anger was avoided by means of restrictive eating and purging and released through anorectic self-control, self-harm and exercising. Fear was linked to fear of fatness and was managed through restrictive eating, purging and body checking. Participants avoided the feeling of disgust by avoiding food and body focused situations. Treatment models of eating disorders highlight the significance of working with emotional acceptance and coping in this patient group. Knowledge about how patients understand the relationships between their negative emotions and their anorectic behaviour may be an important addition to treatment programmes for AN. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Is decision-making ability related to food choice and facets of eating behaviour in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Macchi, Rosemarie; MacKew, Laura; Davis, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    To test the prediction that poor decision-making would predict poor eating-related behaviours, which in turn would relate to elevated body mass index (BMI) percentile. Associations among decision-making ability, eating behaviours, and BMI percentile were examined in a sample of 311 healthy male and female adolescents, aged 14-18 years. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed relationships. The predicted model was a good fit to the data and all paths between latent and indicator variables were significant. Impulsive responding significantly predicted poor food choice and overeating. No significant relationships emerged between eating-related variables and BMI percentile. Findings from this study extend the existing research in adults and offer a more comprehensive understanding of factors that may contribute to eating behaviours and weight status in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fat Sensation: Fatty Acid Taste and Olfaction Sensitivity and the Link with Disinhibited Eating Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kindleysides, Sophie; Beck, Kathryn L; Walsh, Daniel C I; Henderson, Lisa; Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Golding, Matt; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-08-15

    Perception of fat taste, aroma, and texture are proposed to influence food preferences, thus shaping dietary intake and eating behaviour and consequently long-term health. In this study, we investigated associations between fatty acid taste, olfaction, mouthfeel of fat, dietary intake, eating behaviour, and body mass index (BMI). Fifty women attended three sessions to assess oleic acid taste and olfaction thresholds, the olfactory threshold for n -butanol and subjective mouthfeel ratings of custard samples. Dietary intake and eating behaviour were evaluated using a Food Frequency and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. Binomial regression analysis was used to model fat taste and olfaction data. Taste and olfactory detection for oleic acid were positively correlated ( r = 0.325; p < 0.02). Oleic acid taste hypersensitive women had significantly increased n -butanol olfactory sensitivity ( p < 0.03). The eating behaviour disinhibition and BMI were higher in women who were hyposensitive to oleic acid taste ( p < 0.05). Dietary intake of nuts, nut spreads, and seeds were significantly correlated with high olfactory sensitivity to oleic acid ( p < 0.01). These findings demonstrate a clear link between fatty acid taste sensitivity and olfaction and suggest that fat taste perception is associated with specific characteristics of eating behaviour and body composition.

  10. Impact of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether awareness of the Japanese Food Guide (JFG) can promote changes in eating behaviour. A longitudinal study was conducted in 2007 and 2009 by means of an Internet-based survey. Awareness status of the JFG and a sixteen-item scale for calculating eating behaviour scores were obtained. Japan. In total, 787 Japanese adults (20-59 years) who registered with an Internet research service organization were included in the study. The respondents were divided into three groups. The respondents who were aware of the JFG in 2007 were categorized into Group 1. Those who were not aware of the JFG in 2007 were categorized into either Group 2 or Group 3. Group 2 became aware of the JFG by 2009, and Group 3 was not aware of the JFG in 2009. In Group 2, the eating behaviour score increased significantly by 0·8 points from 4·7 in 2007 to 5·5 in 2009 (P = 0·004). The eating behaviour score of Group 1 (6·5 points in 2007; 6·3 points in 2009) and Group 3 (3·8 points in 2007; 4·1 points in 2009) did not change significantly from 2007 to 2009. Awareness of the JFG promoted eating behaviour change in the Japanese population. The results indicate that awareness of nutrition information from sources such as the JFG would promote healthy eating.

  11. Physical activity, eating behaviour and body image perception among young adolescents in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Farah Wahida, Z; Mohd Nasir, M T; Hazizi, A S

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine physical activity, eating behaviour, body weight management knowledge, perception of body image and their association with body weight status of adolescents. Respondents were 360 adolescents, aged between 13 to 14 years, from six randomly selected secondary schools in Kuantan, Pahang. Physical activity, eating behaviour, body weight management knowledge and perception of body image were measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), Weight Management Knowledge Inventory (WMKI) and Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), respectively. Almost half of the respondents were categorised as having a normal BMI, while 30.3% were severely thin and thin and 20.3% were overweight and obese. Mean physical activity score was 2.06 +/- 0.45 with more males (35.0%) being physically active than females (17.3%). Mean eating behaviour score was 15.41 +/- 10.37, with 27.8% of the respondents being at-risk for eating disorders. Mean weight management knowledge score was 5.35 +/- 1.80, with more females (77.7%) having higher mean scores than males (42.3%). Further, mean discrepancy score for body image perception was 1.24 +/- 0.99, with 78.1% of the respondents being dissatisfied with their current body size. Positive associations were found between eating behaviour (r = 0.28, p < 0.05) and body image (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) with BMI. Respondents with high eating behaviour scores and body image discrepancy scores were more likely to have greater BMI. This study shows the need for healthy eating and body image intervention programmes to prevent overweight and obesity problems among adolescents.

  12. Exploring the mind's eye: Contents and characteristics of mental images in overweight individuals with binge eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Rebecca; Keller, Silke; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Jacob, Gitta A

    2016-12-30

    Mental images play a role in various mental disorders and are strongly associated with emotions. Negative emotions and their regulation are important in eating disorders. However, research on mental imagery in eating disorders is still scarce. We investigated mental images and their relation to distress and eating disorder psychopathology in individuals with binge eating behaviour. Content and characteristics of mental images and their relation to psychopathology of 21 individuals with binge eating behaviour, 19 mixed patient controls and 21 healthy controls have been assessed with a semi-structured interview. Occurrence and vividness of food-related images did not differ between groups. However they were experienced as more distressing and distracting and more difficult to control by eating disordered patients. Body-related mental images were less associated with desire to eat than expected. Mental images of social rejection were experienced as more vivid by both clinical groups and caused desire to eat in individuals with binge eating behaviour. Mental images are relevant in binge eating behaviour, but with different patterns regarding concomitant distress and eating disorder psychopathology. As transdiagnostic mental images of social rejection are relevant for individuals with binge eating behaviour, research on imagery based techniques in eating disorders seems promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of eating attitudes and behaviours in junior college students in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Prajakta; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Durge, Vijay; Sharma, Sumit; Nayak, Sapna; Kamat, Sanjeev; Dhavale, Hemangee

    2006-10-01

    Eating disorders have been described as possible 'culture-bound syndromes', with roots in Western cultural values and conflicts. They may, in fact, be more prevalent within various non-Western cultural groups than previously recognised, as Western values become more widely accepted. Cross-cultural experiences suggest that cultural change itself may be associated with increased vulnerability to eating disorders, especially when Western values about physical aesthetics are involved. to assess the eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in the urban ethnic city, Mumbai, a survey was conducted amongst 451 college students. the study, based in four junior colleges, comprised 451 subjects who completed a semi-structured questionnaire, a 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Personal Assessment Inventory (IPAT). the results revealed faulty eating habits in 13.3% of the subjects. A statistically significant proportion perceived them-selves to have problems with eating, substance use, dieting and exercise practices, resorting to extreme measures to achieve weight loss. A high rate of faulty eating habits was observed in males. Higher scores on depression and suicidal ideation were reported in the population with faulty eating habits. a significant percentage of college-going populations in urban settings probably have faulty eating habits.

  14. The relationship between emotional regulation and eating behaviour: a multidimensional analysis of obesity psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Micanti, Fausta; Iasevoli, Felice; Cucciniello, Claudia; Costabile, Raimondo; Loiarro, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Giuseppe; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Rossetti, GianLuca; Galletta, Diana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the differences among eating behaviours are related to the emotional dysregulation connected to the mental dimensions being part of the obese psychopathology. Eating behaviours can be considered a diagnostic feature at the initial screening for determining the obesity treatment: nutritional or bariatric surgery. 1828 Obese subjects underwent psychiatric assessment before entering obesity nutritional treatment or bariatric surgery following the multidisciplinary programme. 1121 subjects were selected and enrolled in this study: 850 were inpatients visited or hospitalised at the Obesity Centre or at the Bariatric Surgery Units, 271 were outpatients visited at the Eating Disorder and Obesity Unit. Psychiatric examination was used to exclude psychiatric disorders and investigate eating behaviours distinguished on the basis of food intake rhythm in: gorging, snacking, grazing and binge. They are related to the mental dimensions: impulsiveness, body image, mood and anxiety, taking part in the emotional regulation system. Specific psychometric tools were used to investigate the different mental dimensions of the single eating behaviours and their differences. Statistical analysis of the psychopathological features was performed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, Levene test, Bonferroni's and Tamhane post hoc test. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Data analysis shows significant differences of psychopathology among all the eating behaviours and an increase in the emotional dysregulation determining maladaptive behaviours. Eating behaviours are connected to the balance of the different features of mental dimensions implicated in the emotional regulation system. They could provide significant clinical information and therefore be part of the obesity diagnostic criteria and therapeutic programme.

  15. Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:21450065

  16. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating styles in the morbidly obese: restraint eating, but not emotional and external eating, predicts dietary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David

    2013-01-01

    The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.

  18. Psychometric analysis of an eating behaviour questionnaire for an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Ayob, M Na'im M; Chong, Kok Joon; Tai, E-Shyong; Khoo, Chin Meng; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Lee, Yung Seng; Tham, Kwang Wei; Venkataraman, Kavita; Meaney, Michael J; Wee, Hwee Lin; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reveal that the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which assesses eating behaviour, performs differently across population groups and cultures. We aimed to identify the factor structure that is most appropriate to capture eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore. TFEQ-51 was administered to 444 Chinese subjects pooled from four separate studies and scored according to various alternative versions of the TFEQ. Confirmatory factor analyses and goodness of fit indices were used to determine the most appropriate factor structure. Known-group validity analyses were conducted. Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors and the TFEQ-R18 factor structures were found to be the most applicable in our population based on goodness of fit indices, with a x(2)/df ratio of <3, RMSEA of ≤ 0.6 and a CFI value of >0.9 for both. Only two of three factors (Emotional Eating and Uncontrolled Eating) of the TFEQ-R18 showed good internal consistency, while none of Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors showed good internal consistency. Known-group validity showed that Emotional Eating and Internal Disinhibition were significantly associated with higher BMI. We found that the TFEQ-R18 factor structure is the most appropriate and practical for use in measuring eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?

    PubMed

    Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

    2005-01-01

    To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment.

  20. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  1. Correcting the eating disorder in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A J; Touyz, S W; O'Connor, M; Beumont, P J

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct informational feedback using videotape recordings would improve abnormal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. Eight inpatients participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was noted in the occurrence of obsessional eating behaviour and in table manners. However, there was no change in the speed of eating, disposal of food or behaviours which reduce caloric intake. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa are discussed.

  2. Easy-going, rational, susceptible and struggling eaters: A segmentation study based on eating behaviour tendencies.

    PubMed

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Arvola, Anne; Karhunen, Leila; Pennanen, Kyösti

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations. Finnish (n = 1060) and German (n = 1070) samples were segmented on the basis of their responses to a modified Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R15). Well-being, coping strategies and food consumption habits of the segments were studied. Segmentation revealed four segments: "Susceptible", "Easy-going", "Rational" and "Struggling". These segments were similar in both countries with regard to well-being, coping strategies and food choices. EE and UE co-occurred, and these tendencies were mainly responsible for differentiating the segments. Members of the "Rational" and "Easy-going" segments, who had low scores for EE and UE, tended to experience vitality and positive emotions in life, and contentment with their eating. By contrast, the "Susceptible" and "Struggling" segments, with more pronounced tendencies towards EE and UE, experienced lower levels of vitality and less frequently positive emotions, applied less adaptive coping strategies and experienced more discontent with eating. The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to identify segments, with differing eating habits, coping strategies and well-being on the basis of the eating behaviour tendencies EE, UE and CR. We discuss possible viewpoints for the design of interventions and food products to help people towards psychologically and physiologically healthier eating styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  3. Predictors of orthorexic behaviours in patients with eating disorders: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Rogoza, Radosław; Gramaglia, Carla; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2015-10-15

    The construct of orthorexia in eating disorders (EDs) has received very little attention despite clinical observations of a possible overlap between the two. The aim of this study was: 1) to assess orthorexic behaviours, eating disorder pathology and attitudinal body image in ED patients; 2) to identify possible predictors of orthorexia nervosa among ED patients. Fifty-two women diagnosed with EDs were recruited. Patients' assessment included the following: the ORTO-15 test (Polish version) for orthorexic behaviours; the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) to identify ED symptoms; the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Polish version) to assess body image. A latent class analysis was performed and differences between identified classes were assessed. The main differences concerned weight, ED pathology and orthorexic behaviours within the same group of ED patients. In order to examine predictors of orthorexia nervosa, we investigated a structural equation model, which excellently fitted to the data (χ(2)(17) = 23.05; p = .148; CFI = .962; RMSEA = .08; p = .25; SRMR = .05). In ED patients, orthorexic behaviour was negatively predicted by eating pathology, weight concern, health orientation and appearance orientation. The assessment of the orthorexia construct in EDs may add to the paucity of studies about this issue and may help to clarify the relationship between the two. Differences and similarities seem to exist between these disorders, and may benefit from specific treatment approaches. Moreover, these preliminary findings open tracks for future research in the field of the psychology of eating.

  4. Construction of a short form of the healthy eating behaviour inventory for the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Iio, Misa; Lee, Ying-Hua; Suzuki, Akiko; Konuma, Kayo; Teshima, Yoko; Takenaka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    The present study constructed a short form of the Healthy Eating Behavior Inventory suitable for use in the Japanese culture (HEBI-J) and confirmed the scale's preliminary reliability and validity. In Study 1, Japanese adults (N=75) completed a free-response questionnaire about healthy eating behaviours. Thematic analysis was used to identify three factors-balance, pattern, and restriction-associated with healthy eating behaviours and 12 items related to these healthy eating behaviours. In Study 2, Japanese office workers (N=784) completed two questionnaires regarding 12 items of healthy eating behaviours and the dietary stages of change. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model was appropriate (GFI=.94, AGFI=.90, CFI=.90, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.53). Reliability was confirmed by alpha coefficients and the Spearman-Brown formula. Concurrent validity was confirmed by the relationship between the healthy eating stages. This study demonstrated the preliminary reliability and validity of the HEBI-J. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived social support and parental education as determinants of adolescents' physical activity and eating behaviour: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2015-08-01

    To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.

  6. Clustering and correlates of screen-time and eating behaviours among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Natalie; Griffiths, Paula; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Johnston, Julie P; McGeorge, Sonia; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-05-31

    Screen-time and eating behaviours are associated in adolescents, but few studies have examined the clustering of these health behaviours in this age group. The identification of clustered health behaviours, and influences on adolescents' clustered health behaviours, at the time when they are most likely to become habitual, is important for intervention design. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours in adolescents, and examine the sociodemographic, individual, behavioural, and home social and physical environmental correlates of clustered health behaviours. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 527, 48% boys) completed a questionnaire during class-time which assessed screen-time (ST), fruit and vegetable (FV), and energy-dense (ED) snack consumption using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Health behaviours were categorised into high and low frequencies based on recommendations for FV and ST and median splits for ED snacks. Adolescents reported on their habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating and watching TV together with parents, restrictive parenting practices, and the availability and accessibility of foods within the home. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Correlates of clustered behaviours were examined using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Approximately 70% reported having two or three health risk behaviours. Overall, O/E ratios were close to 1, which indicates clustering. The three risk behaviour combination of low FV, high ED, and high ST occurred more frequently than expected (O/E ratio = 1.06 95% CI 1.01, 1.15. Individual, behavioural, and social and physical home environmental correlates were differentially associated with behavioural clusters. Correlates consistently associated with clusters included eating ED snacks while watching TV, eating at the TV with parents, and the availability and accessibility of ED snack foods

  7. Perceived social norms and eating behaviour: An evaluation of studies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Social norms refer to what most people typically do or approve of. There has been some suggestion that perceived social norms may be an important influence on eating behaviour. We and others have shown that perceived social norms relating to very specific contexts can influence food intake (the amount of food consumed in a single sitting) in those contexts; these studies have predominantly sampled young female adults. Less research has examined whether perceived social norms predict dietary behaviour (the types of food people eat on a day to day basis); here, most evidence comes from cross-sectional studies, which have a number of limitations. A small number of intervention studies have started to explore whether perceived social norms can be used to encourage healthier eating with mixed results. The influence that perceived social norms have on objective measures of eating behaviour now needs to be examined using longitudinal methods in order to determine if social norms are an important influence on eating behaviour and/or can be used to promote meaningful behaviour change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A real world study on the genetic, cognitive and psychopathological differences of obese patients clustered according to eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Caroleo, Mariarita; Primerano, Amedeo; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; Pugliese, Valentina; Magliocco, Fabio; Fazia, Gilda; Filippo, Andrea; Sinopoli, Flora; Ricchio, Marco; Arturi, Franco; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; De Fazio, Pasquale; Segura-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms. Eating behaviours were clustered through two-step cluster analysis, and these clusters were subsequently compared. Two groups emerged: cluster 1 contained patients with predominantly prandial hyperphagia, social eating, an increased frequency of the long allele of the 5-HTTLPR and low scores in all tests; and cluster 2 included patients with more emotionally related eating behaviours (emotional eating, grazing, binge eating, night eating, post-dinner eating, craving for carbohydrates), dysfunctional personality traits, neurocognitive impairment, affective disorders and increased frequencies of the short (S) allele and the S/S genotype. Aside from binge eating, dysfunctional eating behaviours were useful symptoms to identify two different phenotypes of obese patients from a comprehensive set of parameters (genetic, clinical, personality and neuropsychology) in this sample. Grazing and emotional eating were the most important predictors for classifying obese patients, followed by binge eating. This clustering overcomes the idea that 'binging' is the predominant altered eating behaviour, and could help physicians other than psychiatrists to identify whether an obese patient has an eating disorder. Finally, recognising different types of obesity may not only allow a more comprehensive understanding of this illness, but also make it possible to tailor

  9. Mindfulness, Eating Behaviours, and Obesity: A Review and Reflection on Current Findings.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, Janet Clare

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and mindful eating have become popular in recent years. In this review, we first explore what mindfulness is in the context of psychological research, and why it offers promise for eating behaviours and weight loss. Second, we review the main empirical findings for weight loss in mindfulness-based intervention programmes. Third, contradictions in the findings are explored in more depth, and suggestions are made regarding why they may be occurring. Fourth, the benefits of adding self-compassion (and compassion) training to mindfulness practise to assist weight loss is discussed. Finally, the limitations of the research literature (and possible solutions) are explored. Overall, it is concluded that while mindfulness meditations that specifically focus on eating may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviours, and assist in weight regulation, work is still needed to make such interventions appeal to a wider audience.

  10. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-04-27

    Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with eating related parental rules and eating habits of adolescents. The data on 2765 adolescents aged 13-15 years (mean age: 14.4; 50.7 % boys) from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study 2014 were assessed. The associations between eating-related parental rules and unhealthy eating patterns using logistic regression were assessed using logistic regression. Unhealthy eating habits occurred frequently among adolescents (range: 18.0 % reported skipping breakfast during weekends vs. 75.8 % for low vegetables intake). Of all adolescents, 20.5 % reported a lack of any parental rules on eating (breakfast not mandatory, meal in front of TV allowed, no rules about sweets and soft drinks). These adolescents were more likely to eat unhealthily, i.e. to skip breakfast on weekdays (odds ratio/95 % confidence interval: 5.33/4.15-6.84) and on weekends (2.66/2.12-3.34), to report low consumption of fruits (1.63/1.30-2.04) and vegetables (1.32/1.04-1.68), and the frequent consumption of sweets (1.59/1.30-1.94), soft drinks (1.93/1.56-2.38) and energy drinks (2.15/1.72-2.70). Parental rule-setting on eating is associated with eating behaviours of adolescents. Further research is needed to disentangle causality in this relationship. If causal, parents may be targeted to modify the eating habits of adolescents.

  11. Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, Valérie; Trinchera, Laura; Darcel, Nicolas; Rigal, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eating behaviours of middle- and secondary-school pupils from the upper Silesian region in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Elżbieta; Szeja, Nicola; Szymkiewicz, Anna; Kowalska, Aleksandra; Lenard, Biruta; Bulwicka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Eating behaviours of school-aged youth condition their emotional and psychophysical development. Moreover, they influence the effectiveness of learning and affect one's health and the quality of life at older age. The objective of the study was the evaluation of eating behaviours of the group of pupils from cities of the Upper Silesian region, as well as the identification of differences between middle-school and secondary-school pupils' eating behaviours. 902 pupils (474 middle-school and 428 secondary-school pupils) participated in the study. The research materials included questionnaires prepared by the author of the study, containing the questions about the pupils' eating habits. The middle-school pupils constituted 52.5% of the 902 pupils and the secondary-school pupils were 47.5% of the total. On average, 38.2% of the pupils consumed 4 meals daily. Wholemeal bread and/or groats were eaten daily by 34.4% of the pupils. Milk and/or milk drinks were consumed by 56.3% of the pupils every day and 33.5% of the respondents had also fermented milk drinks daily. 61.3% of the participants declared eating meat at least once a day and 44.9% of the pupils had fish once or twice a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten daily by 61.4% and 66.6% of the pupils respectively. Sweets were consumed at least once a day by 50.6% of the pupils. Occasional consumption of fast-food products and ready-made meals was declared by 63.9% and 49.7% of the pupils respectively. Eating behaviours of the discussed group of pupils are mostly incorrect. There were differences found between the middle-school and secondary-school pupils' eating habits. The differences concerned the frequency of eating cheese and curd cheese, fruit, leguminous plant seeds, sweets, fast food products, sweetened drinks and ready-to made food products. eating behaviours, eating habits, eating frequency, pupils.

  13. Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeanes, Y M; Reeves, S; Gibson, E L; Piggott, C; May, V A; Hart, K H

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p < 0.001). Multiple regression exploring relations between eating styles and adiposity explained 57% of the variance in binge eating symptom scores in women with PCOS (F = 130.4; p < 0.001, n = 463): significant predictors were food cravings total score (beta = 0.53; p < 0.001), emotional eating score (beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), body mass index (beta = 0.11; p < 0.001) and uncontrolled eating score (beta = 0.009; p = 0.02). Compared with lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p < 0.05), though similar total food craving scores (114.0 ± 34.9 versus 105.6 ± 26.6: NS). This study is the largest, to date, to robustly report that a high proportion of women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population. Copyright © 2016

  14. Eating behaviour, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p < .01) and body-size dissatisfaction (r = .24, p < .01) were significantly associated with dietary restraint and binge eating, but self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating.

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding perceived determinants of nurses' eating and physical activity behaviour: a theory-informed qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Power, Brian T; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Allan, Julia L; Campbell, Marion K

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating and physical activity behaviours are common among nurses but little is known about determinants of eating and physical activity behaviour in this population. The present study used a theoretical framework which summarises the many possible determinants of different health behaviours (the Theoretical Domains Framework; TDF) to systematically explore the most salient determinants of unhealthy eating and physical activity behaviour in hospital-based nurses. Semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the TDF were conducted with nurses ( n  = 16) to explore factors that behavioural theories suggest may influence nurses' eating and physical activity behaviour. Important determinants of the target behaviours were identified using both inductive coding (of categories emerging from the data) and deductive coding (of categories derived from the TDF) of the qualitative data. Thirteen of the fourteen domains in the TDF were found to influence nurses' eating and physical activity behaviour. Within these domains, important barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity behaviour were shift work, fatigue, stress, beliefs about negative consequences, the behaviours of family and friends and lack of planning. Important factors reported to enable engagement with healthy eating and physical activity behaviours were beliefs about benefits, the use of self-monitoring strategies, support from work colleagues, confidence, shift work, awareness of useful guidelines and strategies, good mood, future holidays and receiving compliments. This study used a theory-informed approach by applying the TDF to identify the key perceived determinants of nurses' eating and physical activity behaviour. The findings suggest that future efforts to change nurses' eating and physical activity behaviours should consider targeting a broad range of environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal level factors, consistent with a socio-ecological perspective.

  17. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  18. Selected eating behaviours of girls and boys attending sport-oriented classes

    PubMed

    Szeja, Nicola; Szczepańska, Elżbieta; Janion, Karolina; Szymkiewicz, Anna; Lenard, Biruta; Dudzik, Izabela; Kołdon, Anna

    Eating behaviours play a key role in lives of young people who stay physically active. They influence both their correct development and performance. Evaluation of selected eating behaviours of girls and boys attending sport-oriented classes and identification of differences between eating behaviours of studied groups. 460 students attending sport-oriented classes in Poland participated in the study. A questionnaire prepared by the author of the study was the research tool. The data was gathered in Microsoft Office Excel 2010 worksheet. Statistical analysis was made with the use of StatSoft, Inc. Statistica version 10.0. The questioned students most often had 4-5 meals a day- such an answer was given by 59.09% of the boys and 41.38% of the girls. 55.59% and 41.95% of them respectively had breakfast within 30 minutes from waking up and 41,96% of the girls and 39.51% of the boys had supper 2-3 hours before going to sleep. Whole meal bread and/or groats were most frequently consumed a few times a day as it was declared by 50.35% of the boys and 45.98% of the girls. The highest percentage of the respondents consumed vegetables at least once a day (31.61% of the girls and 31.47% of the boys). 44.83% of the girls and 40.9% of the boys declared eating fruit a few times a day. Studied eating behaviours of girls and boys in sport-oriented classes are largely wrong and require correction. The analysis of the gathered data indicated statistically significant differences between boys’ and girls’ eating behaviours, however, the boys’ habits were better.

  19. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  20. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products

  1. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  2. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  3. Clinical features of bipolar spectrum with binge eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Winham, Stacey J; Bobo, William V; Geske, Jennifer; Seymour, Lisa R; Mori, Nicole; Bond, David J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether bipolar spectrum disorder with binge eating behavior (BE) is an important clinical sub-phenotype. Prevalence rates and correlates of different levels of BE were assessed in 1114 bipolar spectrum patients participating in a genetic biobank. BE and eating disorders (EDs) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS). Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with measures of suicidality, psychosis, mood instability, anxiety disorder comorbidity, and substance abuse comorbidity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with body mass index (BMI) and the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Thirty percent of patients had any BE and 27% had BE plus an ED diagnosis. Compared with bipolar spectrum patients without BE, bipolar spectrum patients with BE were younger and more likely to be female; had significantly higher levels of eating psychopathology, suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; had a significantly higher mean BMI and a significantly higher rate of obesity; and had a significantly higher medical illness burden. Bipolar spectrum patients with BE but no ED diagnosis were more similar to bipolar spectrum patients without BE than to those with an ED. Nonetheless, the positive predictive value and specificity of BE predicting an ED was 0.90 and 0.96, respectively. As only two patients had co-occurring anorexia nervosa, these results may not generalize to bipolar spectrum patients with restricting EDs. Bipolar spectrum disorder with broadly-defined BE may not be as clinically relevant a sub-phenotype as bipolar spectrum disorder with an ED but may be an adequate proxy for the latter when phenotyping large samples of individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Factors associated with healthy and unhealthy workplace eating behaviours in individuals with overweight/obesity with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, S L; Barber, J A; Burger, A; Barnes, R D

    2018-04-01

    Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire. Eating unplanned food occurred on average 2.43 times per week (SD = 3.37), and eating unplanned food even when meals were brought from home occurred on average 1.28 times per week (SD = 1.84). Individuals with BED purchased lunch even when they brought food from home significantly more frequently than did individuals without BED. Those with BED also reported significantly poorer work and social adjustment related to binge eating as compared with those without BED. The most significant barriers to healthy eating in the workplace were coworker influence, eating more food in general and more junk food in response to stress, eating unplanned food at work and time constraints. These factors may be important to target in weight-loss treatment to increase individuals' weight loss success. As individuals with BED may be the most vulnerable to eating unplanned foods, clinicians may want to focus on this potential barrier in BED treatment.

  5. Factors associated with healthy and unhealthy workplace eating behaviours in individuals with overweight/obesity with and without binge eating disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S. L.; Barber, J. A.; Burger, A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight‐related self‐efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Design Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire. Results Eating unplanned food occurred on average 2.43 times per week (SD = 3.37), and eating unplanned food even when meals were brought from home occurred on average 1.28 times per week (SD = 1.84). Individuals with BED purchased lunch even when they brought food from home significantly more frequently than did individuals without BED. Those with BED also reported significantly poorer work and social adjustment related to binge eating as compared with those without BED. The most significant barriers to healthy eating in the workplace were coworker influence, eating more food in general and more junk food in response to stress, eating unplanned food at work and time constraints. Conclusions These factors may be important to target in weight‐loss treatment to increase individuals' weight loss success. As individuals with BED may be the most vulnerable to eating unplanned foods, clinicians may want to focus on this potential barrier in BED treatment. PMID:29670748

  6. Abnormal illness behaviour: physiological, psychological and social dimensions of coping with distress.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Looper, Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Pilowsky introduced the term 'abnormal illness behaviour' to characterize syndromes of excessive or inadequate response to symptoms, including hypochondriasis, somatization, and denial of illness. This review summarizes recent work from sociology, health psychology and psychiatry that contributes to an understanding of the processes that may underlie abnormal illness behaviour. Disturbances in the regulation of physiological systems may account for many 'unexplained' symptoms and sickness behaviour. Increased attention to bodily sensations, sensitivity to pain and catastrophizing play important roles in illness behaviour in medical illness. Developmental adversities and parental modelling of illness behaviour in childhood may increase bodily preoccupation and health care utilization. Apparent cross-national differences in illness behaviour may reflect differences in health care systems, but cultural models of illness and social stigma remain important determinants of illness denial and avoidance of mental health services. Research into illness behaviour is relevant to efforts to rethink the psychiatric nosology of somatoform disorders. The discrete somatoform disorders might well be replaced by a dimensional framework that identifies specific pathological processes in cognition, perception and social behaviour that contribute to bodily distress, impaired coping, inappropriate use of health services, chronicity and disability.

  7. Diel CO2 cycles reduce severity of behavioural abnormalities in coral reef fish under ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, Michael D; Humphrey, Craig; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L

    2017-08-31

    Elevated CO 2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA) have been shown to alter behavioural responses in coral reef fishes. However, all studies to date have used stable pCO 2 treatments, not considering the substantial diel pCO 2 variation that occurs in shallow reef habitats. Here, we reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, and clownfish, Amphiprion percula, at stable and diel cycling pCO 2 treatments in two experiments. As expected, absolute lateralization of A. polyacanthus and response to predator cue of Am. percula were negatively affected in fish reared at stable, elevated pCO 2 in both experiments. However, diel pCO 2 fluctuations reduced the negative effects of OA on behaviour. Importantly, in experiment two, behavioural abnormalities that were present in fish reared at stable 750 µatm CO 2 were largely absent in fish reared at 750 ± 300 µatm CO 2 . Overall, we show that diel pCO 2 cycles can substantially reduce the severity of behavioural abnormalities caused by elevated CO 2 . Thus, past studies may have over-estimated the impacts of OA on the behavioural performance of coral reef fishes. Furthermore, our results suggest that diel pCO 2 cycles will delay the onset of behavioural abnormalities in natural populations.

  8. Facilitators and barriers for eating behaviour changes in obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity - a qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Igelström, Helena; Lindberg, Eva; Martin, Cathrin; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, a condition known causing lack of sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness. Weight loss interventions are recommended, however knowledge on what facilitate and impede eating behaviour change is lacking for this particular population. The aim of this study was to identify personal conceptions of prerequisites for eating behaviour change. A qualitative study on 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS; apnoea-hypopnoea index >15) and obesity (Mean body mass index 38.2). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis with researcher triangulation for trustworthiness. Data were organised according to barriers and facilitators for changing eating behaviour. Identified barriers were desire and reward, cravings and emotional control, low self-confidence, insufficient support, taxing behaviours, cost, lack of knowledge about healthy eating strategies, perceived helplessness and low susceptibility. Identified facilitators were positive expectations, fear of negative consequences, experience of success, support and follow-up, accessibility, applied skills for healthy eating, personal involvement and challenged self-image. This study adds knowledge on important barriers and facilitators of eating behaviour change according to individuals with obesity and OSAS. Information used to inform a tailored behavioural medicine intervention targeting eating behaviours. Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) benefit from weight loss and eating behaviour changes are recommended. Patients' views on prerequisites for eating behaviour change are important to plan, conduct and tailor behaviour change interventions. These aspects have hitherto not been elaborated in patients with OSAS. Considerations on patient's self-image and perceived susceptibility along with providing strategies for controlling the desire and rewarding

  9. Parents' and caregivers' experiences and behaviours when eating out with children with a food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Begen, Fiona M; Barnett, Julie; Barber, Miriam; Payne, Ros; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2017-07-20

    For parents and caregivers of food hypersensitive (FH) children, accommodating their child's dietary needs when eating out can be a challenging experience. This study explored caregivers' experiences and behaviours when eating out with their FH child in order to gain insights into how they support and prepare their child in negotiating safe eating out experiences. A cross-sectional, qualitative design was used. In depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 caregivers of children with FH. Interviews were analysed using framework analysis. Caregivers reported a number of issues relating to eating out with their FH child, or allowing their child to eat out without their supervision. Through themes of 'family context', 'child-focused concerns', and 'venue issues', caregivers described how they managed these and explained the limitations and sacrifices that FH imposed on their child, themselves, and family members. Through deeper understanding of the anxieties, negotiations and compromises experienced by caregivers of children with FH when they are eating out, clinicians and support charities can tailor their support to meet the needs of caregivers and children. Support and education provision should focus on providing caregivers of children with FH the tools and strategies to help enable safe eating out experiences.

  10. Sibling eating behaviours and parental feeding practices with siblings: similar or different?

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan D; Trofholz, Amanda; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about whether siblings have similar or different eating behaviours or whether parents tailor their feeding practices to different siblings. The main objectives of the present study were to examine similarities and differences in child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices with siblings and to determine whether child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices differ depending on sibling concordant (i.e. both siblings overweight or healthy weight) or discordant (i.e. one sibling overweight and one sibling healthy weight) weight status. Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. In-home visits were conducted by research staff. Surveys were conducted with parents and anthropometry was collected on parents and siblings. Children (n 88) aged 6-12 years (mean age 9 (sd 2) years), their parents (mean age 34 (sd 7) years) and near-age siblings (mean age 9 (sd 4) years) from diverse racial/ethnic and low-income households participated. Results indicated that siblings with higher BMI engaged in higher levels of emotional eating compared with siblings with lower BMI. Additionally, results indicated that when families had sibling dyads discordant on weight status, the sibling who was overweight had higher food enjoyment and lower levels of food satiety. Additionally, within siblings with discordant weight status, parents were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices with the overweight sibling and pressure-to-eat and encouragement-to-eat feeding practices with the healthy-weight sibling. Family-based childhood obesity interventions may need to assess for sibling weight status when researching the home environment and intervene with parents to avoid using restriction or pressure-to-eat feeding practices when siblings are discordant on weight status.

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of School Nutrition Education's Influence on Eating Behaviours of Learners in the Bronkhorstspruit District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupolati, Mojisola D.; Gericke, Gerda J.; MacIntyre, Una E.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit district, Gauteng, South Africa, who taught nutrition…

  12. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  13. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating…

  14. Are premorbid abnormal personality traits associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia?

    PubMed

    Prior, Jack; Abraham, Rajesh; Nicholas, Helen; Chan, Tom; Vanvlymen, Jeremy; Lovestone, Simon; Boothby, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to investigate associations between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and abnormal premorbid personality traits. Data were obtained from 217 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of late-onset dementia were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Premorbid personality traits were assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were categorised with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were associated with increased behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. Cluster A (solitary/paranoid) premorbid personality traits were associated with anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Cluster C (anxious/dependent) traits were associated with a syndrome of depression. The presence of Clusters A (solitary/paranoid) and C (anxious/dependent) abnormal premorbid personality traits seems to affect the expression of certain behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, depression in particular. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  17. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-04-20

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents' eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents' perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours.

  18. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  19. Disordered eating behaviour is associated with blunted cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Higgs, Suzanne; Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-05-01

    Research suggests a potential dysregulation of the stress response in individuals with bulimia nervosa. This study measured both cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a standardised laboratory stress task in individuals identified as showing disordered eating behaviour to determine whether dysregulation of the stress response is characteristic of the two branches of the stress response system. Female students (N=455) were screened using two validated eating disorder questionnaires. Twelve women with disordered eating, including self-induced vomiting, and 12 healthy controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity, via Doppler imaging and semi-automatic blood pressure monitoring, were measured at resting baseline and during and after exposure to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. Compared to controls the disordered eating group showed blunted cortisol, cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume reactions to the acute stress, as well as an attenuated vasodilatory reaction. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, subjective task impact/engagement, age, BMI, neuroticism, cardio-respiratory fitness, or co-morbid exercise dependence. Our findings suggest that disordered eating is characterised by a dysregulation of the autonomic stress-response system. As such, they add further weight to the general contention that blunted stress reactivity is characteristic of a number of maladaptive behaviours and states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal perception of causes and consequences of sibling differences in eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Laura; Cooke, Lucy; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore mothers’ perceptions of differences between their children in the eating behaviour domain. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out with mothers who had at least two children aged between 6 and 15 years, to discuss feeding experiences, particularly around healthy eating. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Results Mothers frequently identified differences in appetite and food preferences between their children, which they attributed largely to genetic factors. These sibling differences meant that although feeding goals might be common, the pathways to the goals varied depending on each child’s appetitive characteristics. The overall pattern was one of flexible responsiveness to each child. In contrast to perceptions of their own children’s eating behaviours, feeding difficulties in other families were usually attributed to lack of parental control. Conclusion The feeding relationship is complex and interactive, resulting in parents modulating their feeding strategies to match each child’s eating behaviour. Guidance to parents on healthy feeding needs to acknowledge the nuanced and interactive nature of feeding practices. PMID:20717131

  1. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Comparing cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders integrated with behavioural weight loss therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced alone in overweight or obese people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; Sainsbury, Amanda; da Luz, Felipe; Swinbourne, Jessica; Estella, Nara Mendes; Claudino, Angélica

    2015-12-18

    Around 40 % of individuals with eating disorders of recurrent binge eating, namely bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, are obese. In contrast to binge eating disorder, currently there is no evidence base for weight management or weight loss psychological therapies in the treatment of bulimia nervosa despite their efficacy in binge eating disorder. Thus, a manualised therapy called HAPIFED (Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders) has been developed. HAPIFED integrates the leading evidence-based psychological therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) and behavioural weight loss treatment (BWLT) for binge eating disorder and obesity respectively. The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HAPIFED versus CBT-E for people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are overweight/obese. A single-blind superiority RCT is proposed. One hundred Brazilian participants aged ≥ 18 years, with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BMI > 27 to < 40 kg/m(2), will be recruited from both community and clinics and individually randomised to a therapy arm. Five groups of ten participants will receive the experimental intervention (HAPIFED) and the other five groups of ten the control intervention (CBT-E). Both therapies are manualised, and in this RCT will comprise 1 individual session and 29 office-based group sessions over 6 months. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 6 and 12 months after end of therapy. The primary outcome of this intervention will be reduced weight. Secondary outcomes will be improved metabolic indicators of weight management, reduction in eating disorder symptoms including improved control over eating, improved adaptive function, physical and mental health-related quality of life, and reduced levels of depression and anxiety. This study will be the first to investigate a psychological therapy

  3. Social influences on eating and physical activity behaviours of urban, minority youths

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Elizabeth T Anderson; Johnson, Katherine A; Pollard, Suzanne L; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Pollack, Keshia; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Social relationships can impact youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours; however, the best strategies for intervening in the social environment are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to provide in-depth information on the social roles that youths’ parents and friends play related to eating and physical activity behaviours and to explore the impact of other social relationships on youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours. Design Convergent parallel mixed-methods design. Setting Low-income, African American, food desert neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA. Subjects Data were collected from 297 youths (53 % female, 91 % African American, mean age 12·3 (SD 1·5) years) using structured questionnaires and combined with in-depth interviews from thirty-eight youths (42 % female, 97 % African American, mean age 11·4 (SD 1·5) years) and ten parents (80 % female, 50 % single heads of house, 100 % African American). Results Combined interpretation of the results found that parents and caregivers have multiple, dynamic roles influencing youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours, such as creating health-promoting rules, managing the home food environment and serving as a role model for physical activity. Other social relationships have specific, but limited roles. For example, friends served as partners for physical activity, aunts provided exposure to novel food experiences, and teachers and doctors provided information related to eating and physical activity. Conclusions Obesity prevention programmes should consider minority youths’ perceptions of social roles when designing interventions. Specifically, future research is needed to test the effectiveness of intervention strategies that enhance or expand the supportive roles played by social relationships. PMID:27491967

  4. Social influences on eating and physical activity behaviours of urban, minority youths.

    PubMed

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth T; Johnson, Katherine A; Pollard, Suzanne L; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Pollack, Keshia; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-12-01

    Social relationships can impact youths' eating and physical activity behaviours; however, the best strategies for intervening in the social environment are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to provide in-depth information on the social roles that youths' parents and friends play related to eating and physical activity behaviours and to explore the impact of other social relationships on youths' eating and physical activity behaviours. Convergent parallel mixed-methods design. Low-income, African American, food desert neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA. Data were collected from 297 youths (53 % female, 91 % African American, mean age 12·3 (sd 1·5) years) using structured questionnaires and combined with in-depth interviews from thirty-eight youths (42 % female, 97 % African American, mean age 11·4 (sd 1·5) years) and ten parents (80 % female, 50 % single heads of house, 100 % African American). Combined interpretation of the results found that parents and caregivers have multiple, dynamic roles influencing youths' eating and physical activity behaviours, such as creating health-promoting rules, managing the home food environment and serving as a role model for physical activity. Other social relationships have specific, but limited roles. For example, friends served as partners for physical activity, aunts provided exposure to novel food experiences, and teachers and doctors provided information related to eating and physical activity. Obesity prevention programmes should consider minority youths' perceptions of social roles when designing interventions. Specifically, future research is needed to test the effectiveness of intervention strategies that enhance or expand the supportive roles played by social relationships.

  5. Behaviour modification in the management of chronic habits of abnormal eye rubbing.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2009-04-01

    To describe how and why many keratoconus patients do not comply with strong advice to control chronic habits of abnormal rubbing. To outline a behaviour modification approach for controlling chronic habits of abnormal rubbing. Common reasons for chronic habits of abnormal rubbing have been reviewed as a basis for specifying a behavioural modification approach to habit reversal. The methods described are organized into the classic behavioural modification structure of: (1) habit awareness, (2) competing responses, (3) development of motivation, and (4) social support. This structure is supported by the application of social influence principles to achieve optimum compliance. The use of take-home written information in the form of an Abnormal Rubbing Guide is the basis for the development of motivation. Family social support is based upon a widening of the responsibility for avoiding eye rubbing to all family members. Some patients will need minimal application of these principles with patient education being sufficient intervention to achieve habit reversal. For patients with strong provocation to rubbing and/or by having a well established rubbing habit, a greater exposure to the habit reversal program described is indicated. Successful habit reversal may slow the rate of ectasia progression. Prophylactic application of the methods described for patients who are at risk for developing keratoconus, or post-laser assisted in situ keratomileusis keratectasia, may show that some forms of keratectasia are preventable.

  6. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders - Results of the CCC2000 study.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-06-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behaviour change techniques to change the postnatal eating and physical activity behaviours of women who are obese: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M; Taylor, W; Lavender, T

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of postnatal women who are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ] in relation to making behaviour changes and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Qualitative interview study. Greater Manchester, UK. Women who were 1 year postnatal aged ≥18 years, who had an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, and an antenatal booking BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . Eighteen semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted by a research midwife with women who volunteered to be interviewed 1 year after taking part in a pilot randomised controlled trial. The six stages of thematic analysis were followed to understand the qualitative data. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (version 1) was used to label the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) reported by women. Themes derived from 1-year postnatal interview transcripts. Two themes were evident: 1. A focused approach to postnatal weight management: women reported making specific changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours, and 2. Need for support: six BCTs were reported as helping women make changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours; three were reported more frequently than others: Self-monitoring of behaviour (2.3), Prompts/cues (7.1) and Social support (unspecified; 3.1). All of the BCTs required support from others for their delivery; food diaries were the most popular delivery method. Behaviour change techniques are useful to postnatal women who are obese, and have the potential to improve their physical and mental wellbeing. Midwives and obstetricians should be aware of such techniques, to encourage positive changes. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Environmental interventions for altering eating behaviours of employees in the workplace: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allan, J; Querstret, D; Banas, K; de Bruin, M

    2017-02-01

    Environmental, or 'choice-architecture', interventions aim to change behaviour by changing properties/contents of the environment and are commonly used in the workplace to promote healthy behaviours in employees. The present review aimed to evaluate and synthesize the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of environmental interventions targeting eating behaviour in the workplace. A systematic search identified 8157 articles, of which 22 were included in the current review. All included studies were coded according to risk of bias and reporting quality and were classified according to the emergent typology of choice-architecture interventions. More than half of included studies (13/22) reported significant changes in primary measures of eating behaviour (increased fruit/veg consumption, increased sales of healthy options and reduction in calories purchased). However, only one study produced a small significant improvement in weight/body mass index. Many studies had a high or unknown risk of bias; reporting of interventions was suboptimal; and the only trial to measure compensatory behaviours found that intervention participants who ate less during the intervention ate more out with the workplace later in the day. Hence, we conclude that more rigorous, well-reported studies that account for compensatory behaviours are needed to fully understand the impact of environmental interventions on diet and importantly on weight/body mass index outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Food Addiction Beliefs Amongst the Lay Public: What Are the Consequences for Eating Behaviour?

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2017-01-01

    The current paper reviews recent research on perceptions of food addiction in the lay public. It also examines the potential consequences of such beliefs for eating behaviour. Surveys suggest that, within community samples, the majority of individuals believe that certain foods are addictive, and that food addiction causes obesity. Further, many people believe themselves to be 'food addicts', and these individuals demonstrate increased patterns of aberrant eating. However, there is also initial experimental evidence to suggest that believing oneself to be a food addict leads to short-term food restriction. To reconcile these findings, a self-perpetuating relationship between food addiction beliefs and aberrant eating is proposed. Specifically, in the short term, food addiction beliefs may encourage individuals to avoid certain foods. However, attempts at restriction may eventually lead to increased cravings and disinhibition, thus reinforcing perceptions of oneself as a food addict. These possibilities merit scrutiny in future research.

  10. The association of early childhood cognitive development and behavioural difficulties with pre-adolescent problematic eating attitudes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Rebecca C; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S; Wade, Kaitlin H; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥ 85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥ 85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence.

  11. A Systematic Review of Behavioural Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating among Older People.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Santos, Quenia Dos; Monteleone, Erminio; Giboreau, Agnès; Appleton, Katherine M; Bjørner, Thomas; Bredie, Wender L P; Hartwell, Heather

    2018-01-26

    Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people's physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases-PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies' duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people's dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account.

  12. A Systematic Review of Behavioural Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating among Older People

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Santos, Quenia Dos; Monteleone, Erminio; Giboreau, Agnès; Bredie, Wender L. P.; Hartwell, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies’ duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people’s dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account. PMID:29373529

  13. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Dropout from Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder Using Pre-treatment Characteristics: A Naturalistic Study.

    PubMed

    Vroling, Maartje S; Wiersma, Femke E; Lammers, Mirjam W; Noorthoorn, Eric O

    2016-11-01

    Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An exploratory logistic regression was performed using eating disorder variables, general psychopathology, personality and demographics to identify predictors of dropout. Binge eating pathology, preoccupations with eating, shape and weight, social adjustment, agreeableness, and social embedding appeared to be significant predictors of dropout. Also, education showed an association to dropout. This is one of the first studies investigating pre-treatment predictors for dropout in BED treatment. The total explained variance of the prediction model was low, yet the model correctly classified 80.6% of cases, which is comparable to other dropout studies in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Parental eating behaviours, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods: longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; van den Berg, Patricia; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole

    2007-11-01

    To examine longitudinal associations of parental report of household food availability and parent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods with adolescent intakes of the same foods. This study expands upon the limited research of longitudinal studies examining the role of parents and household food availability in adolescent dietary intakes. Longitudinal study. Project EAT-II followed an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (time 1) to 2004 (time 2). In addition to the Project EAT survey, adolescents completed the Youth Adolescent Food-Frequency Questionnaire in both time periods, and parents of adolescents completed a telephone survey at time 1. General linear modelling was used to examine the relationship between parent intake and home availability and adolescent intake, adjusting for time 1 adolescent intakes. Associations were examined separately for the high school and young adult cohorts and separately for males and females in combined cohorts. The sample included 509 pairs of parents/guardians and adolescents. Vegetables served at dinner significantly predicted adolescent intakes of vegetables for males (P = 0.037), females (P = 0.009), high school (P = 0.033) and young adults (P = 0.05) at 5-year follow-up. Among young adults, serving milk at dinner predicted dairy intake (P = 0.002). Time 1 parental intakes significantly predicted intakes of young adults for fruit (P = 0.044), vegetables (P = 0.041) and dairy foods (P = 0.008). Parental intake predicted intake of dairy for females (P = 0.02). The findings suggest the importance of providing parents of adolescents with knowledge and skills to enhance the home food environment and improve their own eating behaviours.

  17. Eating in the absence of hunger: Stability over time and associations with eating behaviours and body composition in children.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Mccrickerd, Keri; Fries, Lisa R; Goh, Ai Ting; Quah, Phaik Ling; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2018-08-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been linked to obesity in adults and children. This study examined the stability of EAH in children between 4.5 and 6 years old, and associations with energy intake and portion selection, as well as cross-sectional and prospective associations with body composition. The participants were 158 boys and girls from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort. At ages 4.5 and 6 years old children were provided lunch ad libitum, and immediately afterwards were exposed to palatable snacks to measure energy intake in the absence of hunger. At age 6 children completed an additional computer-based task to measure ideal portion size, where they selected pictures of the portions they would like to eat across eight foods. Measures of anthropometry (height/weight/skinfolds) were collected at both ages. Children who consumed energy during the EAH task at age 4.5 years were 3 times more likely to also do so at age 6 years. Children with high EAH intakes at age 4.5 years had high EAH intakes at age 6, highlighting stability of this behaviour over time. Energy consumed at lunch was unrelated to energy consumed during the EAH task, but children who ate in the absence of hunger cumulatively consumed more energy over lunch and the EAH task. Children who showed EAH tended to select larger ideal portions of foods during the computer task. EAH was not associated with measures of body composition. EAH is a stable behavioural risk factor for increased energy intake, but was not associated with body composition in this cohort. The majority of children ate in the absence of hunger, suggesting that interventions aimed at reducing responsiveness to external food cues could help to reduce energy intakes. Trial Registry Number: NCT01174875; https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Green Eating Project: web-based intervention to promote environmentally conscious eating behaviours in US university students.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Jessica T; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Sartini, Becky L; Greene, Geoffrey W

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an online, interactive intervention, referred to as the Green Eating (GE) Project, to motivate university students to adopt GE behaviours. The study was quasi-experimental and integrated into courses for credit/extra credit. Courses were randomly stratified into experimental or non-treatment control. The 5-week intervention consisted of four modules based on different GE topics. Participants completed the GE survey at baseline (experimental, n 241; control, n 367) and post (experimental, n 187; control, n 304). The GE survey has been previously validated and consists of Transtheoretical Model constructs including stage of change (SOC), decisional balance (DB: Pros and Cons) and self-efficacy (SE: School and Home) as well as behaviours for GE. Modules contained basic information regarding each topic and knowledge items to assess content learning. The GE Project took place at a public university in the north-eastern USA. Participants were full-time students between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The GE Project was effective in significantly increasing GE behaviours, DB Pros, SE School and knowledge in experimental compared with control, but did not reduce DB Cons or increase SE Home. Experimental participants were also more likely to be in later SOC for GE at post testing. The GE Project was effective in increasing GE behaviours in university students. Motivating consumers towards adopting GE could assist in potentially mitigating negative consequences of the food system on the environment. Future research could tailor the intervention to participant SOC to further increase the effects or design the modules for other participants.

  19. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants.

  20. Is there an association between eating behaviour and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschool children?

    PubMed

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Micali, Nadia; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Koinaki, Stella; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-06-01

    There is some evidence that aberrant eating behaviours and obesity co-occur with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The present study is the first that aims to investigate the association between eating behaviours and ADHD symptoms in early childhood in a population-based cohort. We included 471 preschool children from the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Parents completed the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire to assess children's eating behaviour and the 36-item ADHD test (ADHDT) to evaluate ADHD symptoms at 4 years of age. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association of eating behaviours with ADHD symptoms. Regarding children's food approach eating behaviours, we observed a positive association between food responsiveness and total ADHD index, as well as impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity subscale, separately. Similarly, there was a significant positive association between emotional overeating and ADHD symptoms. With regard to children's food avoidant behaviours, food fussiness was found to be significantly associated with the impulsivity subscale. A dose-response association between the food approach behaviours and ADHD symptoms was also observed. Children on the medium and highest tertile of the food responsiveness subscale had increased scores on the ADHD total scale, as compared to those on the lowest tertile. As regards emotional overeating, children in the highest tertile of the scale had higher scores on ADHD total and hyperactivity. Our findings provide evidence that food approach eating behaviours such as food responsiveness and emotional overeating are associated with the increased ADHD symptoms in preschool children. Future studies to better understand this overlap will enhance potential interventions. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Behavioural abnormalities of the hyposulphataemic Nas1 knock-out mouse.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul Anthony; Steane, Sarah Elizabeth; Markovich, Daniel

    2004-10-05

    We recently generated a sodium sulphate cotransporter knock-out mouse (Nas1-/-) which has increased urinary sulphate excretion and hyposulphataemia. To examine the consequences of disturbed sulphate homeostasis in the modulation of mouse behavioural characteristics, Nas1-/- mice were compared with Nas1+/- and Nas1+/+ littermates in a series of behavioural tests. The Nas1-/- mice displayed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased marble burying behaviour (4.33 +/- 0.82 buried) when compared to Nas1+/+ (7.86 +/- 0.44) and Nas1+/- (8.40 +/- 0.37) animals, suggesting that Nas1-/- mice may have decreased object-induced anxiety. The Nas1-/- mice also displayed decreased locomotor activity by moving less distance (1.53 +/- 0.27 m, P < 0.05) in an open-field test when compared to Nas1+/+ (2.31 +/- 0.24 m) and Nas1+/- (2.15 +/- 0.19 m) mice. The three genotypes displayed similar spatiotemporal and ethological behaviours in the elevated-plus maze and open-field test, with the exception of a decreased defecation frequency by the Nas1-/- mice (40% reduction, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between Nas1-/- and Nas1+/+ mice in a rotarod performance test of motor coordination and in the forced swim test assessing (anti-)depressant-like behaviours. This is the first study to demonstrate behavioural abnormalities in the hyposulphataemic Nas1-/- mice.

  2. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of

  3. Predicting healthy eating intention and adherence to dietary recommendations during pregnancy in Australia using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy J; Makrides, Maria; ShaoJia, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to aid in the development of more effective healthy eating intervention strategies for pregnant women by understanding the relationship between healthy eating intention and actual eating behaviour. Specifically, the study explored whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs [attitude, subjective-norm, perceived-behavioural-control (PBC)] and additional psychosocial variables (perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater) are useful in explaining variance in women's 1) intentions to consume a healthy diet during pregnancy and 2) food consumption behaviour (e.g. adherence to food group recommendations) during pregnancy. A cross-sectional sample of 455 Australian pregnant women completed a TPB questionnaire as part of a larger comprehensive web-based nutrition questionnaire. Women's perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater were also measured. Dietary intake was assessed using six-items based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were estimated (significance level <0.05), which explained 70% of the variance in healthy eating intention scores and 12% of the variance in adherence to food group recommendations. TPB constructs explained 66% of the total variance in healthy eating intention. Significant predictors of stronger healthy eating intention were greater PBC and subjective norm, followed by positive attitude and stronger self-identity as a healthy eater. Conversely, TPB constructs collectively explained only 3.4% of total variance in adherence to food group recommendations. These findings reveal that the TPB framework explains considerable variance in healthy eating intention during pregnancy, but explains little variance in actual food consumption behaviour. Further research is required to understand this weak relationship between healthy eating intention and behaviour during pregnancy. Alternative behavioural frameworks, particularly

  4. Effects of neuromedin-β on caloric compensation, eating behaviours and habitual food intake.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Rosanne; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Bouchard, Luigi; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pérusse, Louis

    2011-08-01

    We have previously shown that a missense mutation (p.P73T) located in the neuromedin-β gene, a satiety peptide, was associated with higher levels of disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and body weight gain over time. In this study we compare caloric compensation, eating behaviour traits, food intake and adiposity between premenopausal women with (T73T) and without (P73P) mutation. Subjects (N=153) were screened to find homozygous women (T73T) that were matched for age, BMI and use of oral contraceptives with 7 women (P73P) not carrying the mutation. Eating behaviour traits were assessed with the Three-Factors Eating Questionnaire and habitual dietary intakes with a 3-day dietary record. A randomized single-blind cross-over design was used to test the effect of p.P73T on caloric compensation. We measured appetite sensations and ad libitum dietary intake following two different energy preloads. We found no difference in eating behaviour traits, adiposity, appetite sensations, ad libitum dietary intake and caloric compensation. However, T73T women had lower habitual energy and carbohydrate intakes than P73P. Differences in carbohydrate intakes disappeared when expressed in percentage of energy. These results suggest that the neuromedin-β p.P73T mutation modulates energy intake without effects on macronutrient. A lack of power resulting from our difficulty to recruit enough T73T women precludes any definitive conclusion regarding the impact of this mutation on caloric compensation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  6. Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S N; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997-1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards their healthy eating behaviour. Those who perceived their own eating habits to be healthy were more likely to comply with current dietary guidelines than those who did not. Females, increasing age, higher social class, tertiary education, non-smokers, lower body-weights and increased recreational activity were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for having a negative attitude towards their healthy eating behaviour. An increased intake (g/d) of breakfast cereals, vegetables, fruit and poultry dishes were associated with decreased OR for negative attitudes towards their healthy eating behaviour, while an increased intake of high-calorie beverages (g/d) was associated with an increased OR. It can be concluded that attitudes or motivation towards eating healthily was related to measured dietary and lifestyle behaviour in this sample. Future research is warranted to devise appropriate methods of instituting attitude change towards dietary behaviour in certain subgroups of the population.

  7. Disordered eating behaviour in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Keane, S; Clarke, M; Murphy, M; McGrath, D; Smith, D; Farrelly, N; MacHale, S

    2018-01-01

    The combination of eating disorders and diabetes is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour (DEB) in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus to a sample of non-diabetic controls, and to examine the relationship of DEB to glycaemic control. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was administered to 51 individuals aged 18-30 years attending an outpatient diabetic clinic in a large university teaching hospital. Glycaemic control was assessed by the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The control group comprised a consecutive sample of 236 male and female students aged 18-30 years attending a university primary health care service. The mean global EDE-Q score for the diabetes group was 0.82 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) and the mean for the control group was 1.4 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD). The diabetes group was significantly more likely to have a lower global EDE-Q score compared to the control group. There was no association between the global EDE-Q score of the diabetes group and HbA1c level. We did not find increased levels of disordered eating behavior (DEB) in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared to a non-diabetic control sample.

  8. The relation of post-work ruminative thinking with eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Michalianou, Georgia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Millward, Lynne J

    2012-02-01

    Inability to unwind about work during leisure time has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. This study was concerned with a possible behavioural pathway between unwinding and disease and examined the relationship between work-related rumination and food choice. Work-related rumination is arguably a core to understanding the 'unwinding process', and food choice is a well-established indicator of nutritional health. Two hundred and sixty-eight full-time workers from a range of white-collar occupations completed a self-report measure of ruminative thinking about work and an eating behaviour questionnaire. Three types of ruminative thinking were identified by factor analysis and labelled affective rumination, problem-solving pondering and detachment. In terms of food choice, high-relative to low-affective ruminators reported eating more unhealthy foods, and low detachers reported eating less cooked meals and more processed foods compared to high detachers. Problem-solving pondering was not associated with food choice, and none of the factors were associated with healthy food choice. It was concluded that failure to unwind from work is not necessarily related to unhealthy food choices. What appears to be the crucial factor is the type of perseverative thinking that people engage in post-work. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  10. Movement behaviour of patients with eating disorders and inflammatory bowel disease: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lausberg, H; von Wietersheim, J; Feiereis, H

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the movement behaviour of patients with eating disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. Ninety female patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 30), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 30) and a healthy control group (n = 30) were videotaped during a 10-min standardised movement sequence. A movement analysis instrument was developed for the evaluation. The patient groups had a significantly smaller area of movement, less weight shift, more isolated use of their body parts, less integration of the lower body, more peripheral initiation of movement, less strength. No significant differences could be found among the patient groups with eating disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. The findings are discussed in relation to body scheme disturbances and inhibition of nonverbal expression.

  11. Development of the eating behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C J; Whittington, J E; Holland, A J

    2011-02-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of severe obesity is primarily through strict control of access to food and it is this aspect that most limits the independence of those with PWS. This review considers the eating disorder in PWS, specifically how the as yet uncertain genetics of the syndrome and the transition from the early to the later phenotype might account for the later hyperphagia. On the basis of behavioural and imaging studies, a failure of satiety and excessive activation of neural reward pathways have both been suggested. We speculate that the overeating behaviour, consequent upon one or other of the above, could either be due to a direct effect of the PWS genotype on the feeding pathways of the hypothalamus or a consequence of prenatal changes in the regulation of genes responsible for energy balance that sets a high satiation threshold. Understanding the overeating in PWS will lead to more focused and successful management and ultimately, treatment of this life-threatening behaviour.

  12. Outcome of dialectical behaviour therapy for concurrent eating and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Courbasson, Christine; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Dixon, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined the preliminary efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) adapted for concurrent eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs). A matched randomized controlled trial was carried out with 25 female outpatients diagnosed with concurrent ED and SUD. Participants randomized to the intervention condition received DBT, whereas those randomized to the control condition received treatment as usual (TAU), both for a period of 1 year. A series of measures related to disordered eating, substance use and depression were administered to the participants at the beginning of treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months into treatment, followed by 3-month and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants randomized to the DBT condition evidenced a superior retention rate relative to their counterparts in the TAU condition at various study time points, including post-treatment (80% versus 20%) and follow-up (60% versus 20%). Due to the unexpected elevated dropout rates and the worsening of ED-SUD symptomatology in the TAU condition, recruitment efforts were terminated early. Results from the DBT condition revealed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on behavioural and attitudinal features of disordered eating, substance use severity and use, negative mood regulation and depressive symptoms. Finally, increases in participants' perceived ability to regulate and cope with negative emotional states were significantly associated with decreases in emotional eating and increases in levels of confidence in ability to resist urges for substance use. Results suggest that the adapted DBT might hold promise for treating individuals with concurrent ED and SUD. The current study is the first study to report positive effects of DBT on individuals with concurrent eating and substance use disorders. Although the results require replication and extension, they suggest that the DBT may be promising for this population. The results suggest

  13. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of eating and rumination behaviour in cows using a noseband pressure sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An automated technique for recording eating and rumination behaviour was evaluated in ten lactating Brown Swiss cows by comparing data obtained from a pressure sensor with data obtained via direct observation over a 24-hour period. The recording device involved a pressure sensor integrated in the noseband of a halter. The analysed variables included number and duration of individual rumination, eating and resting phases, total daily length of these phases and number of cuds chewed per day. Results Eating and rumination phases were readily differentiated based on characteristic pressure profiles. Chewing movements during rumination were regular and generated regular waveforms with uniform amplitudes, whereas eating generated irregular waveforms with variable amplitudes. There was complete or almost complete agreement and no significant differences between data obtained via direct observation and pressure sensor technique. Both methods yielded an average of 16 daily eating phases with a mean duration of 28.3 minutes. Total time spent eating was 445.0 minutes for direct observation and 445.4 minutes for the pressure sensor technique. Both techniques recorded an average of 13.3 rumination phases with a mean duration of 30.3 (direct observation) and of 30.2 (pressure sensor) minutes. Total time spent ruminating per day, number of cuds per day and chewing cycles per cud were 389.3 and 388.3 minutes, 410.1 and 410.0 and 60.0 and 60.3 for direct observation and pressure sensor technique, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two methods with respect to mean number of chewing cycles per day (24′669, direct observation vs. 24′751, pressure sensor, P < 0.05, paired t-test). There were strong correlations between the two recording methods with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.00. Conclusions The results confirmed that measurements of eating and rumination variables obtained via the pressure sensor technique are in

  16. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Anne; Nevanperä, Nina; Remes, Jouko; Rahkonen, Fanni; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2014-04-07

    Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a 'healthy lifestyle' cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns ('adverse habits', 'unbalanced weight control') that

  18. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’,

  19. Altered Reward Reactivity as a Behavioural Endophenotype in Eating Disorders: A Pilot Investigation in Twins.

    PubMed

    Kanakam, Natalie; Krug, Isabel; Collier, David; Treasure, Janet

    2017-05-01

    Altered reward reactivity is a potential risk endophenotype for eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to examine reward reactivity in female twins with EDs and compare it with a twin control group. A sample of 112 twins [n = 51 met lifetime DSM-IV ED criteria (anorexia nervosa n = 26; bulimic disorders n = 24), n = 19 unaffected cotwins and n = 42 control twins] was administered measures assessing reward reactivity, including the Game of Dice Task, the Behavioural Inhibition/Activation (BIS/BAS) Scales and the Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS). Within pair, correlations for monozygotic and dizygotic twins were calculated and generalised estimating equations compared probands with non-ED cotwins and controls. The BAS and the AMS were reduced in EDs and negatively associated with restrictive symptoms. In addition, monozygotic twins pairs demonstrated significant within pair similarity for the BAS and AMS. Conversely, there was less evidence to support the BIS or risky decision-making as measured by the Game of Dice Task as an endophenotype in EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Eating and rumination behaviour of Scottish Highland cattle on pasture and in loose housing during the winter.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Storni, E; Hässig, M; Nuss, K

    2014-09-01

    This study examined eating and rumination behaviour in 13 Scottish Highland cattle for 13 days on a winter pasture and then for 13 days in a loose housing barn during winter. The cows were fed hay ad libitum and each was fitted with a pressure-sensitive transducer integrated into the noseband of the halter. The endpoints for each cow at both locations were calculated per day and included eating and rumination times, number of chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. Air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and precipitation were recorded. Pastured cows had significantly longer eating and rumination times, more chewing cycles related to eating and rumination, more regurgitated cuds and more chewing cycles per cud than housed cows. Meteorological conditions were very similar at both locations.

  1. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-12-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  3. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  4. Growth and Development in Chinese Pre-Schoolers with Picky Eating Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M. Y.; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers’ growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Methods Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers’ socio-demographic information and children’s anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. Results The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents’ perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Conclusions Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals. PMID:25875004

  5. Growth and development in Chinese pre-schoolers with picky eating behaviour: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers' growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers' socio-demographic information and children's anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents' perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals.

  6. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-07-01

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p < 0.001), cheese (p = 0.001), and meat (p = 0.027). Satiety responsiveness was inversely associated with consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p < 0.001) and directly associated with consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of oxytocin on eating behaviour and metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-01

    Oxytocin, a hypothalamic hormone that is secreted directly into the brain and enters the peripheral circulation through the posterior pituitary gland, regulates a range of physiologic processes, including eating behaviour and metabolism. In rodents and nonhuman primates, chronic oxytocin administration leads to sustained weight reduction by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and inducing lipolysis. Oxytocin might improve glucose homeostasis, independently of its effects on weight. Clinical studies are beginning to translate these important preclinical findings to humans. This Review describes key data linking oxytocin to eating behaviour and metabolism in humans. For example, a single intranasal dose of oxytocin can reduce caloric intake, increase fat oxidation and improve insulin sensitivity in men. Furthermore, a pilot study of 8 weeks of oxytocin treatment in adults with obesity or overweight led to substantial weight loss. Together, these data support further investigation of interventions that target pathways involving oxytocin as potential therapeutics in metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic considerations and areas for further research are also discussed.

  8. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  9. The impact of media and advertising of food on the eating behaviour of adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaaly, Elham

    2016-12-12

    This study aims to detect differences in eating behaviours demonstrated by adolescent girls in Jeddah Saudi Arabia, according to the influence of the media through TV advertisements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1519 girls from 20 schools in Jeddah. Survey questions included information regarding media advertising and its effect on eating behaviour. Bivariate analyses were performed to define differences in eating behaviour according to media influence and Chi-square analyses to detect significant relationships. The results indicated a significant correlation between dessert consumption and advertising exposure (P = 0.035). Adolescent girls exposed to such advertising were more likely to consume dessert [n=299 (48.5%)], to shop for food [n=316 (50.7%)], and had attempted to lose weight [n=373 (59.5%)]. The results emphasize the role and obligation of decision-makers to protect young consumers through increased legislation and control of media content (particularly food advertisements) targeting young people.

  10. Gender and Body-Fat Status as Predictors of Parental Feeding Styles and Children's Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits and Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz; Jurek, Paweł; Jankowska, Anna M; Pawlicka, Paulina

    2018-04-25

    The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status. We observed that girls presented healthier eating habits than boys; however, overfat boys had better nutritional knowledge. Children’s body-fat percentage (%BF) was found to be linked with eating behaviours such as low satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness in girls as well as low emotional undereating and increased emotional overeating in boys. Our results revealed that overfat mothers, who were more prone to use the encouragement feeding style, rarely had daughters with increased %BF. Parents of overfat girls, however, were less likely to apply encouragement and instrumental feeding styles. Contrary to popular belief and previous studies, overfat women do not necessarily transmit unhealthy eating patterns to their children. Parents’ greater emphasis on managing the weight and eating habits of daughters (rather than sons) probably results from their awareness of standards of female physical attractiveness.

  11. The effects of sibutramine on the microstructure of eating behaviour and energy expenditure in obese women.

    PubMed

    Halford, J C G; Boyland, E J; Cooper, S J; Dovey, T M; Huda, M S B; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Wilding, J P H

    2010-01-01

    Given the suggestion that many potential anti-obesity drugs may enhance within-meal satiation, few studies have directly measured the effects of any drug on the microstructure of human eating behaviour. The effects of 7 days dosing with sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg a day on appetite and energy balance were determined in 30 obese women (BMI 34.6 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, age 46.0 +/- 12.9 years) using a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) and indirect calorimetry, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. At day 7, sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg reduced food intake by 16.6% and 22.3%, respectively (p < 0.001), compared with placebo. Sibutramine reduced eating rate compared with placebo rather than meal length (10 mg p < 0.05; 15 mg p < 0.001). In addition, sibutramine 10 mg significantly reduced hunger later in the meal (p < 0.05) and sibutramine 15 mg increased fullness early in the meal (p < 0.01), both of which are consistent with enhanced within-meal satiation. Sibutramine had little effect on resting metabolic rate, although 15 mg did significantly reduce respiratory quotient at several time points during the test day. These results provide novel evidence that decreased consumption of a test meal induced by sibutramine is primarily because of reduced eating rate, enhancing the deceleration in cumulative food intake within a meal associated with the development of satiety. Changes in within-meal appetite ratings appear particularly sensitive to drug-induced enhancement of satiation, and may provide key indices for assessing the therapeutic potential of novel anti-obesity drugs.

  12. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  13. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p < 0.05), and Y-BOCS-BE total, obsessive, and compulsive scales (all p ≤ 0.02) and on BIS-11 total score at 70 mg/d LDX (p = 0.015) and the TFEQ Cognitive Restraint subscale at 30 and 70 mg/d LDX (both p < 0.05). These findings indicate that LDX decreased global binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Exploring the relationship between perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours in European adults.

    PubMed

    Pinho, M G M; Mackenbach, J D; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Beulens, J W J; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J

    2017-04-26

    Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds. Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment. Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition. Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.

  15. Skin rash, headache and abnormal behaviour: unusual presentation of intracranial haemorrhage in dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Mejally, Mousa Ali Al; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Maimani, Wail Al; Hanif, Sadia; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Siddiqi, Ahmad; Akhtar, Mubeena; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Fareed, Khurram

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. The dengue virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are four serotypes (DEN 1–4) classified according to biological and immunological criteria. Patients may be asymptomatic or their condition may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide and 2.5 billion people are at risk. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. We present an interesting case of dengue fever with headache, skin rash and abnormal behaviour who had a massive intracranial haemorrhage with fatal outcome. PMID:22242067

  16. [Children's eating behaviour: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior as a function of their nutritional status, sex and age. Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviours: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9 ± 10.4 months and 49.3% were normal weight (n = 163), 26% overweight (n = 86), 15% obese (n = 50) and 9.7% severely obese (n = 32). Children with excessive weight showed higher scores on the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p < 0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excessive weight in children. Significant age and gender differences in eating behaviours were not found. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation of mastication mechanics and eating behaviour to small differences in food texture.

    PubMed

    Le Révérend, Benjamin; Saucy, Françoise; Moser, Mireille; Loret, Chrystel

    2016-10-15

    Eating behaviour is significantly modified with the consumption of soft or hard textures. However, it is of interest to describe how adaptive is mastication to a narrow range of texture. ElectroMyoGraphy (EMG) and Kinematics of Jaw Movements (KJM) techniques were used simultaneously to follow mastication muscle activity and jaw motion during mastication of seven cereal products. We show that parameters such as the time of chewing activity, the number of chewing cycles, the chewing muscle EMG activity and the volume occupied for each chewing cycle are amongst others significantly different depending on products tested, even though the textural product space investigated is quite narrow (cereal finger foods). In addition, through a time/chewing cycle dependent analysis of the chewing patterns, we demonstrate that different foods follow different breakdown pathways during oral processing, depending on their initial structural properties, as dictated by their formulation and manufacturing process. In particular, we show that mastication behaviour of cereal foods can be partly classified based on the process that is used to generate product internal structure (e.g. baking vs extrusion). To the best of our knowledge, such time dependent analyses have not yet been reported. Those results suggest that it is possible to influence the chewing behaviour by modifying food textures within the same "food family". This opens new possibilities to design foods for specific populations that cannot accomplish specific oral processing tasks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight.

  19. Disruption of the Zdhhc9 intellectual disability gene leads to behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kouskou, Marianna; Thomson, David M; Brett, Ros R; Wheeler, Lee; Tate, Rothwelle J; Pratt, Judith A; Chamberlain, Luke H

    2018-06-23

    Protein S-acylation is a widespread post-translational modification that regulates the trafficking and function of a diverse array of proteins. This modification is catalysed by a family of twenty-three zDHHC enzymes that exhibit both specific and overlapping substrate interactions. Mutations in the gene encoding zDHHC9 cause mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, seizures, speech and language impairment, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and reduced volume of sub-cortical structures. In this study, we have undertaken behavioural phenotyping, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and isolation of S-acylated proteins to investigate the effect of disruption of the Zdhhc9 gene in mice in a C57BL/6 genetic background. Zdhhc9 mutant male mice exhibit a range of abnormalities compared with their wild-type littermates: altered behaviour in the open-field test, elevated plus maze and acoustic startle test that is consistent with a reduced anxiety level; a reduced hang time in the hanging wire test that suggests underlying hypotonia but which may also be linked to reduced anxiety; deficits in the Morris water maze test of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory; and a 36% reduction in corpus callosum volume revealed by MRI. Surprisingly, membrane association and S-acylation of H-Ras was not disrupted in either whole brain or hippocampus of Zdhhc9 mutant mice, suggesting that other substrates of this enzyme are linked to the observed changes. Overall, this study highlights a key role for zDHHC9 in brain development and behaviour, and supports the utility of the Zdhhc9 mutant mouse line to investigate molecular and cellular changes linked to intellectual disability and other deficits in the human population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW) on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Arundell, Lauren; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Teychenne, Megan; Salmon, Jo; Hayward, Brooke; Healy, Genevieve N; Timperio, Anna

    2018-05-17

    The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace ( n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen's d ). Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers ( d = 0.379⁻0.577), and small declines in productivity ( d = 0.278). There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants ( d = 0.501⁻0.839). Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted.

  1. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW) on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Sudholz, Bronwyn; Teychenne, Megan; Salmon, Jo; Hayward, Brooke; Timperio, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace (n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen’s d). Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers (d = 0.379–0.577), and small declines in productivity (d = 0.278). There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants (d = 0.501–0.839). Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted. PMID:29772803

  2. I'm watching you. Awareness that food consumption is being monitored is a demand characteristic in eating-behaviour experiments.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Kersbergen, Inge; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Field, Matt

    2014-12-01

    Eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Yet people care about the impressions others form about them so may behave differently if they feel that their eating behaviour is being monitored. Here we examined whether participants are likely to change their eating behaviour if they feel that food intake is being monitored during a laboratory study. In Study 1 participants were provided with vignettes of typical eating behaviour experiments and were asked if, and how, they would behave differently if they felt their eating behaviour was being monitored during that experiment. Study 2 tested the effect of experimentally manipulating participants' beliefs about their eating behaviour being monitored on their food consumption in the lab. In Study 1, participants thought they would change their behaviour if they believed their eating was being monitored and, if monitored, that they would reduce their food consumption. In Study 2 participants ate significantly less food after being led to believe that their food consumption was being recorded. Together, these studies demonstrate that if participants believe that the amount of food they eat during a study is being monitored then they are likely to suppress their food intake. This may impact the conclusions that are drawn from food intake studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Train-the-trainer: implementation of cognitive behavioural guided self-help for recurrent binge eating in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Laurie J; Wilson, G Terence

    2013-05-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of cognitive behavioural guided self-help (CBTgsh) for recurrent binge eating using the train-the-trainer implementation strategy. After receiving expert-led training in CBTgsh, a master's-level graduate student in clinical psychology subsequently trained and supervised less experienced graduate students to implement the treatment in an open clinical trial. Participants were 38 treatment-seeking students at a university counselling centre with recurrent binge eating, featuring cases of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses revealed 42.1% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 47.4% at one-month follow-up. Participants reported significant pretreatment to post-treatment reductions on measures of specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, and functional impairment and high levels of treatment acceptability. These results provide 'proof-of-concept' for the train-the-trainer implementation strategy and add to the evidence supporting the feasibility and effectiveness of CBTgsh in routine clinical care. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. The physiology of altered eating behaviour after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Carel W; Bueter, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Obesity and its related comorbidities can be detrimental for the affected individual, as well as constituting a major challenge to public health systems worldwide. Currently, the most effective treatment option leading to clinically significant and maintained body weight loss and reduction in obesity-related morbidity and mortality is obesity surgery, which is recommended for patients with a body mass index of >40 kg m(-2), or >35 kg m(-2) if obesity-associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, are present. This report focuses on the altered eating behaviour after the most common of these operations, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Animal and human experiments designed to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of altered taste and appetite are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

  6. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data…

  7. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  8. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  9. Relationships Between Self-Reported and Observed Parenting Behaviour, Adolescent Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours, and the 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Data From the Australian Temperament Project.

    PubMed

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Letcher, Primrose; Krug, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether self-reported and observationally measured parental behaviours were associated with disordered eating, and investigated possible moderation by a serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Study 1 included 650 adolescents from the Australian Temperament Project who completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Drive for Thinness and Bulimia scales at 15/16 years and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. Parents completed an Australian Temperament Project-devised measure of parental warmth and harsh punishment. Study 2 included a subgroup of 304 participants who also engaged in a video-recorded family interaction, with observed parental warmth and hostility coded by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale. Greater self-reported parental warmth was associated with lower bulimia scores. Conversely, observationally measured parental warmth was associated with lower drive for thinness, but not bulimia. Self-reported parental harsh punishment was associated with bulimia only, with observed parental hostility associated with neither outcome. 5-HTTLPR genotype did not moderate the relationship between parent behaviours and adolescent disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Correlates, determinants, and effectiveness of childcare educators' practices and behaviours on preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stéphanie; Bélanger, Mathieu; Donovan, Denise; Horsman, Amanda; Carrier, Natalie

    2015-02-21

    Worldwide, approximately 12% of children under the age of 5 are either overweight or obese. As many young children spend 30 h or more per week in childcare centres with childcare educators. Targeting childcare educators as role models may prove an effective strategy for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. This manuscript describes the methods to systematically review existing literature relating to how childcare educators influence children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, as well as the links between specific practices and behaviours of childcare educators and children's healthy lifestyle behaviours. Relevant peer-reviewed studies will be identified through a computerized literature search in six databases: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct, CINAHL, Wiley and SportDiscus. Quantitative studies written in English or French reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices and behaviours on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours will be included. The quality of retained studies will be assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Descriptive summary statistics of study characteristics will be reported as well as the study designs and exposure and outcome measures. Inter-rater agreements for study selection and quality assessments will be reported and unadjusted, and adjusted results will be presented. Reporting of the systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. This systematic review will contribute to a better understanding of the potential of childcare educators as role models for young children, as well as the influence (or impact) of their behaviours and intervention on children's short- and long-term health. It will provide important information that could be used to improve obesity prevention strategies and initiatives, as well as to guide the

  11. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  12. Easier said than done: a qualitative study conducted in the USA exploring Latino family child care home providers as role models for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A

    2017-11-12

    Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing minority population group in the USA and are disproportionally affected by obesity and related chronic diseases. Child care providers likely influence the eating and physical activity behaviours of children in their care, and therefore are important targets for interventions designed to prevent childhood obesity. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of research examining the behaviours of family child care home (FCCH) providers and whether they model healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Therefore, this study explored Latino FCCH providers' beliefs and practices related to healthy eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and how they view their ability to serve as role models for these behaviours for young children in their care. This is a qualitative study consisting of six focus groups conducted in Spanish with a sample of 44 state-licensed Latino FCCH providers in the state of Massachusetts. Translated transcripts were analysed using thematic analyses to identify meaningful patterns. Analyses revealed that Latino FCCH providers have positive beliefs and attitudes about the importance of healthy eating and physical activity for children in their care, but personally struggle with these same behaviours and with maintaining a healthy weight status. The ability of Latino FCCH providers to model healthy eating and physical activity may be limited by their low self-efficacy in their ability to be physically active, eat a healthy diet and maintain a healthy weight. Interventions designed to improve healthy eating and physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in FCCHs should address providers' own health behaviours as well as their modelling of these health behaviours. Future research can build on the findings of this qualitative study by quantifying Latino FCCH providers' eating and physical activity behaviours, and determining how these behaviours influence behaviours and health outcomes of

  13. The empirical status of the third-wave behaviour therapies for the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; Fairburn, Christopher G; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Wilfley, Denise E; Brennan, Leah

    2017-12-01

    Although third-wave behaviour therapies are being increasingly used for the treatment of eating disorders, their efficacy is largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the empirical status of these therapies. Twenty-seven studies met full inclusion criteria. Only 13 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified, most on binge eating disorder (BED). Pooled within- (pre-post change) and between-groups effect sizes were calculated for the meta-analysis. Large pre-post symptom improvements were observed for all third-wave treatments, including dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), schema therapy (ST), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based interventions (MBI), and compassion-focused therapy (CFT). Third-wave therapies were not superior to active comparisons generally, or to cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) in RCTs. Based on our qualitative synthesis, none of the third-wave therapies meet established criteria for an empirically supported treatment for particular eating disorder subgroups. Until further RCTs demonstrate the efficacy of third-wave therapies for particular eating disorder subgroups, the available data suggest that CBT should retain its status as the recommended treatment approach for bulimia nervosa (BN) and BED, and the front running treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) in adults, with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) considered a strong empirically-supported alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for outpatients with eating disorders: effectiveness for a transdiagnostic group in a routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    Whilst there is a growing evidence to support the impact of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of adults with eating disorders, much of this evidence comes from tightly controlled efficacy trials. This study aimed to add to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of CBT when delivered in a routine clinical setting. The participants were 203 adults presenting with a range of eating disorder diagnoses, who were offered CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed measures of eating disorder pathology at the start of treatment, following the sixth session, and at the end of treatment. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosocial functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 55% of patients completed treatment, and there were no factors that predicted attrition. There were significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology, anxiety, depression and general functioning, with particular changes in eating attitudes in the early part of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. These findings confirm that evidence-based forms of CBT can be delivered with strong outcomes in routine clinical settings. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver evidence-based treatments when working in these settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water observed with in situ environmental SEM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Shu, Jiapei; Chen, Qing

    2017-04-24

    Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets. Later, the ice crystals grow continuously through desublimation. At 600 Pa, the metastable liquid grows quickly, with some ice nuclei floating in it, and the liquid-solid coexistence state exists for a long time. By lowering the vapour pressure and/or increasing the substrate temperature, ice sublimates into vapour phase, and especially, the remaining ice forms a porous structure due to preferential sublimation in the concave regions, which can be explained with surface tension effect. Interestingly, although it should be forbidden for ice to transform into liquid phase when the temperature is well below 0 °C, liquid like droplets form during the ice sublimation process, which is attributed to the surface tension effect and the quasiliquid layers.

  17. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p < 0.001), but encouraged less balance and variety around food (p = 0.029). They also had a less healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in mothers' use of controlling feeding practices, such as pressure to eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pilot randomised trial of a healthy eating behavioural intervention in uncontrolled asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Strub, Peg; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Buist, A. Sonia; Lavori, Philip W.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Nadeau, Kari C.; Rosas, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous research on the benefit of healthy eating patterns for asthma control is lacking. We randomised 90 adults with objectively confirmed uncontrolled asthma and a low-quality diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores <6 out of 9) to a 6-month DASH behavioural intervention (n=46) or usual-care control (n=44). Intention-to-treat analyses used repeated-measures mixed models. Participants were middle-aged, 67% female and multiethnic. Compared with controls, intervention participants improved on DASH scores (mean change (95% CI) 0.6 (0, 1.1) versus −0.3 (−0.8, 0.2); difference 0.8 (0.2, 1.5)) and the primary outcome, Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (−0.2 (−0.5, 0) versus 0 (−0.3, 0.3); difference −0.2 (−0.5, 0.1)) at 6 months. The mean group differences in changes in Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire overall and subdomain scores consistently favoured the intervention over the control group: overall 0.4 (95% CI 0, 0.8), symptoms 0.5 (0, 0.9), environment 0.4 (−0.1, 1.0), emotions 0.4 (−0.2, 0.9) and activities 0.3 (0, 0.7). These differences were modest, but potentially clinical significant. The DASH behavioural intervention improved diet quality with promising clinical benefits for better asthma control and functional status among adults with uncontrolled asthma. A full-scale efficacy trial is warranted. PMID:26493792

  19. Pilot randomised trial of a healthy eating behavioural intervention in uncontrolled asthma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Strub, Peg; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Camargo, Carlos A; Buist, A Sonia; Lavori, Philip W; Wilson, Sandra R; Nadeau, Kari C; Rosas, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous research on the benefit of healthy eating patterns for asthma control is lacking.We randomised 90 adults with objectively confirmed uncontrolled asthma and a low-quality diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores <6 out of 9) to a 6-month DASH behavioural intervention (n=46) or usual-care control (n=44). Intention-to-treat analyses used repeated-measures mixed models.Participants were middle-aged, 67% female and multiethnic. Compared with controls, intervention participants improved on DASH scores (mean change (95% CI) 0.6 (0, 1.1) versus -0.3 (-0.8, 0.2); difference 0.8 (0.2, 1.5)) and the primary outcome, Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (-0.2 (-0.5, 0) versus 0 (-0.3, 0.3); difference -0.2 (-0.5, 0.1)) at 6 months. The mean group differences in changes in Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire overall and subdomain scores consistently favoured the intervention over the control group: overall 0.4 (95% CI 0, 0.8), symptoms 0.5 (0, 0.9), environment 0.4 (-0.1, 1.0), emotions 0.4 (-0.2, 0.9) and activities 0.3 (0, 0.7). These differences were modest, but potentially clinical significant.The DASH behavioural intervention improved diet quality with promising clinical benefits for better asthma control and functional status among adults with uncontrolled asthma. A full-scale efficacy trial is warranted. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  20. A food desert in Detroit: associations with food shopping and eating behaviours, dietary intakes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; West, Patricia; Savoy-Moore, Ruth T; Lindsey, Darlene; Winter, Michael; Newby, P K

    2013-12-01

    Currently 67 % of the US population is overweight or obese and obesity is associated with several chronic medical conditions. Geographic areas where individuals lack access to healthy foods have been termed ‘food deserts’. The study aim was to examine if area of residence within Metro Detroit was associated with dietary intake, food and shopping behaviours, and BMI. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited in the waiting area of four primary-care clinics. Individuals (n 1004) completed a questionnaire comprising four sections: demographics; personal health status including self-reported height and weight; a modified diet, transportation and shopping survey; and a subscale from the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey. Seventy-four per cent of participants were female and the mean age was 46·7 (sd 15·0) years. In univariate analyses, living in Detroit was associated with being African American, unemployment, less education, no regular exercise, worse health self-rating and obesity (P < 0·0005 for all). Participants living in Detroit had a 3·06 (95 % CI 1·91, 4·21) kg/m2 larger BMI compared with people living outside the city (P < 0·0005) in univariate analyses, but the effect was attenuated when adjusted for demographics, disease status, shopping and eating behaviours, dietary intakes and diet knowledge (β = −0·46 kg/m2, 95 % CI −2·23, 1·30 kg/m2, P = 0·60). Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent both inside (82·9 %) and outside (72·8 %) the city of Detroit, presenting a major public health problem. However, living in this food desert was not significantly associated with BMI after potential covariates were considered.

  1. Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Treatment Outcome Following Manualised Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Brennan, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review synthesised the literature on predictors, moderators, and mediators of outcome following Fairburn's CBT for eating disorders. Sixty-five articles were included. The relationship between individual variables and outcome was synthesised separately across diagnoses and treatment format. Early change was found to be a consistent mediator of better outcomes across all eating disorders. Moderators were mostly tested in binge eating disorder, and most moderators did not affect cognitive-behavioural treatment outcome relative to other treatments. No consistent predictors emerged. Findings suggest that it is unclear how and for whom this treatment works. More research testing mediators and moderators is needed, and variables selected for analyses need to be empirically and theoretically driven. Future recommendations include the need for authors to (i) interpret the clinical and statistical significance of findings; (ii) use a consistent definition of outcome so that studies can be directly compared; and (iii) report null and statistically significant findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Advertising of food to children: is brand logo recognition related to their food knowledge, eating behaviours and food preferences?

    PubMed

    Kopelman, C A; Roberts, L M; Adab, P

    2007-12-01

    There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six primary schools in Birmingham, West Midlands. A '20 flashcard' brand logo quiz assessed children's brand logo recognition ability; a self-completed questionnaire collected information on children's socio-demographic characteristics, eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences (n=476). Children demonstrated both high brand logo recognition abilities with 88.4% (420/476) recognizing at least 16/20 brand logos in the quiz and high levels of poor diet. No strong correlation was found between higher brand logo recognition ability and poorer eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences. Although many children are familiar with commonly presented logos of food products, brand awareness does not appear to be a major influence on the consumption of a poor diet amongst children. The regulation or restriction of food advertising to children is unlikely to have a significant impact on obesity rates among children unless combined with measures to address other detrimental influences.

  3. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students.

    PubMed

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian

    2013-02-07

    The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near

  4. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  5. [Prevalence and relationship between physical activity and abnormal eating attitudes in Spanish women university students in Health and Education Sciences].

    PubMed

    Cancela Carral, José María; Ayán Pérez, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Future education and health professionals will be responsible for promoting physical activity and correct eating habits among the general population. This work aims to describe the prevalence and the degree of correlation between physical level and eating disorders in a sample made of nursing, physiotherapy and education female students. A total of 258 female students doing university courses during the academic year 2009-2010 at the University of Vigo (Pontevedra's Campus) and who were registered in nursing (87), physiotherapy (73) and education (98) took part in this transversal descriptive study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Eating Attitude Test were used to assess the prevalence of physical activity and eating disturbed attitudes respectively. The data showed that 63 (64,7%) of nursing students and 63 (72,1%) of education students reported the higher physical inactivity values, while 19 (19.4%) and 13 (15,3%) of them were likely to suffer from eating disorders respectively. Significant differences were found between the academic degree and the physical activity level of the sample (chi²=10,265; Sig.<0,05). The degree of association observed between physical activity energy expenditure and the existence of eating disturbed attitudes was only significant among education students (OR= 3,58; IC 95%= 1,29-9,93; Sig.<0.05). An important prevalence of physical inactivity and eating disturbed attitudes seems to exist attitudes among education and nursing students. There is a chance that the performance of intense physical activity could be related to inadequate eating habits.

  6. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective techniques for changing physical activity and healthy eating intentions and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Iverson, Don; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to review the evidence on the impact of a change in intention on behaviour and to identify (1) behaviour change techniques (BCTs) associated with changes in intention and (2) whether the same BCTs are also associated with changes in behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions that produced a significant change in intention and assessed the impact of this change on behaviour at a subsequent time point. Each intervention was coded using a taxonomy of BCTs targeting healthy eating and physical activity. A series of meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify effective BCTs. In total, 25 reports were included. Interventions had a medium-to-large effect on intentions (d +  = 0.64) and a small-to-medium effect (d +  = 0.41) on behaviour. One BCT, 'provide information on the consequences of behaviour in general', was significantly associated with a positive change in intention. One BCT, 'relapse prevention/coping planning', was associated with a negative change in intention. No BCTs were found to have significant positive effects on behaviour. However, one BCT, 'provide feedback on performance', was found to have a significant negative effect. BCTs aligned with social cognitive theory were found to have significantly greater positive effects on intention (d +  = 0.83 vs. 0.56, p < .05), but not behaviour (d +  = 0.35 vs. 0.23, ns), than those aligned with the theory of planned behaviour. Although the included studies support the notion that a change in intention is associated with a change in behaviour, this review failed to produce evidence on how to facilitate behaviour change through a change in intention. Larger meta-analyses incorporating interventions targeting a broader range of behaviours may be warranted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Prior research on the causal relationship between intention and behaviour has produced mixed findings. Further

  8. Differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake and body weight status between male and female Malaysian University students.

    PubMed

    Gan, W Y; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zalilah, M S; Hazizi, A S

    2011-08-01

    University students are potentially important targets for the promotion of healthy lifestyles as this may reduce the risks of lifestyle-related disorders later in life. This cross-sectional study examined differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake, weight status, and body composition between male and female university students. A total of 584 students (59.4% females and 40.6% males) aged 20.6 +/- 1.4 years from four Malaysian universities in the Klang Valley participated in this study. Participants completed the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and two-day 24-hour dietary recall. Body weight, height, waist circumference and percentage of body fat were measured. About 14.3% of males and 22.4% of females were underweight, while 14.0% of males and 12.3% of females were overweight and obese. A majority of the participants (73.8% males and 74.6% females) skipped at least one meal daily in the past seven days. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal. Both males and females frequently snacked during morning tea time. Fruits and biscuits were the most frequently consumed snack items. More than half of the participants did not meet the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for energy, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron (females only), and calcium. Significantly more males than females achieved the RNI levels for energy, protein and iron intakes. This study highlights the presence of unhealthy eating behaviours, inadequate nutrient intake, and a high prevalence of underweight among university students. Energy and nutrient intakes differed between the sexes. Therefore, promoting healthy eating among young adults is crucial to achieve a healthy nutritional status.

  9. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jospe, Michelle R; Taylor, Rachael W; Athens, Josie; Roy, Melyssa; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-11-17

    Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% ( n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of -0.70 (-1.13, -0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour.

  11. Social and emotional processing as a behavioural endophenotype in eating disorders: a pilot investigation in twins.

    PubMed

    Kanakam, Natalie; Krug, Isabel; Raoult, Charlotte; Collier, David; Treasure, Janet

    2013-07-01

    Emotional processing difficulties are potential risk markers for eating disorders that are also present after recovery. The aim of this study was to examine these traits in twins with eating disorders. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, Emotional Stroop task and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were administered to 112 twins with and without eating disorders (DSM IV-TR eating disorder criteria). Generalised estimating equations compared twins with eating disorders against unaffected co-twins and control twins, and within-pair correlations were calculated for clinical monozygotic (n = 50) and dizygotic twins (n = 20). Emotion recognition difficulties, attentional biases to social threat and difficulties in emotion regulation were greater in twins with eating disorders, and some were present in their unaffected twin siblings. Evidence for a possible genetic basis was highest for emotion recognition and attentional biases to social stimuli. Emotion recognition difficulties and sensitivity to social threat appear to be endophenotypes associated with eating disorders. However, the limited statistical power means that these findings are tentative and require further replication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. [Level of education comparing to eating behaviours and anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status among men of Cracovian population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate of educating level effect as one indicator of social status on eating behaviours and anthropometrical parameters of nutritional status in professionally active men aged 20-60 at city environment. The research was conducted into 1320 workers of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Steelworks in Cracov. The research tool was the author's questionnaire which included questions about meal consumption regularity and frequency of consuming selected groups of foodstuffs. The indicators of nutritional status were fixed on the base of anthropometrical measurements, whereas the body content was estimated by method of bioimpendation with the use of electronic scales TBF-300P. Differentiation of some eating behaviours depending on the level of education was proved; but one cannot definitely estimate the relation of these parameters, as the higher educated people aged 40-60 years old more frequently declare two meal style of eating and more often consume confectionery than the lower educated; in turn vocationally educated men aged 20-40 more often declare consuming fast food products. Statistically considerable differentiation in some anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status depending of the level of education among men aged 40-60 was also proved. Men of vocational education are characterized by the highest value of WHR indicator but at the same time lower value of the 4 skin-fatty folds sum than higher educated people.

  13. Is it nutrients, food items, diet quality or eating behaviours that are responsible for the association of children's diet with sleep?

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad K A; Faught, Erin L; Chu, Yen Li; Ekwaru, John P; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Both diet quality and sleep duration of children have declined in the past decades. Several studies have suggested that diet and sleep are associated; however, it is not established which aspects of the diet are responsible for this association. Is it nutrients, food items, diet quality or eating behaviours? We surveyed 2261 grade 5 children on their dietary intake and eating behaviours, and their parents on their sleep duration and sleep quality. We performed factor analysis to identify and quantify the essential factors among 57 nutrients, 132 food items and 19 eating behaviours. We considered these essential factors along with a diet quality score in multivariate regression analyses to assess their independent associations with sleep. Nutrients, food items and diet quality did not exhibit independent associations with sleep, whereas two groupings of eating behaviours did. 'Unhealthy eating habits and environments' was independently associated with sleep. For each standard deviation increase in their factor score, children had 6 min less sleep and were 12% less likely to have sleep of good quality. 'Snacking between meals and after supper' was independently associated with sleep quality. For each standard deviation increase in its factor score, children were 7% less likely to have good quality sleep. This study demonstrates that eating behaviours are responsible for the associations of diet with sleep among children. Health promotion programmes aiming to improve sleep should therefore focus on discouraging eating behaviours such as eating alone or in front of the TV, and snacking between meals and after supper. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Obesity, eating behaviour and mental health among university students in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Velázquez-Alva, María del Consuelo

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors are important in the development of obesity; however these are frequently underestimated in intervention programs. To examine the association of mental health with altered eating behavior related to weigh gain, and with abdominal obesity among college students in order to provide more comprehensive guidelines for intervention programs. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,122 university students (from a total population of 1,820 freshmen students) at the Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City. Body mass index and waist circumference (WC) were recorded. A six items questionnaire was applied to assess altered eating behavior. Self-reported questionnaires for depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale of Carrol and Davidson), and impulsiveness symptoms (Plutchik Impulsivity Scale) were used. Multiple logistic regression models were performed. An increased WC was associated with depression symptoms (OR=1.4), female sex (OR=1.5), and age (OR=1.1). Students with altered eating behaviors showed elevated levels of impulsivity (e.g. have difficulties to stop eating, OR=4.2) and depression (e.g. have problem to eat at regular times, OR=6.98). In addition, higher WC was associated with female sex, parents' obesity, and unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g. have difficulties to stop eating, OR=1.42; and constantly feel hungry, and eat too much, OR=2.25). Although preventive programs directed at development of adequate eating habits and physical activity are considered a key component of intervention programs, strategies for the management of emotions, the promotion of positive mood and impulsivity-reduction techniques are a necessary complement for a comprehensive approach to overweight and obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks are associated with psychological dimensions of eating behaviour in parents and their 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, Kristina; Tholin, Sanna; Rasmussen, Finn

    2008-09-01

    We investigated associations between consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks and the psychological dimensions of eating in parents and their children. The role of the parent's characteristics for their children's food intake was also explored. Food intake patterns were assessed by self-reported consumption of the respective foods. Eating behaviour was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and self-esteem by Harter self-perception scale. The participants were 1441 families (mother, father and their 12-year-old child), and additionally 354 mothers and thirty fathers. Among parents, reported intake of fruit and vegetables were associated with restrained eating, higher self-esteem, and higher education and age. Intake of sweets was related to more external and less restrained eating, and for mothers also emotional eating. Parent's intake of soft drink was foremost related to a younger age, and also weakly associated with psychological characteristics. The food intake of parents was more important for the children's food intake than any other characteristics. However, children's intake of sweets showed clear-cut positive associations with external eating. Psychological dimensions of eating behaviour are associated with patterns of food intake, in particular for consumption of sweets, and are most prominent in the parents. The children's food intake mirrored their parents' intake. Being sensitive to external food cues may increase unhealthy food consumption in our society, whereas more restrained eating may indicate proneness or intention to healthier food choices among parents. Emotional eating may imply a proneness to consume sweets for comfort, in particular among mothers.

  16. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating behaviour and attitudes to weight and shape in British women from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Dolan, B; Lacey, J H; Evans, C

    1990-10-01

    Attitudes towards eating, weight and shape were examined in 479 Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean and Asian British women. The Asian women were found to have significantly more disordered eating attitudes than the Caucasian women, but no difference was found between the three groups in their concern with their body weight and shape. However, while in the Caucasian group disordered eating attitudes were significantly positively correlated with feelings of anxiety and depression, this was not true in the other two groups. Although the concerns of British Afro-Caribbean and Asian women are similar to those of the Caucasian women, there may be ethnic differences in the relationship between feelings about eating, weight and shape and mood.

  18. Dietary patterns at 4 years old: Association with appetite-related eating behaviours in 7 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Lopes, Carla; Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, Andreia

    2018-02-01

    A possible relationship between children's dietary intake and certain aspects of eating behaviours has been documented, but most studies are cross-sectional and do not consider the complexity of the diet. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns established at 4 years old and appetite-related eating behaviours identified at 7 years old. Participants are children from the Generation XXI population-based birth cohort. Trained interviewers collected data at birth, 4 and 7 years old on socio-demographics, health and lifestyles, and anthropometrics. At 4 years old, diet was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and three dietary patterns were identified by Latent Class Analysis: 'Healthier', 'Snacking' and 'Energy Dense Foods' (EDF). A Portuguese version of the original Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was self-completed by mothers at 7 year-old. This version has previously shown good psychometric properties and the 8 CEBQ sub-domains were combined into two wider dimensions: Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations after adjustment for maternal characteristics (n = 4358). Interaction effects were tested. Children belonging to the 'Snacking' (β = 0.329, 95%CI: 0.265; 0.393) and to the 'EDF' (β = 0.138, 95%CI: 0.098; 0.179) dietary patterns at 4 years old scored increasingly higher, respectively, on Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition dimensions at 7 years old, comparatively to children in the 'Healthier' dietary pattern. Maternal BMI before pregnancy modified the 'Snacking' pattern associations; they were stronger in children from underweight/normal weight mothers for Appetite Restraint and present only among overweight/obese mothers for Appetite Disinhibition. This study suggests that children following less healthy dietary patterns early in life have more often disordered eating behaviours in later childhood. Maternal

  19. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    PubMed

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. © 2011 The Author(s).

  20. The Perception of Threat from Emotions in Predicting Binge Eating Behaviours in People Who Are Obese and Seeking Treatment for Their Weight.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R E; Msetfi, R M; Johnson, R S; Haigh, E

    2016-09-01

    The affect regulation theory suggests that people binge eat to regulate negative emotional states. In this study, we used a basic emotions perspective to consider the role of perceived threat of emotions, emotional suppression and reduced emotional expressiveness in predicting binge eating behaviours in people who are obese. Treatment-seeking participants with obesity (N = 51, body mass index range from 30.8 to 60.2 kg m -2 ) completed measures of 'perception of threat from emotion' as well as 'emotional expressiveness' and binge eating. The results demonstrated that perceived threat of sadness predicted binge eating (β = .55, p < .05). Additionally, a mediation analysis revealed that reduced emotional expressiveness mediated the relationship between perceived threat of fear and binge eating (β = .25, 95%). These findings are contextualized within a theoretical perspective that suggests that individuals who binge eat are threatened by certain emotional states and they use binge eating to suppress certain, but not all, emotional states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Considering basic emotions within binge eating should be a part of a psychological assessment and treatment. This should consider how emotions could often be perceived as being threatening and their expression is limited. It is possible that the emotions of fear and sadness appear to be particularly threatening within binge eating/obese populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations.

    PubMed

    Devonport, Tracey J; Nicholls, Wendy; Fullerton, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive search of four electronic databases (2004-2015) yielded 60,017 articles, of which 29 met inclusion criteria. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis in terms of randomisation and controlling for confounding factors. Participant's body mass index scores range from 19.73 (standard deviation = 1.54) to 28.4 (standard deviation = 1.4) kg/m 2 . Where positive and negative affects were compared, food was more likely to be consumed in response to positive affect. With regard to discrete emotions; stress, depression and sadness consistently elicited eating behaviours that fall outside of nutritional recommendations (e.g. increased food intake or poor nutritional food choices). The role of moderators including individual differences in dietary restraint and emotional eating, as well as methodological considerations, such as means of eliciting and measuring emotions, may account for equivocality with regard to some emotion and eating associations. This article concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for practice.

  2. Eating disorder behaviours amongst adolescents: investigating classification, persistence and prospective associations with adverse outcomes using latent class models.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Horton, N J; Crosby, R D; Swanson, S A; Sonneville, K R; Solmi, F; Calzo, J P; Eddy, K T; Field, A E

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (ED) remain largely based on clinical presentations, but do not capture the full range of behaviours in the population. We aimed to derive an empirically based ED behaviour classification using behavioural and body mass index (BMI) indicators at three time-points in adolescence, and to validate classes investigating prospective associations with adverse outcomes. Adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) provided data on ED at age 14 (n = 6615), 16 (n = 5888), and 18 years (n = 5100), and had weight and height measured. Psychological and behavioural outcomes were assessed at 15.5/16 and 17.5/18 years. We fit gender- and age-stratified latent class models, and employed logistic regression to investigate associations between classes and later outcomes. One asymptomatic and two symptomatic (largely representing higher and lower frequency ED behaviours) classes were observed at each time-point, although their relative prevalence varied by age and gender. The majority of girls in symptomatic classes remained symptomatic at subsequent assessments. Girls in symptomatic classes had higher odds of subsequent anxiety and depressive disorders, binge drinking, drug use, and deliberate self-harm. Data analyses were underpowered amongst boys. The presence of two symptomatic classes (characterised by different ED behaviour frequency) and their prospective association with adverse outcomes suggest a need to refine diagnostic thresholds based on empirical data. Despite some instability of classes, particularly in mid-adolescence, evidence that half of girls in symptomatic classes remained symptomatic suggests persistence of ED behaviours in adolescence, and highlights a need for early identification to reduce chronicity.

  3. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Howe, George W

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined whether having high self-esteem or a self-compassionate perspective help mitigate the impact of daily social rejection on negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. Following a baseline survey assessing self-esteem and self-compassion, 121 college women completed online daily diaries for one week. Negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. On days when women reported more rejection, they also reported higher restrictive eating behaviours and greater negative affect. Effects were moderated by self-esteem and self-compassion, such that the lower participants were in self-esteem or self-compassion, the stronger the positive relation between rejection and negative affect and restrictive eating. However, only the common humanity/isolation dimension of self-compassion significantly moderated daily effects of rejection when controlling for self-esteem. Mediated moderation results reveal different mechanisms by which self-esteem and self-compassion buffer against rejections' effects on affect and restrictive eating. Self-compassion and self-esteem influence the complex impact that social rejection has on affect and restrictive eating. More than other dimensions of self-compassion or self-esteem, remembering one's common humanity can result in a healthier response to social rejection.

  4. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. ISRCTN 15562271. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  6. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of a Preoperative Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on Dysfunctional Eating Behaviours, Affective Symptoms and Body Weight 1 Year after Bariatric Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gade, Hege; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether a preoperative cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention exceeds usual care in the improvements of dysfunctional eating behaviours, mood, affective symptoms and body weight 1 year after bariatric surgery. This is a 1-year follow-up of a single centre parallel-group randomised controlled trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558). A total of 80 (55 females) patients mean (SD) age 44 (10) years were included. The intervention group received 10 weeks of CBT prior to bariatric surgery, and the control group received nutritional support and education. Both groups were assessed at baseline (T0), post CBT intervention/preoperatively (T1), and 1 year postoperatively (T2). Using a mixed modelling statistical approach, we examined if the CBT group improved more across time than the control group. Our hypothesis was not supported as both groups had comparable improvements in all outcomes except for anxiety symptoms. Body weight declined by 30.2 % (37.3 kg) in the CBT group and by 31.2 % (40.0 kg) in the control group from baseline to follow-up, p = 0.82. There were statistically significant reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms in the CBT group between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T2 for depression only. However, in the control group, the anxiety score did not change significantly. The CBT group showed an earlier onset of improvements in all eating behaviours and affective symptoms than the control group. The 10-week CBT intervention showed beneficial effects preoperatively, but the non-significant group differences postoperatively indicate a genuine effect of surgery.

  8. Identification of age-dependent motor and neuropsychological behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Gleitz, Hélène F. E.; O’Leary, Claire; Holley, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this. Therapeutic efficacy and subsequent validation can be assessed using a variety of outcome measures that are translatable to clinical practice, such as behavioural measures. We sought to consolidate current knowledge of the cognitive, skeletal and motor abnormalities present in the MPS II mouse model by performing time course behavioural examinations of working memory, anxiety, activity levels, sociability and coordination and balance, up to 8 months of age. Cognitive decline associated with alterations in spatial working memory is detectable at 8 months of age in MPS II mice using spontaneous alternation, together with an altered response to novel environments and anxiolytic behaviour in the open-field. Coordination and balance on the accelerating rotarod were also significantly worse at 8 months, and may be associated with skeletal changes seen in MPS II mice. We demonstrate that the progressive nature of MPS II disease is also seen in the mouse model, and that cognitive and motor differences are detectable at 8 months of age using spontaneous alternation, the accelerating rotarod and the open-field tests. This study establishes neurological, motor and skeletal measures for use in pre-clinical studies to develop therapeutic approaches in MPS II. PMID:28207863

  9. Reduction of Portion Size and Eating Rate Is Associated with BMI-SDS Reduction in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: Results on Eating and Nutrition Behaviour from the Observational KgAS Study.

    PubMed

    Torbahn, Gabriel; Gellhaus, Ines; Koch, Benjamin; von Kries, Rüdiger; Obermeier, Viola; Holl, Reinhard W; Fink, Katharina; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of paediatric obesity focuses on changes of nutrition and eating behaviour and physical activity. The evaluation of the patient education programme by KgAS was utilised to analyse the association of changes of portion size, eating rate and dietary habits with BMI-SDS reductions. Patients (n = 297) were examined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and after 1-year follow-up at different out-patient centres. Their parents completed questionnaires including estimation of children's portion size, eating rate and frequency of food intake. Associations of 1- and 2-year changes in BMI-SDS and behaviour were calculated for patients with complete data in BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate, frequency of green, yellow and red food intake (n = 131) by multiple linear regression models. Significant changes were found in the desired direction for BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate and the intake of unfavourable red food items both after 1 and 2 years as well as for the consumption of favourable green food items after 1 year. Significant positive associations with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years were detected for portion size (Cohen's f2 0.13 and 0.09) and eating rate (Cohen's f2 0.20 and 0.10), respectively. Reduced portion sizes and eating rates are associated with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years. These findings suggest to focus on appropriate portion sizes and reduced eating rates in patient education programmes. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  11. Body composition and eating behaviours in relation to dieting involvement in a sample of urban Greek adolescents from the TEENAGE (TEENs of Attica: Genes & Environment) study.

    PubMed

    Ntalla, Ioanna; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Vlachou, Panagiota; Giannitsopoulou, Kalliope; Gkesou, Vasiliki; Makridi, Chrysoula; Marougka, Maria; Mikou, Georgia; Ntaoutidou, Kyriaki; Prountzou, Eirini; Tsekoura, Alexandra; Dedoussis, George V

    2014-03-01

    To document the prevalence of dieting and to compare body composition markers, dietary intakes and eating behaviours across dieting categories. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Twenty-four randomly selected secondary public schools located in Attica, Greece. Anthropometric, medical and dietary information was obtained from 857 (54·9 % females) adolescents (mean age 13·4 (sd 0·9) years). Meal patterns, eating behaviours and eating style score, reflecting conditions around eating, were assessed. Adolescents were asked about their dieting involvement and were categorised as 'never dieters', 'current dieters' or 'past dieters'. Overall, 20·1 % of the adolescents were currently dieting and 15·2 % reported past dieting. Mean BMI and body fat percentage of never dieters were significantly lower than those of both groups of dieters (P < 0·001). Breakfast skipping (χ 2 = 10·92, P = 0·004) and eating large quantities of food (χ 2 = 7·18, P = 0·028) differed significantly across dieting groups in females. Significant differences in dinner skipping were observed in both males (χ 2 = 10·55, P = 0·005) and females (χ 2 = 20·91, P < 0·001). Female past dieters had significantly higher eating style scores than never dieters (P = 0·010) and current dieters (P = 0·042), indicating less well-structured feeding practices and food intake for reasons other than hunger. The present study showed a high prevalence of dieting among adolescents. Current dieters and past dieters had higher BMI and body fat percentage than never dieters. Eating behaviours differed significantly depending on dieting involvement, especially in females; while an apparently healthier, ordered eating style adopted by dieters during the dieting period seemed not to be maintained in the long term.

  12. Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachael W.; Athens, Josie; Brown, Rachel C.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of −0.70 (−1.13, −0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour. PMID:29149038

  13. Screening for cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Frequency of abnormality and effect on survival.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhouwei; Alruwaili, Ashwag Rafea S; Henderson, Robert David; McCombe, Pamela Ann

    2017-05-15

    To screen for cognitive and behavioural impairment in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and controls with neuromuscular disease and to correlate these with clinical features. 108 people with ALS and 60 controls with other neuromuscular diseases were recruited and assessed with the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-III (ACE-III), the frontal assessment battery (FAB), and the executive function component of the Edinburgh cognitive and behavioural ALS screen (ECAS). The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Frontotemporal dementia questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q) and the Motor Neuron Disease Behavioural instrument (MiND-B) were administered to the caregivers of people with ALS. The prevalence of abnormalities was determined and correlated with clinical features and survival. In 37 people with ALS, serial studies were performed. The frequencies of cognitive impairment based on the ACE-III and FAB were 30.0% and 14.0%, in ALS and 11.7% and 3.3% in controls, respectively. Age and years of education influence the results of the ACE-III and ECAS executive function. In ALS, the frequencies of behavioural impairment based on ALS-FTD-Q and MiND-B were 32.1% and 39.4%, respectively. There is significant correlation of ALS-FTD-Q and MiND-B with the ALSFRS-R score. ALS participants with cognitive impairment measured with ACE-III had significantly shorter survival time than those without. ALS participants with behavioural impairment measured with ALS-FTD-Q had worse prognosis than those without. No significant difference was found between the first two serial cognitive tests based on ACE-III and FAB by using generalized estimating equation. There is a greater frequency of cognitive impairment in people with ALS than in patients with other neuromuscular diseases. The cognitive and behavioural tests are potential biomarkers of the prognosis of ALS. The results of cognitive tests are stable over 6months and possibly longer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lisdexamfetamine reduces the compulsive and perseverative behaviour of binge-eating rats in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model.

    PubMed

    Heal, David J; Goddard, Simon; Brammer, Richard J; Hutson, Peter H; Vickers, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    Compulsive and perseverative behaviour in binge-eating, female, Wistar rats was investigated in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model. Rats were trained to perform the conditioned avoidance response task. When proficient, the paradigm was altered to a food-associated conflict test by placing a chocolate-filled jar (empty jar for controls) in one compartment of the shuttle box. Entry into the compartment with the jar triggered the conditioning stimulus after a variable interval, and foot-shock 10 seconds later if the rat did not leave. Residence in the 'safe' compartment with no jar did not initiate trials or foot-shocks. By frequently entering the chocolate-paired compartment, binge-eating rats completed their 10 trials more quickly than non-binge controls. Binge-eating rats spent a greater percentage of the session in the chocolate-paired compartment, received foot-shocks more frequently, and tolerated foot-shocks for longer periods; all consistent with compulsive and perseverative behaviour. The d-amphetamine prodrug, lisdexamfetamine, has recently received US approval for the treatment of moderate to severe binge-eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine (0.8 mg/kg po [d-amphetamine base]) decreased chocolate consumption by binge-eating rats by 55% and markedly reduced compulsive and perseverative responding in the model. These findings complement clinical results showing lisdexamfetamine reduced compulsiveness scores in subjects with binge-eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. [Participation of parents in a nutritional education program in schools and development of eating behaviours of children].

    PubMed

    Diallo, Fatoumata B; Potvin, Louise; Bédard, Johanne; Larose, François

    2014-11-06

    To describe the various dimensions of parental involvement in the interventions initiated in schools and to identify the relationship between each of these dimensions and the development of children's food choices following their exposure to a nutrition-education project implemented in eight primary schools in underprivileged neighbourhoods in Montréal - the Junior Cooks - Parents Network project (Petits cuistots - Parents en réseaux (PC-PR)). This descriptive research was conducted thanks to a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 502 parents of children attending schools that participated in the PC-PR project. Parental participation is described in four aspects, making reference to the idea of a mesosystem, suggested by Bronfenbrenner (1979). Children's eating-related behaviour, as reported by the parents, included: talking about workshops, asking to buy certain foods, reading labels on product wrapping and helping to prepare the meal. Bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses were performed. The data gathered from the parents show a positive association between in-home parental involvement and overall food behaviour in the students. However, there is no association between parental involvement at school and any of the behaviours. This research suggests the importance of parental participation in nutrition education interventions in schools. The results contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field and serve as impetus for reflection on how to better direct health promotion interventions.

  16. Do maternal ratings of appetite in infants predict later Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire scores and body mass index?

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-02-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive bias to food stimuli in people with disordered eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha; Prince, Alexis; Stahl, Daniel; Campbell, Iain C; Treasure, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Maladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disordered eating behaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eating disorders (ED). PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched to December 2009. 63 studies measured attention, memory and judgment bias towards food stimuli in women with ED. Stroop tasks had sufficient sample size for a meta-analyses and effects ranged from small to medium. Other studies of attention bias had variable effects (e.g. the Dot-Probe task, distracter tasks and Startle Eyeblink Modulation). A meta-analysis of memory bias studies in ED and RE yielded insignificant effect. Effect sizes for judgment bias ranged from negligible to large. People with ED have greater attentional bias to food stimuli than healthy controls (HC). Evidence for a memory and judgment bias in ED is limited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social patterning of overeating, binge eating, compensatory behaviours and symptoms of bulimia nervosa in young adult women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita

    2016-12-01

    To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.

  19. Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

    2014-12-01

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. © 2014 World Obesity.

  20. Adolescent perspectives of the recreational ice hockey food environment and influences on eating behaviour revealed through photovoice.

    PubMed

    Caswell, M Susan; Hanning, Rhona M

    2018-05-01

    Unhealthy dietary behaviours are prevalent among adolescents. This might relate, in part, to obesogenic environments, including recreation food facilities. The REFRESH Study (Recreation Environment and Food Research: Experiences from Hockey) aimed to explore, from the perspectives of adolescent ice hockey players and parents, broad social and physical environmental influences on adolescent food behaviours associated with hockey participation. Players used photovoice to describe their food experiences in relation to ice hockey. The approach included photos, individual interviews and focus groups. Exemplar photographs were exhibited for stakeholders, including five parents who were interviewed. Interview and focus group transcripts were thematically analysed. Recreational ice hockey environment, Ontario, Canada, 2015-16. Ice hockey players (n 24) aged 11-15 years recruited from five leagues. Dominant influences among players included: their perceived importance of nutrients (e.g. protein) or foods (e.g. chocolate milk) for performance and recovery; marketing and branding (e.g. the pro-hockey aura of Tim Horton's®, Canada's largest quick-service restaurant); social aspects of tournaments and team meals; and moral values around 'right' and 'wrong' food choices. Both players and parents perceived recreational facility food options as unhealthy and identified that travel and time constraints contributed to less healthy choices. Results indicate recreation facilities are only one of a range of environments that influence eating behaviours of adolescent ice hockey players. Players' susceptibility to advertising/brand promotion and the value of healthy food choices for performance are findings that can inform policy and interventions to support healthy environments and behaviours.

  1. Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46 years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

  2. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. You are what you eat: diet shapes body composition, personality and behavioural stability.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang S; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2017-01-10

    Behavioural phenotypes vary within and among individuals. While early-life experiences have repeatedly been proposed to underpin interactions between these two hierarchical levels, the environmental factors causing such effects remain under-studied. We tested whether an individual's diet affected both its body composition, average behaviour (thereby causing among-individual variation or 'personality') and within-individual variability in behaviour and body weight (thereby causing among-individual differences in residual within-individual variance or 'stability'), using the Southern field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus as a model. We further asked whether effects of diet on the expression of these variance components were sex-specific. Manipulating both juvenile and adult diet in a full factorial design, individuals were put, in each life-stage, on a diet that was either relatively high in carbohydrates or relatively high in protein. We subsequently measured the expression of multiple behavioural (exploration, aggression and mating activity) and morphological traits (body weight and lipid mass) during adulthood. Dietary history affected both average phenotype and level of within-individual variability: males raised as juveniles on high-protein diets were heavier, more aggressive, more active during mating, and behaviourally less stable, than conspecifics raised on high-carbohydrate diets. Females preferred more protein in their diet compared to males, and dietary history affected average phenotype and within-individual variability in a sex-specific manner: individuals raised on high-protein diets were behaviourally less stable in their aggressiveness but this effect was only present in males. Diet also influenced individual differences in male body weight, but within-individual variance in female body weight. This study thereby provides experimental evidence that dietary history explains both heterogeneous residual within-individual variance (i.e., individual variation

  4. Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Geiselman, Paula J; Lovejoy, Jennifer; Greenway, Frank; Volaufova, Julia; Martin, Corby K; Arnett, Cheryl; Ortego, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    This study tested if: (1) a preload of mycoprotein and tofu consumed before a lunch meal have a greater effect on satiety when compared to a chicken preload, (2) the mycoprotein and tofu preloads, compared to chicken, are not associated with compensation or eating more food at a subsequent dinner meal. These hypotheses were tested in a controlled laboratory study using universal eating monitors to measure food intake and visual analogue scales to monitor hunger and satiety. Forty-two overweight adult females consumed three meals in the laboratory on 3 test days. At lunch, isocaloric pasta preloads, containing mycoprotein, tofu, or chicken, varied across the days in a balanced order. The findings of the study supported the two hypotheses. Mycoprotein and tofu preloads, in comparison to the chicken preload, were associated with lower food intake shortly after consuming the preload at lunch. Food intake following consumption of mycoprotein and tofu did not differ, and participants did not compensate for lower food intake at lunch by consuming more food at dinner. The findings suggest that mycoprotein and tofu have satiating properties that persist for several hours after a meal. These findings have significant implications for the development of foods that are low in kilojoules, but are also filling.

  5. Eating Behaviour in the General Population: An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the German Version of the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Its Association with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2015-01-01

    The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)—based on the refined factor structure—to examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (40–79 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an ‘uncontrolled eating’, a ‘cognitive restraint’ and an ‘emotional eating’ domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the ‘uncontrolled eating domain’ showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both ‘uncontrolled eating’ and ‘emotional eating’ showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m²), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m²; F = 72.074, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that the TFEQ is suitable to identify subjects with specific patterns of eating behaviour that are associated with higher BMI values. Such information may help health care professionals to develop and implement more tailored interventions for overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26230264

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a Sample of Malaysian Adults Attending a Health Care Facility.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; Low, Wah Yun; Chinna, Karuthan; Chin, Kin Fah; Krishnaswamy, Saroja

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among Malaysian adults. The Malay version of the DEBQ instrument was administered to 398 outpatients (269 women and 129 men) at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to study the construct validity of the instrument. Composite reliability coefficient, Raykov's rho, was used to determine the internal consistency. The proposed three-factor structure for the DEBQ instrument was appropriate, although three items (Items 21, 14 and 27) showed problematic loadings with inappropriate model fit and were removed. The modified version had an appropriate model fit χ 2 /df = 2.129, TLI = 0.908, CFI = 0.918, RMSEA = 0.053 (90%CI = 0.048-0.058), close-fit P -value = 0.136 and satisfactory internal consistency of 0.914 for emotional eating scale, 0.819 for external eating scale and 0.856 for restrained eating scale. The Malay version of the DEBQ is a valid instrument to study eating behaviour traits among Malaysian adults. Further research is warranted to determine if Items 14 and 27 are appropriate for the Malaysian population.

  7. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  8. A qualitative study conducted in the USA exploring Latino fathers' beliefs, attitudes and practices related to their young children's eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Muñoz, Mario A; Greaney, Mary L

    2018-02-01

    Increasing evidence documents fathers' influential role in their children's eating, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB). We aimed to expand limited existing research examining fathers' influence in these areas by exploring Latino fathers' beliefs, attitudes and practices related to eating, PA and SB of their young children. Seven focus group discussions were conducted in Spanish with Latino fathers (n 28) of children aged 2-8 years. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated verbatim without identifiers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify key concepts and themes using NVivo 11 software. Fathers expressed positive beliefs and attitudes about the importance of healthy eating for their young children, themselves and their families. Nevertheless, the majority reported familial practices including eating out, getting take-out, etc. that have been linked to increased obesity risk among Latino children. Fathers were more involved and engaged in children's PA than eating and feeding. However, several fathers reported engaging predominantly in sedentary activities with their children, appeared permissive of children's sedentary habits and struggled to set limits on children's screen-time. We provide new information on Latino fathers' beliefs and child feeding and PA practices that may provide important targets for interventions aimed at promoting healthful eating and PA behaviours of Latino children. Future research should further quantify the influence of Latino fathers' parenting styles and practices on development of children's eating, PA and SB. This information is needed to identify risk factors amenable to interventions and to design culturally appropriate parenting and family-based interventions targeting Latino children's home environment and designed to meet this ethnic group's specific needs.

  9. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron J; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2013-08-28

    Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual's peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours.

  10. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951

  11. The Effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E): A Naturalistic Study within an Out-Patient Eating Disorder Service.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Rachel; Sheffield, Jeanie; Rhodes, Natalie; Fleming, Carmel; Ward, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) for adults with a range of eating disorder presentations within routine clinical settings has been examined in only two known published studies, neither of which included a follow-up assessment period. The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-E within an out-patient eating disorder service in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, and incorporated a follow-up assessment period of approximately 20 weeks post-treatment. The study involved 114 adult females with a diagnosed eating disorder, who attended an average of 20-40 individual CBT-E sessions with a psychologist or a psychiatry registrar between 2009 and 2013. Of those who began treatment, 50% did not complete treatment, and the presence of psychosocial and environmental problems predicted drop-out. Amongst treatment completers, statistically and clinically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed at post-treatment, which were generally maintained at the 20-week follow-up. Statistically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed amongst the total sample. The findings, which were comparable to the previous Australian effectiveness study of CBT-E, indicate that CBT-E is an effective treatment for adults with all eating disorders within out-patient settings. Given the high attrition rate, however, minimizing drop-out appears to be an important consideration when implementing CBT-E within clinical settings.

  12. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: Translation from Randomized Controlled Trial to a Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Woodward, Debbie; Hoefkens, Antonia; Limbert, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) (Fairburn, Cooper and Shafran, 2003) was developed as a treatment approach for eating disorders focusing on both core psychopathology and additional maintenance mechanisms. To evaluate treatment outcomes associated with CBT-E in a NHS Eating Disorders Service for adults with bulimia and atypical eating disorders and to make comparisons with a previously published randomized controlled trial (Fairburn et al., 2009) and "real world" evaluation (Byrne, Fursland, Allen and Watson, 2011). Participants were referred to the eating disorder service between 2002 and 2011. They were aged between 18-65 years, registered with a General Practitioner within the catchment area, and had experienced symptoms fulfilling criteria for BN or EDNOS for a minimum of 6 months. CBT-E was commenced by 272 patients, with 135 completing treatment. Overall, treatment was associated with significant improvements in eating disorder and associated psychopathology, for both treatment completers and the intention to treat sample. Findings support dissemination of CBT-E in this context, with significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology. Improvements to global EDE-Q scores were higher for treatment completers and lower for the intention to treat sample, compared to previous studies (Fairburn et al., 2009; Byrne et al., 2011). Level of attrition was found at 40.8% and non-completion of treatment was associated with higher levels of anxiety. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  13. Eating behaviour and its association with social living conditions and weight status among adolescent girls: results of the cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bau, Anne-Madeleine; Krull, Sarah; Ernert, Andrea; Babitsch, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    To capture a more holistic picture of eating behaviour by investigating the impact of the social living conditions and weight status of parents and daughters on food consumption frequency, the context of meals and daily portion sizes. Cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study. A total of sixty-nine schools in Berlin (3 400 000 inhabitants, eastern Germany) participated in the present study. A total of 1519 girls aged 11-14 years were selected. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, migration background, socio-economic status (SES), parental education, family situation and the weight status of parents and daughters on three different eating behaviour scores according to nutritional recommendations. For the three dependent eating behaviour variables, different patterns of influencing factors emerged. Multivariate regression (model 1) revealed that low and middle SES, two-parent migration background and older age were significant risk factors. Meal context was also significantly influenced by living with a single parent. Similar results were obtained for the daily portion size scores and maternal overweight status was the most influential. Model 2 succeeded in showing that, within the composite variable of family SES, mothers' level of education was the dominant component. SES as a whole, and especially the component of mothers' level of education and two-parent migration background, was the strongest risk factor for an unfavourable eating pattern among adolescent girls. The results clearly indicated preventive potential. Using three different measures of eating behaviour simultaneously provided an in-depth understanding of general patterns and potential risk factors.

  14. Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

    2008-01-01

    Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal LPD offspring also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in males at 9 and 15 weeks and in both sexes at 21 weeks (P < 0.05). Male LPD offspring hypertension was accompanied by attenuated arterial responsiveness in vitro to vasodilators acetylcholine and isoprenaline (P < 0.05). LPD female offspring adult kidneys were also smaller, but had increased nephron numbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between SBP and kidney or heart size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome. PMID:18308825

  15. What's so special about eating? Examining unhealthy diet of adolescents in the context of other health-related behaviours and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maartje; de Ridder, Denise; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Dorsselaer, Saskia

    2007-05-01

    This study examines to what extent unhealthy diet in adolescents is related to other types of health-risk behaviours (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake). Whereas previous studies have emphasised that adolescents engage in health-risk behaviour because of a tendency to break the rules, the present study hypothesises that unhealthy diet may differ from this general pattern because emotional distress is involved. Data from the cross-sectional Dutch Health Behaviour in School aged Children study (N=5730) were employed to examine this issue. Participants completed questionnaires on eating habits, health-related behaviours, and emotional distress. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesis that unhealthy diet is only weakly related to other health-risk behaviours. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, emotional distress was not a significant predictor of unhealthy diet. Further research is required to examine which factors other than emotional distress are responsible for engaging in unhealthy diets in adolescence.

  16. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R. James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight. PMID:28107449

  17. Eating attitudes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron

    2006-09-01

    Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.

  18. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. More to ADHD than meets the eye: observable abnormalities in search behaviour do not account for performance deficits on a discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Elgie, Sarah; Hall, Martin

    2005-07-20

    Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often perform poorly on tasks requiring sustained and systematic attention to stimuli for extended periods of time. The current paper tested the hypothesis that such deficits are the result of observable abnormalities in search behaviour (e.g., attention-onset, -duration and -sequencing), and therefore can be explained without reference to deficits in non-observable (i.e., cognitive) processes. Forty boys (20 ADHD and 20 controls) performed a computer-based complex discrimination task adapted from the Matching Familiar Figures Task with four different fixed search interval lengths (5-, 10-, 15- and 20-s). Children with ADHD identified fewer targets than controls (p < 0.001), initiated searches later, spent less time attending to stimuli, and searched in a less intensive and less systematic way (p's < 0.05). There were significant univariate associations between ADHD, task performance and search behaviour. However, there was no support for the hypothesis that abnormalities in search carried the effect of ADHD on performance. The pattern of results in fact suggested that abnormal attending during testing is a statistical marker, rather than a mediator, of ADHD performance deficits. The results confirm the importance of examining covert processes, as well as behavioural abnormalities when trying to understand the psychopathophyiology of ADHD.

  20. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m -2 ; maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  1. Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immediate Effects of Body Checking Behaviour on Negative and Positive Emotions in Women with Eating Disorders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nicole; Lindenberg, Julia; Zeeck, Almut; Kosfelder, Joachim; Vocks, Silja

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders state that body checking arises in response to negative emotions in order to reduce the aversive emotional state and is therefore negatively reinforced. This study empirically tests this assumption. For a seven-day period, women with eating disorders (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 29) were provided with a handheld computer for assessing occurring body checking strategies as well as negative and positive emotions. Serving as control condition, randomized computer-emitted acoustic signals prompted reports on body checking and emotions. There was no difference in the intensity of negative emotions before body checking and in control situations across groups. However, from pre- to post-body checking, an increase in negative emotions was found. This effect was more pronounced in women with eating disorders compared with healthy controls. Results are contradictory to the assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural model, as body checking does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Predictors and moderators of response to enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Zafra; Allen, Elizabeth; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Consistent predictors, and more especially moderators, of response to psychological treatments for eating disorders have not been identified. The present exploratory study examined predictors and moderators of outcome in adult patients who took part in a randomised clinical trial comparing two leading treatments for these disorders, enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Four potentially important findings emerged. Firstly, patients with a longer duration of disorder were less likely to benefit from either treatment. Second, across the two treatments the presence, at baseline, of higher levels of over-evaluation of the importance of shape predicted a less good treatment outcome. Third DSM-IV diagnosis did not predict treatment outcome. Fourth, with the exception of patients with baseline low self-esteem who achieved a better outcome with CBT-E, it was generally not possible to identify a subgroup of patients who would differentially benefit from one or other treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed.

  5. Maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour: role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study).

    PubMed

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-09-12

    The aims of this study are 1) to investigate the association between maternal educational level and healthy eating behaviour of 11-year-old children (fruit, vegetables and breakfast consumption), and 2) to examine whether factors in the home food environment (parental intake of fruit, vegetables and breakfast; rules about fruit and vegetables and home availability of fruit and vegetables) mediate these associations. Data were obtained from the Dutch INPACT study. In total, 1318 parent-child dyads were included in this study. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate whether factors of the home food environment mediated the association between maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour. Children of mothers with a high educational level consumed more pieces of fruit per day (B = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.22), more grams of vegetables per day (B = 23.81, 95% CI = 14.93-32.69) and were more likely to have breakfast on a daily basis (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.38-6.39) than children of mothers with a low educational level. Home availability, food consumption rules and parental consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Parental breakfast consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's breakfast consumption. Factors in the home food environment play an important role in the explanation of socio-economic disparities in children's healthy eating behaviour and may be promising targets for interventions.

  6. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Eating disorders and obesity].

    PubMed

    Wolf, L M; Houdent, C

    1989-02-16

    In most cases, obesity does not stem from a specific psychologic disturbance. Some obese people overeat, as do their family or their socio-professional peers, and this cannot be considered a pathologic behaviour. Many obese patients increase their energy intake when frustrated, anxious, or tired, like many normal individuals who enjoy a better weight regulation. But when obesity increases suddenly and/or severely in these circumstances, and in gross obesity, abnormal feeding behaviour is usually responsible: prandial or, more often extraprandial overeating (nibbling, gorging, binge eating, night eating, excess alcohol, carbohydrate craving). Serotoninergic mechanisms of the latter have focused wide interest. Conflicting situations and/or anxiety are usually a factor in child obesity. Deppreciated self-image and feelings of culpability, partly secondary to obesity itself and dietary failures often contribute to feeding disturbances, sometimes surreptitious, carrying a risk of vicious circle. But weight reduction itself, while improving self image, carries a risk of unmasking depressive tendencies, especially when too quick. Hence the importance of careful and comprehensive management.

  8. Urban-rural differences in adolescent eating behaviour: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15-year-olds in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A

    2014-08-01

    Improving the diet of the Scottish population has been a government focus in recent years. Population health is known to vary between geographies; therefore alongside trends and socio-economic inequalities in eating behaviour, geographic differences should also be monitored. Eating behaviour data from the 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were modelled using multilevel linear and logistic modelling. Data were collected in schools across urban and rural Scotland. Schoolchildren aged 15 years. Adolescents living in remote rural Scotland had the highest consumption frequency of vegetables (on average consumed on 6·68 d/week) and the lowest consumption frequency of sweets and crisps (on 4·27 and 3·02 d/week, respectively). However, it was not in the major four cities of Scotland (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) but in the geography described by the classification 'other urban' areas (large towns of between 10 000 and 125 000 residents) that adolescents had the poorest diet. Deprivation and rurality were independently associated with food consumption for all but fruit consumption. Sharing a family meal, dieting behaviour, food poverty and breakfast consumption did not differ by rurality. Variance at the school level was significant for fruit and vegetable consumption frequencies and for irregular breakfast consumption, regardless of rurality. Young people from rural areas have a healthier diet than those living in urban areas. The eating behaviours examined did not explain these differences. Future research should investigate why urban-rural differences exist for consumption frequencies of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods.

  9. You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults' food selection behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hebden, L; Chan, H N; Louie, J C; Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-08-01

    Young or 'emerging' adulthood (ages 18-24 years) is a life-stage characterised by rapid weight gain, particularly among those born in recent decades, when environments have become saturated with cheap, highly palatable, processed foods. Although intervening in the immediate food environments of emerging adults is indicated, little is known about the factors influencing their food selection. The present study aimed to: (i) measure the relative importance of different influences on foods selected by emerging adults for consumption from a tertiary education setting and (ii) examine whether these influences differ according to gender, adiposity status, perceived stress and dieting or physical activity behaviours. An online survey was administered with 112 emerging adults aged 19-24 years assessing demographics, perceived stress, dieting, physical activity and influences on food selection. Adiposity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference) were measured. Analyses compared the importance of influences on food selection by gender, adiposity, perceived stress, dieting and physical activity. Taste was the most important influence on food selection, followed by convenience (availability), cost, nutrition/health value, smell and stimulatory properties (alertness). Participants with an elevated waist circumference selected foods to help them cope with stress and control their weight. Those reporting a higher level of physical activity placed greater importance on nutritional/health value of foods but less importance on taste. Female dieters also placed less importance on taste and value for money. Health promotion strategies addressing tertiary education food environments of emerging adults should ensure the ready availability of tasty and nutritious foods at a low cost. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Persistent weight loss with a non-invasive novel medical device to change eating behaviour in obese individuals with high-risk cardiovascular risk profile.

    PubMed

    von Seck, Peter; Sander, F Martin; Lanzendorf, Leon; von Seck, Sabine; Schmidt-Lucke, André; Zielonka, Mirja; Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In evidence-based weight-loss programs weight regain is common after an initial weight reduction. Eating slowly significantly lowers meal energy intake and hunger ratings. Despite this knowledge, obese individuals do not implement this behaviour. We, thus tested the hypothesis of changing eating behaviour with an intra-oral medical device leading to constant weight reduction in overweight and obesity. Six obese patients (6 men, age 56 ± 14, BMI 29 ± 2 kg / m2) with increased CVRF profile were included in this prospective study. All patients had been treated for obesity during the last 10 years in a single centre and had at least 3 frustrate evidence-based diets. Patients received a novel non-invasive intra-oral medical device to slow eating time. Further advice included not to count calories, to avoid any other form of diet, to take their time with their meals, and to eat whatever they liked. This device was used only during meals for the first 4 to 8 weeks for a total of 88 [20-160] hours. Follow-up period was 23 [15-38] months. During this period, patients lost 11% [5-20%] (p<0.001) of their initial weight. At 12 months, all patients had lost >5%, and 67% (4/6) achieved a >10% bodyweight loss. In the course of the study, altered eating patterns were observed. There were no complications with the medical device. Of note, all patients continued to lose weight after the initial intervention period (p<0.001) and none of them had weight regain. With this medical device, overweight and obese patients with a history of previously frustrating attempts to lose weight achieved a significant and sustained weight loss over two years. These results warrant the ongoing prospective randomised controlled trial to prove concept and mechanism of action. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00011357.

  11. Multilevel analysis of the Be Active Eat Well intervention: environmental and behavioural influences on reductions in child obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B A; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A; de Silva-Sanigorski, A M

    2012-07-01

    The Be Active Eat Well (BAEW) community-based child obesity prevention intervention was successful in modestly reducing unhealthy weight gain in primary school children using a multi-strategy and multi-setting approach. To (1) examine the relationship between changes in obesity-related individual, household and school factors and changes in standardised child body mass index (zBMI), and (2) determine if the BAEW intervention moderated these effects. The longitudinal relationships between changes in individual, household and school variables and changes in zBMI were explored using multilevel modelling, with measurement time (baseline and follow-up) at level 1, individual (behaviours, n = 1812) at level 2 and households (n = 1318) and schools (n = 18) as higher levels (environments). The effect of the intervention was tested while controlling for child age, gender and maternal education level. This study confirmed that the BAEW intervention lowered child zBMI compared with the comparison group (-0.085 units, P = 0.03). The variation between household environments was found to be a large contributor to the percentage of unexplained change in child zBMI (59%), compared with contributions from the individual (23%) and school levels (1%). Across both groups, screen time (P = 0.03), sweet drink consumption (P = 0.03) and lack of household rules for television (TV) viewing (P = 0.05) were associated with increased zBMI, whereas there was a non-significant association with the frequency the TV was on during evening meals (P = 0.07). The moderating effect of the intervention was only evident for the relationship between the frequency of TV on during meals and zBMI, however, this effect was modest (P = 0.04). The development of childhood obesity involves multi-factorial and multi-level influences, some of which are amenable to change. Obesity prevention strategies should not only target individual behaviours but also the household environment and family practices. Although z

  12. Cultural differences in parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours and their relationships with child BMI: a comparison of Black Afro-Caribbean, White British and White German samples.

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Bennett, C

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity rates differ between cultural groups in Europe. Parents influence their children's weight status and eating behaviours through feeding practices. We investigated cultural differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relation to child weight in three groups that differed in cultural background and geographical location. Fifty-two White German (WG) families, in Germany (44 mothers, mean age 33.8 years), 79 White British (WB) families, in the UK (74 mothers, mean age 37.8) and 40 Black Afro-Caribbean (BAC) families, in the UK (34 mothers, mean age 31.8) participated in this study of 2-12-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing feeding practices and eating behaviours; children were measured and weighed by experimenters. MANCOVAs indicated that BAC parents used the highest levels of restrictive feeding practices and the lowest levels of monitoring, and their children showed the highest levels of food-approach behaviours. WG parents used the lowest levels of pressure to eat. Partial correlations showed that food-approach behaviours were correlated with child BMI in BAC and WG families but not in WB families. Parental restriction was associated with child Body Mass Index (BMI) in BAC families only. There are both similarities and differences in feeding practices and eating behaviours and their relationships with child weight in different cultural groups. Findings highlight the importance of being aware of cultural differences when carrying out research with multi-cultural samples in Europe.

  13. Assessing intentions to eat low-glycemic index foods by adults with diabetes using a new questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoe; Berry, Tanya R; Willows, Noreen D; Bell, Rhonda C

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes choose foods with low-glycemic index (GI). This study developed a questionnaire measuring Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs relative to consuming a low-GI diet by people with diabetes so as to achieve a better understanding of which TPB constructs, demographic characteristics and diabetes-related variables best predict intention to consume a low-GI diet. A questionnaire to measure intentions to consume a low-GI diet was developed based on TPB constructs and was administered to 369 adults (30 to 75 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Responses were analyzed using multiple linear regression. More than 90% of participants (mean age, 56.5±10.8 years; mean body mass index, 30.5±7.2 kg/m(2)) cited reduction and maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels as an advantage of eating low-GI foods. Older age, higher income, female gender, having type 2 diabetes, diabetes treatment (diet only) and understanding of the GI were positively associated with intention to eat a low-GI diet. TPB constructs that significantly predicted intentions to eat a low-GI diet were instrumental attitude (beta = 0.24, p<0.001); subjective norms (beta = 0.13, p=0.007); and perceived behavioural control (beta = 0.55, p<0.001). This new questionnaire is a valid tool to assess TPB constructs contributing to intentions to eat a low-GI diet by people with diabetes. Future studies that use this questionnaire can shed light on how TPB concepts in clinical practice can help people with diabetes to change their dietary intake. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mediation of the relationship of behavioural treatment type and changes in psychological predictors of healthy eating by body satisfaction changes in women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    Psychological correlates of both short- and long-term weight loss are poorly understood. Changes in satisfaction with one's body might serve to motivate healthier eating by mediating treatments' effect on psychological factors previously suggested to be associated with weight loss. Women with obesity (age 48.6±7.1 years; BMI 35.4±3.3kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to social cognitive theory-based weight-management treatments that were either group sessions emphasizing physical activity-derived self-regulation (experimental; n=53) or review of a written manual and phone support (comparison; n=54). Changes in weight, physical activity, body satisfaction, negative mood, and self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating were assessed over 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The experimental treatment was associated with significantly more favourable changes across variables. Over 6, 12, and 24 months, body satisfaction change mediated relationships between treatment type and changes in each of the psychological predictors of healthier eating (mood, self-efficacy, self-regulation). Reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships between changes in body satisfaction and those psychological predictors were also found. Increased physical activity was associated with improved body satisfaction, even after controlling for weight changes. Findings increased understandings of the role of body satisfaction in improving psychological predictors of healthier eating over both the short- and longer-term. Results also suggested that body satisfaction could be improved through increased physical activity, irrespective of change in weight. Although results were limited to women with class 1 and 2 obesity, findings on interactions of psychological factors associated with eating changes have implications for the architecture of improved behavioural treatments. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on behavioural determinants of taste acceptance and healthy eating: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Renes, Reint-Jan; Meester, Hante J; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on children's behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected at baseline, four weeks and six months after the intervention in both the intervention and control group. Children completed consecutively three questionnaires in which knowledge, awareness, skills, attitude, emotion, subjective norm and intention towards the two target behaviours were assessed. Teachers implemented on average a third of the programme activities. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare individual changes in the determinants in the intervention group with those in the control group, corrected for children's gender and age. Effect sizes were expressed as Cohen's d. Dutch elementary schools. Forty-nine classes (1183 children, 9-12 years old) in grades 5-8 of twenty-one elementary schools. The intervention group showed a higher increase in knowledge (d=0·26, P<0·01), which persisted after six months (d=0·23, P<0·05). After four weeks, the intervention group showed a higher increase in number of foods known (d=0·22, P<0·05) and tasted (d=0·21, P<0·05), subjective norm of the teacher (d=0·17, P<0·05) and intention (d=0·16, P<0·05) towards the target behaviours. Partial implementation of Taste Lessons during one school year showed small short-term effects on increasing behavioural determinants in relation to tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. Full and repeated implementation of Taste Lessons in subsequent years might result in larger effects.

  16. Evaluation of eating and rumination behaviour in 300 cows of three different breeds using a noseband pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli; Zürcher, Susanne; Hässig, Michael

    2015-09-04

    Eating and rumination variables were recorded in 300 healthy lactating dairy cows of 3 different breeds (100 Brown Swiss, 100 Holstein-Friesian, 100 Swiss Fleckvieh cows). Eating and rumination variables were monitored during a 24-h period using an automated system that recorded jaw movements via a pressure sensor integrated into the noseband of a halter. Phases of eating and rumination were reliably identified in the recordings based on typical patterns seen in previous studies. The variables analysed included duration of eating and rumination, number of chewing cycles during eating and rumination, number of regurgitated cuds and number of chewing cycles per cud. The cows ate for an average of 265 ± 54 min and chewed 17,077 ± 3646 times per day. The duration of rumination was 441 ± 71 min, there were 578 ± 94 cuds per day and 55 ± 10 chewing cycles per cud. There were significant correlations (P < 0.01) between duration of eating and number of chewing cycles during eating (r = 0.94), between duration of rumination and number of chewing cycles per regurgitated cud (r = 0.56) and between duration of rumination and number of regurgitated cuds per day (r = 0.53). The eating and rumination variables established in the present study reflect the current conditions of Swiss dairy farming and serve as reference intervals for assessing sick cows.

  17. Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses.

    PubMed

    Samdal, Gro Beate; Eide, Geir Egil; Barth, Tom; Williams, Geoffrey; Meland, Eivind

    2017-03-28

    This systematic review aims to explain the heterogeneity in results of interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating for overweight and obese adults, by exploring the differential effects of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics. The inclusion criteria specified RCTs with ≥ 12 weeks' duration, from January 2007 to October 2014, for adults (mean age ≥ 40 years, mean BMI ≥ 30). Primary outcomes were measures of healthy diet or physical activity. Two reviewers rated study quality, coded the BCTs, and collected outcome results at short (≤6 months) and long term (≥12 months). Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to estimate effect sizes (ES), heterogeneity indices (I 2 ) and regression coefficients. We included 48 studies containing a total of 82 outcome reports. The 32 long term reports had an overall ES = 0.24 with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15 to 0.33 and I 2  = 59.4%. The 50 short term reports had an ES = 0.37 with 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.48, and I 2  = 71.3%. The number of BCTs unique to the intervention group, and the BCTs goal setting and self-monitoring of behaviour predicted the effect at short and long term. The total number of BCTs in both intervention arms and using the BCTs goal setting of outcome, feedback on outcome of behaviour, implementing graded tasks, and adding objects to the environment, e.g. using a step counter, significantly predicted the effect at long term. Setting a goal for change; and the presence of reporting bias independently explained 58.8% of inter-study variation at short term. Autonomy supportive and person-centred methods as in Motivational Interviewing, the BCTs goal setting of behaviour, and receiving feedback on the outcome of behaviour, explained all of the between study variations in effects at long term. There are similarities, but also differences in effective BCTs promoting change in healthy eating and physical activity and

  18. The effects of negative and positive mood induction on eating behaviour: A meta-analysis of laboratory studies in the healthy population and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Valentina; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify the effect of induced negative and positive mood on meal consumption in healthy participants and patients with eating and weight disorders. The search term "MOOD" was combined with the following keywords: "TEST MEAL" or "LABORATORY FEEDING" or "LABORATORY MEAL" or "TASTE TEST" or "TASTE TASK" to identify the relevant studies. Thirty-three studies were selected, including 2491 participants. Two meta-analyses compared negative mood or positive mood with neutral mood. Induced negative mood was significantly associated with greater food intake, especially in restrained eaters and binge eaters. Positive mood was also associated with greater caloric intake across groups. These findings support the causal relationship between negative mood and greater food intake, especially in restrained eaters and binge eaters. Preliminary evidence indicates that strategies to improve positive mood might be of benefit for people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, although the size of the effect across a single meal is small. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  20. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  1. Association of Mediterranean diet and other health behaviours with barriers to healthy eating and perceived health among British adults of retirement age.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jose; McCrum, Leigh-Ann; Mathers, John C

    2014-11-01

    Health behaviours including diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, predict health risks at the population level. We explored health behaviours, barriers to healthy eating and self-rated health among individuals of retirement age. Study design 82 men and 124 women participated in an observational, cross-sectional online survey. Main outcome measures A 14-item Mediterranean diet score (MDPS), perceived barriers to healthy eating (PBHE), self-reported smoking, physical activity habits, and current and prior perceived health status (PHS) were assessed. A health behaviours score (HBS) including smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and MDPS was created to evaluate associations with PHS. Two-step cluster analysis identified natural groups based on PBHE. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate between group comparisons. PBHE number was associated with BMI (r=0.28, P<0.001), age (r=-0.19; P=0.006), and MDPS (r=-0.31; P<0.001). PHBE cluster analysis produced three clusters. Cluster-1 members (busy lifestyle) were significantly younger (57 years), more overweight (28kg/m(2)), scored lower on MDPS (4.7) and reported more PBHE (7). Cluster-3 members (no characteristic PBHE) were leaner (25kg/m(2)), reported the lowest number of PBHE (2), and scored higher on HBS (2.7) and MDPS (6.2). Those in PHS categories, bad/fair, good, and very good, reported mean HBS of 2.0, 2.4 and 3.0, respectively (P<0.001). Compared with the previous year, no significant associations between PHS and HBS were observed. PBHE clusters were associated with BMI, MDPS and PHS and could be a useful tool to tailor interventions for those of peri-retirement age. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK: mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Emadian, Amir; England, Clare Y; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess diet, (2) explore perceptions of T2DM, (3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian men and (4) determine the suitability of the UK Diet and Diabetes Questionnaire (UKDDQ) for use in this population. Setting Community-based setting in the Greater London, UK area. Participants South Asian men aged 18–64 years, with a body mass index of over 23.0 kg/m2, not previously diagnosed with T2DM. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including assessment of dietary intake using UKDDQ (n=63), followed by semistructured interviews in a purposive sample (n=36). Results UKDDQ scores indicated 54% of participants had a ‘healthy’ diet with a mean sample score of 3.44±0.43 out of a maximum of 5. Oily fish consumption was low (1.84±1.85). Body weight was positively associated with a high-added sugar subscore (r=0.253, p=0.047), with 69.8% of the men having ‘unhealthy’ intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. Cultural commitments (eg, extended family and faith events), motivation and time were identified as key barriers to dietary change, with family support an important facilitator to making healthy dietary changes. Participants stated that UKDDQ was suitable for assessing diets of South Asians and made suggestions for tailoring questions related to rice consumption, providing examples of Indian sweets, and including ghee as a fat source. Conclusion Many of the areas of dietary improvement and factors affecting eating behaviours identified in this study are similar to those observed in the general UK population. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages

  3. Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK: mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Emadian, Amir; England, Clare Y; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-07-20

    It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess diet, (2) explore perceptions of T2DM, (3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian men and (4) determine the suitability of the UK Diet and Diabetes Questionnaire (UKDDQ) for use in this population. Community-based setting in the Greater London, UK area. South Asian men aged 18-64 years, with a body mass index of over 23.0 kg/m 2 , not previously diagnosed with T2DM. A cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including assessment of dietary intake using UKDDQ (n=63), followed by semistructured interviews in a purposive sample (n=36). UKDDQ scores indicated 54% of participants had a 'healthy' diet with a mean sample score of 3.44±0.43 out of a maximum of 5. Oily fish consumption was low (1.84±1.85). Body weight was positively associated with a high-added sugar subscore (r=0.253, p=0.047), with 69.8% of the men having 'unhealthy' intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. Cultural commitments (eg, extended family and faith events), motivation and time were identified as key barriers to dietary change, with family support an important facilitator to making healthy dietary changes. Participants stated that UKDDQ was suitable for assessing diets of South Asians and made suggestions for tailoring questions related to rice consumption, providing examples of Indian sweets, and including ghee as a fat source. Many of the areas of dietary improvement and factors affecting eating behaviours identified in this study are similar to those observed in the general UK population. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in particular was high; given the association between their

  4. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-11-28

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Effects of a Diet-Based Weight-Reducing Program with Probiotic Supplementation on Satiety Efficiency, Eating Behaviour Traits, and Psychosocial Behaviours in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Darimont, Christian; Panahi, Shirin; Drapeau, Vicky; Marette, André; Taylor, Valerie H; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2017-03-15

    This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men ( n = 45) and women ( n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1.6 108 CFU/capsule, 210 mg of oligofructose, and 90 mg of inulin). The LPR supplementation increased weight loss in women that was associated with a greater increase in the fasting desire to eat ( p = 0.03). On the other hand, satiety efficiency (satiety quotient for desire to eat) at lunch increased ( p = 0.02), whereas disinhibition ( p = 0.05) and hunger ( p = 0.02) scores decreased more in the LPR-treated women, when compared with the female control group. Additionally, the LPR female group displayed a more pronounced decrease in food craving ( p = 0.05), and a decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory score ( p = 0.05) that was significantly different from the change noted in the placebo group ( p = 0.02), as well as a higher score in the Body Esteem Scale questionnaire ( p = 0.06). In men, significant benefits of LPR on fasting fullness and cognitive restraint were also observed. Taken together, these observations lend support to the hypothesis that the gut-brain axis may impact appetite control and related behaviors in obesity management.

  6. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of a new McDonald's restaurant on eating behaviours and perceptions of local residents: A natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen E; McCann, Jennifer; Parker, Kate; Crawford, David A

    2016-05-01

    Neighbourhood food environments are posited as an important determinant of eating behaviours; however causality is difficult to establish based on existing studies. Using a natural experiment study design (incorporating repeated cross-sectional data), we tested whether the development of a new McDonald's restaurant increased the frequency of consumption of McDonald's products amongst local residents in the suburbs of Tecoma (site of a new McDonald's restaurant development) and Monbulk (control site) in Victoria, Australia. Across both sites, the reported frequency of McDonald's consumption did not change during the follow-up surveys. In the context explored, the development of a new McDonald's restaurant has not resulted in an increased consumption of McDonald's products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The provision of healthy food in a school tuck shop: does it influence primary-school students' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards healthy eating?

    PubMed

    Bekker, Francette; Marais, Maritha; Koen, Nelene

    2017-05-01

    To investigate students' tuck shop buying behaviour, choices of lunchbox items and healthy eating perceptions and attitudes at a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop and a school with a conventional tuck shop. Mixed-methods research comprising a cross-sectional survey and focus groups. Bloemfontein, South Africa. Randomly selected grade 2 to 7 students from a school with a nutritionally regulated tuck shop (school A; n 116) and a school with a conventional tuck shop (school B; n 141) completed a self-administered questionnaire about perceptions, attitudes, buying behaviours and lunchbox content. Six students per grade (n 72) in each school took part in focus group discussions to further explore concepts pertaining to healthy eating. In school A, older students had a negative attitude towards their 'healthy' tuck shop, while younger students were more positive. School B students were positive towards their conventional tuck shop. In both schools students wanted their tuck shop to allow them to choose from healthy and unhealthy items. School A students mostly bought slushies, iced lollies and baked samoosas, while school B students mostly bought sweets and crisps. The lunchboxes of school A students contained significantly (P<0·05) more healthy items but also significantly more unhealthy items. A single intervention such as having a nutritionally regulated tuck shop at a primary school cannot advance the healthy school food environment in its totality. A multi-pronged approach is recommended and awareness must be created among all role players, including parents who are responsible for preparing lunchboxes.

  10. Application of predictive models to assess the influence of thyme essential oil on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour during shelf life of ready-to-eat turkey products.

    PubMed

    Possas, Arícia; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valero, Antonio; García-Gimeno, Rosa M; Duarte, Marta C T

    2017-01-02

    Consumers' demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat is attributed to its convenience and healthy properties. However, as cooked meat product it is subjected to post-process contamination, thus allowing presence and growth of microbial pathogens, such as Salmonella spp.. The aim of this study was to include a natural antimicrobial, thyme essential oil (TEO), on RTE turkey products in order to evaluate its effectiveness throughout the shelf life. To do so, the effect of four different formulations of cooked RTE turkey products on Salmonella Enteritidis behaviour was investigated. Products' slices were surface inoculated with S. Enteritidis (ca. 4 to 5logcfu/g), subsequently stored at 10 and 25°C and microbiologically analysed during 18 and 12days, respectively. Predictive microbiology models fitted to count data were used to evaluate microbial behaviour. Results showed that S. Enteritidis behaviour on RTE turkey products slices during storage was strongly dependent on temperature. The pathogen was able to grow on slices at all tested conditions during storage at 25°C and no statistical differences were detected (p>0.05) between growth parameters. At 10°C, different behaviour patterns were observed. The application of TEO led to higher Salmonella inactivation rates on a product exempt of chemical preservatives. The addition of this novel antimicrobial on meat products or its incorporation on meat active packaging systems as a part of hurdle technology could increase RTE turkey products safety while satisfying the demand of more natural foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A parent-based intervention to promote healthy eating and active behaviours in pre-school children: evaluation of the MEND 2-4 randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, H; Hill, B; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B; Busija, L

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies evaluating targeted obesity prevention interventions in pre-school children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a parent-based obesity prevention intervention for pre-schoolers - MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition … Do It!) 2-4 on child diet, eating habits, physical activity/sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI). Parent-child dyads attended 10 weekly 90-min workshops relating to nutrition, physical activity and behaviours, including guided active play and healthy snack time. Assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention; child intake of vegetables, fruit, beverages, processed snack foods, fussiness, satiety responsiveness, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and neophobia were assessed via parent proxy report. Parent and child height and weight were measured. Two hundred one parent-child dyads were randomized to intervention (n = 104) and control (n = 97). Baseline mean child age was 2.7 (standard deviation [SD] 0.6) years, and child BMI-for-age z-score (World Health Organization) was 0.66 (SD 0.88). We found significant positive group effects for vegetable (P = 0.01) and snack food (P = 0.03) intake, and satiety responsiveness (P = 0.047) immediately post-intervention. At 12 months follow-up, intervention children exhibited less neophobia (P = 0.03) than controls. Future research should focus on additional strategies to support parents to continue positive behaviour change. ACTRN12610000200088. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Abnormalities in whisking behaviour are associated with lesions in brain stem nuclei in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robyn A; Sharp, Paul S; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Berwick, Jason; Grierson, Andrew; Ramesh, Tennore; Prescott, Tony J

    2014-02-01

    The transgenic SOD1(G93A) mouse is a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and recapitulates many of the pathological hallmarks observed in humans, including motor neuron degeneration in the brain and the spinal cord. In mice, neurodegeneration particularly impacts on the facial nuclei in the brainstem. Motor neurons innervating the whisker pad muscles originate in the facial nucleus of the brain stem, with contractions of these muscles giving rise to "whisking" one of the fastest movements performed by mammals. A longitudinal study was conducted on SOD1(G93A) mice and wild-type litter mate controls, comparing: (i) whisker movements using high-speed video recordings and automated whisker tracking, and (ii) facial nucleus degeneration using MRI. Results indicate that while whisking still occurs in SOD1(G93A) mice and is relatively resistant to neurodegeneration, there are significant disruptions to certain whisking behaviours, which correlate with facial nuclei lesions, and may be as a result of specific facial muscle degeneration. We propose that measures of mouse whisker movement could potentially be used in tandem with measures of limb dysfunction as biomarkers of disease onset and progression in ALS mice and offers a novel method for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fidelity considerations in translational research: Eating As Treatment - a stepped wedge, randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Beck, Alison Kate; Baker, Amanda; Britton, Ben; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Wolfenden, Luke; Carter, Gregory

    2015-10-15

    The confidence with which researchers can comment on intervention efficacy relies on evaluation and consideration of intervention fidelity. Accordingly, there have been calls to increase the transparency with which fidelity methodology is reported. Despite this, consideration and/or reporting of fidelity methods remains poor. We seek to address this gap by describing the methodology for promoting and facilitating the evaluation of intervention fidelity in The EAT (Eating As Treatment) project: a multi-site stepped wedge randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention to improve nutrition (primary outcome) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. In accordance with recommendations from the National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup, we sought to maximise fidelity in this stepped wedge randomised controlled trial via strategies implemented from study design through to provider training, intervention delivery and receipt. As the EAT intervention is designed to be incorporated into standard dietetic consultations, we also address unique challenges for translational research. We offer a strong model for improving the quality of translational findings via real world application of National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium recommendations. Greater transparency in the reporting of behaviour change research is an important step in improving the progress and quality of behaviour change research. ACTRN12613000320752 (Date of registration 21 March 2013).

  14. Favouring more rigour when investigating human eating behaviour is like supporting motherhood and apple pie: A response to Robinson, Bevelander, Field, and Jones (2018).

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Rolls, Barbara J

    2018-05-11

    In a 1987 paper, addressing questions about factors that influence the initiation, maintenance, and termination of food intake, we wrote, "development of systematic procedures to measure eating behaviour is essential if descriptive and inferential statistics are to be applied to answering such questions, giving them power and replicability" (Hetherington & Rolls, 1987 page 77). Therefore, as longstanding advocates of rigorous procedures in laboratory-based investigations of food intake, we welcome Robinson et al.'s (2018) clear recommendations for laboratory studies. However, this is akin to voting for "motherhood and apple pie", and few would argue against deployment of improved procedures for these studies. What then can we contribute to the debate in order to refine the recommendations made or add to them? Our most important message for researchers is that the central hypothesis or main research question will determine the most appropriate methods for any study. If a laboratory-based study is planned, then there are basic methodological questions that must be answered before proceeding to a final protocol. While such guidelines are needed to ensure basic methodological rigour, these should not be so prescriptive as to inhibit creativity. Here we provide several thoughts on how to advance studies of ingestive behaviour, including the need to apply appropriate controls, encouragement to move beyond convenience samples, and to remember the value of exploratory, observational, and naturalistic studies to complement laboratory-based studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Abnormal turning behaviour, GABAergic inhibition and the degeneration of astrocytes in ovine Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Bourke, C A

    2006-01-01

    To observe the clinical signs of sheep affected by Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease, to ascertain their response to striatal dopamine reducing drugs, and to examine their brains and spinal cords for microscopic changes. Twenty-eight sheep displaying well developed clinical signs of the disorder were observed. Twenty-two of these and 22 normal sheep were then randomly allocated to three groups and treated with diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine. The time that it took an animal to return to a standing position following drug administration was recorded. The brain and complete spinal cord were removed from each of the other six affected sheep and fixed in formalin. Brains were sectioned throughout at 5 mm intervals and spinal cords at 10 mm intervals. All tissues were paraffin embedded and examined by light microscopy. A few samples were examined by electron microscopy. Clinical signs included postural asymmetry with a right:left body-side dominance within the group of 50:50, unequal flaccid paresis in the pelvic limbs, extensor muscle atrophy and adduction of the weaker pelvic limb, and concurrent abduction of the stronger. Forward motion followed either a fixed left or right hand curved trajectory, the sheep no longer being able to choose which. Twelve animals intermittently displayed rotational behaviour that involved loss of postural balance without locomotor activation. The administration of diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine caused limb paresis and sedation, with affected sheep being slower than normal sheep by factors of 8, 3 and 2 respectively, to return to a standing position. There were scattered areas of mild Wallerian degeneration throughout the spinal cord, and in both the brain and the cord there were small numbers of degenerate astrocytes containing novel cytoplasmic pigment granules. Affected sheep had a dysfunction in the control of directional change and this provides a new insight into the normal mechanism for 'turning' in quadrupeds

  16. Changing eating behaviours to treat childhood obesity in the community using Mandolean: the Community Mandolean randomised controlled trial (ComMando)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Goodred, Joanna; Powell, Lesley; Thorn, Joanna; Banks, Jon; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Montgomery, Alan; Turner, Katrina; Sharp, Debbie

    2014-07-01

    Around one in five children in England is obese when they leave primary school. Thus far, it has not been demonstrated that primary care interventions to manage childhood obesity can achieve significant weight reduction. Training obese children to eat more slowly as an adjunct to other healthy lifestyle behaviour change has been shown to increase weight reduction in a hospital setting. This pilot study aimed to test recruitment strategies, treatment adherence, clinic attendance and participants' experiences of using a device [Mandolean® (previously Mandometer®, Mikrodidakt AB, Lund, Sweden)] to slow down speed of eating as an adjunct to dietary and activity advice in treating obesity in primary school-aged children. A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Participants were randomised by the Bristol Randomised Trials Collaboration randomisation service with allocation stratified by hub and minimised by age of the child, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (BMI z-value) of the child, and by BMI of the study parent (obese/not obese). General practices across Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire primary care trusts. Children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) aged 5-11 years and their families. Standard care comprised dietary and activity advice by trained practice nurses. Adjunctive Mandolean training (the intervention) educated participants to eat meals more slowly and to rate levels of fullness (satiety). Mandolean is a small computer device attached to a weighing scale that provides visual and oral feedback during meals while generating a visual representation of levels of satiety during the meal. Participants were encouraged to eat their main meal each day from the Mandolean. One parent was also given a Mandolean to use when eating with the child. Outcomes for the pilot were

  17. Emotions mediate the relationship between autistic traits and disordered eating: A new autistic-emotional model for eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Salma; Rozenblat, Vanja; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Paganini, Chiara; Treasure, Janet; Krug, Isabel

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the study was to assess the extent of overlap between autistic traits, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and to explore the mediating effects of negative attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion dysregulation. The sample comprised 416 university students (82% females, 17-48 years [M=19.76, SD=3.85]), who completed an online questionnaire assessing eating attitudes and behaviours (including dieting, bulimia and oral control), body dissatisfaction, and autistic traits (including the Autism Quotient [AQ] and its related subscales as well as the Empathising Quotient). Attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion regulation were also assessed. Results revealed that eating pathology correlated highly with all AQ subscales, with the exception of the attention to detail subscale. However, there was no significant relationship between empathising and eating pathology. Path-analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation, but not negative attitudes towards emotional expression, was a significant mediator of the relationship between AQ, body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Direct relationships were also obtained for the AQ-bulimia and the AQ-oral control paths. Prevention and early intervention programs for eating pathology would likely benefit from addressing abnormalities in emotion processes in individuals who score highly on measures of autistic traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shame, pride and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Goss, Kenneth; Allan, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores shame and shame-based responses in eating disorders. Research linking shame with eating disorders and the possible role of shame and pride in the onset and maintenance of eating disorders is reviewed. The experience of shame is likely to be complex, dynamic and variable. However, the key to identifying shame is often via the various coping strategies adopted, which in turn may form part of a maintenance cycle for eating disorder beliefs and behaviours. An outline model of shame and pride cycles in the maintenance of eating disorders is presented with clinical implications.

  19. Do eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group and the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study.

    PubMed

    Due, Pernille; de Beaufort, Carine; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl; Rasmussen, Mette; Ahluwalia, Naman; Skinner, Timothy; Swift, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) has demonstrated major differences in glycemic control between pediatric diabetes centers which remain largely unexplained. This study investigates whether these differences are partly attributable to healthy eating norms in the background population. The study involved adolescents from 18 countries from (i) the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) and (ii) the HSG. There were 94 387 participants from representative HBSC samples of 11-, 13- and 15-yr-olds and 1483 11- to 15-yr-old adolescents with diabetes from the HSG. The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Across countries in the HSBC survey, there was substantial variation in prevalence of healthy eating behavior and even greater variation between adolescents from the HSG centers. In all countries more adolescents with diabetes reported healthy eating behavior compared to national norms. In individuals healthy eating behavior had a significant effect on the individual level HbA1c. There was no significant correlation between the frequencies of these healthy eating behaviors at (i) the national level and (ii) diabetes center level and the center mean HbA1c. Although individual healthy eating behavior is associated with better glycemic control at the individual level, such eating behavior does not explain the center differences in HbA1c. Similarly, the reported healthy eating norm of the background populations does not explain the variation in glycemic control among centers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Anomalous basal ganglia connectivity and obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Caixàs, Assumpta; Harrison, Ben J.; Bueno, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rigla, Mercedes; Macià, Dídac; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Novell-Alsina, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder with a behavioural expression characterized by the presence of obsessive–compulsive phenomena ranging from elaborate obsessive eating behaviour to repetitive skin picking. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recently associated with abnormal functional coupling between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. We have tested the potential association of functional connectivity anomalies in basal ganglia circuits with obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome. Methods We analyzed resting-state functional MRI in adult patients and healthy controls. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated for the dorsal and ventral aspects of the caudate nucleus and putamen. A selected obsessive–compulsive behaviour assessment included typical OCD compulsions, self picking and obsessive eating behaviour. Results We included 24 adults with Prader Willi syndrome and 29 controls in our study. Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed abnormal functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia and within subcortical structures that correlated with the presence and severity of obsessive–compulsive behaviours. In addition, abnormally heightened functional connectivity was identified in the primary sensorimotor cortex–putamen loop, which was strongly associated with self picking. Finally, obsessive eating behaviour correlated with abnormal functional connectivity both within the basal ganglia loops and between the striatum and the hypothalamus and the amygdala. Limitations Limitations of the study include the difficulty in evaluating the nature of content of obsessions in patients with Prader Willi Syndrome and the risk of excessive head motion artifact on brain imaging. Conclusion Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed broad functional connectivity anomalies combining prefrontal loop alterations characteristic of OCD with 1) enhanced coupling in the

  1. The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Rebecca F.; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Gibson, Peter G.; Scott, Hayley A.; Hensley, Michael J.; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects (n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m2. Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total (p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake (p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total (p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids (p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention (p = 0.078). Older age (p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating (p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids (p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults. PMID:29053575

  2. The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Rebecca F; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G; Scott, Hayley A; Hensley, Michael J; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa G

    2017-10-20

    There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects ( n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m². Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total ( p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake ( p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total ( p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids ( p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention ( p = 0.078). Older age ( p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating ( p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids ( p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults.

  3. Modelling the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome or stroke: aims, design, and validation properties of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2010-09-14

    In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls), age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study.

  4. Validation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in the obese with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouel, Melissa; Raman, Jayanthi; Hay, Phillipa; Smith, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    Obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) are both associated with deficiencies in executive function. The Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a self-report measure that assesses executive function. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese population, with and without BED, and to explore the differences on the BRIEF-A in the obese, with and without BED, compared to normative sample. 98 obese participants (70 BED) completed the BRIEF-A, DASS-21 and several performance-based measures of executive function. 30 participants completed a repeat assessment two months later. There was evidence of good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, however evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed. Additionally, it was found that obese individuals report significantly more executive function difficulties on the BRIEF-A than the normative sample. Further, obese with BED report more executive function difficulties than those without. This study shows some evidence of sound psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese sample, however more research is required to understand the nature of executive function being measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional Reactivity and Appraisal of Food in Relation to Eating Disorder Cognitions and Behaviours: Evidence to Support the Motivational Conflict Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Hebert, Karen R; Benning, Stephen D

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are associated with both negative and positive emotional reactions towards food. Individual eating disorder symptoms may relate to distinct emotional responses to food, which could necessitate tailored treatments based on symptom presentation. We examined associations between eating disorder symptoms and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral images in 87 college students [mean (SD) age = 19.70 (2.09); mean (SD) body mass index = 23.25(2.77)]. Reflexive and facial electromyography measures tapping negative emotional reactivity (startle blink reflex) and appraisal (corrugator muscle response) as well as positive emotional reactivity (postauricular reflex) and appraisal (zygomaticus muscle response) were collected. Eating disorder cognitions correlated with more corrugator activity to food versus neutral images, indicating negative appraisals of food. Binge eating was associated with increased postauricular reflex reactivity to food versus neutral images, suggesting enhanced appetitive motivation to food. The combination of cognitive eating disorder symptoms and binge eating may result in motivational conflict towards food. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  8. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... purge afterwards, but often feel a lot of shame or guilt about their binge eating. Other specified ... Impulsivity Intense focus on “flaws” and physical appearance Shame or guilt Withdrawal from friends Binge Eating Disorder: ...

  9. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Finger (doi:10.1093/aww312) for a scientific commentary on this article. Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure. A cohort of 19 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 with Alzheimer’s disease and 16 (age- and sex-matched) healthy control subjects were studied using Actiheart devices (CamNtech) to assess resting and stressed heart rate. Actiheart devices were fitted for 7 days to measure sleeping heart rate, activity levels, and resting, active and total energy expenditure. Using high resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging the neural correlates of increased resting heart rate were investigated including cortical thickness and region of interest analyses. In behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, resting (P = 0.001), stressed (P = 0.037) and sleeping heart rate (P = 0.038) were increased compared to control subjects, and resting heart rate (P = 0.020) compared to Alzheimer disease patients. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was associated with decreased activity levels compared to controls (P = 0.002) and increased resting energy expenditure (P = 0.045) and total energy expenditure (P = 0.035). Increased resting heart rate correlated with behavioural (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory) and cognitive measures (Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination). Increased resting heart rate in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia correlated with atrophy involving the mesial temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala

  10. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    SEE FINGER DOI101093/AWW312 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure. A cohort of 19 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 with Alzheimer's disease and 16 (age- and sex-matched) healthy control subjects were studied using Actiheart devices (CamNtech) to assess resting and stressed heart rate. Actiheart devices were fitted for 7 days to measure sleeping heart rate, activity levels, and resting, active and total energy expenditure. Using high resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging the neural correlates of increased resting heart rate were investigated including cortical thickness and region of interest analyses. In behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, resting (P = 0.001), stressed (P = 0.037) and sleeping heart rate (P = 0.038) were increased compared to control subjects, and resting heart rate (P = 0.020) compared to Alzheimer disease patients. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was associated with decreased activity levels compared to controls (P = 0.002) and increased resting energy expenditure (P = 0.045) and total energy expenditure (P = 0.035). Increased resting heart rate correlated with behavioural (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory) and cognitive measures (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination). Increased resting heart rate in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia correlated with atrophy involving the mesial temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala, regions previously

  11. Impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet on anthropometrics, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits in obese men displaying a high or a low satiety phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arguin, Hélène; Tremblay, Angelo; Blundell, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Denis; Lamarche, Benoît; Drapeau, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype. Both diets were consumed ad libitum. Changes in body weight, BMI, percent fat mass, waist circumference, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits were assessed following the intervention. Dropout rates were higher in the control diet (44·1 %) compared with the satiating diet (8·6 %). Decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference were significant in both groups, yet HSP individuals lost more body weight than LSP individuals (P=0·048). Decreases in % fat mass were greater in the satiating diet (LSP: -2·1 (sd 2·1) %; P<0·01 and HSP: -3·0 (sd 2·5) %; P<0·001) compared with the control diet (LSP: -1·1 (sd 2·5) % and HSP: -1·3 (sd 2·6) %) (P=0·034). Satiety responsiveness was markedly improved in the satiating diet, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Changes in dietary restraint (+3·3 (sd 2·9) to +7·2 (sd 5·5)), flexible control (+0·9 (sd 1·4) to +2·3 (sd 2·7)), rigid control (+2·2 (sd 1·5) to +2·5 (sd 2·8)), disinhibition (-2·8 (sd 3·7) to -3·2 (sd 2·6)) and susceptibility to hunger (-2·7 (sd 4·1) to -4·6 (sd 3·9)) were similar between the diets. Compared with the control diet, the satiating diet favoured adherence, decreased % fat mass and improved satiety responsiveness in both HSP and LSP individuals.

  12. Fostering active living and healthy eating through understanding physical activity and dietary behaviours of Arabic-speaking adults: a cross-sectional study from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Fung, Tak Shing; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad

    2018-04-20

    Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015. Using a non-probability sampling technique, participants were recruited from three universities and five primary healthcare centres in Qatar. Participants were interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding demography, clinical characteristics and the participant's daily dietary practice. Physical activity level was assessed by the Arabic version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS V.22.0. Of 1606 participants, 50.1% were men and 49.9% were women. The participants' mean (SD) body mass index was 28.03 (5.85) Kg/m 2 . Two-thirds of the participants were either overweight (36.4%) or obese (33.6%). Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, 64% and 39.9% of study participants did not engage in vigorous or moderate physical activity, respectively. Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, the mean (SD) time for vigorous physical activity was 31.12 (59.28) min, 46.87 (63.01) min for moderate physical activity, and 42.01 (47.04) min for walking. One-third of the participants consumed fresh fruits and vegetables once or more daily, and fish, beef or chicken 2-4 times weekly. One quarter of the participants ate pasta, cakes or pastries 2-4 times weekly, and 40.6% of them ate white bread daily. Participants exhibited insufficient physical activity and poor dietary habits. There is a need for a

  13. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Is eating pleasure compatible with healthy eating? A qualitative study on Quebecers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Myriam; Lemieux, Simone; Lapointe, Annie; Bédard, Alexandra; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Bégin, Catherine; Provencher, Véronique; Desroches, Sophie

    2018-06-01

    Given that traditional interventions promoting the adoption of a healthy diet are having limited impacts on the population's food choices and eating behaviours, researchers and health practitioners could explore alternative strategies such as the use of eating pleasure to promote healthy eating. To inform future interventions using this approach, this study aimed to explore how a sample of Quebecers perceives and defines eating pleasure and healthy eating. Specific objectives were to verify what commonalities can be found between their definitions of eating pleasure and healthy eating, and what differences can be observed in their answers based on their sex and body mass index (BMI). Twelve focus groups were conducted in Quebec City, Canada, among women and men with a normal weight and with obesity (n = 92). Verbatim transcripts were double-coded using NVivo10. Participants mostly defined eating pleasure through food characteristics related to sensory qualities and psychosocial contexts. In contrast, they mostly mentioned food characteristics related to nutritional quality and ways to regulate eating behaviours to define healthy eating. Most salient perceptions were similar among subgroups based on sex or BMI. Results showed that in participants' perceptions, the concepts of eating pleasure and healthy eating were different, but appeared to be mostly compatible, which makes the integration of eating pleasure a promising avenue for interventions promoting healthy eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  16. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders.

  17. Personality subtypes in female pre-bariatric obese patients: do they differ in eating disorder symptoms, psychological complaints and coping behaviour?

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter; Vandeputte, An; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In the pre-bariatric psychological assessment of 102 morbidly obese women, two personality subtypes emerged: a resilient/high functioning subtype with a 'normal' personality profile and an emotional dysregulated/ undercontrolled subtype, characterized by high neuroticism and low extraversion/conscientiousness. Emotional dysregulated/ undercontrolled patients showed more concerns about eating/weight/shape, more binge eating driven by emotions and external triggers, more psychological complaints (such as depression and anxiety) and more avoidance and depressive coping reactions than resilient/high functioning patients. Further research should clarify whether these clearly different psychological profiles are related to different outcomes (weight loss or well-being) of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Impulsivity and eating behavior in males

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Santiago, María José

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Impulsivity is a personality trait related with the control of behaviour and emotions and it is found in different psychopathological alterations, including those referred to eating behaviour. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship among the infl uence of the aesthetic body shape model, eating behaviour (and risk for specific disorders), body mass index and impulsivity. Method: A total of 178 males were included in the study, with a mean age of 20.18 ± 2.48. Height and weight were assessed in order to obtain the body mass index. All participants fulfilled the following questionnaires: Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), Questionnaire of Infl uences on the Body Shape Model for males (CIMEC-V) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40). Results: With respect to possible cases of eating disorders, 5.06% were found. Scores of some items of BIS-11 correlated significantly with the EAT-40 and CIMEC-V scores. Overweight participants (39.89%) showed higher level of impulsivity as well as those with EAT-40 scores above the cut-off point for that test. Conclusions: The assessment of impulsivity from a psychological point of view might be a preventive tool with regards to disordered eating behaviours. Respecting the patients with eating disorders/overweight/obesity, that assessment might be a relevant aspect in order to improve the therapeutical approach.

  19. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... a family meal? Whenever you and your family eat together — whether it's takeout food or a home-cooked meal with all the trimmings. Strive for nutritious food and a time when everyone can be there. This may mean eating dinner a little later to accommodate a teen who's ...

  20. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  1. Emotional Eating, Binge Eating and Animal Models of Binge-Type Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.

  2. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  4. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  5. Eating out

    MedlinePlus

    ... your meal. Healthy Eating at All Types of Restaurants Sandwich restaurants or deli counters allow you to better manage ... be grilled or toasted without added butter. Chinese restaurants offer healthy choices if you are careful: Most ...

  6. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical illnesses. They often go along with other problems such as stress, anxiety, depression, and substance use. Eating disorders can lead to the development of serious physical health problems, such as heart conditions or kidney failure. Someone ...

  7. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  8. Comparison of a dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables with a low-fat approach: long-term effects on dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Annie; Weisnagel, S John; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Dufour-Bouchard, Andrée-Ann; Trudeau, Caroline; Lemieux, Simone

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of two dietary approaches on changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight: (1) approach using restrictive messages to limit high-fat foods (low-fat intake; LOFAT); (2) approach emphasising non-restrictive messages directed towards the inclusion of fruits and vegetables (high intake of fruits and vegetables; HIFV). A total of sixty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary approaches. The 6-month dietary intervention included three group sessions and ten individual sessions with a dietitian. Dietary intakes, eating behaviours and anthropometrics were measured at baseline, at the end of the dietary intervention (T = 6) and 6 months and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T = 12 and T = 18). In the LOFAT group, energy and fat intakes were lower at T = 6 when compared with baseline and remained lower at T = 12 and T = 18. In the HIFV group, fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly at T = 6 but were no longer significantly different from baseline at T = 12 and T = 18. Dietary restraint increased at T = 6 and remained higher than baseline at T = 18 in the LOFAT group while no significant change was observed in the HIFV group. At T = 6, body weight was significantly lower than baseline in both groups (LOFAT: - 3.7 (SD 2.8) kg; HIFV: - 1.8 (SD 3.0) kg) and no significant difference in body-weight change from baseline was found between groups at T = 18. We concluded that weight loss was similar at 1-year follow-up in both dietary approaches. Despite relatively good improvements in the short term, the adherence to a 6-month dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables was difficult to maintain.

  9. Improved eating behaviours mediate weight gain prevention of young adults: moderation and mediation results of a randomised controlled trial of TXT2BFiT, mHealth program.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-04-02

    Explanatory evaluation of interventions for prevention of weight gain is required beyond changes in weight, to determine for whom the intervention works and the underlying mechanisms of change. It was hypothesised that participant characteristics moderate intervention effect on weight change and improved eating and physical activity behaviours during the 3-month program mediate the relationship between intervention and weight. In our randomised controlled trial, young adults at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were assigned either to an intervention group that received a 3-month mHealth (TXT2BFiT) program with 6-month maintenance or to a control group. Data were collected via online self-report surveys. Hypothesised moderators and mediators of the intervention effect on weight were independently assessed in PROCESS macro models for 3 and 9-month weight change. Males (P = 0.01), mid-20s age group (P = 0.04), and higher income earners (P = 0.02) moderated intervention effects on weight change at 3-months and males only at 9-months (P = 0.02). Weight change at 3 (-1.12 kg) and 9-months (-1.38 kg) remained significant when 3-month nutrition and physical activity behaviours were specified as mediators (P <0.01 and P = 0.01 respectively). Indirect paths explained 39% (0.72/1.85 kg) and 40 % (0.92/2.3 kg) of total effect on weight change at 3 and 9-months respectively. Increased vegetable intake by intervention group at 3-months accounted for 19 and 17% and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 8 and 13% of indirect weight change effects at 3 and 9-months respectively. TXT2BFiT was effective for both young men and women. Small sustained behavioural changes, including increased vegetable intake and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages consumption significantly mediated the intervention's effects on weight change. Improved eating behaviours and increased physical activity accounted for approximately 40% of the weight change. The trial is

  10. Phospholipase D-mediated hypersensitivity at central synapses is associated with abnormal behaviours and pain sensitivity in rats exposed to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liting; Gooding, Hayley L; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Adverse events at critical stages of development can lead to lasting dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). To seek potential underlying changes in synaptic function, we used a newly developed protocol to measure alterations in receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluorescence responses of synaptoneurosomes, freshly isolated from selected regions of the CNS concerned with emotionality and pain processing. We compared adult male controls and offspring of rats exposed to social stress in late pregnancy (prenatal stress, PS), which showed programmed behavioural changes indicating anxiety, anhedonia and pain hypersensitivity. We found corresponding increases, in PS rats compared with normal controls, in responsiveness of synaptoneurosomes from frontal cortex to a glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist, and from spinal cord to activators of nociceptive afferents. Through a combined pharmacological and biochemical strategy, we found evidence for a role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1)-mediated signalling, that may involve 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation, at both levels of the nervous system. These changes might participate in underpinning the enduring alterations in behaviour induced by PS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  12. Social safeness and disordered eating: Exploring underlying mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Catarina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura; Trindade, Inês A

    2017-06-01

    Feelings of social safeness and connectedness have been associated with adaptive emotion regulation processes and well-being indicators. Further, literature has demonstrated that interpersonal experiences play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of body and eating psychopathology. However, the study of the role of social variables and emotion regulation processes in the engagement in inflexible eating rules and eating psychopathology is still in its early stages. The current study aims to fill some gaps within the literature and explore the mediator role of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules in the link between social safeness and disordered eating. Participants were 253 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old, who completed a series of online self-report measures. Results from the tested path analysis model showed that social safeness holds a significant effect on eating psychopathology, through the mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules. Also, results suggested that women who present higher levels of social safeness tend to present a more positive and respectful attitude towards their body and decreased adoption of inflexible eating rules, which seem to explain lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. These findings seem to present empirical support for the development of intervention programs that promote a positive, affectionate and healthy relationship with one's body image, in order to prevent the inflexible adherence to eating rules and disordered eating behaviours.

  13. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuff, like caffeine. Tips for Eating at a Restaurant Most restaurant portions are way larger than the average serving ... of your dish home. Here are some other restaurant survival tips: Ask for sauces and salad dressings ...

  14. Eating the elephant whole or in slices: views of participants in a smoking cessation intervention trial on multiple behaviour changes as sequential or concurrent tasks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper explores smoking cessation participants’ perceptions of attempting weight management alongside smoking cessation within the context of a health improvement intervention implemented in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight participants were recruited from smoking cessation classes in areas of multiple deprivation in Glasgow and randomised to intervention, receiving dietary advice, or to control groups. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the % change in body weight. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 intervention and 15 control participants at weeks 6 (during the intervention) and 24 (at the end of the intervention). The current paper, though predominantly qualitative, links perceptions of behaviour modification to % weight change and cessation rates at week 24 thereby enabling a better understanding of the mediators influencing multiple behaviour change. Results Our findings suggest that participants who perceive separate behaviour changes as part of a broader approach to a healthier lifestyle, and hence attempt behaviour changes concurrently, may be at comparative advantage in positively achieving dual outcomes. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to assess participants’ preference for attempting multiple behaviour changes sequentially or simultaneously in addition to assessing their readiness to change. Further testing of this hypothesis is warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN94961361 PMID:22759785

  15. Eating Disorders Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inventory for Children (EDI-C) Kids' Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Q-EDD) ... Inventory for Children (EDI-C) Kids' Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Q-EDD) ...

  16. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature.

  17. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  18. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders versus normalization of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M

    2017-05-15

    We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Maj, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating) and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating) foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated. PMID:29261146

  20. The reasons why eating disorder patients drink.

    PubMed

    Hart, Susan; Abraham, Suzanne; Franklin, Richard C; Russell, Janice

    2011-01-01

    To explore the reasons why eating disorder patients consume non-alcoholic fluids and to examine variables associated with poor and excessive drinking. A sample of 115 patients admitted for inpatient treatment to a specialist eating disorder facility completed a semi-standardised retrospective fluid intake history of type and amount of fluid and of reasons for drinking. ANOVA, chi-square and factor analysis were performed. The main reasons for consuming fluids were for fullness and appetite suppression; for feelings of control including feeling empty; to assist with purging; and for physiological reasons such as drinking when thirsty, after exercising and to increase energy levels via caffeine ingestion. An eating disorder needs to be considered a disorder of fluid intake, as much as a disorder of food intake. Factors affecting the fluid intake of eating disorder patients are related to the presence of eating disorder behaviours. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population.

    PubMed

    van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-disclosure in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Basile, B

    2004-09-01

    Secrecy and concealment are typical behaviours in individuals with eating problems. This study explored the relationship between eating-related problems and self-disclosure. It examined whether women with greater eating related problems were less willing to disclose. Different types of self-disclosure were calculated, considering disclosure related to body appearance and to restrained eating. The role of risk factors which concur to the development and maintenance of eating symptomatology was also explored. The Eating Symptoms Inventory was used to investigate the existence of an eventual eating symptomatology, self-disclosure was calculated through the Self-Disclosure Index, while a new scale was validated to assess a self-disclosure related to body image and eating attitudes. Other scales measured the influence of different risk factors, as body dissatisfaction, social pressure to be thin, and restrained eating. A significant inverse relationship was found between general self-disclosure and psychological aspects related to the practice of wrong weight control behaviours and risk factors as dieting, body dissatisfaction, and social pressure to be thin. The significant role of risk factors was confirmed in the development and maintenance of eating disturbances. Interesting results were found using the different self-disclosure indexes as mediators and moderators. Relevant differences were found between Dutch and Italians concerning to their eating attitudes and to the role of different risk factors. Some limits are the impossibility to generalize these findings and the use of a non clinical sample. Some new longitudinal studies should be done in this direction to deepen the relationship between self-disclosure and eating disorders.

  3. Eating disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  4. Prevalence and socio-economic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among South Australian children in urban and rural communities: baseline findings from the OPAL evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bell, L; Ullah, S; Olds, T; Magarey, A; Leslie, E; Jones, M; Miller, M; Cobiac, L

    2016-11-01

    To identify current prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of adherence to national diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among Australian primary school children. Cross-sectional survey of children (n = 4637, 9-11 years) participating at baseline in the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) programme evaluation. Self-reported diet, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours were assessed via questionnaire. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting each guideline (two or more serves of fruit, five or more serves of vegetables, two or less serves of discretionary food, ≥60 min of PA, and ≤2 h of ST per day). Although 65% of children met fruit recommendations, only 22% met vegetable recommendations (17% consumed no vegetables). Approximately one-quarter (28%) of children met discretionary food recommendations. Only 17% of children met the ST recommendations and 33% met PA recommendations. Less than 1% of children met all five recommendations. Rural children were more likely to meet both PA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.74, P < 0.001) and ST (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14-1.66, P < 0.01) recommendations than urban counterparts. Children at least socio-economic disadvantage performed better than those at greatest disadvantage for most behaviours. Improvement in Australian children's diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours, particularly urban children and those at greatest socio-economic disadvantage, is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating Behaviors and Dietary Changes in Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Carlesi, Cecilia; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Eating problems and dietary changes have been reported in patients with dementia. The aim of this article is to explore the generalized problems with nutrition, diet, feeding, and eating reported among patients with dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, dietary changes, eating behavior. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Abnormal eating behaviors, eating problems, and dietary changes are present in most people with dementia, especially in the later stages of the condition. Individuals with dementia frequently develop serious feeding difficulties and changes in eating and dietary habits. The changes may be secondary to cognitive impairment or apraxia, or the result of insufficient caregiving, or the consequence of metabolic or neurochemical abnormalities occurring as part of the dementing process.

  6. Body image, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa in male bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Blouin, Arthur G; Woodside, D Blake

    2006-03-01

    Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eating behaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes and behaviours and psychological characteristics to more accurately determine similarities and differences among these groups. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, weight loss practices, lifetime rates of eating disorders, anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use, and general psychological factors, were completed by 22 MBN, 27 CMBB, and 25 RMBB. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, extreme body modification practices, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa (BN) were reported among MBB, especially among those who competed. CMBB reported higher rates of binge eating, BN, and AAS use compared with RMBB, but exhibited less eating-related and general psychopathology compared with MBN. Few psychological differences were found between CMBB and RMBB. MBB, especially competitors, and MBN appear to share many eating-related features but few general psychological ones. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether men with a history of disordered eating or BN disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuildin and (or) whether competitive bodybuilding fosters disordered eating, BN, and AAS use.

  7. [Connection between the knowledge of the recommendations of the National Nutrition and Health Program and patterns of eating behaviour and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Escalon, H; Beck, F; Bossard, C

    2013-02-01

    Nutrition education is one of the main lines of the French nutrition policy that has been undertaken for several years. The underlying hypothesis of this approach is that knowledge improvement is one of the ways likely to contribute to health-enhancing diet and physical activity. The objective of this paper, based on the 2008 Health and nutrition Barometer, is to examine the associations observed between knowledge and behavior with regard to diet and physical activity. The 2008 Health and nutrition Barometer is a nationally representative telephone survey conducted on 4714 individuals aged 12-75 years. For six recommendations of the National Nutrition and Health Program (Programme national nutrition santé [PNNS]), multiple logistic models were used to identify associations between knowledge of these recommendations and behavior, among adults aged 18-75 years. For food consumed on the day before the interview, odds ratios were adjusted for sex, age, education level, agglomeration size and region. As bivariate analysis showed that income level was significant for recommended consumption of fish, this variable was introduced among adjustment variables. Similarly, the variable occupation was introduced for physical activity. A positive association between knowledge of recommendations and nutritional behavior on the day before interview was observed for fruit and vegetables (OR=1.7), dairy products (OR=1.6), and starchy food (OR=1.6). The same was observed for consumption of fish during the 15 days before the interview (OR=5.0) and for physical activity during a usual week (OR=1.5) but not for the "meat, seafood and eggs" food group. Eating habits and physical activity are positively associated with knowledge of nutritional recommendations, mainly acquired via nutritional information and educational actions. Nevertheless, the important differences observed for certain dietary groups between knowledge of recommendations and dietary intake emphasizes the need to further

  8. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n = 740) and Canada (n = 456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Christopher Robert; Gasevic, Danijela; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon; Chockalingam, Arun; Patro, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Lear, Scott Alexander

    2013-01-07

    Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive

  10. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more

  11. Reframing eating during chemotherapy in cancer patients with chemosensory alterations.

    PubMed

    Bernhardson, Britt-Marie; Olson, Karin; Baracos, Vickie E; Wismer, Wendy V

    2012-12-01

    Our purpose was to describe how eating is reframed among cancer patients experiencing chemosensory alterations. Using data collection and analysis strategies from a qualitative design called ethnoscience, we interviewed 12 patients experiencing taste and smell alterations during chemotherapy. We asked participants to provide a description of a meal and the process by which they decide what and how to eat. Each person was interviewed twice. We compared participants' descriptions of eating, and used this comparison to identify some core beliefs about eating. Participants also completed measures of dietary intake, symptom burden and quality of life. Based on the interviews, we identified specific constraints to eating, beliefs about the value of eating, and behaviours participants used to work around the constraints to eat during chemotherapy. Chemosensory complaints and other symptoms (i.e. pain, anorexia, tiredness), personal experiences and food preferences were the main constraints. Core beliefs about the value of eating included its social benefits, benefits of eating for health per se, and benefits related to preparing for the next chemotherapy cycle. These beliefs reframed the purpose of eating and were used by participants to develop specific strategies to work around the constraints to eating. To date, interventions to promote eating among cancer patients have focused extensively on symptom management and on recommendations for macro/micronutrient intake. This study underscores the importance of understanding beliefs about eating. These beliefs may help clinicians develop patient-centered nutritional interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal behaviour of lithium in coeval stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente de Andrés, F.; Morales-Durán, C.; Chavero, C.; de la Reza, R.

    2015-05-01

    Due to its fragility, the light element lithium (Li) is an excellent and very used indicator of stellar processes. Our interest here is to explore and try to understand the Li dispersion observed in some stellar open clusters which are not explained by the standard theories. A typical and historical case, for example, is that found for stars cooler than the stellar effective temperature Teff ˜ 5500 K in the Pleiades cluster with an age of ˜ 130 My (see details in Figure 2 of this poster). What is the mechanism that provoques this dispersion?. Up to now, mainly three mechanisms are being proposed : (1) Episodic accretion during the protostellar phase (Barafee et al. 2010). (2) Rotational stellar internal mixing shears due to a star-disk interaction (Eggenberger at al. 2012) and (3) Li depletion by an increased stellar radius (Somers et al. 2014). We will explore this problem using the rotational option (2) (Chavero et al. 2014) and also identifying stellar interlopers in some groups.

  13. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  14. Body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, and the development of disturbed eating: a survey of Taiwanese students.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yueching; Lin, Jing-Shan; Chang, Yu-Jhen

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between adolescents' emotional intelligence and the tendency to develop an eating disorder. Senior high school students in Taiwan were recruited for the study. A 3- part anonymous questionnaire measured demographic information, body weight satisfaction, and expectation of body weight. Students also completed the Adolescent Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Eating Disorders Attitude- 26 Test (EAT-26). Height and weight were also measured. The mean of EAT-26 score was 8.66 ± 7.36, and 8.6% students were at high risk to develop eating disorders. Gender, body weight, body dissatisfaction and the expected body shape were significantly related to disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours. Scores of EAT-26 were positively correlated with emotional perception, emotional expression, and emotional application. Disturbed eating behaviours exist among adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviours may be related to emotional intelligence. However further studies with larger samples are needed.

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  17. Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Treasure, Janet; Kan, Carol; Cardi, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2018.- Social difficulties have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies testing patientsö reactivity to interpersonal stress, compared to healthy controls. Thirty-four studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on 16 studies and on following outcomes: attention bias and interference to threatening faces, cortisol, heart rate and negative affect before and after exposure to interpersonal stress. Patients showed heightened attention bias and interference to threatening faces. Lower heart rate after exposure to interpersonal stress and greater negative affect before and after interpersonal stress were observed in the clinical group compared to controls. Surprisingly, only a small minority of studies included measures of abnormal eating behaviour and attitudes. This seems a missed opportunity for testing the causal and maintaining role that abnormalities in interpersonal stress response play in eating disorders. Nonetheless, findings corroborate the hypothesis that patients' response to interpersonal stress differs from that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence and predictors of disordered eating in women with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Satherley, Rose-Marie; Howard, Ruth; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-12-01

    The need for dietary management in coeliac disease may lead to the development of disordered eating. This study examined the prevalence of disordered eating and factors predicting disordered eating in women with coeliac disease, compared with other dietary-controlled conditions. A cross-sectional, online survey assessing psychological well-being, disordered eating behaviours (Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26); Binge Eating Scale (BES)) was distributed using online forums, to those with coeliac disease (N = 157), inflammatory bowel disease (N = 116), type two diabetes (N = 88) and healthy controls (N = 142). Hierarchical regressions were conducted to explore and compare the predictors of EAT-26 and BES scores across all groups. Within the coeliac disease group, a cluster analysis was conducted to examine types of disordered eating. Higher EAT-26 scores were found in those with coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease compared with healthy controls and type two diabetes; participants with a chronic health condition had higher BES than healthy control participants. The factors associated with EAT-26 scores differed across the dietary-controlled health conditions, with dietary management being important for those with coeliac disease. Psychological distress was associated with binge-eating behaviour across all groups. Cluster analyses found two types of disordered eating in coeliac disease; a binge eating type and a restrictive type. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are more prevalent in participants with chronic health conditions relative to healthy controls. The presence of binge eating behaviours in coeliac disease may be related to non-coeliac disease specific factors such as the distress associated with dietary-controlled illness. EAT-26 scores in coeliac disease are associated with disease specific factors, unique to following the gluten-free diet. These factors are important for identifying and supporting those with coeliac disease and

  19. Eating styles and energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Van Strien, Tatjana; Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between restrained, emotional, and external eating and total energy intake, and total fat and carbohydrate intake controlling for body mass index and physical activity. The sample consisted of 475 female students. Energy intake was measured over a 1-month period using the self-report Food Frequency Questionnaire and eating styles were assessed with the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data. The results showed that restrained eating was consistently negatively related to energy intake and fat and carbohydrate intake, whereas external eating was positively related to all dependent variables. Emotional eating was not related to energy intake or fat and carbohydrate intake. Thus, restrained eaters seem to restrict their energy intake, while external eating was found to be associated with higher levels of energy intake, especially of fat intake.

  20. Parental representation in eating disorder patients with suicide.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Kobayashi, J; Tachikawa, H; Sato, S; Hori, M; Suzuki, T; Shiraishi, H

    2000-08-01

    We examined parental, personality, and symptomatological characteristics in relation to suicide attempts among eating disorder patients. Fifty-one eating disorder inpatients, divided into two groups according to lifetime suicide attempts, and 107 non-psychiatric subjects were compared on the following variables: Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Global Clinical Score (GCS), Eating Disorder Inventory-91 (EDI-91), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT), clinical and personality characteristics, and family backgrounds. Suicidal patients reported significantly higher overprotection by both parents than non-suicidal patients and non-psychiatric subjects. Suicidal patients had a more prevalent history of child abuse, affective instability, unstable self-image, avoidance of abandonment, maladaptive perfectionism, personality disorder, and mood disorder. There were no differences in symptomatological factors or the severity of the eating disorders. The results suggest that high overprotection is associated with suicidal behaviour in eating disorder patients. The association between overprotective parenting and personality characteristics, and methods of suicide prevention are discussed briefly.

  1. How emotions affect eating: a five-way model.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of affective processes in eating behaviour, it remains difficult to predict how emotions affect eating. Emphasizing individual differences, previous research did not pay full attention to the twofold variability of emotion-induced changes of eating (variability across both individuals and emotions). By contrast, the present paper takes into account both individual characteristics and emotion features, and specifies five classes of emotion-induced changes of eating: (1) emotional control of food choice, (2) emotional suppression of food intake, (3) impairment of cognitive eating controls, (4) eating to regulate emotions, and (5) emotion-congruent modulation of eating. These classes are distinguished by antecedent conditions, eating responses and mediating mechanisms. They point to basic functional principles underlying the relations between emotions and biologically based motives: interference, concomitance and regulation. Thus, emotion-induced changes of eating can be a result of interference of eating by emotions, a by-product of emotions, and a consequence of regulatory processes (i.e., emotions may regulate eating, and eating may regulate emotions).

  2. Non-pharmacological interventions designed to reduce health risks due to unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky or excessive drinking in adults aged 18-25 years: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stephanie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Kaner, Eileen; Robalino, Shannon; Stead, Martine; Power, Christine; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley

    2017-03-03

    Excess body weight and heavy alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood. Alcohol consumption can also exacerbate weight gain. A high body mass index and heavy drinking are independently associated with liver disease but, in combination, they produce an intensified risk of damage, with individuals from lower socio-economic status groups disproportionately affected. We will conduct searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Knowledge (WoK), Scopus, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS, CENTRAL and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses for studies that assess targeted preventative interventions of any length of time or duration of follow-up that are focused on reducing unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky alcohol use in 18-25-year-olds. Primary outcomes will be reported changes in: (1) dietary, nutritional or energy intake and (2) alcohol consumption. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster RCTs; randomised trials; non-randomised controlled trials; interrupted time series; quasi-experimental; cohort involving concurrent or historical controls and controlled before and after studies. Database searches will be supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Search records will be independently screened by two researchers, with full-text copies of potentially relevant papers retrieved for in-depth review against the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of RCTs will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Other study designs will be evaluated using the Cochrane Public Health Review Group's recommended Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Studies will be pooled by meta-analysis and/or narrative synthesis as appropriate for the nature of the data retrieved. It is anticipated

  3. Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified.

  4. Perceptions of healthy eating: state of knowledge and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Marie-Claude

    2005-01-01

    To effectively promote and support healthy eating among Canadians, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviours. Perceptions of healthy eating can be considered as one of the many factors influencing people's eating habits. For this review, "perceptions of healthy eating" are defined as the public's and health professionals' meanings, understandings, views, attitudes and beliefs about healthy eating, eating for health, and healthy foods. This article's aim is to review and summarize the literature on the perceptions of healthy eating and to identify the current state of knowledge and key knowledge gaps. Databases, the worldwide web, selected journals and reference lists were searched for relevant papers from the last 20 years. Reviewed articles suggest relative homogeneity in the perceptions of healthy eating despite the studies being conducted in different countries and involving different age groups, sexes and socio-economic status. Perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on food choice. Fruits and vegetables were consistently recognized as part of healthy eating. Characteristics of food such as naturalness, and fat, sugar and salt contents were also important in people's perceptions of healthy eating. Concepts related to healthy eating, such as balance, variety and moderation, were often mentioned, but they were found to be polysemous, conveying multiple meanings. The main gap identified in this review concerns the lack of knowledge available on perceptions of healthy eating. More data are needed on the perceptions of healthy eating in general, on the influence on perceptions of messages from diverse sources such as food companies, and, most important, on the role of perceptions of healthy eating as a determinant of food choice.

  5. Beliefs about excessive exercise in eating disorders: the role of obsessions and compulsions.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Heather; Mountford, Victoria; Brown, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an understanding of excessive exercise in eating disorders by exploring the role of exercise beliefs, obsessive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviours. Sixty-four women were recruited from eating disorder services and 75 non-clinical women were recruited from a university. Exercise beliefs and behaviours, obsessive beliefs and behaviours and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed using self-report questionnaires. There was an association between exercise beliefs, obsessive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviours in the eating-disordered group, but not in the non-eating-disordered group. In the eating-disordered group obsessive beliefs and obsessive-compulsive behaviours were associated with a significant proportion of variance in exercise beliefs after controlling for eating disorder psychopathology and BMI. In the non-eating-disordered group obsessive beliefs and behaviours were associated with beliefs about exercise as a method of affect regulation after controlling for BMI. The results are compatible with a model in which obsessive beliefs and exercise beliefs could maintain exercise in eating disorders. This has implications for the assessment and treatment of excessive exercise. Further research is necessary to determine the causality of these relationships. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; M age  = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; M age  = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; M age  = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic

  7. Definitions of healthy eating among university students.

    PubMed

    House, Jennifer; Su, Jenny; Levy-Milne, Ryna

    2006-01-01

    To identify definitions of healthy eating in terms of food characteristics, eating behaviours, barriers, and benefits in university students. Four focus groups were conducted; verbatim transcripts were analyzed and coded using qualitative methods. Participants were nine students of dietetics and six students of other subjects. All were females in their third or fourth year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Participants often described healthy eating as consuming all food groups of Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating, with the associated notions of moderation and balance. Benefits of healthy eating were cited as a healthy weight, good physical appearance, feeling better, preventing disease, and achieving personal satisfaction. Barriers to healthy eating included lack of time, choice, taste preferences, and finances. There was some discrepancy between what the dietetics students perceived as barriers for clients (e.g., lack of information), and barriers the potential clients (other students) perceived for themselves. As dietitians, we must try to understand our clients' definitions of healthy eating and their barriers to achieving it, which likely differ from our own.

  8. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  9. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  10. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-01-01

    A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  11. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  12. Family meals and adolescents: what have we learned from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)?

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole I; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an integrated overview of the research methodology and key findings from a decade of research on family meals as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a large, population-based study of adolescents. Focus groups conducted with 141 middle-school and high-school adolescents suggested the importance of family meals in influencing adolescents' food choices. These findings led to the inclusion of questions on family meals in the Project EAT-I survey, completed by 4746 middle-school and high-school students, and in the Project EAT-II longitudinal survey, completed by 2516 of the original participants five years later. A subset of 902 parents also participated in telephone interviews as part of Project EAT-I. Findings indicate that many adolescents and parents view family meals in a positive light, but there is great diversity in the context and frequency of family meal patterns in the homes of adolescents. Findings further suggest that family meals may have benefits in terms of dietary intake, disordered eating behaviours, substance use and psychosocial health. Findings from Project EAT, in conjunction with other research studies on family meals, suggest the importance of working with families to increase the frequency and improve the quality of family meals. Further research is needed in order to elucidate the pathways that underpin the relationships between family meals and health outcomes. Suggestions for a future research agenda based on what was learned from Project EAT are provided.

  13. The relationship between dietary restraint and binge eating: Examining eating-related self-efficacy as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake

    2018-05-01

    Although dietary restraint has been shown to be a robust predictor of binge eating among women, many women report elevated levels of dietary restraint but do not concurrently exhibit symptoms of binge eating. Moderating variables could therefore interact with dietary restraint to affect its relation to binge eating. One potential factor that may attenuate this relationship is eating-related self-efficacy, defined as the tendency to feel confident in the ability to control eating behaviour under a diverse set of circumstances (e.g., under negative affect, social conflicts). This cross-sectional study examined whether eating-related self-efficacy moderated the relationship between flexible (i.e., a graded approach to dieting, defined by behaviour such as taking smaller servings to regulate body weight, yet still enjoying a variety of foods) and rigid restraint (i.e., an all-or-none approach to eating, characterised by inflexible diet rules) and binge eating. Data were analysed from 237 women. Greater levels of rigid restraint, flexible restraint, and a poorer self-efficacy were shown to predict unique variance in binge eating severity. A significant interaction effect was observed between flexible (but not rigid) restraint and self-efficacy scores on binge eating. Contrary to expectations, however, the flexible restraint-binge eating relationship was largest for those with moderate to strong self-efficacy, and was non-significant for those with poor self-efficacy. Overall, findings suggest that different mechanisms may be operating to maintain binge eating in those with varying levels of eating-related self-efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  15. Emotional Eating (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a way to fuel your body. Breaking the Cycle Managing emotional eating means finding other ways to ... many of us still need help breaking the cycle of emotional eating. It's not easy — especially when ...

  16. DASH Eating Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...

  17. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  18. Eating disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy.

  19. [Life-style in eating behavior disorders].

    PubMed

    Calvo Viñuela, I; Aroca Palencia, J; Armero Fuster, M; Díaz Gómez, J; Rico Hernández, M A

    2002-01-01

    To identify the eating habits and lifestyles of patients with eating behaviour disorders (TCA in its Spanish acronym) who attended our out-patients' clinic at the "La Paz" Teaching Hospital for the first time. A questionnaire was drafted to which patients responded freely and anthropometric data were assessed. The sample comprised 94 patients who were subsequently distributed into two groups: the first group contained 43 offspring of working mothers (HMTF) and the second 46 offspring of mothers who did not work outside the home (HMNTF in its Spanish acronym). In the case of the 5 remaining patients, their mothers had deceased. The results from the group as a whole showed the following lifestyles for Monday-Friday: 34.4% eat alone, 72% watch television while they eat and 68.1% use restrictive behaviour in their eating habits. When assessing the existence of a friend with TCA, the results were significantly higher among those under the age of 20 years (53.7%) versus those older than 20 (26.9%) (p < 0.05). No differences were found in the habits and nutritional status of HMTF and HMNTF since 8.2% of the first had severe caloric malnutrition versus 2.3% in the second group. While 12.2% of the HMTF group eat outside the home on weekdays and 44.9% of them eat alone, 20.5% of the HMNTF group eat outside the home on weekdays and 22.7% of them eat alone. The age of onset of TCA was significantly earlier among the HMTF group (16.6 years) than in the HMNTF group (19.0 years) (p < 0.05). A large number of subjects had a friend with TCA in their close environment and this situation was more frequent among the youngest ones in the group. Some mistaken ideas regarding food have favoured unhealthy eating: in our group a large majority of people eat while watching TV. The development of TCA occurs earlier in connection with a particular family structure: where the mother works outside the home.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  1. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    PubMed

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Treating eating disorders using the internet.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Murphy, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    This article evaluates the empirical standing of online treatment (eTherapy) for people with an established eating disorder. There have been four randomized controlled trials of eTherapy for people with an eating disorder. All four focused on eating disorders characterized by binge eating and recruited adult participants direct from the community. The interventions were cognitive behavioural in nature, lasted between 3 and 7 months, and were accompanied by external support. In common with eTherapy for other mental health problems, there were problems engaging and retaining the users, and maximizing their implementation of the intervention. A minority (10-37%, intent-to-treat figures) improved substantially. This is a new field. The findings of the four randomized controlled trials are consistent with the earlier reports indicating that guided eTherapy interventions of a cognitive behavioural nature are acceptable to (female) adults with a binge eating problem and that a subgroup improves substantially. More effective interventions are required and their use in different healthcare settings needs to be investigated. Direct-to-sufferer eTherapy interventions have the potential to increase access to effective forms of treatment and, in younger cases, they might serve as a form of secondary prevention.

  3. [Clinical characteristics and gender identity among eating disordered patients subtypes].

    PubMed

    Behar, Rosa; de la Barrera, Mónica; Michelotti, Julio

    2003-07-01

    Gender identity is a relevant issue in the approach to eating disorders. To compare psychological and behavioural characteristics and traits of gender identity among women with eating disorders and its subtypes and non eating disordered female subjects. An structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, the EAT-40 (Eating Attitudes Test), the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (IBRS) were administered to 58 compulsive-purgative anorectics (AN/BN group), 15 restrictive anorectics (AN group), 33 patients suffering from eating disorder not otherwise identified, 33 purgative bulimics and to 82 female students without eating disorders. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and EDI and all its items (p < 0.001). The AN/BN group ranked significantly higher on the EDI (p < 0.001) and on Drive for thinness, Perfectionism and interpersonal distrust (p < 0.001). The AN group ranked higher on Maturity fears (p < 0.001). The BN group ranged higher on Body dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness and Interoceptive awareness (p < 0.001). Patients with eating disorders were significantly identified with Feminine category and subjects without eating disorders with Androgynous and Undifferentiated categories on the IBRS (p = 0.002). The AN group showed the highest percentage on Feminine category and the lowest on Androgynous and Undifferentiated categories. All the groups rejected and approved feminine, masculine and neutral qualities. Femininity emerged as the main trait of gender identity in patients suffering from eating disorders, in contrast to androgyny, showed by healthy women.

  4. Eating Healthy for Two

    Cancer.gov

    You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.

  5. The usefulness of body image tests in the prevention of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chie; Uemoto, Masaharu; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Maeda, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Individual psychological factors such as mental conditions and self-esteem and family relational factors are thought to be predisposing factors in the development of eating disorders. In this study, we conducted a survey of 12-15 year-old public junior high school students to extract factors related to abnormal eating behavior and determine what information could be used by schools to prevent eating disorders. Self-descriptive surveys were distributed and collected during homeroom time at school. The survey consisted of the 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) to measure the degree of abnormal eating behavior, Stunkard, Sorensen and Schlusinger's Body Image Scale to determine predisposing factors, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. 483 students (263 boys and 220 girls) participated in the survey. School-year height and weight data was used to calculate BMI. Approximately 7% of girls and 3% of boys showed clear indications of abnormal eating behavior. We found no direct relationship between abnormal eating behavior and family factors in this study, but an indirect relationship was suggested through other factors such as psychological complaints and self-esteem. There were relationships between abnormal eating behavior and the individual factors of psychological complaints, current and ideal body image, and low self-esteem. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed that there were students with high BMI who thought of themselves as fat, as well as students who perceived themselves as fat despite having average BMI. These students had a high frequency of abnormal eating behaviors, a great deal of psychological complaints, and low self-esteem. An understanding of BMI, along with body image, is essential for students who feel that they are overweight. Schools can practice preventative education by teaching these students about healthy body weight and by screening for the eating

  6. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kelly C.; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; O’Reardon, John P.; Geliebter, Allan; Gluck, Marci E.; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Mitchell, James E.; Schenck, Carlos H.; Howell, Michael J.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott; Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Mahowald, Mark W.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose criteria for diagnosis of the night eating syndrome (NES). Method An international research meeting was held in April 2008, and consensus criteria for NES diagnosis were determined. Results The core criterion is an abnormally increased food intake in the evening and nighttime, manifested by (1) consumption of at least 25% of intake after the evening meal, and/or (2) nocturnal awakenings with ingestions at least twice per week. Awareness of the eating episodes is required, as is distress or impairment in functioning. Three of five modifiers must also be endorsed. These criteria must be met for a minimum duration of 3 months. Discussion These criteria help standardize the definition of NES. Additional aspects of the nosology of NES yet to be fully elaborated include its relationship to other eating and sleep disorders. Assessment and analytic tools are needed to assess these new criteria more accurately. PMID:19378289

  7. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  8. Nutritional behaviours and body self-perception in polish pupils attending middle-school.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Artych, Marta; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vital part of child development, where acquired eating/dietary behaviour is often associated with ones' perception of body shape. To assess eating habits in relation to body shape perception and esteem in middle-school (junior-high) pupils. Surveyed subjects were 170 middle-school pupils from Warsaw; 101 girls and 69 boys aged 15 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to determine eating habits, body mass, growth and body shape perception. Anthropometric measurement cut-off points were taken according to the method of Cole et al. Only 29% of pupils ate 5 daily meals; of whom there were significantly more girls than boys (35% vs 20%, p = 0.042). Girls more often consumed second breakfast than boys (p < 0.001), whilst boys ate dinner more frequently than girls (p = 0.004). Eating meals was observed in 86% all pupils, where sweets (71%) and fresh fruit (69%) were most commonly eaten. Boys ate fast-food more often than girls (p = 0.004), as well as savoury snacks (p = 0.002), sweets (p = 0.009) and sweetened fizzy drinks (p < 0.001). Girls however, consumed more low-fat foodstuffs compared to boys (p = 0.003). Over- weight was more common in boys than girls (26% vs 9%, p = 0.003), whereas girls were more frequently malnourished than boys (21% vs 7%, p = 0.016). Far fewer girls were satisfied with their body shape compared to boys (51% vs 94%, p < 0.001). Girls also more commonly expressed a desire for slimming, despite either having a correct body mass or being underweight. Many adverse and abnormal eating habits of pupils were found, especially in boys, that could lead to over- weight and obesity. Subjects were found to incorrectly assess their body shape, particularly the girls, thereby leading to unwarranted slimming behaviour. nutritional habits, middle-school pupils, perceived body shape/image.

  9. Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies. PMID:29324652

  10. Australian consumers' views towards an environmentally sustainable eating pattern.

    PubMed

    Mann, Davina; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2018-05-15

    The present qualitative study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of participants' attitudes, knowledge, perceived effectiveness (a person's belief that his/her behaviour can contribute to environmental preservation) and behaviours relating to a sustainable eating pattern. One-to-one interviews (either face-to-face or by telephone) were conducted following a structured interview schedule, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis in NVivo 10. Victorian (Australia) adult participants recruited via online advertisements, flyers on community advertisement boards and letterbox drops. Twenty-four participants (mean age 40 years, range 19-69 years; thirteen female, eleven male) were interviewed. Participants reported that environmental impact was not an important influence on their food choice. Participants displayed limited knowledge about a sustainable eating pattern, with most unaware of the environmental impact of food-related behaviours. Most participants believed sustainable eating would be only slightly beneficial to the environment. Participants reported undertaking limited sustainable food behaviours currently and were more willing to undertake a food behaviour if they perceived additional benefits, such as promoting health or supporting the local community. The study suggests consumers need further information about a sustainable eating pattern and the environmental impact of food choice. The findings highlight some of the barriers that will need to be addressed when promoting this kind of eating pattern and that a range of interventions will be necessary.

  11. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  12. Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.

  13. Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high-intensity sports.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Torstveit, M K

    2010-10-01

    Dieting is an important risk factor for disordered eating and eating disorders. Disordered eating occurs on a continuum from dieting and restrictive eating, abnormal eating behavior, and finally clinical eating disorders. The prevalence of eating disorders is increased in elite athletes and for this group the cause of starting to diet is related to (a) perception of the paradigm of appearance in the specific sport, (b) perceived performance improvements, and (c) sociocultural pressures for thinness or an "ideal" body. Athletes most at risk for disordered eating are those involved in sports emphasizing a thin body size/shape, a high power-to-weight ratio, and/or sports utilizing weight categories, such as in some high-intensity sports. In addition to dieting, personality factors, pressure to lose weight, frequent weight cycling, early start of sport-specific training, overtraining, injuries, and unfortunate coaching behavior, are important risk factors. To prevent disordered eating and eating disorders, the athletes have to practice healthy eating, and the medical staff of teams and parents must be able to recognize symptoms indicating risk for eating disorders. Coaches and leaders must accept that disordered eating can be a problem in the athletic community and that openness regarding this challenge is important. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  15. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  17. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  18. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    PubMed

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour.

  20. Assessing the relationship between eating disorder psychopathology and autistic traits in a non-clinical adult population.

    PubMed

    Carton, Amelia Myri; Smith, Alastair D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates a genetic and behavioural link between eating disorders and autism spectrum disorders, and a recent study (Coombs et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 50:326-338, 2011) extends this link to typical populations, showing a positive correlation between behaviours in typically developing children. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether this relationship continues beyond development, by studying the link between behaviours in a non-clinical adult population. We examined associations between performance on measures relating to autistic traits and disordered eating. Undergraduate students, equally balanced by gender and by subject studied (i.e. humanity or science), completed three tasks: to measure autistic traits, participants were administered the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Eating disorder symptomatology was measured by the Eating Attitudes Test (Eat-26). Our data revealed a significant positive correlation between scores on the AQ and Eat-26. Multiple linear regressions showed that higher scores on the AQ were particularly associated with higher scores on the Bulimia & Food Preoccupation subscale of the Eat-26. EFT performance was positively related to behaviours associated with autism and eating disorders, although not reliably so. These data support the broader link between autistic traits and disordered eating in the non-clinical population, and demonstrate that it extends into adulthood (a time at which autistic behaviours can decrease). This work carries implications for the development of cognitive therapies for people with eating disorders.

  1. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences of using pro-eating disorder websites: a qualitative study with service users in NHS eating disorder services.

    PubMed

    Gale, Leigh; Channon, Sue; Larner, Mike; James, Darren

    2016-09-01

    Previous research into the impact of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites has predominantly been undertaken using experimental and survey designs. Studies have used both clinical and non-clinical (college student) samples. The present study aimed to explore the underlying functions and processes related to the access and continued use of pro-ED websites within a clinical eating disorder population using a qualitative research design. Participants were recruited through NHS community mental health teams and specialist eating disorder services within South Wales, UK. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven adult women in treatment for an eating disorder who had disclosed current or historic use of pro-ED websites. Interviewees ranged in age from 20 to 40 years (M = 31.2; SD = 7.8). Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse interview transcripts. Five key themes were identified within the data, namely fear; ambivalence; social comparisons; shame; and pro-ED websites maintaining eating disordered behaviour. The pro-ED websites appeared to offer a sense of support, validation and reassurance to those in the midst of an eating disorder, whilst simultaneously reinforcing and maintaining eating disordered behaviour. Themes are discussed in relation to implications and recommendations for clinical practice. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research are also outlined.

  3. Eating Disturbances and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…

  4. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  5. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  6. [The auto-addictive hypothesis of pathological eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Lienard, Yasmine; Vamecq, Joseph

    2004-10-23

    The pathogenic role of self-addiction. Addiction to an endogenous chemical is a new paradigm termed 'self-addiction'. It may contribute to the development of certain habits, the pathological nature of which may set-in on the basis of this "self-addictive"dimension. Pathological eating habits could be inscribed in this perspective. Two extreme situations. In well-fed populations, the ingestion of food does not represent a limiting phase in the global feeding process. Its pathological management may, however, lead to two extreme situations: the absence of ingestion (anorexia) and excessive ingestion (bulimia). In favour of the self-addictive hypothesis. Eating disorders are associated with abnormal levels of endorphins and share clinical similarities with psychoactive drug abuse. The key role of endorphins has recently been demonstrated in animals with regard to certain aspects of normal, pathological and experimental eating habits (food restriction combined with stress, locomotor hyperactivity). The factors leading to pathological eating habits. Neurobiological bases for eating disorders and their durability have recently come to light in the recent implication of abnormalities in the recompense system in the onset of addiction. The endorphin self-addictive model in fact appears the most pertinent with regard to the clinical profile of eating habits and integrates the role of stress.

  7. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students.

    PubMed

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

  8. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Recognising the symptoms: how common are eating disorders in pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Easter, Abigail; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate eating disorder diagnostic status and related symptoms in early pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=739), attending their first routine antenatal scan, were assessed using an adapted version of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS). Prevalence estimates and eating disorder symptoms were assessed during the first 3 months of pregnancy and, retrospectively, in the 6 to 12 months prior to pregnancy. During pregnancy 7.5% of women met diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder, compared to prepregnancy prevalence of 9.2%. Approximately one quarter (23.4%) of women reported high weight and shape concern during pregnancy; binge eating was endorsed by 8.8%, and 2.3% of women engaged in regular compensatory behaviours. Eating disorders are more common than previously thought in pregnancy. There is a clinical need for increased understanding of eating disorder symptomatology during pregnancy and for appropriate screening tools to be incorporated into antenatal care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Eating disorder professionals' perceptions of oral health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating.

    PubMed

    Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J

    2007-07-01

    Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent.

  13. Exhibitionist Eating: Who Wins Eating Competitions?

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Kniffin, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be. Exploratory findings show competitive eaters ate approximately four times as many chicken wings as a similar control group, and the presence of a cheering audience further increased wing consumption for males (but decreased consumption for females). Study 2 suggests part of the over-performance of males may be related to a shared positive perception that competitive male eaters are strong and virile. Even in relatively low-stakes environments, competitive visibility may dramatically increase how much males eat. These preliminary results help illuminate recent discoveries that males overeat in various social situations where there are opportunities for men to "show off." This may